WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify environmental contamination

  1. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  2. Environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Cardeno, William

    2000-01-01

    The association among hypersensibility to the inhaled allergens and the asthma in children, it is recognized. There is enough evidence about the nature of the exposed allergen and the immune inflammatory answer of the lung; sustained with a direct relationship among the exhibition to these allergens and the asthma. This association becomes evident in the children, until after the three years of age, what suggests that other factors have bigger importance in the precipitation of the sibilance in the childhood and the early childhood. This answer is limited those children that develop answer of antibodies IgE. Every year, in the world, figures of more morbid-mortality are reported for asthma, what could be explained by the increase in the exhibition to the allergens, and it is probable that the increase of the heat and the humidity in our houses improve the environmental conditions significantly for the growth of the acarus. The children have also increased the permanency in the houses, exposed to these pollutants, due to diverse attractions like the television, the Nintendo and games in the home. The paper includes some intra-domiciliary allergens

  3. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  4. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  5. Indoor Environmental Contaminants in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.

  6. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  7. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  8. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  9. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  11. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  12. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  13. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    Much like the caged canary used by miners, a plethora of wildlife species have been promoted as biomonitors of environmental contamination. These species provide an "early warning system" for toxic contaminants in the environment. Species promoted as useful biomonitors share many common life history characters, such as wide distribution, territorial, non-...

  14. Identifying important life stages for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to environmental contaminants: results of a World Health Organization review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; de Wet, Thea; Du Toit, Lilo; Firestone, Michael P; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Vickers, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we summarize exposure-related issues to consider in determining the most appropriate age ranges and life stages for risk assessment. We then propose a harmonized set of age bins for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to chemicals for global use. The focus is on preconception through adolescence, though the approach should be applicable to additional life stages. A two-tiered set of early life age groups is recommended. The first tier involves the adoption of guidance similar to the childhood age groups recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whereas the second tier consolidates some of those age groups to reduce the burden of developing age-specific exposure factors for different regions. While there is no single "correct" means of choosing a common set of age groups to use internationally in assessing early life exposure and risk, use of a set of defined age groups is recommended to facilitate comparisons of potential exposures and risks around the globe, the collection of data and analyses of aggregate exposure and cumulative risk. Application of these age groups for robust assessment of exposure and risk for specific populations will require region-specific exposure factors as well as local environmental monitoring data. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  17. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  18. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  19. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  20. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  1. Bee pollen as a bioindicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Cabrera; Queiroz, Sonia Claudia do Nascimento; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Porto, Rafael Silveira; Rath, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    Honeybees and bee products are potential bioindicators of the presence of contaminants in the environment, enabling monitoring of large areas due to the long distances travelled by bees. This work evaluates the use of bee pollen as a bioindicator of environmental contamination by pesticides. A GC-MS/MS analytical method for multiresidue determination of 26 different pesticides in pollen was developed and validated in accordance with the recommendations of the European Union SANCO guide. Environmental monitoring was conducted using the analysis of 145 pollen samples collected from ten beehives in the experimental apiary of Embrapa in Jaguariúna (São Paulo State, Brazil). Bioallethrin and pendimethalin were identified in four and eighteen samples, respectively, at concentrations below the LOQ of the method (25 ng g(-1)). Passive sampling with polyurethane foam discs was used as a control, and no pesticides were found. The detection of pesticide residues in seven samples (33%) from commercial apiaries in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State) confirmed the efficiency of the analytical method and the need for environmental monitoring for the presence of pesticide residues. The results demonstrated the potential of bee pollen as a bioindicator of environmental contamination by pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus under Hg environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Cátia; Galvão, Petrus; Longo, Renan; Malm, Olaf; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    The native species Ruditapes decussatus and the invasive species Ruditapes philippinarum have an important ecological role and socio-economic value, from the Atlantic and Mediterranean to the Indo-Pacific region. In the aquatic environment, they are subjected to the presence of different contaminants, such as mercury (Hg) and its methylated form, methylmercury (MeHg). However, few studies have assessed the impacts of Hg on bivalves under environmental conditions, and little is known on bivalve oxidative stress patterns due to Hg contamination. Therefore, this study aims to assess the Hg contamination in sediments as well as the concentration of Hg and MeHg in R. decussatus and R. philippinarum, and to identify the detoxification strategies of both species living in sympatry, in an aquatic system with historical Hg contamination. The risk to human health due to the consumption of clams was also evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated that total Hg concentration found in sediments from the most contaminated area was higher than the maximum levels established by Sediment Quality Guidelines. This study further revealed that the total Hg and MeHg accumulation in both species was strongly correlated with the total Hg contamination of the sediments. Nonetheless, the THg concentration in both species was lower than maximum permissible limits (MPLs) of THg defined by international organizations. R. decussatus and R. philippinarum showed an increase in lipid peroxidation levels along with the increase of THg accumulation by clams. Nevertheless, for both species, no clear trend was obtained regarding the activity of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and biotransformation (glutathione S-transferase) enzymes and metallothioneins with the increase of THg in clams. Overall, the present work demonstrated that both species can be used as sentinel species of contamination and that the consumption of these clams does not constitute a risk for human health.

  3. Technical guidelines for environmental dredging of contaminated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report provides technical guidelines for evaluating : environmental dredging as a sediment remedy component. This document : supports the Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for : Hazardous Waste Sites, released by the U.S. Environmental ...

  4. How to develop scientific literacy on environmental contamination?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge and data on the environmental contamination should be smoothly communicated for environmental risk literacy. In this paper, the issues for environmental risk literacy are raised by referring the case of the environmental contamination with radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. It is discussed that literacy for experts should be the capacity to explain the environmental contamination system with the global and long-term viewpoint and that the network between experts like SRA Japan should be necessary. (author)

  5. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  6. Environmental restoration and biological contamination: ecological and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental restoration is a pressing current need. However, protected areas have been exposed to biological contamination risks because the traditional techniques of restoration frequently use exotic species. This causes some concern, since biological contamination is the second major cause of species extinction in the world. It is important to use only native species in restoration projects in order to promote an effective environmental restoration without the risk of contamination. This paper discusses some issues concerning environmental restoration, biological contamination and the need for clearer laws.

  7. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  8. Secondary environmental impacts of remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongju; Thompson, Jay M; Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ismail, Niveen S; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-03-05

    This study evaluates secondary environmental impacts of various remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Three alternatives including two conventional methods, dredge-and-fill and capping, and an innovative sediment treatment technique, in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment, are compared for secondary environmental impacts by a case study for a site at Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA. The LCA results show that capping generates substantially smaller impacts than dredge-and-fill and in-situ amendment using coal-based virgin AC. The secondary impacts from in-situ AC amendment can be reduced effectively by using recycled or wood-based virgin AC as production of these materials causes much smaller impacts than coal-based virgin AC. The secondary environmental impacts are highly sensitive to the dredged amount and the distance to a disposal site for dredging, the capping thickness and the distance to the cap materials for capping, and the AC dose for in-situ AC amendment. Based on the analysis, this study identifies strategies to minimize secondary impacts caused by different remediation activities: optimize the dredged amount, the capping thickness, or the AC dose by extensive site assessments, obtain source materials from local sites, and use recycled or bio-based AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardos, R.P.; Kearney, T.E.; Nathanail, C.P.; Weenk, A.; Martin, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination. In terms of the environmental element of sustainable development, a remediation project's overall environmental performance is the sum of the

  11. Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

  12. Toward identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P; Sedlak, David L; Barlaz, Morton A; Henry, Heather F; Muir, Derek C G; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Weber, Eric J; Arnold, Robert G; Ferguson, P Lee; Field, Jennifer A; Furlong, Edward T; Giesy, John P; Halden, Rolf U; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Howard, Philip H; Luthy, Richard G; Meyer, Anita K; Sáez, A Eduardo; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vulpe, Chris D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  13. Using model-based screening to help discover unknown environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Radke, Michael; Sobek, Anna; Malmvärn, Anna; Alsberg, Tomas; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Xu, Shihe

    2014-07-01

    Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of ∼50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and ∼0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjøsa at ∼1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment.

  14. Organic contaminants in environmental atmospheres and waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez González, Noelia

    2011-01-01

    This Doctoral Thesis focuses on the development of efficient and highly sensitive analytical methods for determining organic contaminants in atmospheric, aquatic and house dust samples. The proposed analytical methods are based on single and comprehensive gas chromatography followed by different detectors (including mass spectrometry and nitrogen chemiluminiscence detection) and different sample preparation methods that have the aim of minimising the consumption of organic solvents in the who...

  15. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Wong, M H [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-01-15

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings.

  16. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  17. The use of nitrate isotopes to identify contamination sources in the Bou-Areg aquifer (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Viviana [Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Dorsoduro 2137, Venice, 30123 (Italy); Sacchi, Elisa [University of Pavia, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, 27100 (Italy); Allais, Enrico [ISO4 s.n.c., Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, 27100 (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The Bou-Areg coastal aquifer (Morocco) is affected by high nitrate levels in groundwater, with possible consequences for the natural environment and human health. The use of environmental tracers, including δ{sup 15}NNO{sub 3} and δ{sup 18}ONO{sub 3}, allowed identifying the main sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater samples collected in 2010. These are manure and septic effluents, especially in urban areas, and synthetic fertilizers in agricultural areas. This work represents a preliminary step for a more detailed nitrate vulnerability assessment to support groundwater management and protection in the studied region. (authors)

  18. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  19. Criteria and actions facing a radiological environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Montero, Milagros

    2008-01-01

    An approach to improve the management of the radiological risk due to an environmental contamination is presented. The experience gained in emergency response has clearly demonstrated the importance to have an efficient emergency system including planning, procedures and operational internally consistent criteria. The lack of these components in the emergency system could lead to important radiological and non radiological consequences. The setting of internationally agreed criteria and guides is very important in the anticipated emergency response plan. The paper firstly reviews the approaches proposed by international recommendations and norms. From this review, a substantial coincidence on the basic principles is stated, in spite of small differences in its formulation. Also, a need for harmonization is endorsed. So, generic levels, in terms of imparted dose or avoided dose due to intervention, and, in some cases, derived levels, in terms of activity concentration, are proposed. Numerical values for emergency actions are also identified. The second part deals with the adaptation of the existing prediction and decision systems to the above radiological criteria. Relations among deposition, activity concentrations and annual doses for different scenarios, exposure pathways and age groups are established. Also, the sensibility of the radiological impact against different characteristics of the intervention scenarios is stated. This makes easy to assess the radiological significance of different contamination situations by comparison to the existing action generic levels. Furthermore, the radiological impact can be numerically incorporated in a decision system which includes non radiological aspects of the applicable intervention options. Agricultural, urban and mixed scenarios are presented and solved for a 137 Cs contamination. The results can be further used to develop a methodology guide for setting action generic levels in post-accidental interventions and

  20. CsI(Tl) with photodiodes for identifying subsurface radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Meisner, J.E.; Nicaise, W.F.

    1994-10-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, underground radioactive contamination exists as the result of leaks, spills, and intentional disposal of waste products from plutonium-production operations. Characterizing these contaminants in preparation for environmental remediation is a major effort now in progress. In this paper, a cylindrical (15 x 61 mm) CsI(Tl) scintillation detector with two side-mounted photodiodes has been developed to collect spectral gamma-ray data in subsurface contaminated formations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It operates inside small-diameter, thick-wall steel pipes pushed into the ground to depths up to 20 m by a cone penetrometer. The detector provides a rugged, efficient, magnetic-field-insensitive means for identifying gamma-ray-emitting contaminants (mainly 137 Cs and 60 Co). Mounting two 3 x 30-mm photodiodes end-to-end on a flat area along the detector's side provides efficient light collection over the length of the detector

  1. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do; Melo, Jessica V. de

    2013-01-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  2. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: jessica_clorofila@hotmail [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  3. Use of isotopic tracers in pesticide and environmental contamination research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casida, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The era of synthetic organic pesticides, starting with DDT and the herbicide 2,4-D about 1940, coincides with that of rapid advances in radiotracer applications. This is indeed fortunate since isotopic experiments are an essential step in evaluating each new pesticide and in continually reassessing older compounds for safety and most efficient utilization. This research is carried out in all developed nations with important supplementation on local problems or use conditions from investigations in the developing countries. Several slides will help illustrate the sequence of studies for establishing the disposition and fate of pesticides and other environmental contaminants.It is clear that very little of the pesticide ever contacts the pest. Pesticide chemicals are generally applied at dosages of 0.2 to 2 kilogram per hectare from one to five or more times per crop season. Less than 0.01% of an insecticide is absorbed or ingested by the pest insect. The remaining amount, more than 99.99%, is an environmental contaminant, a portion of which is a potential residue in food, feed and fibre. Isotopic research is critical in understanding or solving several aspects of the problem. The isotopic label is introduced into the chemical by synthesis in a commercial or university laboratory or in a national or regional atomic research centre. The most common radioisotopes used are tritium, 14carbon, 32phosphorus, 35sulphur and 36chlorine. Stable isotopes are becoming increasingly important in pesticide research, particularly carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and oxygen 18. The initial studies usually involve administration of the 14 carbon-labelled pesticide to rats, which are then held in metabolism cages that allow separate collection of expired gases, urine and faeces. The products in the excreta are identified by various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The persistence of the chemical and its metabolites in various tissues is also determined to make sure that the material

  4. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  5. The toll of toxics: investigating environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

    2010-01-01

    On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophe—the full impact of which may not be realized for years.

  6. Metabolomics identifies a biological response to chronic low-dose natural uranium contamination in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Eric; Banzet, Nathalie; Defoort, Catherine; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2013-01-01

    Because uranium is a natural element present in the earth's crust, the population may be chronically exposed to low doses of it through drinking water. Additionally, the military and civil uses of uranium can also lead to environmental dispersion that can result in high or low doses of acute or chronic exposure. Recent experimental data suggest this might lead to relatively innocuous biological reactions. The aim of this study was to assess the biological changes in rats caused by ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water with a mean daily intake of 2.7 mg/kg for 9 months and to identify potential biomarkers related to such a contamination. Subsequently, we observed no pathology and standard clinical tests were unable to distinguish between treated and untreated animals. Conversely, LC-MS metabolomics identified urine as an appropriate biofluid for discriminating the experimental groups. Of the 1,376 features detected in urine, the most discriminant were metabolites involved in tryptophan, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. In particular, N -methylnicotinamide, which was found at a level seven times higher in untreated than in contaminated rats, had the greatest discriminating power. These novel results establish a proof of principle for using metabolomics to address chronic low-dose uranium contamination. They open interesting perspectives for understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and designing a diagnostic test of exposure.

  7. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  8. Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Tatiana Heid; Brodeur, Julie; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Chagas, Katia R; Corrales, Jone; Denadai, Marina; Fuchs, Julio; Mascarenhas, Renata; Miglioranza, Karina SB; Miguez Caramés, Diana Margarita; Navas, José Maria; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Planes, Estela; Rodriguez‐Jorquera, Ignacio Alejandro; Orozco‐Medina, Martha; Boxall, Alistair BA; Rudd, Murray A

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty priority research questions were subsequently identified. These research questions included developing, improving, and harmonizing across LA countries methods for 1) identifying contaminants and degradation products in complex matrices (including biota); 2) advancing prediction of contaminant risks and effects in ecosystems, addressing lab‐to‐field extrapolation challenges, and understanding complexities of multiple stressors (including chemicals and climate change); and 3) improving management and regulatory tools toward achieving sustainable development. Whereas environmental contaminants frequently identified in these key questions were pesticides, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors or modulators, plastics, and nanomaterials, commonly identified environmental challenges were related to agriculture, urban effluents, solid wastes, pulp and paper mills, and natural extraction activities. Several interesting research topics included assessing and preventing pollution impacts on conservation protected areas, integrating environment and health assessments, and developing strategies for identification, substitution, and design of less hazardous chemicals (e.g., green chemistry). Finally, a recurrent research need included developing an understanding of differential sensitivity of regional species and ecosystems to environmental contaminants and other stressors. Addressing these critical

  9. Environmental Systems Microbiology of Contaminated Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hazen, Terry C. [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Systems Microbiology is well positioned to move forward in dynamic complex system analysis probing new questions and developing new insight into the function, robustness and resilience in response to anthropogenic perturbations. Recent studies have demonstrated that natural bacterial communities can be used as quantitative biosensors in both groundwater and deep ocean water, predicting oil concentration from the Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Horizon spill and from groundwater at nuclear production waste sites (16, 17, 25). Since the first demonstration of catabolic gene expression in soil remediation (34) it has been clear that extension beyond organismal abundance to process and function of microbial communities as a whole using the whole suite of omic tools available to the post genomic era. Metatranscriptomics have been highlighted as a prime vehicle for understanding responses to environmental drivers (35) in complex systems and with rapidly developing metabolomics, full functional understanding of complex community biogeochemical cycling is an achievable goal. Perhaps more exciting is the dynamic nature of these systems and their complex adaptive strategies that may lead to new control paradigms and emergence of new states and function in the course of a changing environment.

  10. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  11. Immunotoxicological effects of environmental contaminants on marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, T

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas are complex environments frequently contaminated by numerous pollutants that represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences. Although effects of different environmental contaminants on the immune system in marine bivalves have been already reported, a few of reviews summarizes these effects. The main purpose of this chapter relies on summarizing recent body of data on immunotoxicity in bivalves subjected to contaminants. Immune effects of heavy metals, pesticides, HAP, PCB and pharmaceuticals are presented and discussed and a particular section is devoted to nanoparticle effects. A large body of literature is now available on this topic. Finally, the urgent need of a better understanding of complex interactions between contaminants, marine bivalves and infectious diseases is noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of environmental parameters on contaminant uptake by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was also no discernable relationship between pH and contaminants uptake by the sampling devices as was expected with non polar, non-ioniseable solutes. The uptake of compounds with lower molar volumes was most susceptible to the presence oh humic materials. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental ...

  13. An emergency decision-making on a regional environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    When an environmental contamination occurs in a wide area, it is necessary to estimate the future influence by emergent environmental monitoring and rapidly take measures for it. This study aimed to support an emergency decision-making by constructing practical schemes with regards to the following three items in the dose limitation system recommended by ICRP; validity of intervention actions, optimization of protection and dose limitation. A framework of decision-making process was constructed to make clear the corresponding responsibility and the principle of intervention, to introduce stochastic techniques for estimating the environmental radiation shift and to reduce the social burden for the contamination. The results obtained by using this method were variable depending on the characteristics of subjects and regions applied. Therefore, it is needed to select an appropriate evaluation model and specific parameters suitable for the respective cases. (M.N.)

  14. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants.

  15. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; hide

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  16. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Food Adulteration and Bio-magnification of Environmental Contaminants: A Comprehensive Risk Framework for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehreen eMajed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly investigates the severity of the prevailing environmental conditions and evaluates the resulting threats to food intake and public health in Bangladesh by establishing relationship among different contaminant transfer mechanisms to human. It describes the potential of certain contaminants to get bio-magnified through the food chain. A database was prepared on a number of contaminants in the study area that are responsible for rendering different foods vulnerable to produce long term or short-term health effects. Contaminants that have been identified in the food sources were categorized in a continuum based on their allowable daily intake. A protocol has been developed which will enable the assessment of the potential of a contaminant to bio-magnify through food chain to understand the contribution of a contaminant on different levels of food chain. The study also provides a detailed assessment of the public health risks associated with direct ingestion of adulterated foods and intake of contaminants through food chain or water intake. Their intake to human body was quantified, which provides an indication of the toxicity level of the contaminants and possible impact on human health. The traditional four steps of risk assessment technique have been employed for some model contaminants (including metals, organic contaminants and food adulterants. Additionally, existing rules and regulations of Bangladesh were identified with possible limitations that can play significant role in controlling the food adulteration practices and concentration of contaminants in the environment and human body. Finally, a holistic approach to necessary interventions has been prescribed at policy, treatment and evaluation level to prevent the water pollution and food adulteration. Thus, a much-needed comprehensive framework is prescribed in this study to promote safety in food handling, preserve environment and improve health-based strategies in

  18. Ecological aspects of environmental assessment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1990-04-01

    When large landscapes are contaminated by radionuclides released from nuclear activities, physical processes, such as atmospheric and hydrological transport may move the radioactive materials over large distances resulting in direct external exposure of man and organisms. This paper provides an overview of the modeling of radionuclide movement through defined ecological pathways, describes some ecological problems at remediated sites, and briefly reviews effects of environmental radiation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. This paper describes pathways that should be considered when conducting environmental dose assessments for radionuclides released to the environment. 4 refs

  19. Environmental contaminant mixtures modulate in vitro influenza infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Bandoro, Christopher; Shehata, Laila

    2018-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, particularly organochlorinated contaminants (OCs), are associated with a ranged of adverse health effects, including impairment of the immune system and antiviral immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) is an infectious disease of major global public health concern and exposure...... studies such as ours can shed light on the complex processes underlying host-pathogen-pollutant interactions....... to OCs can increase the susceptibility, morbidity, and mortality to disease. It is however unclear how pollutants are interacting and affecting the outcome of viral infections at the cellular level. In this study, we investigated the effects of a mixture of environmentally relevant OCs on IAV infectivity...

  20. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  1. Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Tatiana Heid; Brodeur, Julie; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Chagas, Katia R; Corrales, Jone; Denadai, Marina; Fuchs, Julio; Mascarenhas, Renata; Miglioranza, Karina Sb; Miguez Caramés, Diana Margarita; Navas, José Maria; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Planes, Estela; Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio Alejandro; Orozco-Medina, Martha; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2018-05-01

    The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty priority research questions were subsequently identified. These research questions included developing, improving, and harmonizing across LA countries methods for 1) identifying contaminants and degradation products in complex matrices (including biota); 2) advancing prediction of contaminant risks and effects in ecosystems, addressing lab-to-field extrapolation challenges, and understanding complexities of multiple stressors (including chemicals and climate change); and 3) improving management and regulatory tools toward achieving sustainable development. Whereas environmental contaminants frequently identified in these key questions were pesticides, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors or modulators, plastics, and nanomaterials, commonly identified environmental challenges were related to agriculture, urban effluents, solid wastes, pulp and paper mills, and natural extraction activities. Several interesting research topics included assessing and preventing pollution impacts on conservation protected areas, integrating environment and health assessments, and developing strategies for identification, substitution, and design of less hazardous chemicals (e.g., green chemistry). Finally, a recurrent research need included developing an understanding of differential sensitivity of regional species and ecosystems to environmental contaminants and other stressors. Addressing these critical questions will

  2. Balancing the risks of habitat alteration and environmental contamination in a contaminated forested wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiler, J.A.; Daukas, G.; Richardson, N.

    1994-01-01

    The North Lawrence Oil Dump Site (NLODS) is an inactive hazardous waste site located adjacent to an extensive palustrine forested wetland in upstate New York. Waste oil and oil sludge were disposed of in a lagoon adjacent to the wetland during the 1960s. During periods of high water, oils escaped from the lagoon and were transported into the wetlands. High concentrations of lead and PCBs were detected in NLODS wetland sediments, and contaminants from the site were present in wetland's plant and animal tissues. However, contaminated portions of the wetlands appear to be physically undisturbed and provide high quality wildlife habitat. The results of an ecological risk assessment indicated that lead and PCB contamination in NLODS sediment may be impacting some components of the wetlands community. The risk management process considered both the toxicological risks associated with lead and PCB contamination, as well as the significant habitat destruction risks associated with remediation. Six potential PCB target cleanup levels were evaluated. Following removal of sediments with PCB contamination greater than 0.5 mg/kg, 3.5 acres of sediment with lead contamination in excess of 250 mg/kg (the New York State ''Severe Effect Level'') would remain. More than 1.5 of these acres would contain lead concentrations in excess of 1,000 mg/kg. Reducing lead levels to background concentrations would require more than 50 acres of wetlands alteration. The Record of Decision at the NLODS recognized the high quality habitat provided by the site's wetlands, and attempted to balance the risks from habitat alteration with the risks of environmental contamination

  3. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  4. A Nondestructive Method to Identify POP Contamination Sources in Omnivorous Seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Rosanne J; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Parsons, John R; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2018-03-13

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls. Conventional sampling methods applied when studying POP contamination are destructive and ethically undesired. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the potential of using feathers as a nondestructive method to determine sources of POP contamination in individual gulls. The reviewed data showed that high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in feathers together with a large proportion of less bioaccumulative congeners may indicate that the contamination originates from landfills. Low PCB and PBDE concentrations in feathers and a large proportion of more bioaccumulative congeners could indicate that the contamination originates from marine prey. We propose a nondestructive approach to identify the source of contamination in individual gulls based on individual contamination levels and PCB and PBDE congener profiles in feathers. Despite some uncertainties that might be reduced by future research, we conclude that especially when integrated with other methods like GPS tracking and the analysis of stable isotopic signatures, identifying the source of POP contamination based on congener profiles in feathers could become a powerful nondestructive method.

  5. New land disposal restrictions on contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortune, William B.; Schumann, Jean C.; Fallon, William E.; Badden, Janet W.; Smith, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex were collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organics. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented. (author)

  6. Environmental geophysics and geochemistry for contamination mapping and monitoring 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai Sup; Lee, Sang Kyu; Hong, Young Kook [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to provide the technologies which can be practically used for contamination mapping and monitoring. To accomplish this goal, the geophysical and geochemical expertise and techniques commonly used in the mineral resources exploration are employed. In the first year of the three-year-long project, the purpose of the study is to introduce the optimum methodologies among the geophysical and geochemical techniques to tackle the various cases of environmental contamination. To achieve the purpose, case studies of the developed countries were surveyed and analyzed through the various kinds of literatures. The followings are categorized to be solved by geophysical methods: 1) delineation of water system pollution by acid mine drainage and distributions of waste rocks in the closed mine area, 2) defining boundaries of subsurface contamination due to oil seepage, 3) zoning of sea water intrusion in the seashore or subsurface geology highly containing salt, 4) locating of buried metallic wastes such as pipes and drums which can cause the secondary pollution by corrosion, and 5) outlining of the subsurface area polluted by leachate from the landfill. To experiment the above items, various geophysical methods were applied to the corresponding test sites. From these experiments, the applicabilities of the respective geophysical method were analyzed, and the optimum methods were derived for the various pollution types. Furthermore, electric and electromagnetic surveys data processing software were developed to quantitatively interpret and highly resolve the geology. The environmental assignments which can be solved by geochemical methods include: 1) drainage pollution by coal mine effluents, 2)subsurface contamination of oil-spill, 3) sea water intrusion, 4) dispersion of toxic heavy metallic elements in the metal mines, and 5) radon environmental geochemistry. The appropriate test sites for applying the geochemical methods were selected. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  8. Environmental policies, politics, and community risk perception: case study of community contamination in Casper, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Gottlieb, Karen; Lowndes, Nita; Stewart, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    We identify and explain factors that affected a community's perception of risk due to extensive industrial contamination and people's distrust of government agencies regarding the environmental investigations. Intrinsic bounded case study methodology was used to conduct research about extensive environmental contaminations due to activities of an oil refinery in North Casper, Wyoming, and the citizens' response. Data were collected from multiple sources that included public testimonies, observations, public hearings and meetings minutes, newspaper articles, archived records obtained from federal and state environmental and health agencies, as well as industry records obtained through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. The overarching theme that emerged was lack of trust due to several critical events and factors such as no response or delay in response time to community concerns, lack of transparency, perceived cover up, vague and fragmented communication by government and state officials, perception of pro-industry stance, and perceived unfair treatment. People's perception of environmental risks and their willingness to accept official explanations and outcomes of environmental investigations are strongly affected by their direct experiences with government agencies and the evidence of influence the powerful industries exert over relevant investigations. The government cannot successfully address public and community concerns about environmental health impacts of contaminations and in turn the public perception of risk unless it adopts and implements policies, procedures, and protocols that are clear, timely, transparent, and free from industry influence.

  9. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781.

  10. Identifying risk sources of air contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzlik, Jiri; Bozek, Frantisek; Pawelczyk, Adam; Licbinsky, Roman; Naplavova, Magdalena; Pondelicek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This article is directed to determining concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are sorbed to solid particles in the air. Pollution sources were identified on the basis of the ratio of benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiPe) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Because various important information is lost by determining the simple ratio of concentrations, least squares linear regression (classic ordinary least squares regression), reduced major axis, orthogonal regression, and Kendall-Theil robust diagnostics were utilized for identification. Statistical evaluation using all aforementioned methods demonstrated different ratios of the monitored PAHs in the intervals examined during warmer and colder periods. Analogous outputs were provided by comparing gradients of the emission factors acquired from the measured concentrations of BghiPe and BaP in motor vehicle exhaust gases. Based on these outputs, it was possible plausibly to state that the influence of burning organic fuels in heating stoves is prevalent in colder periods whereas in warmer periods transport was the exclusive source because other sources of PAH emissions were not found in the examined locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

    2004-08-01

    Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing.

  12. Regional risk assessment of environmental contamination from oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelmulder, S.D.; Eguchi, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the risk of environmental contamination from oil pipeline leaks due to earthquakes. Risk is measured both as volume of oil released and remediation cost. The methodology was developed for use on a regional scale and thus relies on a limited amount of input data. Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate earthquake events, while a deterministic model is used to estimate the volume of oil released at a particular site. A library of cost models is used to estimate the contamination and resulting remediation cost based on the volume of oil released and the general site conditions. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program, OILOSS, and the results are presented as annual frequency of exceedence curves for volume of oil released and cost of remediation

  13. Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

  14. Application of multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) to identify the transport by characteristics of contaminant at two separate contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. H.; Koh, E. H.; Kim, M. O.; Lee, K.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple tracers were applied for source and pathway detection at two different sites. CO2 gas injected in the subsurface for a shallow-depth CO2 injection and leak test can be regarded as a potential contaminant source. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the migration pattern of CO2 gas. Also, at a DNAPL contaminated site, it is important to figure out the characteristics of plume evolution from the source zone. In this study, multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) were used to evaluate the applicability of volatile and non-volatile tracers and to identify the characteristics of contaminant transport at each CO2 injection and leak test site and DNAPL contaminated site. Firstly, at the CO2 test site, multiple tracers were used to perform the single well push-drift-pull tracer test at total 3 specific depth zones. As results of tests, volatile and non-volatile tracers showed different mass recovery percentage. Most of chloride mass was recovered but less than half of SF6 mass was recovered due to volatile property. This means that only gaseous SF6 leak out to unsaturated zone. However, breakthrough curves of both tracers indicated similar peak time, effective porosity, and regional groundwater velocity. Also, at both contaminated sites, natural gradient tracer tests were performed with multiple tracers. With the results of natural gradient tracer test, it was possible to confirm the applicability of multiple tracers and to understand the contaminant transport in highly heterogeneous aquifer systems through the long-term monitoring of tracers. Acknowledgement: financial support was provided by the R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage)" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) and Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA project (2014000540010)".

  15. Phylogenetic & Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities of Contaminated Soils/Sediments: Identifying Microbial consortia...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence L. Marsh

    2004-05-26

    The goals of this study were: (1) survey the microbial community in soil samples from a site contaminated with heavy metals using new rapid molecular techniques that are culture-independent; (2) identify phylogenetic signatures of microbial populations that correlate with metal ion contamination; and (3) cultivate these diagnostic strains using traditional as well as novel cultivation techniques in order to identify organisms that may be of value in site evaluation/management or bioremediation.

  16. Arsenic and dichlorvos: Possible interaction between two environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Swaran J S

    2016-05-01

    Metals are ubiquitously present in the environment and pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Environmental and occupational exposure to metal along with pesticide is an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. Our major concern is that combination of these toxicant present in environment may elicit toxicity either due to additive or synergistic interactions or 'joint toxic actions' among these toxicants. It poses a rising threat to human health. Water contamination particularly ground water contamination with arsenic is a serious problem in today's scenario since arsenic is associated with several kinds of health problems, such arsenic associated health anomalies are commonly called as 'Arsenism'. Uncontrolled use and spillage of pesticides into the environment has resulted in alarming situation. Moreover serious concerns are being addressed due to their persistence in the environmental matrices such as air, soil and surface water runoff resulting in continuous exposure of these harmful chemicals to human beings and animals. Bio-availability of these environmental toxicants has been enhanced much due to anthropological activities. Dreadfully very few studies are available on combined exposures to these toxicants on the animal or human system. Studies on the acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and DDVP are well reported and well defined. Arsenic is a common global ground water contaminant while dichlorvos is one of the most commonly and widely employed organophosphate based insecticide used in agriculture, horticulture etc. There is thus a real situation where a human may get exposed to these toxicants while working in a field. This review highlights the individual and combined exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Dicofol (Kelthane) as an environmental contaminant: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donlad R.

    1990-01-01

    Dicofol is persistent in soil and on plants. No compelling evidence exists that dicofol breaks down or is metabolized to DDTr in nature. Dicofol does not accumulate in birds as rapidly as DDE, and it has reproductive effects that are less harmful than DDE. Fish, birds, and mammals are reproductively sensitive to dicofol products, but levels presently found in wildlife are below levels shown experimentally to cause significant harm. Eggs of fish-eating wild birds from citrus, cotton, and apple-growing areas should be analyzed for dicofol residues. Nest success of fish-eating birds in the most contaminated populations should be studied to evaluate the environmental effects of dicofol.

  18. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  19. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  20. Environmental contamination and its impact on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornescu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chernobyl, site of the worst accident in the history of peaceful use of atomic energy, remain, a huge danger for Europe in the overall levels of exposure to ionizing radiation continues to increase, which is demonstrated by recording new information on biological effects of exposure to radiation (Regional and global aspects of Radiation Protection, IRPA 2007). Criteria fundamental radiation, which is necessary today as result of various practical applications of nuclear energy, obliges us to carefully analyze environmental issue as a result of the presence of radioactive isotopes into the environment. This is due to the fact that the study of correlated environmental contamination and transmission vectors of radionuclides to humans is a primary means to protect public health. (authors)

  1. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  2. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  3. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food

  4. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  5. Soil management planning for military installations: Strategy for identifying contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Baskin, D.A.; Downey, D.; Taffinder, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous federal and state regulations mandate the proper handling and disposal and/or treatment of contaminated soils. The Land Disposal Ban and the increasing lack of new or proximal land disposal facilities, coupled with the increasing liability of off-site disposal, have created a need for altering the traditional methods of managing contaminated sods. To delineate soil management decisions, a Soil Management Plan (SMP) was developed which incorporates the substantive requirements of CERCLA/SARA and RCRA into the ongoing base activities (i.e., construction projects, utility repairs and maintenance) and other environmental projects (i.e., underground storage tank removals) that may involve contaminated soils. The decision-making process is developed to guide base personnel in recognizing contamination, following proper sampling and temporary storage procedures, preventing unnecessary human exposure and isolating soils for removal off-site or treatment on-site. The SMP also contains a comprehensive review of soil remediation technologies, such as biological treatment, soil vapor extraction, soil washing, biofiltering, thermal desorption, soil stabilization/solidification, chemical/physical treatment and incineration. Contaminant types expected at the federal military facility are cross-referenced to the appropriate remediation technologies to determine the specific base needs for a soil treatment unit. An example of a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment unit is presented for a base where underground fuel tanks are the principal source of soil contamination

  6. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  7. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our studies was to examine (1 the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow, and (2 whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants. It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53 and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA. Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release. The obtained data suggest that (1 the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2 FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

  8. Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauk, Carole Lyn; Argueso, J. Lucas; Auerbach, Scott S.; Awadalla, Philip; Davis, Sean R.; DeMarini, David M.; Douglas, George R.; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Elespuru, Rosalie K.; Glover, Thomas W.; Hales, Barbara F.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Klein, Catherine B.; Lupski, James R.; Manchester, David K.; Marchetti, Francesco; Montpetit, Alexandre; Mulvihill, John J.; Robaire, Bernard; Robbins, Wendie A.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Somers, Christopher M.; Taylor, James G.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Waters, Michael D.; Wilson, Thomas E.; Witt, Kristine L.; Bishop, Jack B.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis (ENIGMA) met in October 2011 to propose the necessary foundational studies, which include sequencing of parent–offspring trios from highly exposed human populations, and controlled dose–response experiments in animals. These studies will establish background levels of variability in germline mutation rates and identify environmental agents that influence these rates and heritable disease. Guidance for the types of exposures to examine come from rodent studies that have identified agents such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution as germ-cell mutagens. Research is urgently needed to establish the health consequences of parental exposures on subsequent generations. PMID:22935230

  9. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  10. 4. International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Symposium Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe was part of an on-going series of symposia which focus on the environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. The presentations concerned radiological contamination, hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, modeling and computer applications for environmental studies, site remediation. Many works presented human health effects of environmental pollution by heavy metals, radionuclides and other xenobiotics

  11. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  12. Environmental contamination in the K eban Mining District, Eastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolucek, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present research is focused on the contribution of base-metal mining to heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mining wastes and unworked ore-mineral concentrations present in the Keban region (eastern Turkey) are the main sources of environmental contamination in the area via leaching of the potentially toxic elements. Total-element concentrations of several different sampling media, such as sediment, waters and plants were measured. Analyses of metal and metalloid concentrations of sediment samples indicate high As, F, Mo and Zn contents, which decrease exponentially with distance from the mine and mineralized zones, mainly due to dilution by water and barren material. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ta in the water samples are higher than the average natural background values for these heavy metals. The most significant components of water samples under study are (>1 mg/1) Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn and S and (1 mg/1) Ba, Fe and Mo; these samples are also enriched in some toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Sb. Red algae have a higher capacity for absorption of Cr, Cu, Mn,Ni, Pb and S, whereas green algae are enriched in Co, Hg, La, Se and V. However, the highest heavy-metal and toxic element contents are found in moss collected at the mine adit. (author)

  13. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  14. Fowl play? Forensic environmental assessment of alleged discharge of highly contaminated effluent from a chicken slaughterhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P.; Taylor, M. P.; Handley, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple lines of geochemical and biological evidence are applied to identify and fingerprint the nature and source of alleged contamination emanating from a chicken slaughterhouse on the urban fringe of Sydney, Australia. The slaughterhouse has a long history of alleged environmental misconduct. The impact of the facility on catchment source waters by the slaughterhouse has been the subject of controversy. The facility owner has persistently denied breach of their licence condition and maintains it is `a very environmentally conscious operation'. The disputed nature of the possible sources of discharges and its contaminants required a detailed forensic environmental assessment. Water samples collected from off-site discharge points associated with the facility show highly elevated concentrations of faecal coliforms (max 68,000 cfu), ammonia-N (51,000 µg/L), total nitrogen (98,000 µg/L) and phosphorous (32,000 µg/L). Upstream and adjacent watercourses were markedly less contaminated. Water discharge points associated with the slaughterhouse and natural catchment runoff were sampled for arsenic speciation, including assessment for the organoarsenic compound Roxarsone. Roxarsone is used as a chicken growth promoter. Water draining the slaughterhouse facility contained concentrations around 10 times local background levels. The Roxarsone compound was not detected in any waters, but inorganic arsenic, As(V), was present in all waters with the greatest concentrations in waters draining from the slaughterhouse. The environmental evidence was compiled over a series of discharges events and presented to the NSW EPA. Subsequent to receipt of the data supported by their own investigations, the NSW EPA mandated that the slaughterhouse be subject to a pollution reduction program. The efficacy of the pollution reduction program to stem the release of highly contaminated effluent is currently subject to ongoing investigation using a suite of water chemistry measures including

  15. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  16. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  17. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M.; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  18. New trends in the analytical determination of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Ana; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2013-06-01

    Since the so-called emerging contaminants were established as a new group of pollutants of environmental concern, a great effort has been devoted to the knowledge of their distribution, fate and effects in the environment. After more than 20 years of work, a significant improvement in knowledge about these contaminants has been achieved, but there is still a large gap of information on the growing number of new potential contaminants that are appearing and especially of their unpredictable transformation products. Although the environmental problem arising from emerging contaminants must be addressed from an interdisciplinary point of view, it is obvious that analytical chemistry plays an important role as the first step of the study, as it allows establishing the presence of chemicals in the environment, estimate their concentration levels, identify sources and determine their degradation pathways. These tasks involve serious difficulties requiring different analytical solutions adjusted to purpose. Thus, the complexity of the matrices requires highly selective analytical methods; the large number and variety of compounds potentially present in the samples demands the application of wide scope methods; the low concentrations at which these contaminants are present in the samples require a high detection sensitivity, and high demands on the confirmation and high structural information are needed for the characterisation of unknowns. New developments on analytical instrumentation have been applied to solve these difficulties. Furthermore and not less important has been the development of new specific software packages intended for data acquisition and, in particular, for post-run analysis. Thus, the use of sophisticated software tools has allowed successful screening analysis, determining several hundreds of analytes, and assisted in the structural elucidation of unknown compounds in a timely manner.

  19. Evaluation of the environmental dose commitment due to radium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, J.; Eng, J.; Giardina, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Middlesex Sampling Plant located in Middlesex, NJ was a uranium ore sampling plant operating during the 1940s and 1950s. A radiological problem was identified during a routine program to resurvey selected former MED/AEC sites which are no longer under government control. The survey, when conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE), indicated that the Middlesex facility had a radium and radon problem on-site as well as off-site, where some of the contaminated soil was used as landfill. The old sampling plant is presently being used as a Marine Corps Reserve Training Center. Subsequent, more detailed studies have identified possible solutions to the contamination problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is examining cleanup options based on a cost/benefit analysis utilizing the environmental dose commitment concept rather than an annual dose calculation. The practice of using dose to local populations as a basis for impact assessment can lead to a large underestimate of the total potential impact from the continuous environmental release of radon

  20. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated aquatic ecosystems: the project MOIRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U.; Brittain, J.; Monte, L.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems

  2. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  3. Game animals as bioindicators of environmental contamination by mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparova, Katarina

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with determination of Hg in the biological materials (furred game), which comes from 9 districts in Slovak Republic. In the fur there were determined the mercury contents, in μg·kg -1 , as follows: roe deer game - Lucenec District, 12.3; Poltar Dis., 12.8; Prievidza Dis., 42.6; Revuca Dis., 23.5; Rimavska Sobota Dis., 16.7; Spisska Nova Ves Dis., 262.5; Veliky Krtis Dis., 20.3; Zarnovica Dis., 11.5; Ziar nad Hronom Dis., 15.5; red deer game - Lucenec Dis., 13.6; Poltar Dis., 16.2; Rimavska Sobota Dis., 22.1; Zarnovica Dis., 9.6; fallow deer game - Poltar Dis., 41.9; boar game - Prievidza Dis., 257.6. The measurements were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA 254 instrument. The investigated animals were hunted during the hunting period in the year 1999. The biological samples were taken from healthy game without any strange changes of its behavior or colour. High mercury content in fur of roe deer game in Spisska Nova Ves District and also in fur of boar game in Prievidza District shows big air pollution in these districts, caused mainly by intensive industry, mining, reprocessing and energy technologies used in these districts. We can suppose that because of the environmental contamination there is also a high content of mercury in game internal organs. It would be useful to continue with analyzing the content of Hg in the biological material and environmental as well. (author)

  4. Environmental liability and contaminated site management : a strategic approach for Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The issue of how much liability can be imposed on a party for remediating a contaminated site is discussed. Many jurisdictions have either passed legislation or implemented policies on environmental liability consistent with the 1993 framework outlined by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). In 1997, the Minister of Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) received a report from the Minister`s Contaminated Site Liability Advisory Group (CSLAG) which made a series of recommendations on the application of CCME principles in a Saskatchewan context. This document clarifies SERM`s approach to the management of contaminated sites in Saskatchewan and proposes a process model in accordance with the principles outlined by CCME and CSLAG to provide a workable system for determining which remedial measures are appropriate for specific contaminated sites. The report also identifies the parties responsible for implementing remedial measures and encourages them to negotiate the sharing of responsibility for the remediation among themselves. The treatment of orphan shares/sites is also discussed. 1 fig.

  5. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Sethupathy, Praveen [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression.

  6. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  7. Environmental impact assessment: Classification of ecosystems with respect to vulnerability for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blytt, Line Diana

    1999-01-01

    This presentation recommends that an environmental impact assessment should be made ahead of any major action plan in the environment. The final document should point out to the authorities and public that expertise has been systematised in order to predict the effects of an action plan on the environment. This should be done for different scenarios and time scales. A useful tool for an environmental impact assessment is GIS, Geographic Information Systems. It can be used to identify areas and ecosystems that are vulnerable to radioactive contamination. To predict the radiation dose to humans and biota, a vulnerability assessment considers population density, land use, economic resources and the chemical and biological pathways of radionuclides in different ecosystems. Supplemented with knowledge of consumption and dietary habits a vulnerability assessment can be used to identify critical groups and to calculate doses to these groups. For ecosystems, vulnerability can be quantified by using critical loads for radioactive contamination or flux of radionuclides from an area. One criterion for critical load can be that intervention limits for food products should not be exceeded. If the critical load is low, this indicates a high vulnerability. The flux from an area can also identify vulnerability and it can be used to calculate collective dose. The vulnerability approach is a methodology that can be used to select areas that are suitable for treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive waste

  8. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  9. Potential external contamination with bisphenol A and other ubiquitous organic environmental chemicals during biomonitoring analysis: an elusive laboratory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid-even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices-the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

  10. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  11. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, D.; St-Laurent, J.; Hahni, M.; Chapados, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10,C50), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb) were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-Francois and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 20 '6Pb) are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88?mg kg -1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81?mg kg-1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13?mg kg -1 (Pb), respectively, while the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn) were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10,C50), most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth). The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on flood plains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils

  12. Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

    1985-01-01

    Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

  13. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  14. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.S. Ross (Peter); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function

  15. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  16. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  17. Development and application of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing E. coli O103 surrogate for tracking contamination through grinding and identifying persistent points of contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To 1.) develop and validate an easily trackable E. coli O157:H7/non-O157 STEC surrogate that can be detected to the same level of sensitivity as E. coli O157:H7; and 2.) apply the trackable surrogate to model contamination passage through grinding and identify points where contamination ...

  18. Communicating Environmental Risks: Local Newspaper Coverage of Shellfish Bacterial Contamination in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Suldovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal resources play a vital role in Maine’s cultural and economic wellbeing, contributing an estimated 168 billion dollars to the Maine economy. There are numerous risks to the sustainability of Maine’s shellfishing industry and working waterfront, including pathogenic bacterial pollution. In this study, we ask a broad fundamental question central to science and environmental journalism: how do newspapers cover localized environmental risks and what are the implications of those approaches? Utilizing the northeastern US state of Maine’s shellfishing industry as an exemplar environmental issue, this study examines how Maine’s two most read newspapers, the Bangor Daily News and the Portland Press Herald, report on bacterial contamination and shellfish. This study examines the themes that are present in the newspaper articles published about shellfish between 2003 and 2014 and analyses the types of sources journalists used within their coverage of these issues. Overall, we identified seven key themes: economic concerns, environmental impacts, political and regulatory issues, issues of public health and safety, reference to cultural values, technical and infrastructural issues, and aesthetic concerns. The most commonly cited individuals in the articles were government officials and scientists. The least cited groups were clammers and shellfishermen, general citizens, advocacy groups, and worm diggers. Implications for local coverage of environmental risks in Maine, science communication, and sustainability science are discussed.

  19. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided.

  20. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  1. Description of source term data on contaminated sites and buildings compiled for the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (WMPEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Smith, D.E.; Hill, J.G.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically had responsibility for carrying out various national missions primarily related to nuclear weapons development and energy research. Recently, these missions have been expanded to include remediation of sites and facilities contaminated as a result of past activities. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy announced that DOE would prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on the DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program; the primary focus was the evaluation of (1) strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE contaminated sites and facilities and (2) potential configurations for waste management capabilities. Several different environmental restoration strategies were identified for evaluation, ranging from doing no remediation to strategies where the level of remediation was driven by such factors as final land use and health effects. A quantitative assessment of the costs and health effects of remediation activities and residual contamination levels associated with each remediation strategy was made. These analyses required that information be compiled on each individual contaminated site and structure located at each DOE installation and that the information compiled include quantitative measurements and/or estimates of contamination levels and extent of contamination. This document provides a description of the types of information and data compiled for use in the analyses. Also provided is a description of the database used to manage the data, a detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions used in compiling the data, and a summary of the data compiled into the database as of March 1995. As of this date, over 10,000 contaminated sites and structures and over 8,000 uncontaminated structures had been identified across the DOE complex of installations

  2. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  3. Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens’ fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public’s risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople’s perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

  4. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J.; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  5. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeersch, Griet, E-mail: griet.vandermeersch@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Lourenço, Helena Maria [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Cunha, Sara [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Diogène, Jorge [Institute of Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture (IRTA), Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Cano-Sancho, German [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovirai Virgili University (URV), Reus (Spain); Sloth, Jens J. [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Food), Søborg (Denmark); Kwadijk, Christiaan [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Wageningen University and Research Center, Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Barcelo, Damia [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Fernandes, José Oliveira [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Marques, Antonio [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-15

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  6. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2006-01-01

    ... from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  7. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2005-01-01

    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CND transmission...

  8. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Lewis, Randolf V; Raisbeck, Merl F; Cook, Walter W

    2004-01-01

    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  9. The rodent research animal holding facility as a barrier to environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

  10. Illustrating sensitivity in environmental fate models using partitioning maps - application to selected contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wania, F. [Univ. of Toronto at Scarborough - DPES, Toronto (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Generic environmental multimedia fate models are important tools in the assessment of the impact of organic pollutants. Because of limited possibilities to evaluate generic models by comparison with measured data and the increasing regulatory use of such models, uncertainties of model input and output are of considerable concern. This led to a demand for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for the outputs of environmental fate models. Usually, variations of model predictions of the environmental fate of organic contaminants are analyzed for only one or at most a few selected chemicals, even though parameter sensitivity and contribution to uncertainty are widely different for different chemicals. We recently presented a graphical method that allows for the comprehensive investigation of model sensitivity and uncertainty for all neutral organic chemicals simultaneously. This is achieved by defining a two-dimensional hypothetical ''chemical space'' as a function of the equilibrium partition coefficients between air, water, and octanol (K{sub OW}, K{sub AW}, K{sub OA}), and plotting sensitivity and/or uncertainty of a specific model result to each input parameter as function of this chemical space. Here we show how such sensitivity maps can be used to quickly identify the variables with the highest influence on the environmental fate of selected, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and brominated flame retardents (BFRs).

  11. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood - European database on contaminant levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment...... to seafood.So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus...... potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data...

  12. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail: jgallego@uniovi.es; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Esquinas, N.; Fernández-Braña, A.; Afif, E.

    2016-09-01

    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. - Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts 20-ha brownfield • As and Pb highest soil pollutants • Forensic study reveals main waste and spills. • Comprehensive study of pyrite ashes (multi-point source of pollution) • Co-occurrence of PAH also linked to pyrite ashes.

  13. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.R.; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Esquinas, N.; Fernández-Braña, A.; Afif, E.

    2016-01-01

    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. - Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts 20-ha brownfield • As and Pb highest soil pollutants • Forensic study reveals main waste and spills. • Comprehensive study of pyrite ashes (multi-point source of pollution) • Co-occurrence of PAH also linked to pyrite ashes

  14. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for an Environmental Restoration Management Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the Standards/Requirements Identification Program, developed partially in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, was to identify applicable requirements that established the Environmental Restoration Management Contractor's (ERMC) responsibilities and authorities under the Environmental Restoration Management Contract, determine the adequacy of these requirements, ascertain a baseline level of compliance with them, and implement a maintenance program that would keep the program current as requirements or compliance levels change. The resultant Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RIDs) consolidate the applicable requirements. These documents govern the development of procedures and manuals to ensure compliance with the requirements. Twenty-four such documents, corresponding with each functional area identified at the site, are to be issued. These requirements are included in the contractor's management plan

  15. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Hudjetz, Sebastian [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Cofalla, Catrina [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Schüttrumpf, Holger [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Preuss, Thomas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt- Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios.

  16. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios

  17. Identifying sources of emerging organic contaminants in a mixed use watershed using principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Fairbairn, David; Arnold, William A; Barber, Brian L; Kaufenberg, Elizabeth; Koskinen, William C; Novak, Paige J; Rice, Pamela J; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of emerging organic contaminants in the Zumbro River watershed in Southeastern Minnesota. Two main principal components (PCs) were identified, which together explained more than 50% of the variance in the data. Principal Component 1 (PC1) was attributed to urban wastewater-derived sources, including municipal wastewater and residential septic tank effluents, while Principal Component 2 (PC2) was attributed to agricultural sources. The variances of the concentrations of cotinine, DEET and the prescription drugs carbamazepine, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole were best explained by PC1, while the variances of the concentrations of the agricultural pesticides atrazine, metolachlor and acetochlor were best explained by PC2. Mixed use compounds carbaryl, iprodione and daidzein did not specifically group with either PC1 or PC2. Furthermore, despite the fact that caffeine and acetaminophen have been historically associated with human use, they could not be attributed to a single dominant land use category (e.g., urban/residential or agricultural). Contributions from septic systems did not clarify the source for these two compounds, suggesting that additional sources, such as runoff from biosolid-amended soils, may exist. Based on these results, PCA may be a useful way to broadly categorize the sources of new and previously uncharacterized emerging contaminants or may help to clarify transport pathways in a given area. Acetaminophen and caffeine were not ideal markers for urban/residential contamination sources in the study area and may need to be reconsidered as such in other areas as well.

  18. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  19. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. L. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  20. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  2. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Aquatic Environmental Contamination: The fate of Asejire Lake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of catfish from Asejire Lake (located at the outskirt of Ibadan, a major city in Oyo State of South-West Nigeria) was carried out to assess the level of contamination due to effluents from various industries in Ibadan, Oyo State particularly the Nigerian Bottling Company, Plc (NBC). The industrial site is located close to ...

  4. Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, N.; Mertens, B.; Jansen, R.; van de Runstraat, A.; Stietz, F.; Wedowski, M.; Meiling, H.; Klein, R.; Gottwald, A.; Scholze, F.; Visser, M.; Kurt, R.; Zalm, P.; E. Louis,; Yakshin, A.

    2002-01-01

    EUVL tools operate under vacuum conditions to avoid absorption losses. Under these conditions, the MoSi multilayer mirrors are contaminated, resulting in reduced reflection and thus throughput. We report on experiments on MoSi mirrors exposed to EUV radiation from a synchrotron. To mimic the effects

  5. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation's (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation's defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO's mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements' adequacy, and assess FERMCO's level of compliance

  6. Environmental assessment of waste matrices contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F; Garrabrants, A C; Vandecasteele, C; Moszkowicz, P; Kosson, D S

    2003-01-31

    The use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests has been proposed to provide an integrated assessment of leaching processes from solid wastes. The objectives of the research presented here are to (i) validate this assessment approach for contaminated soils and cement-based matrices, (ii) evaluate the use of diffusion and coupled dissolution-diffusion models for estimating constituent release, and (iii) evaluate model parameterization using results from batch equilibrium leaching tests and physical characterization. The test matrices consisted of (i) a soil contaminated with arsenic from a pesticide production facility, (ii) the same soil subsequently treated by a Portland cement stabilization/solidification (S/S) process, and (iii) a synthetic cement-based matrix spiked with arsenic(III) oxide. Results indicated that a good assessment of contaminant release from contaminated soils and cement-based S/S treated wastes can be obtained by the integrated use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests in conjunction with the appropriate release model. During the time scale of laboratory testing, the release of arsenic from the contaminated soil matrix was governed by diffusion and the solubility of arsenic in the pore solution while the release of arsenic from the cement-based matrices was mainly controlled by solubilization at the interface between the matrix and the bulk leaching solution. In addition, results indicated that (i) estimation of the activity coefficient within the matrix pore water is necessary for accurate prediction of constituent release rates and (ii) inaccurate representation of the factors controlling release during laboratory testing can result in significant errors in release estimates.

  7. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  8. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  9. Child's play : investigating the exposure potential of environmental contaminants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.C.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic and chromium have been identified as soil contaminants from smelting, industrial and mining activities. The potential for human uptake of these elements from soil has been established with highest concentrations found in children, who are particularly susceptible to environmental exposure. This study explores the exposure potential of selected soil trace elements in rural Victoria, Australia, by investigating the relationship between uptake, measured using toenail clippings as the biomarker of exposure, and soil concentrations in two communities: one near current and historic gold mining, the other an agricultural community. We report the preliminary findings of a cross-sectional survey, in which toenail clippings were obtained from 12 children in the former community, and 16 children in the latter. (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs

  10. OXPHOS-Dependent Cells Identify Environmental Disruptors of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with numerous chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome. Environmental chemicals can impair mitochondrial function through numerous mechanisms such as membrane disruption, complex inhibition and electron transport chain uncoupling. Curr...

  11. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  12. Identifying environmentally sensitive areas under the Oil Pollution Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Pease, A.L.; Watson, S.N.; Wasel, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Section 4202(a)(6) of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) requires the President to issue regulations that require owners or operators of tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities that could impact environmentally sensitive areas, drinking water intakes, and other economically sensitive areas to prepare and submit plans for responding to a worst case discharge of oil and to a substantial threat of such a discharge. The authority to implement the response plan regulations has been delegated to various agencies, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Transportation. In addition, Area Committees designated under the OPA are responsible for assuring preplanning of response efforts, including procedures for protecting environmentally sensitive areas, and protection, rescue and rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife. Area Contingency Plans for each of the designated areas will describe the areas of special economic and environmental importance that might be damaged by discharges. This paper will discuss and compare the identification of environmentally sensitive areas and vulnerability analyses required as elements of response plans for agencies implementing regulations under the OPA authority. This paper will also describe the progress of the Area Committees with respect to contingency planning development for protection of environmentally sensitive areas

  13. Molecular epidemiology and environmental contamination during an outbreak of parainfluenza virus 3 in a haematology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Jin, C E; Sung, H; Koo, B; Park, J; Kim, S-M; Kim, J Y; Chong, Y P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, K-H; Shin, Y; Kim, S-H

    2017-12-01

    Although fomites or contaminated surfaces have been considered as transmission routes, the role of environmental contamination by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) in healthcare settings is not established. To describe an hPIV-3 nosocomial outbreak and the results of environmental sampling to elucidate the source of nosocomial transmission and the role of environmental contamination. During an hPIV-3 outbreak between May and June 2016, environmental surfaces in contact with clustered patients were swabbed and respiratory specimens used from infected patients and epidemiologically unlinked controls. The epidemiologic relatedness of hPIV-3 strains was investigated by sequencing of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes. Of 19 hPIV-3-infected patients, eight were haematopoietic stem cell recipients and one was a healthcare worker. In addition, four had upper and 12 had lower respiratory tract infections. Of the 19 patients, six (32%) were community-onset infections (symptom onset within environmental swabs up to 12 days after negative respiratory polymerase chain reaction conversion. At least one-third of a peak season nosocomial hPIV-3 outbreak originated from nosocomial transmission, with multiple importations of hPIV-3 from the community, providing experimental evidence for extensive environmental hPIV-3 contamination. Direct contact with the contaminated surfaces and fomites or indirect transmission from infected healthcare workers could be responsible for nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  15. Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented

  16. Environmental and body contamination from cleaning vomitus in a health care setting: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Linh; Su, Yu-Min; Weber, Rachel; Fritzen-Pedicini, Charissa; Edomwande, Osayuwamen; Jones, Rachael M

    2018-04-01

    Environmental service workers may be exposed to pathogens during the cleaning of pathogen-containing bodily fluids. Participants with experience cleaning hospital environments were asked to clean simulated, fluorescein-containing vomitus using normal practices in a simulated patient room. Fluorescein was visualized in the environment and on participants under black lights. Fluorescein was quantitatively measured on the floor, in the air, and on gloves and shoe covers. In all 21 trials involving 7 participants, fluorescein was found on the floor after cleaning and on participants' gloves. Lower levels of floor contamination were associated with the use of towels to remove bulk fluid (ρ = -0.56, P = .01). Glove contamination was not associated with the number or frequency of contacts with environmental surfaces, suggesting contamination occurs with specific events, such as picking up contaminated towels. Fluorescein contamination on shoe covers was measured in 19 trials. Fluorescein was not observed on participants' facial personal protective equipment, if worn, or faces. Contamination on other body parts, primarily the legs, was observed in 8 trials. Fluorescein was infrequently quantified in the air. Using towels to remove bulk fluid prior to mopping is part of the recommended cleaning protocol and should be used to minimize residual contamination. Contamination on shoes and the floor may serve as reservoirs for pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  18. Novel contaminants identified in fish kills in the Red River watershed, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisional molecular weights and chemical formulas were assigned to four significant previously unidentified contaminants present during active fish kills in the Red River region of Oklahoma. The provisional identifications of these contaminants were determined using high-resolu...

  19. Interpretative approaches to identifying sources of hydrocarbons in complex contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical instrumental hardware and software have permitted the use of more sophisticated approaches in identifying or fingerprinting sources of hydrocarbons in complex matrix environments. In natural resource damage assessments and contaminated site investigations of both terrestrial and aquatic environments, chemical fingerprinting has become an important interpretative tool. The alkyl homologues of the major polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., phenanthrenes/anthracenes, dibenzothiophenes, chrysenes) have been found to the most valuable hydrocarbons in differentiating hydrocarbon sources, but there are other hydrocarbon analytes, such as the chemical biomarkers steranes and triterpanes, and alkyl homologues of benzene, and chemical methodologies, such as scanning UV fluorescence, that have been found to be useful in certain environments. This presentation will focus on recent data interpretative approaches for hydrocarbon source identification assessments. Selection of appropriate targets analytes and data quality requirements will be discussed and example cases including the Arabian Gulf War oil spill results will be presented

  20. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  1. Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

    2010-04-20

    The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

  2. Sources to environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear activities in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.G.; Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Cheliabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent

  3. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  4. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  5. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  6. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINATION OF THE TEREK RIVER IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan N. Askhabova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of this work was to study the content of poisonous substances in the aquatic environment of the river Terek during the year of 2016 in the territory of the Chechen Republic. Materials and methods. Water samples of the river Terek were analyzed in the Laboratory of Environmental Control of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. Dry residue was determined by weight analysis; stiffness by acid-base titration; acid-base properties by potentiometric method; the ion content was determined spectrophotometrically; concentration of heavy metals was identified with voltammetric analyzer; concentration of calcium and magnesium ions was measured titrometrically with Trilon B in the presence of an appropriate indicator. Results. The intensity of contamination of the water body was assessed according to the following parameters: total hardness, dry residue, permanganate value, pH, chlorides, dissolved oxygen, sulfates, nitrates and heavy metals content. In the course of the study, sensory characteristics such as smell, taste, turbidity and color were also determined; indicator value - permanganate value, which characterizes the contamination of water bodies with industrial and household wastewater as well as atmospheric precipitation. Conclusion. Studies of the ecological state of Terek, the main river of the Chechen Republic, have shown that the quality of the water body corresponds to hygienic standards: the content of pollutants is much lower than the maximum permissible concentration. In terms of water quality, the Terek River belongs to the 2nd class of surface water bodies, the water quality characteristic is relatively clean and the river pollution index corresponds to II.

  8. RI Mapping System for Identification of Radiological Contamination in Environmental Water Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Teresa W.; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Teresa W.; Lee, Rena [Ewha Womans Univ., Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The interest of radiation protection has risen due to accidents of the Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear terrorism, and the radiological contamination in the city, In this respect, the development of environmental radiation monitoring for the radiological contaminants has been studied. In this study, the experiment for the radiological contamination in the water supply pipe line system has been simulated and preliminarily tested. The CsI(Tl)-PIN diode detectors were used and the preliminary test of radiation monitoring system was performed as multi detection system. The 2D image reconstruction algorithm was also developed for feasibility of the constructed multi-detection system.

  9. Assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination levels by depleted uranium after NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.; Markovic, S; Plecas, I.

    2001-01-01

    During NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia various ammunition have been used, some of them for the first time. Among others, 30 mm bullets with depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been used. Radioactivity contamination surveys have started during the war due to indications that DU is used in cruise missiles. Besides that, there were a lot of radioactivity analysis of food, drinking water etc. Some of the obtained results are presented in this paper. Depleted uranium ammunition can permanently contaminate environment and so produce effects on population. Relation of the international radiation and environmental protection standards and contamination levels are discussed as well. (author)

  10. Aquatic Environmental Contamination: The fate of Asejire Lake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    titi_aladesanmi

    In Nigeria major cities face serious water pollution crises, in which lack of environmental control of ... stocks are at the upper end of the food chains and are vital food supplies to local ... massive fish kills and loss of aquatic life and habitats in.

  11. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  12. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  13. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  14. Honey As A Bioindicator Of Environmental Radioactive Contamination In Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Petrinec, B.; Marovic, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in foodstuffs in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment. The programme has been designed and endorsed by the Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Security and fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty. For describing the overall possible impact the contaminants have on the entire region, the most efficient sampler would be one that covers the largest area possible. In this sense, honey has been shown to be an excellent biological indicator for detecting radionuclides but also other pollutants such as heavy metals. In Croatia, radiocaesium nuclides like 137Cs and 134Cs in honey were first investigated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For both radionuclides, the activity concentrations in honey, which peaked in May 1986, decreased exponentially and the estimated ecological residence time, corrected for radioactive decay, was found to be 1.23 y for 137Cs and 1.07 y for 134Cs. In the early 1990s, activity concentrations in honey for both radionuclides were under the detection limit, but again rose after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Effective radiation doses due to radiocaesium, received by the Croatian population by honey consumption, even in the year of the Chernobyl accident were estimated to be very small, the per caput dose being less than 1 micro Sv. Based on radioecological investigations of honey, we argue that the mobility of honey bees and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program if honey and other bee-farming products are included in the routine radioecological monitoring programme for the Croatian environment. (author).

  15. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    . The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure tocontaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintainingtribal sustenance practices. Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemicalexposure to dioxins/furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total mercury and methyl-mercury. Assist the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) by providing thenecessary data to conduct a Public Health Assessment for the Penobscot Indian Nation. Establish protocols for assessing the level of exposure to PCBs, dioxins/furans and mercuryto PIN tribal members as a consequence of gathering tribal plants for medicinal andnutritional purposes; as well as consuming fish, wood duck, and snapping turtle as a primarysource of nutrition. Survey surface water, drinking water, and sediment from the Penobscot River and IndianIsland to assess the exposure of PIN tribal members to environmental genotoxicants thatcontinue cultural sustenance practices. This research initiative collected and analyzed sediment and biota to determine the level of contaminant exposure to Penobscot tribal members. Natural resource utilization patterns and exposure pathways were identified based on discussions with the Tribal elders. Identification of Tribal exposure factors (exposure pathways and contaminant concentrations) was essential for accurately assessing potential long-term Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members’ exposure. Based on this study, ATSDR’s Public Health Assessment (PHA) concluded that the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) tribal members who eat fish and snapping turtle at the ingestion levels suggested in the Wabanaki Traditional Cultural Lifeways Exposure Scenario Report (Wabanaki Exposure Scenario) may be exposed to harmful levels of mercury, dioxins/furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and ot

  16. Environmental contamination in an Australian mining community and potential influences on early childhood health and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Zahran, Sammy

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead in aerosols, dusts and surface soils from Australia's oldest continuous lead mining town of Broken Hill were compared to standardised national childhood developmental (year 1) and education performance measures (years 3,5,7,9). Contaminants close to mining operations were elevated with maximum lead levels in soil: 8900 mg/kg; dust wipe: 86,061 μg/m(2); dust deposition: 2950 μg/m(2)/day; aerosols: 0.707 μg/m(3). The proportion of children from Broken Hill central, the area with the highest environmental contamination, presented with vulnerabilities in two or more developmental areas at 2.6 times the national average. Compared with other school catchments of Broken Hill, children in years 3 and 5 from the most contaminated school catchment returned consistently the lowest educational scores. By contrast, children living and attending schools associated with lower environmental contamination levels recorded higher school scores and lower developmental vulnerabilities. Similar results were identified in Australia's two other major lead mining and smelting cities of Port Pirie and Mount Isa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting soil, water and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally; multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results. We consider the advantages of multimedia models relative to environmental monitoring data. (au)

  18. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Nikki; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Klein, Nigel; Spratt, David A

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of viral etiology are costly and can have a major impact on patient care. Many viruses are known to persist in the inanimate environment and may pose a risk to patients and health care workers. We investigate the frequency of environmental contamination with common health care-associated viruses and explore the use of torque-teno virus as a marker of environmental contamination. Environmental screening for a variety of clinically relevant viruses was carried out over 3 months in a UK pediatric hospital using air sampling and surface swabbing. Swabs were tested for the presence of virus nucleic acid by quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Viral nucleic acid was found on surfaces and in the air throughout the screening period, with adenovirus DNA being the most frequent. Door handles were frequently contaminated. Torque-teno virus was also found at numerous sites. Evidence of environmental contamination with viral pathogens is present in health care environments and may be indicative of an infectious virus being present. Screening for viruses should be included in infection control strategies. Torque-teno virus may provide a better marker of contamination and reduce time and cost of screening for individual viruses. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening-level exposure-based prioritization to identify potential POPs, vPvBs and planetary boundary threats among Arctic contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A report that reviews Arctic contaminants that are not currently regulated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs under international treaties was recently published by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP. We evaluated 464 individual chemicals mentioned in the AMAP report according to hazard profiles for POPs, very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB chemicals, and two novel and distinct hazard profiles we derived from the planetary boundary threat framework. The two planetary boundary threat profiles assign high priority to chemicals that will be mobile and poorly reversible environmental contaminants. Utilizing persistence as a proxy for poor reversibility, we defined two exposure-based hazard profiles; airborne persistent contaminants (APCs and waterborne persistent contaminants (WPCs that are potential planetary boundary threats. We used in silico estimates of physicochemical properties and multimedia models to calculate hazard metrics for persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential, then we synthesized this information into four exposure-based hazard scores of the potential of each AMAP chemical to fit each of the POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard profiles. As an alternative to adopting a “bright line” score that represented cause for concern, we scored the AMAP chemicals by benchmarking against a reference set of 148 known and relatively well-studied contaminants and expressed their exposure-based hazard scores as percentile ranks against the scores of the reference set chemicals. Our results show that scores in the four exposure-based hazard profiles provide complementary information about the potential environmental exposure-based hazards of the AMAP chemicals. Our POP, vPvB, APC and WPC exposure-based hazard scores identify high priority chemicals for further study from among the AMAP contaminants.

  20. A new mask to prevent environmental contamination during radio aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental contamination is frequent during labelled aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures. Previous personnel data showed that in 18/18 situations air background activity has increased after inhalation and this may create serious routine and economical problems. We have tested a new adherent mask made of 3 M's TEGADERM in sixty 99 m Tc-DTPA inhalation studies and the results indicates that the use of such a mask may eliminate the problem of environmental contamination. The device is useful but not entirely efficient in cases when good skin adherence cannot be obtained. 48 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Human Environmental Disease Network: A computational model to assess toxicology of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants associated with diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure rarely have been studied by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration of systems biology and chemical toxicology using information on chemical contaminants and their disease relationships reported in the TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships, allowing inclusion of some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such a network can be used to identify uncharacterized connections between diseases. Examples are discussed for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Additionally, this computational model allows confirmation of already known links between chemicals and diseases (e.g., between bisphenol A and behavioral disorders) and also reveals unexpected associations between chemicals and diseases (e.g., between chlordane and olfactory alteration), thus predicting which chemicals may be risk factors to human health. The proposed human EDN model allows exploration of common biological mechanisms of diseases associated with chemical exposure, helping us to gain insight into disease etiology and comorbidity. This computational approach is an alternative to animal testing supporting the 3R concept.

  2. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy W. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Guyn, Lindsay [Department of Information and Evaluation Unit, Mental Health and Psychiatric Services, Calgary Health Region (Canada); Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-09-15

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current

  3. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Timothy W.; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-01-01

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including

  4. Technical Guidelines for Environmental Dredging of Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    material from barges to adjacent rehandling facilities or to move material relatively short distances. Conveyors can also be used to transfer ...by direct dumping or unloading into a chute or conveyor . Truck transport of treated material to landfills may also be considered. The material...environmental dredging for purposes of a feasibility study, remedial design , and implementation. The scope of this document is limited to the technical

  5. Escherichia coli Contamination across Multiple Environmental Compartments (Soil, Hands, Drinking Water, and Handwashing Water) in Urban Harare: Correlations and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Friedrich, Max N D; Gächter, Marja; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Mlambo, Linn S; Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Julian, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Escherichia coli pathotypes (i.e., enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic) have been identified among the pathogens most responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pathogenic E. coli are transmitted from infected human or animal feces to new susceptible hosts via environmental reservoirs such as hands, water, and soil. Commensal E. coli , which includes nonpathogenic E. coli strains, are widely used as fecal bacteria indicator, with their presence associated with increased likelihood of enteric pathogens and/or diarrheal disease. In this study, we investigated E. coli contamination in environmental reservoirs within households ( N = 142) in high-population density communities of Harare, Zimbabwe. We further assessed the interconnectedness of the environmental compartments by investigating associations between, and household-level risk factors for, E. coli contamination. From the data we collected, the source and risk factors for E. coli contamination are not readily apparent. One notable exception is the presence of running tap water on the household plot, which is associated with significantly less E. coli contamination of drinking water, handwashing water, and hands after handwashing. In addition, E. coli levels on hands after washing are significantly associated with handwashing water contamination, hand contamination before washing, and diarrhea incidence. Finally, we observed that animal ownership increases E. coli contamination in soil, and E. coli in soil are correlated with contamination on hands before washing. This study highlights the complexity of E. coli contamination in household environments within LMICs. More, larger, studies are needed to better identify sources and exposure pathways of E. coli -and enteric pathogens generally-to identify effective interventions.

  6. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  7. Novel approaches for 90Sr analyses in contaminated environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Sahoot, S.K.; Area, H.; Aono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive strontium isotopes are generated with high cumulative fission yield (5-6 %) during thermal neutron fission in a nuclear reactor. The physical half-life of 89 Sr (50.52 d) is short but that of 90 Sr (28.8 y) is long enough to generate radioecological repercussions. 90 Sr has a long-lasting biological half-life (∼18 y) in the human body, due to its chemical similarity to calcium the importance of 90 Sr analysis is emphasized in case of a nuclear disaster. The world-wide spread of 90 Sr, as a background, is derived from the global atmospheric fallout contributed by large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted from 1945. In case of local contamination, nuclear accidents are not the only source of 90 Sr isotope, misconducted underground nuclear weapon tests; improper handling of by-products of nuclear weapon production or normal operation of nuclear facilities (e.g. reprocessing plants) can be taken into account

  8. Iodine radiotherapy without water contamination: A contribution to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, I.; Heinzel, F.; Mueller-Duysing, W.

    1976-01-01

    Radiotherapy with 131 I and in some instances with 125 I has been used in thyroid disease. Several millicuries up to hundreds of millicuries are administered as single dose or fractionated doses. A considerable amount (50-90%) of the administered radioiodide is excreted in the urine during the first 2-3 days, depending on the retention of iodine in the thyroidal or metastatic tissue. High doses therefore present the problem of very active urine accumulation and disposal. Only few hospitals have ''ideal'' conditions with a special canalisation for radioactive waste into storage tanks. Usually, the excreted radioactivity is stored in individual containers in a specified storage room for at least 10 half-lives. This can present contamination problems of both personnel and rooms, and tedious collection of excreted material. A semi-automated system has been installed for this unpleasant and hazardous job: separation of highly active urine from fairly inactive feces by an adapter to the toilet seat. Radioiodide is precipitated as the silver salt and separated by a filtration unit as a very small volume. More than 99.5% of the iodine radioactivity were separated out. The inactive urine can then be directed into the public canalisation

  9. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying opportunities to enhance environmental cleaning in 23 acute care hospitals .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, P C; Parry, M F; Von Beheren, S M

    2008-01-01

    The quality of environmental hygiene in hospitals is under increasing scrutiny from both healthcare providers and consumers because the prevalence of serious infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens has reached alarming levels. On the basis of the results from a small number of hospitals, we undertook a study to evaluate the thoroughness of disinfection and cleaning in the patient's immediate environment and to identify opportunities for improvement in a diverse group of acute care hospitals. Prospective multicenter study to evaluate the thoroughness of terminal room cleaning in hospitals using a novel targeting method to mimic the surface contamination of objects in the patient's immediate environment. Twenty-three acute care hospitals. The overall thoroughness of terminal cleaning, expressed as a percentage of surfaces evaluated, was 49% (range for all 23 hospitals, 35%-81%). Despite the tight clustering of overall cleaning rates in 21 of the hospitals, there was marked variation within object categories, which was particularly notable with respect to the cleaning of toilet handholds, bedpan cleaners, light switches, and door knobs (mean cleaning rates, less than 30%; institutional ranges, 0%-90%). Sinks, toilet seats, and tray tables, in contrast, were consistently relatively well cleaned (mean cleaning rates, over 75%). Patient telephones, nurse call devices, and bedside rails were inconsistently cleaned. We identified significant opportunities in all participating hospitals to improve the cleaning of frequently touched objects in the patient's immediate environment. The information obtained from such assessments can be used to develop focused administrative and educational interventions that incorporate ongoing feedback to the environmental services staff, to improve cleaning and disinfection practices in healthcare institutions.

  11. Emerging contaminants in Indian environmental matrices - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jeeva M; Aravind, Usha K; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of issues related to environment from ECs is a topic under serious discussions worldwide in recent years. Indian scenario is not an exception as it is tremendously growing in its rate of production and consumption of compounds belongs to ECs categories. However, a comprehensive documentation on the occurrence of ECs and consequent ARGs as well as their toxic effects on vertebrates on Indian context is still lacking. In the present study, an extensive literature survey was carried out to get an idea on the geographical distribution of ECs in various environmental matrices (water, air, soil, sediment and sludge) and biological samples by dividing the entire subcontinent into six zones based on climatic, geographical and cultural features. A comprehensive assessment of the toxicological effects of ECs and the consequent antibiotic resistant genes has been included. It is found that studies on the screening of ECs are scarce and concentrated in certain geological locations. A total of 166 individual compounds belonging to 36 categories have been reported so far. Pharmaceuticals and drugs occupy the major share in these compounds followed by PFASs, EDCs, PCPs, ASWs and flame retardants. This review throws light on the alarming situation in India where the highest ever reported values of concentrations of some of these compounds are from India. This necessitates a national level monitoring system for ECs in order to assess the magnitude of environmental risks posed by these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying Sources of Fecal Contamination in Streams Associated with Chicken Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry is responsible for 44% of the total feces production in the U.S., followed by cattle and swine. The large U.S. production of feces poses a contamination risk for affected watersheds across the country. To aid in the identification of the sources of contamination, many D...

  13. Persistent environmental contamination with USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic strain types in households with S. aureus skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Samantha J; David, Michael Z; Taylor, Alexis; Ortiz, Nancy; Kumar, Neha; Sieth, Julia; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S; Miller, Loren G

    2014-11-01

    To understand the genotypic spectrum of environmental contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in households and its persistence. Prospective longitudinal cohort investigation. Index participants identified at 2 academic medical centers. Adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. Household fomites were surveyed for contamination at baseline and 3 months. All isolates underwent genetic typing. We enrolled 346 households, 88% of which completed the 3-month follow-up visit. S. aureus environmental contamination was 49% at baseline and 51% at 3 months. Among households with a USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) body infection isolate, environmental contamination with an indistinguishable MRSA strain was 58% at baseline and 63% at 3 months. Baseline factors associated with environmental contamination by the index subject's infection isolate were body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection isolate at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 10.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.75-20.79]), higher housing density (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.10-1.96]), and more frequent household fomite cleaning (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.16-2.27]). Household environmental contamination with the index subject's infection strain at 3 months was associated with USA300 MRSA and a synergistic interaction between baseline environmental contamination and body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection strain. We found that infecting S. aureus isolates frequently persisted environmentally in households 3 months after skin infection. Presence of pathogenic S. aureus strain type in the environment in a household may represent a persistent reservoir that places household members at risk of future infection.

  14. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  15. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  16. Reduction in Clostridium difficile environmental contamination by hospitalized patients treated with fidaxomicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J S; Patel, A; Otter, J A; Wade, P; Newsholme, W; van Kleef, E; Goldenberg, S D

    2015-07-01

    Fidaxomicin is sporicidal and may be associated with a reduced time to resolution of diarrhoea when used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This study investigated whether fidaxomicin for treatment of all patients with CDI reduced C. difficile environmental contamination. Surfaces in the rooms of 66 hospitalized patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin and 68 hospitalized patients treated with fidaxomicin were sampled. Patients treated with fidaxomicin were less likely to contaminate their environment (25/68, 36.8%) than patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin (38/66 57.6%) (P = 0.02). Treatment with fidaxomicin was associated with reduced environmental contamination with C. difficile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...... components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were...

  18. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  19. Assessment of Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic Bacteria at a Hospital Laundry Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Karen E; No, David; Daniell, William E; Seixas, Noah S; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2017-11-10

    Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Voluntary participation of 23 employees consisted of nasal swabs for detection of MRSA, observations during work, and questionnaires. Contamination with all three pathogens was observed in both dirty (laundry handling prior to washing) and clean areas (subsequent to washing). The dirty area had higher odds of overall contamination (≥1 pathogen) than the clean area (odds ratio, OR = 18.0, 95% confidence interval 8.9-36.5, P contamination were high for each individual pathogen: C. difficile, OR = 15.5; MRSA, OR = 14.8; and VRE, OR = 12.6 (each, P contamination occurred in the primary and secondary sort areas where soiled linens were manually sorted by employees (OR = 63.0, P contaminated by soiled linens. Workers who handle soiled linen may have a higher risk of exposure to C. difficile, MRSA, and VRE than those who handle clean linens. Improved protocols for prevention and reduction of environmental contamination were implemented because of this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  20. Patient Hand Colonization With MDROs Is Associated with Environmental Contamination in Post-Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal K; Mantey, Julia; Mody, Lona

    2017-09-01

    We assessed multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) patient hand colonization in relation to the environment in post-acute care to determine risk factors for MDRO hand colonization. Patient hand colonization was significantly associated with environmental contamination. Risk factors for hand colonization included disability, urinary catheter, recent antibiotic use, and prolonged hospital stay. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1110-1113.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  2. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  3. 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 6: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document includes 10 papers presented at the 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialities in the field of environmental contamination (Topic 6). From these, 6 papers were in INIS subject scope and a separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  4. Virtual Issue #1: Oil Spill Research in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology has been a venue for publishing oil spill research for over forty years. Rehwoldt et al. (1974) published the first oil spill focused paper in the Bulletin, reporting on the aquatic toxicity of two spill mitigating agents...

  5. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  6. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  7. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  8. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.

    1994-01-01

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  9. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  10. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential areas around Romanian mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary co...

  11. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  12. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; O'Donnell, Colm P.

    2016-05-01

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer avoid harvesting fecal contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil, and spinach leaves are compared. A common aperture imager designed with two identical monochromatic cameras, a beam splitter, and optical filters was used to simultaneously capture two-spectral images of leaves contaminated with both fecal matter and soil. The optical filters where 10 nm full width half maximum bandpass filters, one at 690 nm and the second at 710 nm. These were mounted in front of the object lenses. New images were created using the ratio of these two spectral images on a pixel by pixel basis. Image analysis results showed that the fecal matter contamination could be distinguished from soil and leaf on the ratio images. The use of this technology has potential to allow detection of fecal contamination in produce fields which can be a source of foodbourne illnesses. It has the added benefit of mitigating cross-contamination during harvesting and processing.

  13. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  14. Nitrogen-15 studies on identifying fertilizer excess in environmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, H.D.; Aly, A.I.M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of identifying fertilizer excesses in surface and ground waters on the basis of variations in the isotope ratio of nitrogen has been studied. The isotope ratio of the commonly used ammonium and nitrate fertilizers is similar to that of atmospheric nitrogen. These ratios are shifted when fertilizers are added to the soil. In the soil, fertilizer ammonium is oxidized and the nitrate formed is reduced in the heavy isotope. The fractionation factors are calculated. This artificially added nitrate becomes mixed with natural nitrate which, in general, is enriched in the heavy isotope. Only 50% (or even less) of the nitrate formed may stem from the added fertilizer. The mixing ratios are time-dependent, and different for various types and conditions of soil. In spite of this complexity, information on this isotopic process should be obtainable, if the isotope ratios of artificial and natural nitrate, respectively, are substantially different. Surface waters, in general, show no significant correlation between nitrate content and isotope ratio due to additions of sewage waters. Some data on ground waters from agricultural areas, however, where the nitrate content apparently resulted from fertilizers, gave a negative correlation of lower isotope ratios with higher nitrate contents. An inverse correlation was found in the isotope ratios of nitrate in untouched surface waters, and they even reflect the composition of the total soil nitrogen. (author)

  15. A Complete Analytical Screening Identifies the Real Pesticide Contamination of Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschet, Christoph; Wittmer, Irene; Simovic, Jelena; Junghans, Marion; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian; Leu, Christian; Hollender, Juliane

    2014-05-01

    concentrations, especially in smaller streams, can be much higher. In each sample, between 30-50 pesticides were detected and the concentration sum of all active ingredients exceeded 1000 ng/L in 78% of the samples. Forty of the 134 investigated TPs could be detected in all the five rivers. As for the active ingredients, herbicide TPs dominated the detection frequency and the concentration range. Twelve TPs exceeded 100 ng/L in at least one sample. Between 15 and 25 TPs were detected in each sample, and 35% of all samples had a concentration sum of more than 1000 ng/L. The comparison of the measured concentrations of the parent compounds with chronic environmental quality standards (AA-EQS), revealed that 70% of all surface water samples exceeded at least one of them; in some samples up to seven AA-EQS exceedances were observed. In total, 19 substances (mainly herbicides and insecticides) exceeded critical concentrations in at least one sample. The conducted study showed that the investigated medium-sized rivers were exposed to a large number of pesticides and TPs over the whole sampling period. For a correct assessment of the surface water quality, it is therefore crucial to measure as many pesticides as possible in order to get the real contamination of pesticides in surface waters.

  16. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Huy Uyen; Bui Van Loat; Dang Phuong Nam; Cao Anh Duc; Pham Quang Dien; Nguyen Hao Quang

    1990-01-01

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs 137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10 -5 Bq/g; Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10 -5 Bq/g. Cs 137 is radioactive so Cs 137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K 40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  17. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 μm and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity

  18. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  19. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Erika; Lampa, Erik; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lind, P Monica

    2015-02-01

    Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population. Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models. A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor. Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia D'Ulivo

    Full Text Available The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES. The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3. The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants.

  2. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  3. Predicting soil, water, and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally: Multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-10-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water, and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results

  4. Long-term ongoing impact of arsenic contamination on the environmental compartments of a former mining-metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, B; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Boente, C; Menéndez-Casares, E; Fernández-Braña, A; Gallego, J R

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are potentially toxic elements of concern for soil, surficial and ground waters, and sediments. In this work various geochemical and hydrogeological tools were used to study a paradigmatic case of the combined effects of the abandonment of Hg- and As-rich waste on these environmental compartments. Continuous weathering of over 40years has promoted As and Hg soil pollution (thousands of ppm) in the surroundings of a former Hg mining-metallurgy site and affected the water quality of a nearby river and shallow groundwater. In particular, the high availability of As both in soils and waste was identified as one of the main determinants of contaminant distribution, whereas the impact of Hg was found to be minor, which is explained by lower mobility. Furthermore, potential additional sources of pollution (coal mining, high natural backgrounds, etc.) discharging into the study river were revealed less significant than the contaminants generated in the Hg-mining area. The transport and deposition of pollutants within the water cycle has also affected several kilometres downstream of the release areas and the chemistry of stream sediments. Overall, the environmental compartments studies held considerable concentrations of Hg and As, as remarkably revealed by the average contaminant load released in the river (several tons of As per year) and the accumulation of toxic elements in sediments (enrichment factors of As and Hg above 35). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  7. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hlimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck. Study design: Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q. Methods: Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n = 262 responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a Do you eat game? (b How often do you eat game? (c How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany, 2005 (Peawanuck, 2006 (Attawapiskat, 2007 (Moose Factory and 2009 (Kashechewan. Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results: Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion: The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  8. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  9. [Anticholinergic syndrome caused by contaminated herbal tea; acting swiftly to identify the source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, C; de Vries, I; van Riel, A J H P

    2017-01-01

    Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to the Emergency Department with severe anticholinergic syndrome after using a marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) herbal remedy, mixed into hot chocolate drink, to reduce symptoms of common cold. After a short stay in Intensive Care, the symptoms diminished and the patients could be released from hospital. The herbs were found to be contaminated with atropine, most probably derived from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Analyses of the contaminated product indicated that the patients were exposed to 20-200 mg atropine, while a dose of 2 mg is already considered mildly toxic. Consultation of the Dutch National Poisons Information Center resulted in rapid detection of the contamination; close collaboration with the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and the manufacturer of the product allowed rapid identification of the source of contamination and facilitated the prevention of an epidemic.

  10. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  11. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lille-Langøy, Roger, E-mail: Roger.lille-langoy@bio.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Goldstone, Jared V. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, 02543-1050 Woods Hole, MA (United States); Rusten, Marte [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Milnes, Matthew R. [Mars Hill University, 100 Athletic Street, Box 6671, Mars Hill, 28754 NC (United States); Male, Rune [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Stegeman, John J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, 02543-1050 Woods Hole, MA (United States); Blumberg, Bruce [University of California, Irvine, 92697 CA (United States); Goksøyr, Anders [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears.

  12. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V.; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R.; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J.; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears

  13. Sources, behaviour, and environmental and human health risks of high-technology rare earth elements as emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Mangori, Lynda; Danha, Concilia; Chaukura, Nhamo; Dunjana, Nothando; Sanganyado, Edmond

    2018-04-26

    Recent studies show that high-technology rare earth elements (REEs) of anthropogenic origin occur in the environment including in aquatic systems, suggesting REEs are contaminants of emerging concern. However, compared to organic contaminants, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on the anthropogenic sources, environmental behaviour, and public and ecological health risks of REEs. The current review aims to: (1) identify anthropogenic sources, transfer mechanisms, and environmental behaviour of REEs; (2) highlight the human and ecological health risks of REEs and propose mitigation measures; and (3) identify knowledge gaps and future research directions. Out of the 17 REEs, La, Gd, Ce and Eu are the most studied. The main sources of anthropogenic REE include; medical facilities, petroleum refining, mining and technology industries, fertilizers, livestock feeds, and electronic wastes and recycling plants. REEs are mobilized and transported in the environment by hydrological and wind-driven processes. Ecotoxicological effects include reduced plant growth, function and nutritional quality, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity in animals, trophic bioaccumulation, chronic and acute toxicities in soil organisms. Human exposure to REEs occurs via ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation, and direct intake during medical administration. REEs have been detected in human hair, nails, and biofluids. In humans, REEs cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and severe damage to nephrological systems associated with Gd-based contrast agents, dysfunctional neurological disorder, fibrotic tissue injury, oxidative stress, pneumoconiosis, cytotoxicity, anti-testicular effects, and male sterility. Barring REEs in medical devices, epidemiological evidence directly linking REEs in the environment to human health conditions remains weak. To minimize health risks, a conceptual framework and possible mitigation measures are highlighted. Future research is needed to better understand

  14. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the 239 Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant 239 Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total 239 Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the 239 Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the 239 Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the 239 Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the 239 Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables

  15. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford's past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation

  16. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  17. The extent of environmental and body contamination through aerosols by hydro-surgical debridement in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, David; Lechner, Ricarda; Coraca-Huber, Debora; Mayr, Astrid; Nogler, Michael; Thaler, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Surgical site infections occur in 1-6% of spinal surgeries. Effective treatment includes early diagnosis, parenteral antibiotics and early surgical debridement of the wound surface. On a human cadaver, we executed a complete hydro-surgery debridement including a full surgical setup such as draping. The irrigation fluid was artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). Surveillance cultures were used to detect environmental and body contamination of the surgical team. For both test setups, environmental contamination was observed in an area of 6 × 8 m. Both test setups caused contamination of all personnel present during the procedure and of the whole operating theatre. However, the concentration of contamination for the surgical staff and the environment was lower when an additional disposable draping device was used. The study showed that during hydro-surgery debridement, contaminated aerosols spread over the whole surgical room and contaminate the theatre and all personnel.

  18. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  19. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Multicenter study of environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in 48 Canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupeau, Céline; Tanguay, Cynthia; Caron, Nicolas J; Bussières, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Context Oncology workers are occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. This exposure can induce adverse health effects. In order to reduce their exposure, contamination on surfaces should be kept as low as possible. Objectives To monitor environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in oncology pharmacy and patient care areas in Canadian hospitals. To describe the impact of some factors that may limit contamination. Methods This is a descriptive study. Twelve standardized sites were sampled in each participating center (six in the pharmacy and six in patient care areas). Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology. Descriptive statistical analyses were done and results were compared with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for independent samples. Results In 2015, 48 hospitals participated in this study (48/202, 24%). Overall, 34% (181/525) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 8% (41/525) for ifosfamide, and 6% (31/525) for methotrexate. The 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was 6.9 pg/cm 2 . For ifosfamide and methotrexate, they were lower than the limit of detection. Centers who prepared more antineoplastic drugs per year and centers who used more cyclophosphamide per year showed significantly higher surface contamination ( p contamination. Conclusion In comparison with other multicenter studies that were conducted in Canada, the concentration of antineoplastic drugs measured on surfaces is decreasing. Regular environmental monitoring is a good practice in order to maintain contamination as low as reasonably achievable.

  1. Italian multicentre study on microbial environmental contamination in dental clinics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Masia, Maria Dolores; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Tinteri, Carola; Tanzi, Marialuisa

    2010-09-01

    The dental practice is associated with a high risk of infections, both for patients and healthcare operators, and the environment may play an important role in the transmission of infectious diseases. A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in six dental clinics as a pilot study for a larger multicentre study that will be performed by the Italian SItI (Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health) working group "Hygiene in Dentistry". Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days of the week, before and during treatments. Air and surfaces were also examined at the end of the daily activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and relative to the different sampling times. Microbial water contamination in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWS) reached values of up to 26x10(4)cfu/mL (colony forming units per millilitre). P. aeruginosa was found in 33% of the sampled DUWS and Legionella spp. in 50%. A significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) was recorded during the activity. Microbial air contamination showed the highest levels during dental treatments and tended to decrease at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). Microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. As these findings point out, research on microbial environmental contamination and the related risk factors in dental clinics should be expanded and should also be based on larger collections of data, in order to provide the essential knowledge aimed at targeted preventive interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Vargas, Gustavo; Sosa-Hernández, Juan Eduardo; Saldarriaga-Hernandez, Sara; Villalba-Rodríguez, Angel M; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-03-24

    The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. The development of precise instruments can further help in real-time and in-process monitoring of the generation and release of environmental pollutants from different industrial sectors. Moreover, real-time monitoring can also reduce the excessive consumption of several harsh chemicals and reagents with an added advantage of on-site determination of contaminant composition prior to discharge into the environment. With key scientific advances, electrochemical biosensors have gained considerable attention to solve this problem. Electrochemical biosensors can be an excellent fit as an analytical tool for monitoring programs to implement legislation. Herein, we reviewed the current trends in the use of electrochemical biosensors as novel tools to detect various contaminant types including toxic heavy elements. A particular emphasis was given to screen-printed electrodes, nanowire sensors, and paper-based biosensors and their role in the pollution detection processes. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future perspectives. In summary, electrochemical biosensors and related areas such as bioelectronics, and (bio)-nanotechnology seem to be growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new bio-sensing strategies in future studies.

  3. Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hernandez-Vargas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. The development of precise instruments can further help in real-time and in-process monitoring of the generation and release of environmental pollutants from different industrial sectors. Moreover, real-time monitoring can also reduce the excessive consumption of several harsh chemicals and reagents with an added advantage of on-site determination of contaminant composition prior to discharge into the environment. With key scientific advances, electrochemical biosensors have gained considerable attention to solve this problem. Electrochemical biosensors can be an excellent fit as an analytical tool for monitoring programs to implement legislation. Herein, we reviewed the current trends in the use of electrochemical biosensors as novel tools to detect various contaminant types including toxic heavy elements. A particular emphasis was given to screen-printed electrodes, nanowire sensors, and paper-based biosensors and their role in the pollution detection processes. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future perspectives. In summary, electrochemical biosensors and related areas such as bioelectronics, and (bio-nanotechnology seem to be growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new bio-sensing strategies in future studies.

  4. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P H; Sileo, L; Mulhern, B M

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the freshwater areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolatility, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicated physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  6. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  7. Three-dimensional data interpolation for environmental purpose: lead in contaminated soils in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Tales Campos; Melo, Vander Freitas; Souza, Luiz Cláudio Paula; Dieckow, Jeferson

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring of heavy metal contamination plume in soils can be helpful in establishing strategies to minimize its hazardous impacts to the environment. The objective of this study was to apply a new approach of visualization, based on tridimensional (3D) images, of pseudo-total (extracted with concentrated acids) and exchangeable (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2) lead (Pb) concentrations in soils of a mining and metallurgy area to determine the spatial distribution of this pollutant and to estimate the most contaminated soil volumes. Tridimensional images were obtained after interpolation of Pb concentrations of 171 soil samples (57 points × 3 depths) with regularized spline with tension in a 3D function version. The tridimensional visualization showed great potential of use in environmental studies and allowed to determine the spatial 3D distribution of Pb contamination plume in the area and to establish relationships with soil characteristics, landscape, and pollution sources. The most contaminated soil volumes (10,001 to 52,000 mg Pb kg(-1)) occurred near the metallurgy factory. The main contamination sources were attributed to atmospheric emissions of particulate Pb through chimneys. The large soil volume estimated to be removed to industrial landfills or co-processing evidenced the difficulties related to this practice as a remediation strategy.

  8. Aerospace use of nuclear energy and current biological problems of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Verde, R; Conte, L

    1982-08-25

    An examination of the danger to man which could result from accidents caused by the use of nuclear energy for space purposes leads to the presentation of parameters establishing levels of environmental contamination by radionucleids from the stratotroposphere. The factors affecting the transport of radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere are indicated and the importance of their deposition and absorption by man through the alimentary canal is emphasised.

  9. Management of commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-09-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement is issued to assess the environmental impact of the AEC's program to manage commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. These are the types of commercial radioactive wastes for which AEC custody is required by present or anticipated regulations. The program consists of three basic parts: development of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) for commercial high-level waste, using existing technology; evaluating geological formations and sites for the development of a Geological Disposal Pilot Plant (GDPP) which would lead to permanent disposal; and providing retrievable storage for the transuranium-contaminated waste pending availability of permanent disposal. Consideration has been given to all environmental aspects of the program, using waste generation projections through the year 2000. Radiological and other impacts of implementing the program are expected to be minimal, but will be discussed in further environmental statements which will support budget actions for specific repositories. The alternatives discussed in this Draft Environmental Statement are presented. (U.S.)

  10. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  11. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  12. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  13. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  14. Microbial source tracking: a tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source tracking (MST), which currently is largely focused on determining sources of fecal contamination in waterways, is also providing the scientific community tools for tracking both fecal bacteria and food-borne pathogens contamination in the food chain. Approaches to MST are commonly classified as library-dependent methods (LDMs) or library-independent methods (LIMs). These tools will have widespread applications, including the use for regulatory compliance, pollution remediation, and risk assessment. These tools will reduce the incidence of illness associated with food and water. Our aim in this review is to highlight the use of molecular MST methods in application to understanding the source and transmission of food-borne pathogens. Moreover, the future directions of MST research are also discussed.

  15. Radon as an indicator of environmental contamination by hydrocarbons in free-phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at southeast of Sao Paulo city, from June/14 to May/15. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in ten monitoring stations installed in the contaminated area investigated and named 'A' to 'J'. Radon concentrations average for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations varied from (22 ± 4) kBq.m -3 to (39 ± 4) kBq.m -3 . For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations, radon concentrations average were (1.4 ± 0.4) kBq.m -3 and (13 ± 9) kBq.m -3 . The results have shown good agreement between the used method and the conventional environmental investigation techniques, for the majority of the monitoring stations in different seasons. Results obtained with CR-39 detectors varied over the exposure time due to the different seasons. No relation was observed between radon activity concentrations and rain volume accumulated over the different CR-39 exposure times. The lowest 222 Rn activity concentrations occurred in 'G' and 'H' monitoring stations, also verifying by gamma-ray spectrometry, that the low activities are not related to the activity concentration of its father 226 Ra from the 238 U decay chain

  16. Evaluation of carriage and environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, A; Lerner, A; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of surveillance cultures for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in patients and in their environment. Patients with a CRAB-positive clinical culture were sampled within 7 days; the buccal mucosa and rectum were sampled using swabs, and skin was sampled using pre-moistened sterile sponges. Sponges were also used to sample the surrounding environment. Specimens were inoculated onto CHROMagar MDR Acinetobacter plates both directly and after overnight enrichment. CRAB load was scored semi-quantitatively and composite scores for patient colonization and environmental contamination were calculated. Thirty-four patients were included. Screening sensitivity was 28/34 (82%) for buccal mucosa, 30/34 (88%) for skin, and 25/34 (74%) for rectum. Combined sensitivity was 32/34 (94%). Among patients with CRAB-positive respiratory cultures, sensitivity for buccal mucosa was 20/20 (100%). Direct inoculation had excellent sensitivity: 25/28 (89%) for all three sites combined. In the subgroup of patients who did not have a respiratory source for CRAB, direct inoculation sensitivity was lower than among patients with CRAB-positive respiratory cultures: 5/8 (63%) versus 20/20 (100%). The environment of all patients was contaminated with CRAB. There was a positive correlation between the patient colonization score and the environmental contamination score (r = 0.63, p Environmental contamination is common and can be monitored. Implementing screening may facilitate infection control efforts to limit the spread of CRAB. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental contamination and human exposure to manganese--contribution of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, J; Vyskocil, A; Kennedy, G

    1999-01-01

    The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline, has been used in Canada since 1976. Indeed, Canada is the only country where MMT is almost exclusively used. In October 1995, by court decision the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) granted Ethyl's waiver for the use of MMT in the United States. Paradoxically, in 1997 the federal government of Canada adopted a law (C-29) that banned both the interprovincial trade and the importation for commercial purposes of manganese-based substances, including MMT. However, MMT is currently widely used in Canada because of substantial stockpiling, and six Canadian provinces are challenging the law in the courts. Moreover, MMT has been approved for use in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Russia, and conditionally, in New Zealand. It has been suggested by some scientists that combustion of MMT may be a significant source of exposure to inorganic Mn in urban areas. The crucial question is whether Mn contamination from industrial sources combined with the additional contamination that would result from the widespread use of MMT would lead to toxic effects. Our research efforts have attempted to assess the environmental/ecosystem Mn contamination arising from the combustion of MMT in abiotic and biotic systems as well as human exposure. The experimental evidence acquired so far provides useful information on certain environmental consequences of the use of MMT as well as raising a number of questions. Our results gave evidence indicating that roadside air, soils, plants, and animals may be contaminated by Mn. As well, some specific groups of the population could have a higher level of exposure to Mn. Nevertheless, the levels of exposure remain below international guide values. Further studies and further characterization of dose-response relationships are thus needed to provide successful implementation of evidence-based risk-assessment approaches.

  18. Environmental geophysics: Locating and evaluating subsurface geology, geologic hazards, groundwater contamination, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical surveys can be used to help delineate and map subsurface geology, including potential geologic hazards, the water table, boundaries of contaminated plumes, etc. The depth to the water table can be determined using seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods, and hydrogeologic and geologic cross sections of shallow alluvial aquifers can be constructed from these data. Electrical resistivity and GPR data are especially sensitive to the quality of the water and other fluids in a porous medium, and these surveys help to identify the stratigraphy, the approximate boundaries of contaminant plumes, and the source and amount of contamination in the plumes. Seismic, GPR, electromagnetic (VLF), gravity, and magnetic data help identify and delineate shallow, concealed faulting, cavities, and other subsurface hazards. Integration of these geophysical data sets can help pinpoint sources of subsurface contamination, identify potential geological hazards, and optimize the location of borings, monitoring wells, foundations for building, dams, etc. Case studies from a variety of locations will illustrate these points. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, I.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

  20. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y C; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Brenner, Nicole C; Martin, Louise M; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M

    2014-09-01

    The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  1. A multi-metric assessment of environmental contaminant exposure and effects in an urbanized reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen B.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Baumann, Paul C.; DeWeese, Lawrence R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Coyle, James J.; Smith, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Charles River Project provided an opportunity to simultaneously deploy a combination of biomonitoring techniques routinely used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, and the Contaminant Biology Program at an urban site suspected to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to these standardized methods, additional techniques were used to further elucidate contaminant exposure and potential impacts of exposure on biota. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-metric data set to support assessment of contaminant exposure and effects at the site. Furthermore, the data set could be assessed to determine the relative performance of the standardized method suites typically used by the National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, as well as the additional biomonitoring methods used in the study to demonstrate ecological effects of contaminant exposure. The Contaminant Effects Workgroup, an advisory committee of the U.S. Geological Survey/Contaminant Biology Program, identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the contaminant class of greatest concern in urban streams of all sizes. The reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts, was selected as the site for this study based on the suspected presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and the presence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). All of these fish have extensive contaminant-exposure profiles related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other environmental contaminants. This project represented a collaboration of universities, Department of the Interior bureaus including multiple components of the USGS (Biological Resources Discipline and Water Resources Discipline Science Centers, the

  2. A synoptic summary approach to better understanding groundwater contamination problems and evaluating long-term environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    A summary approach has been developed within groundwater hydrology to communicate with a broad audience and more completely evaluate the long-term impacts of subsurface contamination problems. This synoptic approach both highlights the dominant features occurring in subsurface contamination problems and emphasizes the information required to determine the long-term environmental impacts. The special merit of a summary approach is in providing a better understanding of subsurface contamination problems to adjoining technical disciplines, public decision makers, and private citizens. 14 refs

  3. More on contamination: the use of asymmetric molecular behavior to identify authentic ancient human DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Svensson, Emma M; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    concerning the authenticity of such data. Although several methods have been developed to the purpose of authenticating ancient DNA (aDNA) results, while they are useful in faunal research, most of the methods have proven complicated to apply to ancient human DNA. Here, we investigate in detail...... the reliability of one of the proposed criteria, that of appropriate molecular behavior. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing, we have quantified the relative levels of authentic aDNA and contaminant human DNA sequences recovered from archaeological dog and cattle remains. In doing...

  4. Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: Potential insights into biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J.; Kowalski, Kevin A.; Dorota Inerowicz, H.; Adamec, Jiri; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3.0, 2.5, 50, and 100 μg/g, respectively. After a 96 h exposure, hepatic proteins were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) recognized and identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We identified, 30, 18, eight, 19, and five proteins as differentially expressed within the CdCl 2 , atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, and toxaphene treatments, respectively. Alterations were observed in the expression of proteins associated with cellular ion homeostasis (toxaphene), oxidative stress (phenanthrene, PCB 126), and energy production including glycolysis (CdCl 2 , atrazine) and ATP synthesis (atrazine). This work supports the further evaluation of several of these proteins as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish.

  5. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown. The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil and faecal samples collected from public parks and playground sandpits in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 151 soil samples and 135 canine faecal samples were collected from 7 public sandpits and 12 public parks, over a 4 month-period. Soil samples were tested by a modified centrifugation and sedimentation/flotation technique and faecal samples were tested by an adaptation of the Cornell-Wisconsin method. Molecular analysis and sequencing were performed to discriminate Toxocara species in the soil. Overall, 85.7% of the sandpits (6/7) and 50.0% of the parks (6/12) were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. The molecular analysis of soil samples showed that, 85.5% of the sandpits and 34.4% of the parks were contaminated with Toxocara cati eggs. Faecal analysis showed that 12.5% of the sandpits and 3.9% of the parks contained Toxocara canis eggs. In total, 53.0% of soil and 5.9% of faecal samples were positive for Toxocara spp. Additionally, 56.0% of the eggs recovered from the samples were embryonated after 60 days of incubation, therefore considered viable and infective. The average density was 4.2 eggs per hundred grams of soil. Public parks and playground sandpits in the Lisbon area were found to be heavily contaminated with T. cati eggs, representing a serious menace to public health as the studied areas represent common places where people of all ages, particularly children, recreate. This study sounds an alarm bell regarding the necessity to undertake effective measures such as reduction of stray animals, active faecal

  6. Spatial screening methods for evaluating environmental contaminant hazards and exposure vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Human and biotic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to sea-level rise and severe storms due to climate change. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms, which could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed spatial screening methods to identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors. These methods have been applied within the northeastern U.S. to document contaminants of emerging concern, highlight vulnerable communities, and prioritize locations for future sampling campaigns. Integration of this information provides a means to better assess the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and sea-level rise (incremental) disturbances. This presentation will provide an overview of a decision support tool developed by the USGS to document contaminants in the environment relative to key receptor populations and historic storm vulnerabilities. The support tool is designed to accommodate a broad array of geologic, land-use, and climatic variables and utilizes public, nationally available data sources to define contaminant sources and storm vulnerabilities. By employing a flexible and adaptable strategy built upon publicly available data, the method can readily be applied to other site selection or landscape evaluation efforts. Examples will be presented including the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response pilot study (see http://toxics.usgs.gov/scorr/), and investigations of endocrine disruption in the Chesapeake Bay. Key limitations and future applications will be discussed in addition to ongoing method developments to accommodate non-coastal disaster scenarios and more refined contaminant definitions.

  7. DNA-SIP identifies sulfate-reducing Clostridia as important toluene degraders in tar-oil-contaminated aquifer sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winderl, C.; Penning, H.; von Netzer, F.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Lueders, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Global groundwater resources are constantly challenged by a multitude of contaminants such as aromatic hydrocarbons. Especially in anaerobic habitats, a large diversity of unrecognized microbial populations may be responsible for their degradation. Still, our present understanding of the respective microbiota and their ecophysiology is almost exclusively based on a small number of cultured organisms, mostly within the Proteobacteria. Here, by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP), we directly identified the most active sulfate-reducing toluene degraders in a diverse sedimentary microbial community originating from a tar-oil-contaminated aquifer at a former coal gasification plant. On incubation of fresh sediments with {sup 13}C{sub 7}-toluene, the production of both sulfide and (CS{sub 2}){sup 13}CO{sub 2} was clearly coupled to the {sup 13}Clabeling of DNA of microbes related to Desulfosporosinus spp. within the Peptococcaceae (Clostridia). The screening of labeled DNA fractions also suggested a novel benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) sequence type previously only detected in the environment to be tentatively affiliated with these degraders. However, carbon flow from the contaminant into degrader DNA was only similar to 50%, pointing toward high ratios of heterotrophic CS{sub 2}-fixation during assimilation of acetyl-CoA originating from the contaminant by these degraders. These findings demonstrate that the importance of non-proteobacterial populations in anaerobic aromatics degradation, as well as their specific ecophysiology in the subsurface may still be largely ungrasped.

  8. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  9. Allegations of Environmental Contamination and Hazards Affecting the Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope, Alaska. Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The Inupiat community of the Arctic Slope, Alaska alleged that the past activities of the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies exposed the Inupiat community to environmental contamination...

  10. Environmental hazard analysis - contamination of nutrients, mercury and cesium-137 in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from some ongoing Swedish research projects on different types of contamination of limnic as well as marine areas are summarized. A brief theoretical outline on the central concepts of the 'meso-scale-type' of environmental hazard analysis, utilizing examples on eutrophication of coastal waters is given. The concepts are further substantiated in two subsequent parts dealing with radioactive cesium and mercury. The idea is to illustrate that the basic concepts for ('real' world/'meso scale') environmental hazard analysis can be used for different substances and different aquatic environments. It is important to give clear, quantifiable definitions of the effect, dose and environmental sensitivity parameters, which should be valid for a defined area and for a defined span of time. All other parameters should be compatible and have the same area and time resolution. (author)

  11. Environmental assessment of contaminated site remediation in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte

    is an environmental assessment tool that compiles a very wide array of environmental exchanges (emissions to air, water, and soil, and resource consumption) associated with the life cycle of a product or service .and translates them to impacts (global warming, acidification, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, etc...... fate and transport models. This made it possible to account for important processes, such as the formation of chlorinated degradation products and to include the site-specific exposure of humans via ingestion of groundwater used for drinking water. The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental......-cleaning and industries. Chloroethenes are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) with high density and viscosity and low solubility in water. These characteristics allow a spill to migrate deep into the subsurface, where it can act as long-term source of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination. Due to the longevity...

  12. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  13. A possibilistic analysis approach for environmental risk assessment of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, G.H.; Fuller, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A possibilistic approach for assessing risks associated with petroleum-contaminated sites is provided. The approach is applied to an illustrative case study in order to show its applicability and implementation for decision making in effective site remediation and management. The approach consists of three main parts: (1) the determination of fuzzy steady state contaminant concentrations in a aquifer based on an analytical solute transport model; (2) possibilistic analysis of fuzzy criteria for different risk levels; and (3) environmental risk assessment based on the Euclidian method. Based on results from an illustrative case study, environmental risks at a petroleum-contaminated site can be effectively evaluated using the developed methodology. The risk assessment framework can effectively handle uncertainities presented as fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy nature of water quality and risk level criteria were seen in the related simulation and evaluation models, and the framework is especially useful for situations in which probabilistic information is not available. This use of this approach is new in the area of petroleum waste management under uncertainty, and its results are useful for the related site remediation and management decisions. 36 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): a review on environmental contamination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) which contain diverse organic groups, such as antibiotics, hormones, antimicrobial agents, synthetic musks, etc., have raised significant concerns in recently years for their persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of PPCPs for its economic development and population growth in recent years. This may result in PPCP contamination in different environmental media of China. This review summarizes the current contamination status of different environment media, including sewage, surface water, sludge, sediments, soil, and wild animals, in China by PPCPs. The human body burden and adverse effects derived from PPCPs are also evaluated. Based on this review, it has been concluded that more contamination information of aquatic environment and wildlife as well as human body burden of PPCPs in different areas of China is urgent. Studies about their environmental behavior and control technologies need to be conducted, and acute and chronic toxicities of different PPCP groups should be investigated for assessing their potential ecological and health risks. © 2013.

  15. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ibba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental samples collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces were analysed according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard method. Identification of the isolated strains was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The higher prevalence rate was found in the following areas: salting, products washing, packaging, ricotta salata storage and Pecorino Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes was never found in the cheese-making area. The probability of observing samples positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes was asso- ciated with dairy plant, sampling area and the period of cheese-making (P<0.001. The greater persistence of contamination over time was observed in the washing, salting, and Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control of persistent environmental contamination relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes niches within the processing environment and the prevention of harborage sites formation. The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes environmental contamination is confirmed by the lower level of contamination observed after these procedures were correctly implemented.

  17. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  18. Relationship with environmental groups, the media and the public: aspects relating to environmental contaminations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, J.R. de; Kepinski, A.; Almeida, M.J. de; Ferreira, A.L.V.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the Thermonuclear Directorate from FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A. looks at the brazilian situation and briefly reviews the relationship with environmental groups and the media. It them deals with nuclear power and public acceptance. In response, through their own programmes and with the support from governmental and non governmental initiatives a Nuclear Protection System Programme was organized. (B.C.A.). 01 fig, 04 tabs

  19. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Mench, Matthew M; Manahan, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities. (paper)

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning

  1. Environmental contamination from a ground-level release of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Kephart, G.S.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1986-08-01

    On January 11, 1985, a ground-level release of fission products, primarily 90 Sr, occurred at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The release was detected during routine surveys and the majority of the contamination was confined to the immediate area where the release occurred. Response to the incident was complicated by a strong inversion that resulted in a buildup of 222 Rn daughter products on environmental air samples and outdoor surfaces. The cause of the release appears to have been the operation of a transfer jet that inadvertently pressurized an unblanked line leading to the 241-C-151 Diversion Box. A buildup of pressure inside the diversion box forced contaminated air through gaps in the diversion box cover blocks resulting in an unmonitored, short duration release to the environment. The source term was estimated using data obtained from environmental air samplers. The ground deposition speed was calculated using the integrated exposure (air samples) and surface contamination levels obtained from recently fallen snow. The total release was estimated to be 1.4 Ci 90 Sr and 0.02 Ci 137 Cs. Based on this source term, the maximum 50-yr dose commitment to onsite pesonnel was 50 mrem whole body and 600 mrem bone. No detectable internal deposition occurred during the incident and corrective action which followed; this was probably due to several factors: (1) prompt detection of the release; (2) localized contamination control; (3) excellent personnel protection practices; and (4) the protection offered by building ventilation systems. The theoretical maximum offsite individual would receive a potential 1-yr dose commitment of 0.01 mrem whole body and 0.2 mrem bone from this incident. The potential 50-yr dose commitment would be 0.13 mrem whole body and 2.0 mrem bone. In actuality, neither onsite or offsite individuals would be expected to receive even these small dose commitments

  2. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:26356096

  3. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs and seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children of northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroten, Anna; Toczylowski, Kacper; Kiziewicz, Bozena; Oldak, Elzbieta; Sulik, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease. Soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs appears to be the main source of infection for humans. The aim of our study was to estimate the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs in public areas in northeastern Poland followed by the assessment of seroprevalence of toxocariasis in the children's population inhabiting the areas. A total of 168 soil samples were collected in June and September from public areas, and 28 from patients' residences. They were all examined for Toxocara eggs using the centrifugal flotation technique. Two-step serological tests comprising enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) were performed in 190 children aged 2-17 without any symptoms of toxocariasis. The positive samples accounted for 36 and 32 % in the urban area, 39 and 18 % in the suburbs, and 39 and 46 % in parks, for June and September, respectively. All the sites located near the patients' residences with confirmed persistent toxocariasis were found contaminated with Toxocara eggs. A significant drop in the mean number of eggs was noted in the suburbs after summer (0.64 vs 0.18, p contamination was documented in soil from urban sandboxes and parks. The overall seroprevalence in children tested for toxocariasis was 4.2 % as determined by ELISA and WB (3.0 % in preschool children and 7.7 % in school children). The current study revealed high contamination of public areas in northeastern Poland with Toxocara eggs as well as marked seroprevalence in asymptomatic children. There is an urgent need to introduce and promote preventive health measures to limit spread of toxocariasis.

  4. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  5. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  6. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  7. Measurement of radionuclides in contaminated environmental matrices: participation in quality assessment programme of U.S. Department of energy's environmental monitoring laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIDDIQUE, N.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2006-03-01

    A Quality Assessment Programme (QAP) was initiated by the US, Department of Energy (DOE) in 1998 to establish credibility of radionuclide measurements in contaminated environmental samples, i.e. soil, vegetation and air filters. In this context best-known and pertinent laboratories around the world were identified and invited to participate in this programme. To evaluate the performance of these prestigious laboratories, the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory at NCD, PINSTECH, which is an IAEA declared Regional Resource Unit (IAEA-RRU), along with 76 other laboratories were asked to take part in a regular proficiency exercise. In this report, the performance of the NAA Laboratory throughout the QAP programme (1998-2004) is presented is detail, describing the procedures employed, the problems encountered and the improvement and expertise gained from participating in this assessment programme. (author)

  8. Proteomic approach for identifying gonad differential proteins in the oyster (Crassostrea angulata) following food-chain contamination with HgCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hong; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2013-12-06

    Hg discharged into the environmental waters can generally be bioaccumulated, transformed and transmited by living organisms, thus resulting in the formation of Hg-toxicity food chains. The pathway and toxicology of food chain contaminated with environmental Hg are rarely revealed by proteomics. Here, we showed that differential proteomics had the potential to understand reproduction toxicity mechanism in marine molluscs through the Hg-contaminated food chain. Hg bioaccumulation was found in every link of the HgCl2-Chlorella vulgaris-oyster-mice food chain. Morphological observations identified the lesions in both the oyster gonad and the mice ovary. Differential proteomics was used to study the mechanisms of Hg toxicity in the oyster gonad and to find some biomarkers of Hg contamination in food chain. Using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, we identified 13 differential protein spots, of which six were up-regulated, six were down-regulated, while one was undecided. A portion of these differential proteins was further confirmed using real-time PCR and western blotting methods. Their major functions involved binding, protein translocation, catalysis, regulation of energy metabolism, reproductive functioning and structural molecular activity. Among these proteins, 14-3-3 protein, GTP binding protein, arginine kinase (AK) and 71kDa heat shock connate protein (HSCP 71) are considered to be suitable biomarkers of environmental Hg contamination. Furthermore, we established the gene correspondence, responding to Hg reproductive toxicity, between mouse and oyster, and then used real-time PCR to analyze mRNA differential expression of the corresponding genes in mice. The results indicated that the mechanism of Hg reproductive toxicity in mouse was similar to that in oyster. We suggest that the proteomics would be further developed in application research of food safety including toxicological mechanism. It is well known that mercury (Hg) is one of the best toxic metal elements in

  9. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodutta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, bisphenols (BPs, and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors.

  10. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  11. Characterizing nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in spent embryo culture media: genetic contamination identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Elizabeth R; McGillivray, Brent C; Wicker, Sophie M; Peek, John C; Shelling, Andrew N; Stone, Peter; Chamley, Larry W; Cree, Lynsey M

    2017-01-01

    To characterize nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in spent culture media from normally developing blastocysts to determine whether it could be used for noninvasive genetic assessment. Prospective embryo cohort study. Academic center and private in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Seventy patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 227 blastocysts. Culture media assessment, artificial blastocoele fluid collapse and DNA analysis using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR), long-range PCR, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and DNA fingerprinting. Presence of nuclear and mtDNA in three different commercial culture media from Vitrolife and Irvine Scientific, spent embryo media assessment at the cleavage and blastocyst stages of development, and analysis of the internal media controls for each patient that had been exposed to identical conditions as embryo media but did not come into contact with embryos. Higher levels of nuclear and mtDNA were observed in the culture media that had been exposed to embryos compared with the internal media controls. Nuclear DNA (∼4 copies) and mtDNA (∼600 copies) could be detected in spent media, and the levels increased at the blastocyst stage. No increase in DNA was detected after artificial blastocoele fluid collapse. Mixed sex chromosome DNA was detected. This originated from contamination in the culture media and from maternal (cumulus) cells. Due to the limited amount of template, the presence of embryonic nuclear DNA could not be confirmed by DNA fingerprinting analysis. Currently DNA from culture media cannot be used for genetic assessment because embryo-associated structures release DNA into the culture medium and the DNA is of mixed origin. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the use of low-pressure pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management associated with environmental contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chester H; Johnson, Tova; Miklacic, Joan; Donskey, Curtis J

    2009-10-01

    Ho CH, Johnson T, Miklacic J, Donskey CJ. Is the use of low-pressure pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management associated with environmental contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii? To determine the extent of environmental contamination associated with low-pressure pulsatile lavage of stage III or IV pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) when routine infection control precautions are used for wounds colonized or infected with Acinetobacter baumannii. Prospective investigation in which pressure ulcer cultures and environmental cultures were obtained before and after low-pressure pulsatile lavage treatment, and before and after regular dressing changes. Environmental cultures included the patient's bedrail and settle plates placed 0.6, 1.5, and 2.4m from the wound to assess airborne spread of A. baumannii. SCI inpatient unit in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Inpatients (N=15) with SCI receiving daily low-pressure pulsatile lavage treatment for stage III or IV pressure ulcers with standard dressing change, as well as regular dressing changes without low-pressure pulsatile lavage at other times of the day. Standard, regular dressing changes and dressing changes with low-pressure pulsatile lavage. Comparison of frequency of environmental contamination with A. baumannii associated with low-pressure pulsatile lavage versus regular dressing changes. Of the 15 SCI inpatients meeting inclusion criteria, 9 (60%) grew A. baumannii from their wounds. Of the 9 patients with wound cultures positive for A. baumannii, only 1 (11%) had environmental contamination with this organism after performance of low-pressure pulsatile lavage, and the same patient had environmental contamination after a standard dressing change. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the wound and environmental A. baumannii isolates were identical. Low-pressure pulsatile lavage using the infection control methods described is not associated with an increased

  13. What Healthcare Workers Should Know about Environmental Bacterial Contamination in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russotto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care unit- (ICU- acquired infections are a major health problem worldwide. Inanimate surfaces and equipment contamination may play a role in cross-transmission of pathogens and subsequent patient colonization or infection. Bacteria contaminate inanimate surfaces and equipment of the patient zone and healthcare area, generating a reservoir of potential pathogens, including multidrug resistant species. Traditional terminal cleaning methods have limitations. Indeed patients who receive a bed from prior patient carrying bacteria are exposed to an increased risk (odds ratio 2.13, 95% confidence intervals 1.62–2.81 of being colonized and potentially infected by the same bacterial species of the previous patient. Biofilm formation, even on dry surfaces, may play a role in reducing the efficacy of terminal cleaning procedures since it enables bacteria to survive in the environment for a long period and provides increased resistance to commonly used disinfectants. No-touch methods (e.g., UV-light, hydrogen peroxide vapour are under investigation and further studies with patient-centred outcomes are needed, before considering them the standard of terminal cleaning in ICUs. Healthcare workers should be aware of the role of environmental contamination in the ICU and consider it in the broader perspective of infection control measures and stewardship initiatives.

  14. What Healthcare Workers Should Know about Environmental Bacterial Contamination in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russotto, Vincenzo; Cortegiani, Andrea; Fasciana, Teresa; Iozzo, Pasquale; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Gregoretti, Cesare; Giammanco, Anna; Giarratano, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Intensive care unit- (ICU-) acquired infections are a major health problem worldwide. Inanimate surfaces and equipment contamination may play a role in cross-transmission of pathogens and subsequent patient colonization or infection. Bacteria contaminate inanimate surfaces and equipment of the patient zone and healthcare area, generating a reservoir of potential pathogens, including multidrug resistant species. Traditional terminal cleaning methods have limitations. Indeed patients who receive a bed from prior patient carrying bacteria are exposed to an increased risk (odds ratio 2.13, 95% confidence intervals 1.62-2.81) of being colonized and potentially infected by the same bacterial species of the previous patient. Biofilm formation, even on dry surfaces, may play a role in reducing the efficacy of terminal cleaning procedures since it enables bacteria to survive in the environment for a long period and provides increased resistance to commonly used disinfectants. No-touch methods (e.g., UV-light, hydrogen peroxide vapour) are under investigation and further studies with patient-centred outcomes are needed, before considering them the standard of terminal cleaning in ICUs. Healthcare workers should be aware of the role of environmental contamination in the ICU and consider it in the broader perspective of infection control measures and stewardship initiatives.

  15. Biological and chemical tests of contaminated soils to determine bioavailability and environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.R.; Menzie, C.A.; Pauwells, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The understanding of the concept of bioavailability of soil contaminants to receptors and its use in supporting the development of EAE is growing but still incomplete. Nonetheless, there is increased awareness of the importance of such data to determine acceptable cleanup levels and achieve timely site closures. This presentation discusses a framework for biological and chemical testing of contaminated soils developed as part of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project entitled ''Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil Using a Risk Based Approach to Contaminated Site Management Based on Bioavailability of Chemicals in Soil.'' The presentation reviews the GRI program, and summarizes the findings of the biological and chemical testing section published in the GRI report. The three primary components of the presentation are: (1) defining the concept of bioavailability within the existing risk assessment paradigm, (2) assessing the usefulness of the existing tests to measure bioavailability and test frameworks used to interpret these measurements, and (3) suggesting how a small selection of relevant tests could be incorporated into a flexible testing scheme for soils to address this issue

  16. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Bishop, L.B.; Floran, R.J.; Williams, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, the analysis of these samples is not only expensive, but can take weeks or months when sent to an off-site laboratory. In contrast, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) screening capability could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real-time measurements provided by a MVM system would enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies, enhance worker safety, and provide the added flexibility of being able to ''steer'' the drill bit in or out hazardous zones. During measurement-while-drilling, down-hole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a rapid data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling proceeds, data are collected on the nature and extent of the subsurface contamination in real-time. The down-hole sensor is a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT) gamma radiation detector. In addition to the GMT signal, the MWD system monitors these required down-hole voltages and two temperatures associated with the detector assembly. The Gamma Ray Detection System (GRDS) and electronics package are discussed in as well as the results of the field test. Finally, our conclusions and discussion of future work are presented

  17. Uncertainties in human health risk assessment of environmental contaminants: A review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Bekele, Dawit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Addressing uncertainties in human health risk assessment is a critical issue when evaluating the effects of contaminants on public health. A range of uncertainties exist through the source-to-outcome continuum, including exposure assessment, hazard and risk characterisation. While various strategies have been applied to characterising uncertainty, classical approaches largely rely on how to maximise the available resources. Expert judgement, defaults and tools for characterising quantitative uncertainty attempt to fill the gap between data and regulation requirements. The experiences of researching 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) illustrated uncertainty sources and how to maximise available information to determine uncertainties, and thereby provide an 'adequate' protection to contaminant exposure. As regulatory requirements and recurring issues increase, the assessment of complex scenarios involving a large number of chemicals requires more sophisticated tools. Recent advances in exposure and toxicology science provide a large data set for environmental contaminants and public health. In particular, biomonitoring information, in vitro data streams and computational toxicology are the crucial factors in the NexGen risk assessment, as well as uncertainties minimisation. Although in this review we cannot yet predict how the exposure science and modern toxicology will develop in the long-term, current techniques from emerging science can be integrated to improve decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated environmental risk assessment for petroleum-contaminated sites - a North American case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Huang, G.H.; Chakma, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an integrated risk assessment approach is proposed for evaluating environmental risks derived from petroleum-contaminated sites. The proposed approach is composed of (i) a hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM) which is used for simulating immiscible flow of released hydrocarbons in vadose zone, formation of lens in capillary fringe, dissolution of pollutants at water table, and transport of the pollutants to receptors, and (ii) a fuzzy relation analysis (FRA) model which is developed for comprehensively evaluating risks caused by a number of pollutants with different impact characteristics, based on the HSSM results. This hybrid HSSM-FRA approach was applied to a case study for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada, where soil and groundwater was contaminated by industrial wastes containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEXs). The results suggest that the HSSM-FRA can provide insight into the potential risk to the receptor of concern downward the aquifer and can serve as a basis for further remediation-related decision analysis. (author)

  19. Revitalization model of tapioca industry through environmental awareness reinforcement for minimizing water body contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowati, E.; Indriyanti, D. R.; Juhadi

    2018-03-01

    Tapioca industry in Margoyoso District is a household industry which positively contributes to the growth of the region's economy as it is able to absorb 6,61% of productive age populationor absorb 3,300 workers.On the other hand, the industry impacts contamination of river water in the form of pollutants dissolved materials and particulates into water bodies so that the quality of water decreases even does not work anymore in accordance with the allocation for irrigation or run off of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to: strengthen environmental awareness; calculate the success of the reinforcement action and minimize water body contamination. The research was conducted in two villages of tapioca industry center in Margoyoso district - Pati Regency Administration Area. The determination coefficient of R Square is 0.802 which indicates a successful effort of 80.2%. Regression equation Y = 34.097 + 0.608 X. Industrial entrepreneur's concern increased on 8.45 from total indicator or position to 70.72 so that the gradual effort showed success to minimize water contamination of Suwatu River. The business community of tapioca should build installation of wastewater treatment.

  20. Occurrence, control and fate of contaminants of emerging concern in environmental compartments in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Amorim, Camila C; Leão, Mônica Maria D

    2018-04-22

    This is the first review to present data obtained in Brazil over the years regarding contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) and to contrast it with contamination in other countries. Data gathered indicated that caffeine, paracetamol, atenolol, ibuprofen, cephalexin and bisphenol A occur in the μg L -1 range in streams near urban areas. While endocrine disruptors are frequently detected in surface waters, highest concentrations account for 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-estradiol. Organochlorine pesticides are the most frequently found and persistent in sediments in agricultural regions. Moreover, in tropical agricultural fields, pesticide volatilization and its implications to ecosystem protection must be better investigated. The reality represented here for Brazil may be transposed to other developing countries due to similarities related to primitive basic sanitation infrastructure and economic and social contexts, which contribute to continuous environmental contamination by CEC. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Brazil, treat up to the secondary stage and lead to limited CEC removal. This is also true for other nations in Latin America, such as Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. Therefore, it is an urgent priority to improve sanitation infrastructure and, then, the implementation of tertiary treatment shall be imposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multielement geochemistry identifies the spatial pattern of soil and sediment contamination in an urban parkland, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rate, Andrew W

    2018-06-15

    Urban environments are dynamic and highly heterogeneous, and multiple additions of potential contaminants are likely on timescales which are short relative to natural processes. The likely sources and location of soil or sediment contamination in urban environment should therefore be detectable using multielement geochemical composition combined with rigorously applied multivariate statistical techniques. Soil, wetland sediment, and street dust was sampled along intersecting transects in Robertson Park in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Samples were analysed for near-total concentrations of multiple elements (including Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, La, Mn, Nd, Ni, Pb, Y, and Zn), as well as pH, and electrical conductivity. Samples at some locations within Robertson Park had high concentrations of potentially toxic elements (Pb above Health Investigation Limits; As, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn above Ecological Investigation Limits). However, these concentrations carry low risk due to the main land use as recreational open space, the low proportion of samples exceeding guideline values, and a tendency for the highest concentrations to be located within the less accessible wetland basin. The different spatial distributions of different groups of contaminants was consistent with different inputs of contaminants related to changes in land use and technology over the history of the site. Multivariate statistical analyses reinforced the spatial information, with principal component analysis identifying geochemical associations of elements which were also spatially related. A multivariate linear discriminant model was able to discriminate samples into a-priori types, and could predict sample type with 84% accuracy based on multielement composition. The findings suggest substantial advantages of characterising a site using multielement and multivariate analyses, an approach which could benefit investigations of other sites of concern. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  2. A critical evaluation of the use of cluster analysis to identify contaminated sediments in the Ria de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, B; Nombela, M. A; Vilas, F [Departamento de Geociencias Marinas y Ordenacion del Territorio, Vigo, Espana (Spain)

    2001-06-01

    The indiscriminate use of cluster analysis to distinguish contaminated and non-contaminated sediments has led us to make a comparative evaluation of different cluster analysis procedures as applied to heavy metal concentrations in subtidal sediments from the Ria de Vigo, NW Spain. The use of different clusters algorithms and other transformations from the same departing set of data lead to the formation of different clusters with a clear inconclusive result about the contamination status of the sediments. The results show that this approach is better suited to identifying groups of samples differing in sedimentological characteristics, such as grain size, rather than in the degree of contamination. Our main aim is to call attention to these aspects in cluster analysis and to suggest that researches should be rigorous with this kind of analysis. Finally, the use of discriminate analysis allows us to find a discriminate function that separates the samples into two clearly differentiated groups, which should not be treated jointly. [Spanish] El uso indiscriminado del analisis cluster para distinguir sedimentos contaminados y no contaminados nos ha llevado a realizar una evaluacion comparativa entre los diferentes procedimientos de estos analisis aplicada a la concentracion de metales pesados en sedimentos submareales de la Ria de Vigo, NW de Espana. La utilizacion de distintos algoritmos de cluster, asi como otras transformaciones de la misma matriz de datos conduce a la formacion de diferentes clusters con un resultado inconcluso sobre el estado de contaminacion de los sedimentos. Los resultados muestran que esta aproximacion se ajusta mejor para identificar grupos de muestras que difieren en caracteristicas sedimentologicas, tal como el tamano de grano, mas que el grado de contaminacion. El principal objetivo es llamar la atencion sobre estos aspectos del analisis cluster y sugerir a los investigadores que sean rigurosos con este tipo de analisis. Finalmente el uso

  3. Association of Environmental Contamination in the Home With the Risk for Recurrent Community-Associated, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Justin; Sullivan, Sean B; Urena, Julia; Miller, Maureen; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Lowy, Franklin D

    2016-06-01

    The role of environmental contamination in recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections within households and its potential effect on intervention strategies has been debated recently. To assess whether household environmental contamination increases the risk for recurrent infection among individuals with a community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) infection. This cohort study was conducted from November 1, 2011, to June 30, 2014, in the Columbia University Medical Center catchment area. All patients within 72 hours of presentation with skin or soft-tissue infections and blood, urine, or sputum cultures positive for MRSA were identified. Two hundred sixty-two patients met study inclusion criteria; 83 of these (31.7%) agreed to participate (index patients) with 214 household members. Participants were followed up for 6 months, and 62 of the 83 households (74.7%) completed follow-up. Participants and researchers were blinded to exposure status throughout the study. Follow-up was completed on June 30, 2014, and data were assessed from July 1, 2014, to February 19, 2016. Concordant environmental contamination, defined as having an isolate with the identical staphylococcal protein A and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type or antibiogram type as the index patient's clinical isolate, present on 1 or more environmental surfaces at the time of a home visit to the index patient after infection. Index recurrent infection, defined as any self-reported infection among the index patients during follow-up. One patient did not complete any follow-up. Of the remaining 82 index patients, 53 (64.6%) were female and 59 (72.0%) were Hispanic. The mean age was 30 (SD, 20; range, 1-79) years. Forty-nine of 61 MRSA infections where the clinical isolate could be obtained (80.3%) were due to the epidemic strain USA300. Among the 82 households in which a patient had an index MRSA infection, the clinical isolate was present in the environment in 20 (24.4%) and not

  4. Environmental Modelling of Remediation of Urban Contaminated Areas. Report of the Urban Remediation Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) programme was concerned with remediation assessment for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. Types of events that could result in dispersal or deposition of radionuclides in an urban situation include both intentional and unintentional events, and releases could range from major events involving a nuclear facility to small events such as a transportation accident. The primary objective of the Urban Remediation Working Group was (1) to test and improve the prediction of dose rates and cumulative doses to humans for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides, including prediction of changes in radionuclide concentrations or dose rates as a function of location and time; (2) to identify the most important pathways for human exposure; and (3) to predict the reduction in radionuclide concentrations, dose rates, or doses expected to result from various countermeasures or remediation efforts. Specific objectives of the Working Group have included (1) the identification of realistic scenarios for a wide variety of situations, (2) comparison and testing of approaches and models for assessing the significance of a given contamination event and for guiding decisions about countermeasures or remediation measures implemented to reduce doses to humans or to clean up the contaminated area, and (3) improving the understanding of processes and situations that affect the spread of contamination to aid in the development of appropriate models and parameter values for use in assessment of these situations. The major activities of the Working Group have included three areas. The first of these was a review of the available modelling approaches and computer models for use in assessing urban contamination and potential countermeasures or remediation activities. The second area of work was a modelling exercise based on data

  5. Environmental contamination with Staphylococcus aureus at a large, Midwestern university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Taha, Mohammed; Dalman, Mark R; Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C

    2017-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause minor to severe life-threatening infections. The changing epidemiology of S. aureus is of public health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Environmental surfaces play a crucial role in the transmission of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to examine environmental contamination and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in health professional-associated (HPA) and non-health professional-associated (NHPA) buildings at a large university. A total of 152 environmental surface samples were collected from two HPA and two NHPA campus buildings. Bacterial culture and diagnostics were done using standard microbiology methods. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted to detect mecA and PVL genes. All isolates were spa typed. A subset of isolates was characterized via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). All S. aureus isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The overall contamination of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 22.4% (34/152) and 5.9% (9/152) respectively. Similar prevalence of contamination was found in HPA and NHPA buildings. A total of 17 different spa types were detected among 34 S. aureus isolates. The majority of the MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 8. One isolate was positive for PVL. Eleven different sequence types (STs) were detected from 17 tested isolates. ST8 was the most common. Twelve isolates (35.3%) were MDR. Almost 27% (9/34) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest contamination of S. aureus was found in high hand-touch areas such as door knobs, suggesting that human interaction in crowded environments such as academic institutions plays a crucial role in S. aureus/MRSA transmission via inanimate objects. Additionally, more than one-third of the isolates were MDR. These data reinforce the need to implement effective prevention strategies outside the healthcare setting to decrease the incidence of drug-resistant S. aureus infections

  6. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  7. Environmental contamination due to release of a large amount of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Tritium release incidents have occurred many times in the Savannah Rever Plant in the U.S. A tritium release incident also took place in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The present article outlines the reports by the plant and laboratory on these incidents and makes some comments on environmental contamination that may results from release of a large amount of tritium from nuclear fusion facilities. Tritium is normally released in the form of a combination of chemical compounds such as HT, DT and T 2 and oxides such as HTO, DTO and T 2 O. The percentage of the oxides is given in the reports by the plant. Oxides, which can be absorbed through the skin, are considered to be nearly a thousand times more toxic than the other type of tritium compounds. The HT type compounds (HT, DT and T 2 ) can be oxidized by microorganisms in soil into oxides (HTO, DTO and T 2 O) and therefore, great care should also given to this type of compounds. After each accidental tritium release, the health physics group of the plant collected various environmental samples, including ground surface water, milk, leaves of plants, soil and human urine, in leeward areas. Results on the contamination of surface water, fish and underground water are outlined and discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Environmental contamination and hospital-acquired infection: factors that are easily overlooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, C; Knibbs, L D; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2015-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons for and factors contributing to healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Different solutions have been proposed over time to control the spread of HAI, with more focus on hand hygiene than on other aspects such as preventing the aerial dissemination of bacteria. Yet, it emerges that there is a need for a more pluralistic approach to infection control; one that reflects the complexity of the systems associated with HAI and involves multidisciplinary teams including hospital doctors, infection control nurses, microbiologists, architects, and engineers with expertise in building design and facilities management. This study reviews the knowledge base on the role that environmental contamination plays in the transmission of HAI, with the aim of raising awareness regarding infection control issues that are frequently overlooked. From the discussion presented in the study, it is clear that many unknowns persist regarding aerial dissemination of bacteria, and its control via cleaning and disinfection of the clinical environment. There is a paucity of good-quality epidemiological data, making it difficult for healthcare authorities to develop evidence-based policies. Consequently, there is a strong need for carefully designed studies to determine the impact of environmental contamination on the spread of HAI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  11. Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

    2006-12-01

    Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as

  12. Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, Carl B [Diversa Corporation; Wyborski, Denise L. [Diversa Corporation; Garcia, Joseph A. [Diversa Corporation; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Chen, Wenqiong [Diversa Corporation; Chang, Sherman H. [Diversa Corporation; Chang, Hwai W. [Diversa Corporation; Watson, David B [ORNL; Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Keller, Martin [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using {phi}29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and 'clusters of orthologous groups' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  13. Study of different environmental matrices to access the extension of metal contamination along highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Sônia; Melo, Vander Freitas; Nagata, Noemi

    2018-02-01

    Metals are indicators of contamination by anthropic activities, such as road traffic. To assess the extent of the metal contamination, more comprehensive studies analyzing different environmental matrices, such as soils, dust, and plants, collected in different sites that are potential sources of these pollutants along the highways, must be prioritized. Samples of soils, dust, and plants were collected alongside the highways of Brazil at 20 sites selected in strategic locations of metal accumulation (Cr, Pb, Zn, As, and Sb) or different situations of the high ways during two rain conditions (wet and dry weeks of sampling): nearby gutters and water supplies, tolls, petrol stations, a federal road police station, and areas associated with agriculture (yearly culture planting upstream of the highway). The geoaccumulation index (metal concentration in the sample of interest/background) varied from 0 to 6, and the decreasing order of contamination by metals during the wet and dry periods were, respectively: Zn > As > Pb = Sb > Cr and Zn > As > Pb > Cr > Sb. In the soils near the highways, the highest concentrations of metals were as follows (mg kg -1 ): As = 15.6, Cr = 81.9, Pb = 39.7, Sb = 5.0, and Zn = 379.3. The highest amounts of these elements in the most superficial layer in soils indicated their addition through atmospheric emissions. The most prominent metal was Sb, whose concentration was greater than the quality limits for soils. The concentration of Sb in soils was higher in the wet week than in the dry week. The emissions from road traffic promoted the increase in metals in the dust on the track, especially Zn and Pb. The highest metal concentrations in grasses (Brachiaria) were found in the roots, except for Sb and Zn, which suggests leaf absorption of atmospheric deposition. Metal contamination was widespread in all studied matrices along the highways.

  14. Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

    2005-12-10

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  15. Biomarker responses to environmental contamination in estuaries: A comparative multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Reis-Santos, Patrick; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2017-08-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months. Two sites per estuarine system were selected based on anthropogenic pressures and magnitude of environmental contamination. Antioxidant enzyme activities in fish species suggested a ubiquitous response to oxidative stress, while biotransformation and effect biomarkers exhibited higher spatial and temporal variation. In invertebrate species, biotransformation enzyme activity was clearly less variable than in fish evidencing lower xenobiotic transformation capability. Overall, largest biomarker responses were found in the most contaminated sites (Tejo), yet species-specific patterns were evident. These should be factored in multi-taxa approaches, considering that the differential functional traits of species, such as habitat use, life-stage, feeding or physiology can influence exposure routes and biomarker responses. The Integrated Biomarker Response index highlighted patterns in biomarker responses which were not immediately evident when analyzing biomarkers individually. Overall, results provided insights into the complexity of species responses to contamination in naturally varying estuarine environments. Ultimately, multi-taxa and multi-biomarker approaches provide a comprehensive and complementary view of ecosystem health, encompassing diverse forms of biological integration and exposure routes, and allow the validation of results among markers

  16. Contamination of Fresh Produce by Microbial Indicators on Farms and in Packing Facilities: Elucidation of Environmental Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Lickness, Jacquelyn Sunshine; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Newman, Kira L; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2017-06-01

    To improve food safety on farms, it is critical to quantify the impact of environmental microbial contamination sources on fresh produce. However, studies are hampered by difficulties achieving study designs with powered sample sizes to elucidate relationships between environmental and produce contamination. Our goal was to quantify, in the agricultural production environment, the relationship between microbial contamination on hands, soil, and water and contamination on fresh produce. In 11 farms and packing facilities in northern Mexico, we applied a matched study design: composite samples ( n = 636, equivalent to 11,046 units) of produce rinses were matched to water, soil, and worker hand rinses during two growing seasons. Microbial indicators (coliforms, Escherichia coli , Enterococcus spp., and somatic coliphage) were quantified from composite samples. Statistical measures of association and correlations were calculated through Spearman's correlation, linear regression, and logistic regression models. The concentrations of all microbial indicators were positively correlated between produce and hands (ρ range, 0.41 to 0.75; P contamination of soil and water and contamination of produce. This methodology provides a foundation for future field studies, and results highlight the need for interventions surrounding farmworker hygiene and sanitation to reduce microbial contamination of farmworkers' hands. IMPORTANCE This study of the relationships between microbes on produce and in the farm environment can be used to support the design of targeted interventions to prevent or reduce microbial contamination of fresh produce with associated reductions in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesbrough, J S; Green, J; Gallimore, C I; Wright, P A; Brown, D W

    2000-08-01

    A protracted outbreak of Norwalk-like virus (NLV)-associated gastroenteritis occurred in a large hotel in North-West England between January and May 1996. We investigated the pattern of environmental contamination with NLV in the hotel during and after the outbreak. In the ninth week, 144 environmental swabs taken from around the hotel were tested for NLV by nested RT-PCR. The sites were categorized according to the likelihood of direct contamination with vomit/faeces. The highest proportion of positive samples were detected in directly contaminated carpets, but amplicons were detected in sites above 1.5 m which are unlikely to have been contaminated directly. The trend in positivity of different sites paralleled the diminishing likelihood of direct contamination. A second environmental investigation of the same sites 5 months after the outbreak had finished were all negative by RT-PCR. This study demonstrates for the first time the extent of environmental contamination that may occur during a large NLV outbreak.

  18. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  19. Contribution of environmental conditions in dental offices of Antioquia to the risk of mercury contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Ruiz C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a product from the project “Environmental Management of Dental Amalgam in the State of Antioquia” which was carried out by the following research groups belonging to the University of Antioquia: Science and Biomedical Technology, Precious Materials, and Pirometallurgical and Materials Researches, as well as the private company New Stetic S. A., between February 2005 and February 2007. Objective: to describe the environmental conditions in 30 big dental offices of the State of Antioquia, Colombia. Those dental offices having more than five dental chairs in the same work place were defined as “big” for the purpose of this project. Due to the fact that these dental offices represents 85% of the population of reference, the results described in this article can be consequently considered as is they were derived from a census. The description is made bearing in mind the people who are exposed to the risk of mercury contamination due to their occupation. Materials and method: an observation tool was designed in order to be applied in each dental office. It contained aspects as floor and wall characteristics, ventilation, room temperature, storing place for mercury, elements for handling amalgam scraps, and those activities which deviate from the regular dental service in the same site. Each dental office was visited by a research engineer and an advanced engineering student on a previously defined date. The researchers were trained in advance to collect the information. Results: it was found that some big dental offices have inadequate conditions in their premises for offering their services, and do not have a good handling of the environmental conditions. That’s why immediate actions are mandatory to minimize the risk of mercury contamination.

  20. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  1. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences between the

  2. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  4. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-01-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM 2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p  206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  6. Control of ergosterol producer fungi contaminating cereal grains by certain environmental conditions and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Existence of ergosterol in grains usually gives an indication that these grains are contaminated by ergosterol producing fungi. So, ergosterol concentration could be a suitable marker for estimation of fungal contamination range in cereal grains. Thirty eight fungal isolates were isolated from maize, sorghum and barley grains. Alternaria, Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most common fungal genera among these isolates and they were tested for ergosterol production. The highest ergosterol producing fungi were identified as Alternaria alternaria, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger var.niger. The present results indicate that the most suitable conditions for producing ergosterol by these strains in maize grains were found to be at 25 degree C for 30 days. Exposing the artificially contaminated maize grains by the above three strains (10 7 CFU/ml) to increasing dose levels of gamma rays up to 10 kGy and storing for 30 days, gradually decreased the production of ergosterol to 7.9, 6.2 and 1.5 mg/g dry weight of grains by A. alternata and C.herbarum and A. niger var. niger, respectively. D 10 values of the tested three isolates in maize grains were found to be 2, 1.61, and 1.2 kGy, respectively. The results showed that cold storage (10 degree C) clearly decreased the activity of the tested fungi for producing ergosterol during the storage periods, and a dose level of 15 kGy was quite enough to free the grains from A. alternata, Cladosporium herbarum and A. niger var. niger, regardless the contamination level of grains with these ergosterol producer fungus

  7. Bayesian evidence and epidemiological implications of environmental contamination from acute respiratory infection in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Decaro, J D; Launer, B; Mckinnell, J A; Singh, R; Dutciuc, T D; Green, N M; Bolaris, M; Huang, S S; Miller, L G

    2018-05-01

    Skilled nursing home facilities (SNFs) house a vulnerable population frequently exposed to respiratory pathogens. Our study aims to gain a better understanding of the transmission of nursing home-acquired viral respiratory infections in non-epidemic settings. Symptomatic surveillance was performed in three SNFs for residents exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms. Environmental surveillance of five high-touch areas was performed to assess possible transmission. All resident and environmental samples were screened using a commercial multiplex polymerase chain reaction platform. Bayesian methods were used to evaluate environmental contamination. Among nursing home residents with respiratory symptoms, 19% had a detectable viral pathogen (parainfluenza-3, rhinovirus/enterovirus, RSV, or influenza B). Environmental contamination was found in 20% of total room surface swabs of symptomatic residents. Environmental and resident results were all concordant. Target period prevalence among symptomatic residents ranged from 5.5 to 13.3% depending on target. Bayesian analysis quantifies the probability of environmental shedding due to parainfluenza-3 as 92.4% (95% CI: 86.8-95.8%) and due to rhinovirus/enterovirus as 65.6% (95% CI: 57.9-72.5%). Our findings confirm that non-epidemic viral infections are common among SNF residents exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms and that environmental contamination may facilitate further spread with considerable epidemiological implications. Findings further emphasise the importance of environmental infection control for viral respiratory pathogens in long-term care facilities.

  8. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  9. Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE

  10. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  11. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhin, Yu S [ed.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods.

  12. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  13. Environmental Health Related Socio-Spatial Inequalities: Identifying “Hotspots” of Environmental Burdens and Social Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Differential exposure to multiple environmental burdens and benefits and their distribution across a population with varying vulnerability can contribute heavily to health inequalities. Particularly relevant are areas with high cumulative burdens and high social vulnerability termed as “hotspots”. This paper develops an index-based approach to assess these multiple burdens and benefits in combination with vulnerability factors at detailed intra-urban level. The method is applied to the city of Dortmund, Germany. Using non-spatial and spatial methods we assessed inequalities and identified “hotspot” areas in the city. We found modest inequalities burdening higher vulnerable groups in Dortmund (CI = −0.020 at p vulnerability, is essential to inform environmental justice debates and to mobilize local stakeholders. Locating “hotspot” areas at this detailed spatial level can serve as a basis to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups to ensure a health conducive equal environment. PMID:27409625

  14. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  15. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  17. Proceedings of the 34. AMOP technical seminar on environmental contamination and response 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 34th AMOP Arctic and marine oilspill conference was held in Banff, Alberta, Canada, from October 4th to October 6th, 2011. The aim of the Arctic and marine oilspill program (AMOP), which was started in 1978 by Environment Canada, is to help improve understanding of oil spills which occur in the Arctic marine environment and the technology for cleaning them up. This technical seminar is held every year by the Emergencies Science and Technology Section (ESTS) of Environment Canada and provides attendees with the opportunity to hear about some of the latest technologies and to discuss with other experts in the field of Arctic and marine environmental contamination and response. 38 out of the 61 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  18. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo; Sasa, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Kunihiko.

    1992-01-01

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  19. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  20. Radioecological reduction of acute and long-term environmental contamination with 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of the research project 'Investigations on the radioecology of 129 I', analytical methods with extremely low detection limits for all important test materials have been developed. The behaviour of 129 I in a reprocessing plant and its emission from a reprocessing plant has been completely investigated and understood. The feared long-term hazard due to a single environmental contamination with 129 I is not to be expected as the biological availability of 129 I in the ground is reduced with a half-life of 0.3a. The 'basis for calculation' recommended by the Federal Minister of the Interior overestimate 129 I doses by at least a factor of 45. (orig.) [de

  1. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Bobby R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver, and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO2-contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where relatively small numbers of highly radioactive PuO2 particles are presented for inhalation (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, distributions of possible risks are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The main goal of the project is to deliver a computer program that will allow evaluation of the indicated risk distributions for the SE paradigm. However, some of our work also relates to the deterministic exposure [DE] paradigm where large numbers of airborne particles (resuspended dust containing PuO2) are presented for inhalation to members of the public residing or working at a remediated Department of Energy (DOE) site

  2. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  3. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A.; Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells

  4. Combined effect of radiation and environmental contaminants on DNA repair mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.

    1975-11-01

    Investigations on the influence of various environmental contamination agents on DNA repair (in combination with irradiation) were reviewed. The agents tested were: detergents (Tween 80, Nonidel P40, Cremophor), aflatoxin B 1 , furocumarines, drugs (indometacin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, vinblastine, procarbacine), fluorides, irradiated food constituents, food additives (saccharin), metal ions (Cd, Hg), pesticides (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyethanol) and infective agents (mycoplasmas). Most of the tests were carried out in vitro with γ-irradiated mouse spleen cells. The detergents and aflatoxin were tested also on E. coli, and irradiated glucose solutions were tested in vivo on Swiss albino mice injected with Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530. Most of the tested agents showed some kind of inhibitory or mutagenic effect. The experiments and results are explained briefly with references to earlier investigations

  5. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Considerations for the Estimation of the Risk of Environmental Contamination Due to Blow Out in Offshore Exploratory Drilling Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2015-01-01

    From the consideration of a contemporary society based on the need of a high-level complex technology with a high intrinsic level of uncertainty and its relationship with risk assessment, this analysis, conducted in late 2014, was developed from that that led the Secretary of State for the Environment to the Resolution of 29 May 2014, by which the Environmental Impact Statement of the Exploratory Drilling Project in the hydrocarbons research permits called ''Canarias 1-9// was set out and published in the Spanish Official State Gazette number 196 on 13rd August 2014. The aim of the present study is to analyze the suitability with which the worst case associated probability is identified and defined and its relation to the total risk estimate from a blow out. Its interest stems from the fact that all risk management methodologically rests on two pillars, i.e., on a sound risk analysis and evaluation. This determines the selection of management tools in relation to its level of complexity, the project phase and its potential impacts on the health, safety and environmental contamination dimensions.

  7. Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windowstrademark-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide

  8. Environmental Contamination in Households of Patients with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Megan K; Bobr, Aleh; Kuskowski, Michael A; Johnston, Brian D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander; Johnson, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) is common and difficult to treat, potentially necessitating fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Although C. difficilespores persist in the hospital environment and cause infection, little is known about their potential presence or importance in the household environment. Households of R-CDI subjects in the peri-FMT period and of geographically matched and age-matched controls were analyzed for the presence ofC. difficile Household environmental surfaces and fecal samples from humans and pets in the household were examined. Households of post-FMT subjects were also examined (environmental surfaces only). Participants were surveyed regarding their personal history and household cleaning habits. Species identity and molecular characteristics of presumptive C. difficile isolates from environmental and fecal samples were determined by using the Pro kit (Remel, USA), Gram staining, PCR, toxinotyping, tcdC gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Environmental cultures detected C. difficile on ≥1 surface in 8/8 (100%) peri-FMT households, versus 3/8 (38%) post-FMT households and 3/8 (38%) control households (P= 0.025). The most common C. difficile-positive sites were the vacuum (11/27; 41%), toilet (8/30; 27%), and bathroom sink (5/29; 17%).C. difficile was detected in 3/36 (8%) fecal samples (two R-CDI subjects and one household member). Nine (90%) of 10 households with multiple C. difficile-positive samples had a single genotype present each. In conclusion,C. difficile was found in the household environment of R-CDI patients, but whether it was found as a cause or consequence of R-CDI is unknown. If household contamination leads to R-CDI, effective decontamination may be protective. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Assessing Potential Environmental Contamination by Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs from Infected Raccoons in Southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogdee, Jacob L; Henke, Scott E; Wester, David B; Fedynich, Alan M

    2017-03-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a large ascarid of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic threat. We documented the potential rate a raccoon population can contaminate their environment with B. procyonis eggs. We estimated the population size of raccoons using a 9 × 7 trapping grid of Havahart traps, identified locations of raccoon scats through systematic searches, and enumerated the distance B. procyonis eggs passively travel from site of origin upon scat decay. During an 8-week capture period, the raccoon population was estimated to be 19.6 ± 1.3 raccoons within the 63-ha study area (1 raccoon/3.2 ha). There were 781 defecation sites, of which 744 (95.3%) were isolated sites and 37 (4.7%) were latrine sites. Fifty-three (6.8%) defecation sites occurred in areas associated with human structures (commensal zone). Of the noncommensal sites, 9 (1.2%) and 719 (98.8%) sites were identified as latrine sites and isolated scats, respectively. More latrine sites were located within the commensal zone (p contaminate 0.03 ± 0.01 ha/year with B. procyonis eggs. Our findings indicate that B. procyonis represents a substantial risk to humans in areas where infected raccoons and humans co-occur.

  10. A molecular epidemiological study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations in Guangzhou of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J L; Peng, Y; Ou, Q T; Lin, D X; Li, Y; Ye, X H; Zhou, J L; Yao, Z J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused a series of public health problems since it was first found in 1961. However, there are few research studies on the MRSA environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine MRSA environmental contamination in public transport stations. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 380 surface samples from three railway stations (180) and four coach stations (200) in Guangzhou were collected to isolate and determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococci strains. 39·21% of all samples were Staphylococci isolates, 1·58% of Staphylococci isolates were MRSA isolates, and 6·05% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The proportion of multidrug resistant among 149 Staphylococci isolates was 75·84%. None of MRSA isolates was identified with the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes, and one of them was identified with the qac gene. Four MRSA isolates were Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec IVa, and the other two were nontypeable. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and STs showed possible cross-transmissions of isolates from various sources. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci contamination prevalence was high, and the environment of stations may be the vectors transmitting the Staphylococci to passengers. This is the first study to comprehensively report the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics of contamination of Staphylococci isolates in railway stations and coach stations of China. It will have great public health implications on infection control in community settings because of the serious hazard of Staphylococci, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Our findings have provided evidence for relevant departments to reduce the contamination of Staphylococci in environment of public transport stations. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  11. Mapping the environmental risk potential on surface water of pesticide contamination in the Prosecco's vineyard terraced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Patricia; Ferrarese, Francesco; Loddo, Donato; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cropping systems today represent a paramount issue in terms of environmental impacts, since agricultural pollutants can constitute a potential threat to surface water, non-target organisms and aquatic ecosystems. Levels of pesticide concentrations in surface waters are indeed unquestionably correlated to crop and soil management practices at field-scale. Due to the numerous applications of pesticides required, orchards and vineyards can represent relevant non-point sources for pesticide contamination of water bodies, mainly prompted by soil erosion, surface runoff and spray drift. To reduce risks of pesticide contamination of surface water, the Directive 2009/128/CET imposed the local implementation of agricultural good practices and mitigation actions such as the use of vegetative buffer filter strips and hedgerows along river and pond banks. However, implementation of mitigation actions is often difficult, especially in extremely fragmented agricultural landscapes characterized by a complex territorial matrix set up on urban sprawling, frequent surface water bodies, important geomorphological processes and protected natural areas. Typically, such landscape matrix is well represented by the, Prosecco-DOCG vineyards area (NE of Italy, Province of Treviso) which lays on hogback hills of conglomerate, marls and sandstone that ranges between 50 and 500 m asl. Moreover such vineyards landscape is characterized by traditional and non-traditional agricultural terraces The general aim of this paper is to identify areas of surface water bodies with high potential risk of pesticide contamination from surrounding vineyards in the 735 ha of Lierza river basin (Refrontolo, TV), one of the most representative terraced landscape of the Prosecco-DOCG area. Specific aims are i) mapping terraced Prosecco-DOCG vineyards, ii) classifying potential risk from pesticide of the different areas. Remote sensing technologies such as four bands aerial photos (RGB+NIR) and Light

  12. Selenium in Paleozoic stone coal (carbonaceous shale) as a significant source of environmental contamination in rural southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H. E.; Luo, K.

    2012-04-01

    Selenium occurs in high concentrations (typically > 10 and up to 700 ppm) in organic-rich Paleozoic shales and cherts (called "stone coal" - shíméi), in southern China. Stone coals are black shales that formed in anoxic to euxinic environments and typically contain high concentrations of organic carbon, are enriched in various metals such as V, Mo, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Se, etc., and are distinguished from "humic" coal in the Chinese literature. We have examined stone coal from Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou Provinces, People's Republic of China and have focused our study on the mode of occurrence of Se and other elements (e.g. As, Pb, etc.) hazardous to human health. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive analysis and electron microprobe wave-length dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify and determine the composition of host phases observed in the stone coals. Native selenium, Se-bearing pyrite and other sulfides are the hosts for Se, although we cannot preclude an organic or clay-mineral association. Stone coals are an important source of fuel (reserves over 1 billion tonnes), both domestically and in small industry, in some rural parts of southern China and present significant environmental problems for the indigenous population. The stone coals create three main environmental problems related to Se pollution. First, the residual soils formed on stone coal are enriched in Se and other metals contained in the stone coals and, depending on the speciation and bioavailability of the metals, may enrich crops and vegetation grown on them. Second, weathering and leaching of the stone coal contaminates the local ground water and/or surface waters with Se and other metals. Third, the local population uses the stone coal as a source of fuel, which releases the more volatile elements (Se and As) into the atmosphere in the homes. The ash will be extremely enriched with the balance of the heavy metal suite. Disposal of the ash on agricultural lands or near water

  13. Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J [eds.

    2012-11-15

    There are many areas around the world contaminated with radioactive substances which may require remediation. The source of contamination with radionuclides varies; the most important sources include nuclear testing, radiation accidents and inadequate waste disposal practices. Contamination at such sites may present a risk to humans and the environment. Therefore, issues related to remediation of such sites are potentially of concern for both the general public and a wide variety of stakeholders. In response to the needs of its Member States, the IAEA has published many books covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These books range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical publications describing remedial technologies. Almost all of the publications on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a publication that was a joint undertaking by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) related to accidents entitled Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides, Technical Reports Series No. 363 (1994) (TRS 363). This publication has constituted a major source of information over many years for staff of authorities providing environmental remediation planning after accidents. TRS 363 focused mainly on agricultural management options following an accidental release of radionuclides; remedial actions for other environments and other practices were not considered. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. Given the importance of Chernobyl and other accidents, there have been a considerable number of IAEA activities devoted to the remediation of radiation accidents since 1994. Many

  14. Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Howard, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    There are many areas around the world contaminated with radioactive substances which may require remediation. The source of contamination with radionuclides varies; the most important sources include nuclear testing, radiation accidents and inadequate waste disposal practices. Contamination at such sites may present a risk to humans and the environment. Therefore, issues related to remediation of such sites are potentially of concern for both the general public and a wide variety of stakeholders. In response to the needs of its Member States, the IAEA has published many books covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These books range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical publications describing remedial technologies. Almost all of the publications on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a publication that was a joint undertaking by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) related to accidents entitled Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides, Technical Reports Series No. 363 (1994) (TRS 363). This publication has constituted a major source of information over many years for staff of authorities providing environmental remediation planning after accidents. TRS 363 focused mainly on agricultural management options following an accidental release of radionuclides; remedial actions for other environments and other practices were not considered. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. Given the importance of Chernobyl and other accidents, there have been a considerable number of IAEA activities devoted to the remediation of radiation accidents since 1994. Many

  15. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains of Pandemic Serotypes Identified from Clinical and Environmental Samples from Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjiao eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17 and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these environmental pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve.

  16. The effect of environmental contamination on the community structure and fructification of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qibiao; Liu, Yaping; Yuan, Huatao; Lian, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an essential component of forest ecosystems, most of which can form edible and medical fruiting bodies. Although many studies have focused on the fructification of ectomycorrhizal fungi in phenology, the impact of environmental contamination, especially living garbage, on the formation of fruiting body is still unknown. A field investigation, combined with a high-throughput sequencing method, was used to study the effect of living garbage pollution on the fructification and hypogeous community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiosing with cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don). The results showed that garbage significantly altered soil abiotic and biotic properties, increasing soil urease activity, decreasing the soil exchangeable metal content and phosphatase activity, and ultimately inhibiting the formation of fruiting bodies. The pollution of garbage also changed the community structure of hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungi where ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes dominated. In unpolluted sites, the relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were almost equal. Although no fruiting bodies were observed in that soil polluted by living garbage, the sequencing result showed that various ectomycorrhizal fungi were present underground, suggesting that these taxonomic fungi had the potential to cope with adverse conditions. This study not only provided a deeper understanding of the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal communities and prevailing environmental conditions, but provided a new pathway for the excavation and utilization of the resource of antistress ectomycorrhizal fungi. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Probabilistic analysis showing that a combination of bacteroides and methanobrevibacter source tracking markers is effective for identifying waters contaminated by human fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Stewart, Jill R.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial source tracking assays to identify sources of waterborne contamination typically target genetic markers of host-specific microorganisms. However, no bacterial marker has been shown to be 100% host-specific, and cross-reactivity has been noted in studies evaluating known source samples. Using 485 challenge samples from 20 different human and animal fecal sources, this study evaluated microbial source tracking markers including the Bacteroides HF183 16S rRNA, M. smithii nifH, and Enterococcus esp gene targets that have been proposed as potential indicators of human fecal contamination. Bayes' Theorem was used to calculate the conditional probability that these markers or a combination of markers can correctly identify human sources of fecal pollution. All three human-associated markers were detected in 100% of the sewage samples analyzed. Bacteroides HF183 was the most effective marker for determining whether contamination was specifically from a human source, and greater than 98% certainty that contamination was from a human source was shown when both Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH markers were present. A high degree of certainty was attained even in cases where the prior probability of human fecal contamination was as low as 8.5%. The combination of Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH source tracking markers can help identify surface waters impacted by human fecal contamination, information useful for prioritizing restoration activities or assessing health risks from exposure to contaminated waters.

  18. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Nissen, Silke [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Pffifner, Susan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  19. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  2. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-01-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  3. Disposal of historically contaminated soil in the cement industry and the evaluation of environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Jiang; Miao, Wenjuan; Wang, Huanzhong; Wei, Mao

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 400000t of DDTs/HCHs-contaminated soil (CS) needed to be co-processed in a cement kiln with a time limitation of 2y. A new pre-processing facility with a "drying, grinding and DDTs/HCHs vaporizing" ability was equipped to meet the technical requirements for processing cement raw meal and the environmental standards for stack emissions. And the bottom of the precalciner with high temperatures >1000°C was chosen as the CS feeding point for co-processing, which has rarely been reported. To assess the environmental performance of CS pre- and co-processing technologies, according to the local regulation, a test burn was performed by independent and accredited institutes systematically for determination of the clinker quality, kiln stack gas emissions and destruction efficiency of the pollutant. The results demonstrated that the clinker was of high quality and not adversely affected by CS co-processing. Stack emissions were all below the limits set by Chinese standards. Particularly, PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.0023 to 0.0085ngI-TEQNm(-3). The less toxic OCDD was the peak congener for CS co-processing procedure, while the most toxic congeners (i.e. 2,3,7,8-TeCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDD) remained in a minor proportion. Destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and destruction efficiency (DE) of the kiln system were better than 99.9999% and 99.99%, respectively, at the highest CS feeding rate during normal production. To guarantee the environmental performance of the system the quarterly stack gas emission was also monitored during the whole period. And all of the results can meet the national standards requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J., E-mail: amanda.reichelt-brushett@scu.edu.au [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Stone, Jane [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Howe, Pelli [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Thomas, Bernard [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Male, Yusthinus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Nanlohy, Albert [Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Butcher, Paul [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, National Marine Science Centre, PO Box 4321, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  5. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.; Stone, Jane; Howe, Pelli; Thomas, Bernard; Clark, Malcolm; Male, Yusthinus; Nanlohy, Albert; Butcher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  6. Environmental Impact Of The Use Of Contaminated Sediments As Partial Replacement Of The Aggregate Used In Road Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC) is a waterway extensively polluted with heavy metals and petroleum. Since there are limited disposal options for the petroleum-contaminated sediments (PCSs) of the canal, the environmental impact of IHC dewatered sediment when used as partial repla...

  7. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  8. [Immobilization remediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil: remediation potential and soil environmental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue-Bing; Wang, Peng-Chao; Xu, Ying-Ming; Sun, Yang; Qin, Xu; Zhao, Li-Jie; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xue-Feng

    2014-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the immobilization remediation effects of sepiolite on soils artificially combined contamination by Cd and Pb using a set of various pH and speciation of Cd and Pb in soil, heavy metal concentration in Oryza sativa L., and soil enzyme activity and microbial quantity. Results showed that the addition of sepiolite increased the soil pH, and the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals was converted into Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual forms, the concentration of exchangeable form of Cd and Pb reduced by 1.4% - 72.9% and 11.8% - 51.4%, respectively, when compared with the control. The contents of heavy metals decreased with increasing sepiolite, with the maximal Cd reduction of 39.8%, 36.4%, 55.2% and 32.4%, respectively, and 22.1%, 54.6%, 43.5% and 17.8% for Pb, respectively, in the stems, leaves, brown rice and husk in contrast to CK. The addition of sepiolite could improve the soil environmental quality, the catalase and urease activities and the amount of bacteria and actinomycete were increased to some extents. Although the fungi number and invertase activity were inhibited compared with the control group, it was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The significant correlation between pH, available heavy metal content, urease and invertase activities and heavy metal concentration in the plants indicated that these parameters could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilization remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

  9. Impact of urine preservation methods and duration of storage on measured levels of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; Calafat, Antonia M; Barr, Dana B; Baker, Susan V; Meltzer, Helle M; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2006-01-01

    Collection of urine samples in human studies involves choices regarding shipping, sample preservation, and storage that may ultimately influence future analysis. As more studies collect and archive urine samples to evaluate environmental exposures in the future, we were interested in assessing the impact of urine preservative, storage temperature, and time since collection on nonpersistent contaminants in urine samples. In spiked urine samples stored in three types of urine vacutainers (no preservative, boric acid, and chlorhexidine), we measured five groups of contaminants to assess the levels of these analytes at five time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h, and 1 week) and at two temperatures (room temperature and 4 degrees C). The target chemicals were bisphenol A (BPA), metabolites of organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, chlorinated phenols, and phthalate monoesters, and were measured using five different mass spectrometry-based methods. Three samples were analyzed at each time point, with the exception of BPA. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate effects of storage time, temperature, and preservative. Stability was summarized with percent change in mean concentration from time 0. In general, most analytes were stable under all conditions with changes in mean concentration over time, temperature, and preservative being generally less than 20%, with the exception of the OP metabolites in the presence of boric acid. The effect of storage temperature was less important than time since collection. The precision of the laboratory measurements was high allowing us to observe small differences, which may not be important when categorizing individuals into broader exposure groups.

  10. Actinide migration from contaminated soil to surface water at the rocky flats environmental technology site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Roberts, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Surficial soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contain elevated levels of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am due to wind dispersal of soil particles, contaminated in the 1960's by leaking drums stored on the 903 Pad. Over the past 4 years, actinide mobility in the surface environment at RFETS, Golden, Colorado, USA, was examined through field and laboratory experiments. From measurements of total 239,240 Pu and 241 Am concentrations in storm runoff and pond discharge samples, collected during spring and summer times, it was established that most of the actinide transport from contaminated soils to streams occurred in the particulate (0.45μm) and colloidal (3kDa - 0.45μm) phases. Controlled laboratory investigations of soil resuspension, indicated that remobilization of colloid-bound Pu during soil erosion events can be enhanced by humic acids. 2-D Polyacrylamide Gel electrophoresis (PAGE) experiments of radiolabeled colloidal organic and inorganic matter, extracted from RFETS soils, suggested that colloidal Pu, which was focused at pH IEP of 4.5, is mainly associated with organic (humic acids) colloids of 10-15 kDa molecular weight. Pu(IV) oxide and inorganic colloids such as iron and aluminum oxides have pH IEP of 8-10. While some clay minerals also have pH IEP of 3-5, no Al was found coincident with Pu. This finding has important ramifications for possible remediation, erosion controls, and land-management strategies. (author)

  11. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry in the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington (tidal

  12. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The continual monitoring of environmental radioactive levels in Fukushima, Japan following the nuclear plant accident in March 2011 provides our society with valuable information in two ways. First, the collected data can be used as an indicator to assess the progress of decontamination efforts. Secondly, the collected data also can be used to understand the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the environment which leads to further understanding of the landform processes. These two aspects are inseparable for us to understand the effects of radioactive contamination in a dynamic environmental system. During the summer of 2016, 27 soil core samples were collected on a farmer's land (rice paddies and forest) in Fukushima, about 20 km northwest of the nuclear plant. Each core was divided into 2.0 - 3.0 cm slices for the Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131 level measurement. The collected data is being analyzed from multiple perspectives: temporal, spatial, and geophysical. In the forest area, even on the same hillslope, multiple soil types and horizon depths were observed which indicates the challenges in assessing the subsurface radioactive isotope movements. It appears that although highly humic soils show higher or about the same level of radioactivity in the surface layers, as the depth increased, the radioactivity decreased more in those samples compared with more sandy soils. With regard to the direction a slope faces and the sampling altitudes, the correlation between those attributes and radioactivity levels is inconclusive at this moment. The altitude might have affected the fallout level on a single hillslope-basis. However, to determine the correlation, further sampling and the detailed analysis of vegetation and topography might be necessary. Where the surface soil was scraped and new soil was brought in, former rice paddy surface layers did show three-magnitude levels lower of radioactivity in the top layer when compared with forest soils. At the foot of forest

  13. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous sources of different radioactive substances, irradiating installations are used in many manufacturing, transportation, industrial, oil-producing, nuclear energy, sterilization and multi-purpose scientific research enterprises of Azerbaijan and the storage of radioactive waste and nuclear materials is built in the territory of special plant of the Ministry of Emergency Situations.Control of safety of operational procedures of the radioactive sources and samples of nuclear materials is carried out by the State Agency on Settlement of Nuclear and Radiological Activity at the Ministry of Emergency Situations. An increase in the concentration of inorganic and organic xenobiotics was observed in water samples taken from the transcontinental Araz River.The territory of Azerbaijan and Armenia is characterized by high seismic activity. Therefore, the occurrence of cases of anthropogenic catastrophe, the spread of radioactive substances, nuclear materials and waste on the territory of environmental objects, disturbance of tightness of installations on electricity generation from nuclear fuel in the Metsamor NPP, emission of radioactive fuel on the environment, pollution of grounds and water reservoirs by radioactive isotopes isn't excluded in case of natural disasters.Complex studies were conducted to determine the radioactive background, exposure dose rate, the radiation intensity of all types of radioactive radiation (α, β, γ, UV and X-rays) for purification of contaminated areas of the environment, soil, water reservoirs from radioisotopes. Complex organoleptic, radiochemical, analytical-chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological studies were carried out to study the chemical composition and degree of contamination of soil, water sources, vegetation by inorganic and organic xenobiotics and radioisotopes in all regions of the republic.Mineralization of water samples /evaporation/, soil /extraction with distilled water in a ratio of 1: 4, filtration

  14. Development of Gene Expression Fingerprints for Identification of Environmental Contaminants Using cDNA Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inouye, L

    2004-01-01

    ...) to develop cDNA array-based assays that map gene expression from contaminant exposures. Results substantiate that distinct gene expression profiles exist for major contaminant classes such as PARs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs...

  15. Personal and household hygiene, environmental contamination, and health in undergraduate residence halls in New York City, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Benjamin A; Cohen, Bevin; Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm(2) area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting

  16. Cross-sectional point prevalence survey to study the environmental contamination of nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units under real-life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, I; Mayr, A; Kreidl, P; Brühwasser, C; Hinterberger, G; Fritz, A; Posch, W; Fuchs, S; Obwegeser, A; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2018-01-01

    In intensive care units (ICUs), inanimate surfaces and equipment may be contaminated by nosocomial pathogens, including multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms. To assess the degree of environmental contamination close to and distant from patients, and contamination of healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands with nosocomial pathogens under real-life conditions and to investigate potential transmission events. Over the course of three weeks, agar contact samples were taken close to and distant from patient areas and from HCWs' hands in eight ICUs of a tertiary care hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. Each ICU was visited once without announcement. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed according to standard methods, and corresponding strains from patient, environment and hand samples were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among 523 samples, HCWs' hands were most frequently contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria (15.2%), followed by areas close to patients (10.9%) and areas distant from patients (9.1%). Gram-positive bacteria were identified most often (67.8%), with Enterococcus spp. being the most prevalent species (70% vancomycin sensitive and 30% vancomycin resistant) followed by Staphylococcus aureus, of which 64% were classified as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular typing documented identical strains among patient, environment and hand isolates. This study found widespread contamination of the ICU environment with clinically relevant pathogens, including multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms, despite cleaning and disinfection. The bioburden might not be restricted to areas close to patients. The role of extended environmental disinfection of areas distant from patients in order to improve infection prevention needs further discussion. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental 14C and 3H activities: global trends and local contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.; Horvatincic, N.

    2000-01-01

    The anthropogenic disturbance of natural distributions of radiocarbon ( 14 C) and tritium ( 3 H) due to the release of bomb-produced isotopes occurred after the World War II and at the same time the monitoring of these isotopes started at several stations in the world. Radioactive isotopes 14 C and 3 H, together with the stable isotopes 2 H and 18 O, are very important tracers in environmental, climatological and hydrological studies. Monitoring of environmental levels of 14 C and 3 H in Croatia started more then 20 years ago, while that of the stable isotopes somewhat later. The monitoring was performed at the three types of stations: a) 'clean-air' sites, which are supposed to reflect only the global disturbance of the atmospheric isotope concentrations, b) in a densely populated industrial center, where the effect of intense fossil-fuel combustion is expected, and local contamination from institutions using radioactive-labeled material is also possible, and c) at locations around the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. The mean yearly 3 H activities in precipitation continuously decrease since the beginning of monitoring approaching slowly the natural equilibrium. The monthly 3 H activities show seasonal variations, with maximum in early summer and minimum in early winter. Both seasonal variations and the decrease of the mean yearly values are typical for continental stations of the Northern Hemisphere. At the sampling site located at the Institute, several periods of higher 3 H activities were observed, due to the local contamination with the tritium-labeled material. The 14 C concentration in the atmosphere shows also the continuous decrease of the mean yearly values and superposed seasonal fluctuations, with higher activity during summer. Seasonal peak-to-peak variations are higher in the area of the city of Zagreb than at the clean-air site on the mountain (about 1000 m a.s.l.). This difference is caused by the introduction of CO 2 (containing no 14 C isotope

  18. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  19. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovsky, I.; Baklanov, A.; Jacovlev, V.; Prutskov, V.; Bergman, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: 'Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia' is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: 'Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: 'Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  20. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  1. A review on environmental monitoring of water organic pollutants identified by EU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, João C G; Ribeiro, Ana R; Barbosa, Marta O; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-02-15

    The contamination of fresh water is a global concern. The huge impact of natural and anthropogenic organic substances that are constantly released into the environment, demands a better knowledge of the chemical status of Earth's surface water. Water quality monitoring studies have been performed targeting different substances and/or classes of substances, in different regions of the world, using different types of sampling strategies and campaigns. This review article aims to gather the available dispersed information regarding the occurrence of priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that must be monitored in Europe in surface water, according to the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU and the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, respectively. Other specific organic pollutants not considered in these EU documents as substances of high concern, but with reported elevated frequency of detection at high concentrations, are also discussed. The search comprised worldwide publications from 2012, considering at least one of the following criteria: 4 sampling campaigns per year, wet and dry seasons, temporal and/or spatial monitoring of surface (river, estuarine, lake and/or coastal waters) and ground waters. The highest concentrations were found for: (i) the PSs atrazine, alachlor, trifluralin, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; (ii) the CECs azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, imidacloprid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate; and (iii) other unregulated organic compounds (caffeine, naproxen, metolachlor, estriol, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ketoprofen, atenolol, Bisphenol A, metoprolol, carbofuran, malathion, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and ofloxacin). Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with

  2. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  3. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  4. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  5. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  6. Environmental Contamination and Viral Shedding in MERS Patients During MERS-CoV Outbreak in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Seo Yu; Heo, Jung Yeon; Song, Min-Suk; Lee, Jacob; Kim, Eun-Ha; Park, Su-Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Si, Young-Jae; Lee, In-Won; Baek, Yun Hee; Choi, Won-Suk; Min, Jinsoo; Jeong, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-03-15

    Although Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is characterized by a risk of nosocomial transmission, the detailed mode of transmission and period of virus shedding from infected patients are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential role of environmental contamination by MERS-CoV in healthcare settings and to define the period of viable virus shedding from MERS patients. We investigated environmental contamination from 4 patients in MERS-CoV units of 2 hospitals. MERS-CoV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and viable virus was isolated by cultures. Many environmental surfaces of MERS patient rooms, including points frequently touched by patients or healthcare workers, were contaminated by MERS-CoV. Viral RNA was detected up to five days from environmental surfaces following the last positive PCR from patients' respiratory specimens. MERS-CoV RNA was detected in samples from anterooms, medical devices, and air-ventilating equipment. In addition, MERS-CoV was isolated from environmental objects such as bed sheets, bedrails, IV fluid hangers, and X-ray devices. During the late clinical phase of MERS, viable virus could be isolated in 3 of the 4 enrolled patients on day 18 to day 25 after symptom onset. Most of touchable surfaces in MERS units were contaminated by patients and health care workers and the viable virus could shed through respiratory secretion from clinically fully recovered patients. These results emphasize the need for strict environmental surface hygiene practices, and sufficient isolation period based on laboratory results rather than solely on clinical symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophile Niyonsenga

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05. However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  8. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  9. A cross-study analysis of prenatal exposures to environmental contaminants and the epigenome: support for stress-responsive transcription factor occupancy as a mediator of gene-specific CpG methylation patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A biological mechanism by which exposure to environmental contaminants results in gene-specific CpG methylation patterning is currently unknown. We hypothesize that gene-specific CpG methylation is related to environmentally perturbed transcription factor occupancy. To test this hypothesis, a database of 396 genes with altered CpG methylation either in cord blood leukocytes or placental tissue was compiled from 14 studies representing assessments of six environmental contaminants. Subsequently, an in silico approach was used to identify transcription factor binding sites enriched among the genes with altered CpG methylation in relationship to the suite of environmental contaminants. For each study, the sequences of the promoter regions (representing −1000 to +500 bp from the transcription start site) of all genes with altered CpG methylation were analyzed for enrichment of transcription factor binding sites. Binding sites for a total of 56 unique transcription factors were identified to be enriched within the promoter regions of the genes. Binding sites for the Kidney-Enriched Krupple-like Factor 15, a known responder to endogenous stress, were enriched ( P  contaminants. These data support the transcription factor occupancy theory as a potential mechanism underlying environmentally-induced gene-specific CpG methylation. PMID:27066266

  10. Multicenter study of environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in 66 Canadian hospitals: A 2016 follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, C; Caron, N; Bussières, J F

    2017-08-01

    Oncology workers are occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. This exposure can induce adverse health effects. To reduce their exposure, contamination on surfaces should be kept as low as possible. The main objective of this study was to monitor environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in oncology pharmacy and patient care areas in Canadian centers. The secondary objective was to describe the impact of some factors that may limit contamination. This is a descriptive study. Twelve standardized sites were sampled in each participating center (six in the pharmacy and six in patient care areas). Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology. Descriptive statistical analyses were done and results were compared with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for independent samples. In 2016, 66 centers participated in this study (66/202, 32.7%). Overall, 43.4% (326/752) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 13.2% (99/752) for ifosfamide and 6.9% (52/752) for methotrexate. The 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was 6.8 pg/cm 2 and lower than the limit of detection for ifosfamide and methotrexate. Centers who prepared more antineoplastic drugs per year (p contamination to cyclophosphamide. Environmental surveillance is one part of a comprehensive approach for minimizing hazardous exposures in healthcare. This study highlights a low level of contamination of three hazardous drugs amongst 66 Canadian centers. Regular environmental monitoring is a good practice to maintain contamination as low as reasonably achievable.

  11. Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person Contact, Environmental Contamination, and Unknown Modes of Transmission--United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, Mary E; Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Walsh, Kelly A; Bowen, Anna; Hall, Aron J

    2015-12-11

    -term-care facilities (n = 4,894). In contrast, 59% (n = 143) of shigellosis outbreaks, 36% (n = 30) of salmonellosis outbreaks, and 32% (n = 84) of other or multiple etiology outbreaks were identified in child care facilities. NORS is the first U.S. surveillance system that provides national data on AGE outbreaks spread through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. The increase in reporting rates during 2009-2013 indicates that reporting to NORS improved notably in the 5 years since its inception. Norovirus is the most commonly reported cause of these outbreaks and, on the basis of epidemiologic data, might account for a substantial proportion of outbreaks without a reported etiology. During 2009-2013, norovirus accounted for most deaths and health care visits in AGE outbreaks spread through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. Recommendations for prevention and control of AGE outbreaks transmitted through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission depend primarily on appropriate hand hygiene, environmental disinfection, and isolation of ill persons. NORS surveillance data can help identify priority targets for the development of future control strategies, including hygiene interventions and vaccines, and help monitor the frequency and severity of AGE outbreaks in the United States. Ongoing study of these AGE outbreaks can provide a better understanding of certain pathogens and their modes of transmission. For example, certain reported outbreak etiologies (e.g., Salmonella) are considered primarily foodborne pathogens but can be transmitted through multiple routes. Similarly, further examination of outbreaks of unknown etiology could help identify barriers to making an etiologic determination, to analyze clinical and epidemiologic clues suggestive of a probable etiology, and to discover new and emerging etiologic agents. Outbreak

  12. Mercury in environmental samples from a waterbody contaminated by gold mining in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J; Solano, B

    1998-06-30

    Environmental samples from a marsh, which receives mercury discharges from a gold mine in Colombia (South America), were evaluated for total mercury content. Mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediments, macrophytes and fish species from different trophic levels. The Mean mercury levels in sediments oscillated between 140 and 355 micrograms/kg whereas in the macrophyte Eichornia crassipes levels were between 219 and 277 microgram/kg with practically no interseasonal variations. The mercury content in the muscle of fish varied depending on the position in the trophic chain and the feeding habits of each species, oscillating between non-detectable (< 7.4 microgram/kg) and 1084 micrograms/kg. Seasonal variations were only observed in fish species whose habitats are mostly the bottom sediment. The presence of mercury in some fish appeared to be the result of bioaccumulation rather than a biomagnification processes. This was clearly evidenced in the detritivorous species Triportheus magdalenae which obtain their food within the sediments and whose mercury concentrations were significantly higher when compared to the other species including carnivorous. The relatively low mercury concentrations found in fish may be due to both the dispersion of the contaminant once it reaches the waterbody and the migrational characteristics of the fish species.

  13. Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

    1993-01-01

    Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI's obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics

  14. Remote sensing for the geobotanical and biogeochemical assessment of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, J.; Chesley, M.; Lancaster, J.; Mouat, D.

    1993-01-01

    Under Contract Number DE-AC08-90NV10845, the DOE has funded the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to examine several aspects of remote sensing, specifically with respect to how its use might help support Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) activities at DOE sites located throughout the country. This report represents partial fulfillment of DRI`s obligations under that contract and includes a review of relevant literature associated with remote sensing studies and our evaluation and recommendation as to the applicability of various remote sensing techniques for DOE needs. With respect to DOE ERWM activities, remote sensing may be broadly defined as collecting information about a target without actually being in physical contact with the object. As the common platforms for remote sensing observations are aircraft and satellites, there exists the possibility to rapidly and efficiently collect information over DOE sites that would allow for the identification and monitoring of contamination related to present and past activities. As DOE sites cover areas ranging from tens to hundreds of square miles, remote sensing may provide an effective, efficient, and economical method in support of ERWM activities. For this review, remote sensing has been limited to methods that employ electromagnetic (EM) energy as the means of detecting and measuring target characteristics.

  15. Electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry: a technique for environmental contaminant identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmler, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (ECNIMS) is a method used to generate negative ions in a mass spectrometer by electron-molecule reactions. This technique facilitates the sensitive and selective detection of many toxic contaminants in environmental samples. Applications of this technique have been hindered by the limited understanding of instrumental parameters, by the questionable reproducibility of negative ion mass spectra, and by the inability to interpret negative ion mass spectra. Instrumental parameters which were important to control include the ion source temperature, ion source pressure, sample concentration, and the focus lens potential. The ability to obtain reproducible spectra was demonstrated by measurement of the spectrum of decafluorotriphenylphosphine (DFTPP) over a period of one year. Negative ion fragmentation mechanisms were studied by measuring the spectra of structurally related classes of compounds and isotopically labelled compounds. These results were combined with data obtained by other researchers. Fragmentations characteristic of particular functional groups or molecular structures have been summarized. From this data set, guidelines for the interpretation of electron capture negative ion mass spectra have been developed

  16. Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Goekceada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.; Kaynak, G.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.; Ozturk, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Goekceada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. The range of beta activity values was between 607 ± 30 and 308 ± 12 Bq/kg for C. foliacea lichens collected from around Tuz Lake and values for R. pollinaria lichens were found to be 740 ± 25 and 541 ± 17 Bq/kg. The second part of the study was concerned with the gamma spectra of the lichen samples measured by using HpGe detector. 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra radionuclides were found in C. foliacea collected from around Tepekoey and in R. pollinaria from around Tuz Lake. When these two types of lichens were compared, it was found that R. pollinaria contain more radionuclides. In order to compare and determine which of these lichens act as a better bioaccumulator, K, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb metal content were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It was found that C. foliacea collected more Mn and Sr when compared to R. pollinaria.

  17. Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Goekceada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, A.; Kaynak, G. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: ogurler@uludag.edu.tr; Yalcin, S. [Kastamonu University, Education Faculty, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey); Ozturk, S. [Biology Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [CNRP, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University of Kocaeli, Umuttepe Campus, 41100, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Goekceada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. The range of beta activity values was between 607 {+-} 30 and 308 {+-} 12 Bq/kg for C. foliacea lichens collected from around Tuz Lake and values for R. pollinaria lichens were found to be 740 {+-} 25 and 541 {+-} 17 Bq/kg. The second part of the study was concerned with the gamma spectra of the lichen samples measured by using HpGe detector. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra radionuclides were found in C. foliacea collected from around Tepekoey and in R. pollinaria from around Tuz Lake. When these two types of lichens were compared, it was found that R. pollinaria contain more radionuclides. In order to compare and determine which of these lichens act as a better bioaccumulator, K, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb metal content were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It was found that C. foliacea collected more Mn and Sr when compared to R. pollinaria.

  18. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p lead to the major crustal elements (Al, Sr, Ti and Fe) indicates significant lead enrichment in atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells: an environmental health assessment examining a rural Colorado mountain community's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Michael Anthony; Ferraro, Aimee; Mendelsohn, Aaron B; Prehn, Angela Witt

    2013-11-01

    In the study discussed in this article, 27 private drinking water wells located in a rural Colorado mountain community were sampled for radon contamination and compared against (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL), (b) the U.S. EPA proposed alternate maximum contaminate level (AMCL), and (c) the average radon level measured in the local municipal drinking water system. The data from the authors' study found that 100% of the wells within the study population had radon levels in excess of the U.S. EPA MCL, 37% were in excess of the U.S. EPA AMCL, and 100% of wells had radon levels greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. Radon contamination in one well was found to be 715 times greater than the U.S. EPA MCL, 54 times greater than the U.S. EPA AMLC, and 36,983 times greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. According to the research data and the reviewed literature, the results indicate that this population has a unique and elevated contamination profile and suggest that radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells can present a significant public health concern.

  20. Multifactorial effects of ambient temperature, precipitation, farm management, and environmental factors determine the level of generic Escherichia coli contamination on preharvested spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-04-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  2. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health.

  3. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  4. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  5. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  6. Characterization of Under-Building Contamination at Rocky Flats Implementing Environmental-Measurement While Drilling Process with Horizontal Directional Drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIAMS, CECELIA V.; LOCKWOOD, GRANT J.; NORMANN, RANDY A.; LINDSAY, THOMAS

    2001-01-01

    Characterization is required on thirty-one buildings at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or the Site) with known or suspected under building contamination. The Site has teamed with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to deploy Environmental Measure-While-Drilling (EMWD) in conjunction with horizontal directional drilling (HDD) to characterize under building contamination and to evaluate the performance and applicability for future characterization efforts. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental drill bit data during drilling operations. The project investigated two locations, Building 886 and Building 123. Building 886 is currently undergoing D and D activities. Building 123 was demolished in 1998; however, the slab is present with under building process waste lines and utilities. This report presents the results of the EMWD Gamma Ray Spectrometer logging of boreholes at these two sites. No gamma emitting contamination was detected at either location.(author)

  7. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd.

  8. Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in

  9. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations

  10. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  11. Molecular marker to identify radiolarian species -toward establishment of paleo-environmental proxy-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fossilized unicellular plankton are known to have many genetically divergent species (biological species) in the single morphological species and these biological species show the species-specific environments much more precisely than that of morphological species. Among these plankton, Radiolaria are one of the best candidates for time- and environmental-indicators in the modern and past oceans, because radiolarians are the only group which represent entire water column from shallow to deep waters. However, the ecology and evolution of radiolarian were traditionally studied in paleontology and paleoceanography by morphological species. Even Radiolaria has a huge potential for novel proxy of wide and deep environments, there is no criterion to identify the biological species. The motivation for this study is setting the quantitative delimitation to establish the biological species of radiolarians based on molecular data, for leading the future ecological and paleo-environmental study. Identification of the biological species by ribosomal DNA sequences are mainly based on two ways: one is the evolutionary distance of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1 and 2), and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA; and the other is the secondary structure of ITS2. In the present study, all four possible genetic markers (SSU, ITS1, ITS2, and LSU rDNA) were amplified from 232 individuals of five radiolarian morphological species and applied to examine the evolutionary distance and secondary structure of rDNA. Comprehensive survey clearly shows that evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA and the secondary structure of ITS2 is good to identify the species. Notably, evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA is possible to set the common delimitation to identify the biological species, as 0.225 substitution per site. The results show that the ITS1 and ITS 2 rDNA could be the criterion for radiolarian species identification.

  12. Development of a low cost, GPS-based upgrade to a standard handheld gamma detector for mapping environmental radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaens, J

    2006-02-01

    A low cost extension to a standard handheld radiation monitor was developed, allowing one to perform outdoor georeferenced gamma measurements. It consists of a commercial wireless Bluetooth GPS receiver, a commercial RS-232 to Bluetooth converter combined with a standard Bluetooth enabled pocket personal computer (PPC). The system is intended for use in difficult to access areas, typically for foot campaigns. As the operator walks, a straightforward homemade visual basic program alternately reads GPS position and gamma dose rate into the PPC, creating a data log. This allows a single operator on foot to map between 50 and 200 ha of environmental radiation per day in very rugged areas, depending on the accessibility of the terrain and the detail required. On a test field with known contamination, a spatial precision of about 5-10 m was obtainable. The device was also used to reveal complex contamination patterns in the flooding zones of a radioactively contaminated small river.

  13. Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

  14. Generic Escherichia coli contamination of spinach at the preharvest stage: effects of farm management and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level.

  15. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid monitoring of environmental radioactivity as a perspective approach to rapid control and prediction of environmental contamination due to NPP wastes and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.A.; Zhernov, V.S.; Makarov, Yu.A.; Matveev, V.V.; Ryzhov, N.V.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Skatkin, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Conseptucal model of the system of hybride monitoring of environmental radioactivity due to NPP wastes and effluents is proposed. The model a combination of measuring and simulating monitoring, provides correlation of methods and aims of simulation of environmental contamination spread methods and means of monitoring of its factual distribution in space, methods of separation of technogeneous signals from natural radiation background and provision of the given degree of reliability of results of information processing, in particular periodic coorection, model adaptation according to the factual measurement data

  17. Biological transfer of radionuclides in marine environments - Identifying and filling knowledge gaps for environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Borretzen, P.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.

    2004-01-01

    A review on concentration factors (CF) for the marine environment was conducted in order to consider the relevance of existing data from the perspective of environmental protection and to identify areas of data paucity. Data have been organised in a format compatible with a reference organism approach, for selected radionuclides, and efforts have been taken to identify the factors that may be of importance in the context of dosimetric and dose-effects analyses. These reference organism categories had been previously selected by identifying organism groups that were likely to experience the highest levels of radiation exposure, owing to high uptake levels or residence in a particular habitat, for defined scenarios. Significant data gaps in the CF database have been identified, notably for marine mammals and birds. Most empirical information pertains to a limit suite of radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, 210 Po and 99 Tc. A methodology has been developed to help bridge this information deficit. This has been based on simple dynamic, biokinetic models that mainly use parameters derived from laboratory-based study and field observation. In some cases, allometric relationships have been employed to allow further model parameterization. Initial testing of the model by comparing model output with empirical data sets suggest that the models provide sensible equilibrium CFs. Furthermore, analyses of modelling results suggest that for some radionuclides, in particularly those with long effective half-lives, the time to equilibrium can be far greater than the life-time of an organism. This clearly emphasises the limitations of applying a universal equilibrium approach. The methodology, therefore, has an added advantage that non-equilibrium scenarios can be considered in a more rigorous manner. Further refinements to the modelling approach might be attained by exploring the importance of various model parameters, through sensitivity analyses, and by identifying those

  18. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Danet, Andrei-Florin

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed

  19. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Danet, Andrei-Florin [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Str., Bucharest 050657 (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed.

  20. Understanding and Designing the Strategies for the Microbe-Mediated Remediation of Environmental Contaminants Using Omics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer A. Malla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and population explosion has resulted in the generation and dumping of various contaminants into the environment. These harmful compounds deteriorate the human health as well as the surrounding environments. Current research aims to harness and enhance the natural ability of different microbes to metabolize these toxic compounds. Microbial-mediated bioremediation offers great potential to reinstate the contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable approach. However, the lack of the knowledge regarding the factors controlling and regulating the growth, metabolism, and dynamics of diverse microbial communities in the contaminated environments often limits its execution. In recent years the importance of advanced tools such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics has increased to design the strategies to treat these contaminants in ecofriendly manner. Previously researchers has largely focused on the environmental remediation using single omics-approach, however the present review specifically addresses the integrative role of the multi-omics approaches in microbial-mediated bioremediation. Additionally, we discussed how the multi-omics approaches help to comprehend and explore the structural and functional aspects of the microbial consortia in response to the different environmental pollutants and presented some success stories by using these approaches.

  1. Environmental Contamination Genetic Consequences Monitoring on the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site: General Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seisebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Zhapbasov, R.Zh.

    1998-01-01

    For an objective assessment of nuclear test consequences for the environment it is necessary, together with the investigation of radiation situation, to study live biological systems, particularly the genetic effects of chronic ionizing radiation. The long staying of plants and animals on the territories with the elevated radiation background level can lead to the change of organism genetic system. In this connection the monitoring of chronically exposed natural populations is of particular interest and can serve as the objective indicator of the scale of natural biota genetic damage. Basing on the results obtained during plant and animal studies one can indirectly assess the hazard of people genetic damage. Besides, studying the mutational process on natural populations exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation one can reveal new regularities, which are impossible to be detected in the laboratory conditions, and new aspects of radiation genetics. The issue of radiation adaptation of organisms affected by the various doses of ionizing radiation is very acute. The prerequisite of organism adaptation to the certain radiation background is genetic heterogeneity of individuals comprising the population and selection of radiation-induced individuals, which are the carriers of the mutation of high radioresistance. The uniqueness of the Semipalatinsk Test site and the necessity of long-term investigations of the nuclear test consequences for the environment demand the elaboration of principles for organization and utilization of natural population genetic monitoring. Radiation-genetic monitoring is the long-term observation of palpitation gene pool conditions, assessment and forecast of their spatial and time alteration, determination of limits of changes admitted under the condition of environmental radioactive contamination. It includes a series of the main research directions and has quite certain methodological peculiarities. In this paper we discuss the tasks of

  2. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-02

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  4. A review of the role of emerging environmental contaminants in the development of breast cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana Siddique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of breast cancer is on a rise worldwide; it is a disease having a complex etiology. Besides genetics, environmental and other lifestyle factors play a role in the development of the disease. There has been a keen interest in studying associations between breast cancer and exposures to emerging environmental chemicals, which mimic estrogens or influence estrogen levels and signaling in the human body. The common consequence of an endocrine disrupting chemical exposure is that it may have an impact on breast cancer etiology by stimulating formation as well as progression of breast cancer. Exposures to selected emerging environmental contaminants such as alkylphenols (APs, bisphenol A (BPA, parabens, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, synthetic musks and triclosan, and their probable role in breast cancer development are reviewed. Studies evaluated include the experimental in vitro and in vivo studies as well as human population based studies. In vitro and in vivo evidences indicate that a number of emerging environmental contaminants may play a role in the initiation and/or progression of breast cancer. Although exposures have been assessed in some human populations, breast and other cancer risks associated with these exposures are largely unknown. Efforts should be focussed on the evaluation of these environmental exposures in human populations and their interactions with each other and other genetic and lifestyle risk factors.

  5. MOBILE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER OPERATED BY PACE ENVIRONMENTAL FOR METALS-CONTAMINATED SOIL CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report describes ...

  6. Principles and criteria for environmental restoration of the contaminated banks near NPP Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 18 km long banks of the Bohunice NPP waste water recipient are contaminated by 137 Cs as a result of two accidents on the CO 2 cooled NPP-A1 unit in 1976 and 1977. Contamination acceptance limits 6 or 8 Bq 137 Cslg of soil, depending on contaminated area size, were derived on the basis of developed principles, and approved by the authorities. Removing and safe burial of 1,100 m 3 of contaminated soil from steep area and 15 cm thick clean soil covering on about 1ha of flat area of the contaminated banks is planned in frame of the re-considered restoration project implementation in 1995/96. (author)

  7. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule; Impact de l'environnement sur l'endommagement laser des optiques de silice du Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-15

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm{sup 2}, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  8. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  9. Identifying and categorizing cobenefits in state-supported Australian indigenous environmental management programs: international research implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant natural resource management investment is flowing to bioculturally diverse areas occupied by indigenous and other socioeconomically and politically marginalized groups. Such investment focuses on environmental benefit but may also generate ancillary economic, social, and other cobenefits. Increased investor interest in such cobenefits is driving the emerging research literature on cobenefit identification, categorization, and assessment. For local people undertaking community-based natural resource management, this emerging cobenefit discourse creates opportunities for more holistic program assessments that better reflect local perspectives, but it also contains risks of increased reporting burdens and institutional capture. Here, we synthesize and critically review the cobenefit literature arising from Australian indigenous cultural and natural resource management programs, a context in which there is a strong investor interest in cobenefits, particularly from government. We identify a wide suite of cobenefits in the existing literature and highlight previously unrecognized conceptual gaps and elisions in cobenefit categorization, including inconsistencies in category definition, the underanalysis of key categories, and a lack of systematic attention to beneficiaries as well as benefits. We propose a clarified and expanded conceptual framework to identify consistently the full suite of benefits, thereby enabling further assessment, valuation, and development of incentive mechanisms, standards, and guidelines. Our analysis has implications for community-based natural resource management assessment in a wide range of international contexts.

  10. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  11. Microplastics as Vectors for Environmental Contaminants : Exploring Sorption, Desorption, and Transfer to Biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna B.; Rist, Sinja; Bodin, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and effects of microplastics (MPs) in the aquatic environment are receiving increasing attention. In addition to their possible direct adverse effects on biota, the potential role of MPs as vectors for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), compared to natural pathways, is a topic...... outline research needed to fill knowledge gaps and improve model-based calculations of MP-facilitated HOC transfer in the environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:488–493. © 2017 SETAC...... of much debate. It is evident, however, that temporal and spatial variations of MP occurrence do (and will) occur. To further improve the estimations of the role of MPs as vectors for HOC transfer into biota under varying MP concentrations and environmental conditions, it is important to identify...

  12. Saltelli Global Sensitivity Analysis and Simulation Modelling to Identify Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 Contaminated Beef Carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Brookes

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157 are important foodborne pathogens in humans, and outbreaks of illness have been associated with consumption of undercooked beef. Here, we determine the most effective intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated beef carcasses using a modelling approach.A computational model simulated events and processes in the beef harvest chain. Information from empirical studies was used to parameterise the model. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA using the Saltelli method identified variables with the greatest influence on the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses. Following a baseline scenario (no interventions, a series of simulations systematically introduced and tested interventions based on influential variables identified by repeated Saltelli GSA, to determine the most effective intervention strategy.Transfer of STEC O157 from hide or gastro-intestinal tract to carcass (improved abattoir hygiene had the greatest influence on the prevalence of contaminated carcases. Due to interactions between inputs (identified by Saltelli GSA, combinations of interventions based on improved abattoir hygiene achieved a greater reduction in maximum prevalence than would be expected from an additive effect of single interventions. The most effective combination was improved abattoir hygiene with vaccination, which achieved a greater than ten-fold decrease in maximum prevalence compared to the baseline scenario.Study results suggest that effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses should initially be based on improved abattoir hygiene. However, the effect of improved abattoir hygiene on the distribution of STEC O157 concentration on carcasses is an important information gap-further empirical research is required to determine whether reduced prevalence of contaminated carcasses is likely to result in reduced

  13. Alternative agriculture as a substitute for environmental remediation. Production of poultry in radiologically contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting the physiological and ecological characteristics of domesticated species has seldom been considered as a means of returning radiologically contaminated areas to safe agricultural production. However, the proper choice of cultivated and domesticated species, together with appropriate husbandry practices, may allow safe production of foods, fibre and energy. As an example, factors that could permit safe production of food products for human consumption from poultry raised in contaminated areas are considered. These factors include radionuclide transfer from the environment into poultry and methods for reducing radionuclide uptake and/or decontaminating chickens to yield acceptable food products. Studies of growth and feed intake rates of chickens under intensive management and free-ranging husbandries, 137 Cs uptake by chickens exposed to contaminated sediments, potential effects of husbandry on 137 Cs concentrations and 137 Cs elimination by chickens after removal of contaminated feed are described. Data from these and other studies are combined in simulation models of the 13 '7Cs kinetics of chickens. Chicken product 137 Cs concentrations ([ 137 Cs]s) decrease with increases in body mass, apparently as a result of decreasing mass specific intake rates. Husbandries that increase contaminant intake (e.g. free-ranging rearing conditions versus brooder house production) or access to contaminated soils (e.g. scattering feed directly onto contaminated solid versus the use of feeders) increase total body [ 137 Cs]s. However, model simulations indicate that it is possible to produce safe poultry products (especially eggs) at all but unrealistically high feed contamination levels. Even when dietary 137 Cs levels produce [ 137 Cs]s in poultry products that exceed acceptable limits, the high metabolism of poultry leads to a rapid decrease in [ 137 Cs]s once the chickens are placed on uncontaminated rations. This permits the use of contaminated feed or forage for

  14. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    populations. DESIGN: A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. RESULTS...... and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion...

  15. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglei, E.; Bustnes, J.O.; Hop, H.; Mork, T.; Bjoernfoth, H.; Bavel, B. van

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 15 N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue

  16. Microbial environmental contamination in Italian dental clinics: A multicenter study yielding recommendations for standardized sampling methods and threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Napoli, Christian; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Righi, Elena; Farruggia, Patrizia; Tesauro, Marina; Torregrossa, Maria V; Montagna, Maria T; Colucci, Maria E; Gallè, Francesca; Masia, Maria D; Strohmenger, Laura; Bergomi, Margherita; Tinteri, Carola; Panico, Manuela; Pennino, Francesca; Cannova, Lucia; Tanzi, Marialuisa

    2012-03-15

    A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in ten dental clinics in Italy. Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days, for one week per month, for a three-month period. Water and surfaces were sampled before and after clinical activity; air was sampled before, after, and during clinical activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and for the different sampling times. Before clinical activity, microbial water contamination in tap water reached 51,200cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter), and that in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWSs) reached 872,000cfu/mL. After clinical activity, there was a significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) in tap water and in DUWSs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 2.38% (7/294) of tap water samples and in 20.06% (59/294) of DUWS samples; Legionella spp. was found in 29.96% (89/297) of tap water samples and 15.82% (47/297) of DUWS samples, with no significant difference between pre- and post-clinical activity. Microbial air contamination was highest during dental treatments, and decreased significantly at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). The microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. This study provides data for the establishment of standardized sampling methods, and threshold values for contamination monitoring in dentistry. Some very critical situations have been observed which require urgent intervention. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need for research aimed at defining effective managing strategies for dental clinics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort (MISA) Study: PCA analyses of environmental contaminants in maternal sera and dietary intake in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Hofoss, Dag; Hansen, Solrunn; Thomassen, Yngvar; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-03-01

    Although predictors of contaminants in serum or whole blood are usually examined by chemical groups (e.g., POPs, toxic and/or essential elements; dietary sources), principal component analysis (PCA) permits consideration of both individual substances and combined variables. Our study had two primary objectives: (i) Characterize the sources and predictors of a suite of eight PCBs, four organochlorine (OC) pesticides, five essential and five toxic elements in serum and/or whole blood of pregnant women recruited as part of the Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study conducted in Northern Norway (The MISA study); and (ii) determine the influence of personal and social characteristics on both dietary and contaminant factors. Recruitment and sampling started in May 2007 and continued for the next 31 months until December 2009. Blood/serum samples were collected during the 2nd trimester (mean: 18.2 weeks, range 9.0-36.0). A validated questionnaire was administered to obtain personal information. The samples were analysed by established laboratories employing verified methods and reference standards. PCA involved Varimax rotation, and significant predictors (p≤0.05) in linear regression models were included in the multivariable linear regression analysis. When considering all the contaminants, three prominent PCA axes stood out with prominent loadings of: all POPs; arsenic, selenium and mercury; and cadmium and lead. Respectively, in the multivariate models the following were predictors: maternal age, parity and consumption of freshwater fish and land-based wild animals; marine fish; cigarette smoking, dietary PCA axes reflecting consumption of grains and cereals, and food items involving hunting. PCA of only the POPs separated them into two axes that, in terms of recently published findings, could be understood to reflect longitudinal trends and their relative contributions to summed POPs. The linear combinations of variables generated by PCA identified prominent

  18. Surface radiological investigations at environmental research area 11, 137Cs- and 60Co-contaminated plots at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1993-02-01

    A surface radiological investigation at the 137 Cs- and 6O Co-contaminated forest area (Chestnut Ridge east and west plots) was conducted from January 1992 through August 1992. Results of the survey revealed numerous spots and small areas of surface contamination that followed the original placement of feeders used for 6O Co- and 137 Cs-labeled seeds in a 1969--1970 study. Surface gamma exposure rates reached 380 μR/h at the east plot and 400 μR/h at the west plot, but approximately one-half and one- third, respectively, of the identified anomalies did not exceed 39 μR/h. Results of soil sample analyses demonstrated that 137 Cs and 6O Co were responsible for the elevated radiation levels. Radionuclides were found below the surface at soil sample locations, in some cases at depths below 18 in. The same pattern of subsurface contamination may be present at other elevated surface spots at both plots. These survey results show that current radiological conditions at the site remain an environmental problem. Recommendations for corrective actions are included

  19. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  20. Zebrafish seizure model identifies p,p -DDE as the dominant contaminant of fetal California sea lions that accounts for synergistic activity with domoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeken, Jessica A; Ramsdell, John S

    2010-04-01

    Fetal poisoning of California sea lions (CSLs; Zalophus californianus) has been associated with exposure to the algal toxin domoic acid. These same sea lions accumulate a mixture of persistent environmental contaminants including pesticides and industrial products such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Developmental exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its stable metabolite 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p -DDE) has been shown to enhance domoic acid-induced seizures in zebrafish; however, the contribution of other co-occurring contaminants is unknown. We formulated a mixture of contaminants to include PCBs, PBDEs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and chlordane at levels matching those reported for fetal CSL blubber to determine the impact of co-occurring persistent contaminants with p,p -DDE on chemically induced seizures in zebrafish as a model for the CSLs. Embryos were exposed (6-30 hr postfertilization) to p,p -DDE in the presence or absence of a defined contaminant mixture prior to neurodevelopment via either bath exposure or embryo yolk sac microinjection. After brain maturation (7 days postfertilization), fish were exposed to a chemical convulsant, either pentylenetetrazole or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was then monitored and analyzed for changes, using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Induced seizure behavior did not differ significantly between subjects with embryonic exposure to a contaminant mixture and those exposed to p,p -DDE only. These studies demonstrate that p,p -DDE--in the absence of PCBs, HCH, chlordane, and PBDEs that co-occur in fetal sea lions--accounts for the synergistic activity that leads to greater sensitivity to domoic acid seizures.

  1. Nano-TiO2-based photocatalytic disinfection of environmental surfaces contaminated by meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, S; Messano, G A

    2016-05-01

    Traditional cleaning and disinfection methods are inefficient for complete decontamination of hospital surfaces from meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Additional methods, such as nano-TiO2-based photocatalytic disinfection (PCD), could be helpful. To evaluate anti-MRSA activity of PCD on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces in natural-like conditions. Two identical PVC surfaces were used, and nano-TiO2 was incorporated into one of them. The surfaces were contaminated with MRSA isolated from hospitalized patients using a mist sprayer to simulate the mode of environmental contamination caused by a carrier. MRSA cell density was assessed before contamination until 180min after contamination using Rodac plates. The differences between test and control surfaces in terms of MRSA density and log MRSA density reduction were assessed using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Five strains were tested, and each strain was tested five times. The highest median MRSA densities [46.3 and 43.1 colony-forming units (cfu)/cm(2) for control and test surfaces, respectively] were detected 45min after contamination. Median MRSA densities 180min after contamination were 10.1 and 0.7cfu/cm(2) for control and test surfaces, respectively (Pdisinfectant activity remained stable throughout the 25 testing occasions, despite between-test cleaning and disinfection. The anti-MRSA activity of PCD was compatible with the benchmark for surface hygiene in hospitals (surfaces. However, for clinical surfaces, PCD should be regarded as supplemental to conventional decontamination procedures, rather than an alternative. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabi, Okunola A. [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State (Nigeria); Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Bakare, Adekunle A. [Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that Nigeria environment is highly contaminated by electronic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contamination level by heavy metals and organics in soils and plants in Nigeria as a result of the electronic waste is as high as the environment in China, even though China is the recipient of about 70% of the world's e-waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that e-waste leachate is genotoxic and mutagenic.

  3. Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Christopher J; Ralicki, Hannah F; Laurencio, David; Crocker-Buta, Sarah; Malone, John H

    2018-01-01

    Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions. Increased exposure to contaminants, in turn, potentially elicits chronic elevations in circulating stress hormones that could contribute to montane population declines by compromising resistance to pathogens and/or production of sex steroids regulating reproduction. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining contaminant levels, stress and sex steroid levels, and nematode abundances in male drab treefrogs, Smilisca sordida, from lowland and montane populations in Costa Rica. We found no evidence that montane populations were more likely to possess contaminants (i.e., organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides or benzidine and chlorophenoxy herbicides) than lowland populations. We also found no evidence of elevational differences in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, estradiol or progesterone. However, montane populations possessed lower androgen levels, hosted more nematode species, and had higher nematode abundances than lowland populations. Although these results suggested that nematodes contributed to lower androgens in montane populations, we were unable to detect a significant inverse relationship between nematode abundance and androgen level. Our results suggest that montane populations of this species are not at greater risk of exposure to contaminants or chronic stress, but implicate nematodes and compromised sex steroid levels as potential threats to montane populations.