WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify effective recruitment

  1. A Strategic Systems Model for Effective Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woolever, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... After introducing a model for effective and efficient recruiting, this Strategic Research Project describes the Air Force recruiting organizational structure, management processes and practices...

  2. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identifying and prioritizing the indicators of talent management in recruiting radiology technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegheh Hosseinzadeh Nojedeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was identifying and prioritizing the indicators of talent management in recruiting the radiology technicians. The sample for the study was drawn randomly from all managers and personnel of the radiology sector in Ardabil public hospitals. Shannon entropy was applied to weighted criteria. In the next stage, for ranking the indicators of talent management, we employed multi-criteria decision-making techniques of TOPSIS method. Eight indicators were identified and prioritized using the TOPSIS method. These indicators are interest, commitment, skill, specialized knowledge, intelligence, the ability to solve the problem or issue, proper treatment with patient, and relationships with colleagues. The findings indicated that recruiting staff that do their work with love and are committed to the organization tend to be effective in improving hospital performance.

  4. Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness of Recruitment Methods for Male Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L.; Lopez-Class, Maria; Mueller, Noel T.; Mota, Guadalupe; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the most effective strategies to recruit male Latino smokers to cessation research studies. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and cost-effective research recruitment strategies for this priority population. (Contains 4 tables.)

  5. Effective recruitment of minority populations through community-led strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Carol R; Brenner, Barbara L; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A; Arniella, Guedy

    2009-12-01

    Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations that bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. The Community Action Board, consisting of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders, and advocates, used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of various strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led, diabetes prevention intervention. The board created five recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians; recruiting at large public events such as farmers markets; organizing special local recruitment events; recruiting at local organizations; and recruiting through a partner-led approach, in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned in a fasting state for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was highly successful, recruiting 68% of those enrolled. This strategy was also the most efficient; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%-17% enrolled through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated, Spanish-speaking women. This CBPR approach highlights the value of partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out to, and motivate a vulnerable population into participation in research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers but are nevertheless rigorous and effective.

  6. Effective recruitment strategies in primary care research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the

  7. Effective recruitment and retention strategies in community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jennifer; Ridgers, Nicola D; Carver, Alison; Thornton, Lukar E; Teychenne, Megan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this project was to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies used by health-promotion organisations that focus on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition within the local community. Semistructured telephone or face-to-face interviews with 25 key informants from stakeholder organisations were conducted. Key informants discussed strategies used by their organisation to effectively recruit and retain participants into community-based healthy eating and/or physical activity programs. Transcribed data were analysed with NVivo software. Effective recruitment strategies included word of mouth, links with organisations, dissemination of printed materials, media, referrals, cross-promotion of programs and face-to-face methods. Effective retention strategies included encouraging a sense of community ownership, social opportunities, recruiting a suitable leader and offering flexibility and support. Fees and support for recruiting and retaining participants was also identified. This study provides novel insights to a greatly under researched topic in the field of health promotion. There are two key take-home messages from the present study that are applicable to health practitioners as well as developers and deliverers of community health-promotion programs: (1) it is imperative that all community health organisations report on the effectiveness of their recruitment and retention, both successes and failures; and (2) there is a clear need to tailor the recruitment and retention approach to the target population and the setting the program is occurring in. SO WHAT? These findings provide important insights for the development of future community-based healthy eating and physical activity programs.

  8. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  9. Ethical issues in identifying and recruiting participants for familial genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Laura M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Daly, Mary; Juengst, Eric T; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Merz, Jon F; Pentz, Rebecca; Press, Nancy A; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Sugarman, Jeremy; Susswein, Lisa R; Terry, Sharon F; Austin, Melissa A; Burke, Wylie

    2004-11-01

    Family-based research is essential to understanding the genetic and environmental etiology of human disease. The success of family-based research often depends on investigators' ability to identify, recruit, and achieve a high participation rate among eligible family members. However, recruitment of family members raises ethical concerns due to the tension between protecting participants' privacy and promoting research quality, and guidelines for these activities are not well established. The Cancer Genetics Network Bioethics Committee assembled a multidisciplinary group to explore the scientific and ethical issues that arise in the process of family-based recruitment. The group used a literature review as well as expert opinion to develop recommendations about appropriate approaches to identifying, contacting, and recruiting family members. We conclude that there is no single correct approach, but recommend a balanced approach that takes into account the nature of the particular study as well as its recruitment goals. Recruitment of family members should be viewed as part of the research protocol and should require appropriate informed consent of the already-enrolled participant. Investigators should inform prospective participants why they are being contacted, how information about them was obtained, and what will happen to that information if they decide not to participate. The recruitment process should also be sensitive to the fact that some individuals from families at increased genetic risk will have no prior knowledge of their risk status. These recommendations are put forward to promote further discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to family-based recruitment. They suggest a framework for considering alternative recruitment strategies and their implications, as well as highlight areas in need of further empirical research. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Modelling the effect of food availability on recruitment success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling the effect of food availability on recruitment success of Cape anchovy ichthyoplankton in ... To characterise the recruitment dynamics of Cape anchovy ichthyoplankton, we used an individual-based ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Identifying trial recruitment uncertainties using a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership - the PRioRiTy (Prioritising Recruitment in Randomised Trials) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Patricia; Galvin, Sandra; Williamson, Paula R; Treweek, Shaun; Whiting, Caroline; Maeso, Beccy; Bray, Christopher; Brocklehurst, Peter; Moloney, Mary Clarke; Douiri, Abdel; Gamble, Carrol; Gardner, Heidi R; Mitchell, Derick; Stewart, Derek; Jordan, Joan; O'Donnell, Martin; Clarke, Mike; Pavitt, Sue H; Guegan, Eleanor Woodford; Blatch-Jones, Amanda; Smith, Valerie; Reay, Hannah; Devane, Declan

    2018-03-01

    Despite the problem of inadequate recruitment to randomised trials, there is little evidence to guide researchers on decisions about how people are effectively recruited to take part in trials. The PRioRiTy study aimed to identify and prioritise important unanswered trial recruitment questions for research. The PRioRiTy study - Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) included members of the public approached to take part in a randomised trial or who have represented participants on randomised trial steering committees, health professionals and research staff with experience of recruiting to randomised trials, people who have designed, conducted, analysed or reported on randomised trials and people with experience of randomised trials methodology. This partnership was aided by the James Lind Alliance and involved eight stages: (i) identifying a unique, relevant prioritisation area within trial methodology; (ii) establishing a steering group (iii) identifying and engaging with partners and stakeholders; (iv) formulating an initial list of uncertainties; (v) collating the uncertainties into research questions; (vi) confirming that the questions for research are a current recruitment challenge; (vii) shortlisting questions and (viii) final prioritisation through a face-to-face workshop. A total of 790 survey respondents yielded 1693 open-text answers to 6 questions, from which 1880 potential questions for research were identified. After merging duplicates, the number of questions was reduced to 496. Questions were combined further, and those that were submitted by fewer than 15 people and/or fewer than 6 of the 7 stakeholder groups were excluded from the next round of prioritisation resulting in 31 unique questions for research. All 31 questions were confirmed as being unanswered after checking relevant, up-to-date research evidence. The 10 highest priority questions were ranked at a face-to-face workshop. The number 1 ranked question was "How can randomised trials become

  12. Identifying critical recruitment bottlenecks limiting seedling establishment in a degraded seagrass ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, John; Montoya, Leonardo R; Orth, Robert J; Dixon, Kingsley W; Kendrick, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    Identifying early life-stage transitions limiting seagrass recruitment could improve our ability to target demographic processes most responsive to management. Here we determine the magnitude of life-stage transitions along gradients in physical disturbance limiting seedling establishment for the marine angiosperm, Posidonia australis. Transition matrix models and sensitivity analyses were used to identify which transitions were critical for successful seedling establishment during the first year of seed recruitment and projection models were used to predict the most appropriate environments and seeding densities. Total survival probability of seedlings was low (0.001), however, transition probabilities between life-stages differed across the environmental gradients; seedling recruitment was affected by grazing and bioturbation prevailing during the first life-stage transition (1 month), and 4-6 months later during the third life-stage transition when establishing seedlings are physically removed by winter storms. Models projecting population growth from different starting seed densities showed that seeds could replace other more labour intensive and costly methods, such as transplanting adult shoots, if disturbances are moderated sufficiently and if large numbers of seed can be collected in sufficient quantity and delivered to restoration sites efficiently. These outcomes suggest that by improving management of early demographic processes, we could increase recruitment in restoration programs.

  13. Identifying and recruiting smokers for preoperative smoking cessation--a systematic review of methods reported in published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Brown, Tracey J; Blyth, Annie; Maskrey, Vivienne; McNamara, Iain; Donell, Simon

    2015-11-11

    Smoking cessation before surgery reduces postoperative complications, and the benefit is positively associated with the duration of being abstinent before a surgical procedure. A key issue in providing preoperative smoking cessation support is to identify people who smoke as early as possible before elective surgery. This review aims to summarise methods used to identify and recruit smokers awaiting elective surgery. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, and references of relevant reviews (up to May 2014) to identify prospective studies that evaluated preoperative smoking cessation programmes. One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer checked data from the included studies. Data extracted from included studies were presented in tables and narratively described. We included 32 relevant studies, including 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 non-randomised studies (NRS). Smokers were recruited at preoperative clinics (n = 18), from surgery waiting lists (n = 6), or by general practitioners (n = 1), and the recruitment methods were not explicitly described in seven studies. Time points of preoperative recruitment of smokers was unclear in four studies, less than 4 weeks before surgery in 17 studies, and at least 4 weeks before surgery in only 11 studies. The recruitment rate tended to be lower in RCTs (median 58.2 %, range 9.1 to 90.9 %) than that in NRS (median 99.1 %, range 12.3 to 100 %) and lower in preoperative clinic-based RCTs (median 54.4 %, range 9.1 to 82.4 %) than that in waiting list-based RCTs (median 70.1 %, range 36.8 to 85.0 %). Smokers were recruited at least 4 weeks before surgery in four of the six waiting list-based studies and in only three of the 18 preoperative clinic-based studies. Published studies often inadequately described the methods for recruiting smokers into preoperative smoking cessation programmes. Although smoking cessation at any time is beneficial, many programmes recruited smokers at times

  14. Recruiting and Retaining LGBTQ-Identified Staff in Academic Libraries Through Ordinary Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Kuecker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brief While the American academic library field works hard to include all patrons and materials that represent less dominant populations, it should be more mindful of inclusivity in its own workforce. Particularly, the field does nothing to explicitly recruit or retain LGBTQ-identified librarians. The author proposes practical remedies to these problems that directly respond to workplace studies on interpersonal difficulties LGBTQ-identified librarians and others have cited as barriers to happiness in the workplace, and argues toward more inclusive LIS education and financial support.

  15. Facebook or Twitter?: Effective recruitment strategies for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, Kayla; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2018-06-01

    This brief details recent recruitment insights from a large all-online study of family caregivers that aimed to develop a measure to assess how family caregivers manage daily stresses. Online recruitment strategies included the use of Twitter and Facebook. Overall, 800 individuals responded to the recruitment strategy; 230 completed all study procedures. The most effective online recruitment strategy for targeting family caregivers was Facebook, yielding 86% of the sample. Future researchers may find the use of social media recruitment methods appealing because they are inexpensive, simple, and efficient methods for obtaining National samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying psychological contract breaches to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Desselle, Shane P; Draugalis, JoLaine R; Spies, Alan R; Davis, Tamra S; Bolino, Mark

    2012-08-10

    To identify pharmacy faculty members' perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

  17. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence

  18. Cost-effectiveness of health research study participant recruitment strategies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lynn; Johns, Benjamin; Liu, Su-Hsun; Vedula, S Swaroop; Li, Tianjing; Puhan, Milo A

    2014-10-01

    A large fraction of the cost of conducting clinical trials is allocated to recruitment of participants. A synthesis of findings from studies that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different recruitment strategies will inform investigators in designing cost-efficient clinical trials. To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize evidence from published comparisons of the cost and yield of strategies for recruitment of participants to health research studies. We included randomized studies in which two or more strategies for recruitment of participants had been compared. We focused our economic evaluation on studies that randomized participants to different recruitment strategies. We identified 10 randomized studies that compared recruitment strategies, including monetary incentives (cash or prize), direct contact (letters or telephone call), and medical referral strategies. Only two of the 10 studies compared strategies for recruiting participants to clinical trials. We found that allocating additional resources to recruit participants using monetary incentives or direct contact yielded between 4% and 23% additional participants compared to using neither strategy. For medical referral, recruitment of prostate cancer patients by nurses was cost-saving compared to recruitment by consultant urologists. For all underlying study designs, monetary incentives cost more than direct contact with potential participants, with a median incremental cost per recruitment ratio of Int$72 (Int$-International dollar, a theoretical unit of currency) for monetary incentive strategy compared to Int$28 for direct contact strategy. Only monetary incentives and source of referral were evaluated for recruiting participants into clinical trials. We did not review studies that presented non-monetary cost or lost opportunity cost. We did not adjust for the number of study recruitment sites or the study duration in our economic evaluation analysis. Systematic and explicit reporting of

  19. Effective and cost-effective clinical trial recruitment strategies for postmenopausal women in a community-based, primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Debra A; Lock, Michael; Harvey, Bart J

    2010-09-01

    Little evidence exists to guide investigators on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of various recruitment strategies in primary care research. The purpose of this study is to describe the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of eight clinical trial recruitment methods for postmenopausal women in a community-based setting. A retrospective analysis of the yield and cost of eight different recruitment methods: 1) family physician (FP) recruiters, 2) FP referrals, 3) community presentations, 4) community events, 5) newsletters, 6) direct mailings, 7) posters, and 8) newspaper advertisements that were used to recruit postmenopausal women to a randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of gabapentin in treating hot flashes. We recruited 197 postmenopausal women from a total of 904 screened, with 291 of the remainder being ineligible and 416 declining to participate. Of the 904 women screened, 34 (3.8%) were from FP recruiters and 35 (3.9%) were from other FP referrals while 612 (67.7%) resulted from newspaper advertisements. Of the 197 women enrolled, 141 (72%) were from newspaper advertisements, with 26 (13%) following next from posters. Word of mouth was identified as an additional unanticipated study recruitment strategy. Metropolitan newspaper advertising at $112.73 (Canadian) per enrolled participant and posters at $119.98 were found to be cost-effective recruitment methods. Newspaper advertisements were the most successful method to recruit postmenopausal women into a community-based, primary care RCT. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING TO AID THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS OF AN INDUSTRY BY IDENTIFYING SUPERIOR SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sivaram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of the most appropriate employees and their retention are the immense challenges for the HR department of most of the industries. Every year IT companies recruit fresh graduates through their campus selection programs. Usually industries examine the skills of the candidate by conducting tests, group discussion and number of interviews. This process requires enormous amount of effort and investment. During each phase of the recruitment process, candidates are filtered based on some performance criteria. The problem domain is complex and the aspects of candidates that impact the recruitment process is not explicit. The intelligence of the recruitment process is spread among the domain experts and extracted through knowledge acquisition techniques. This research focuses on investigating the underlying criteria and tries to capitalize on the existing patterns, to minimize the effort made during the recruitment process. The approach here is to provide the insights through in-depth empirical characterization and evaluation of decision trees for the recruitment problem domain. Experiments were conducted with the data collected from an IT industry to support their hiring decisions. Pruned and unpruned trees were constructed using ID3, C4.5 and CART algorithms. It was observed that the performance of the C4.5 algorithm is high. The recruitment process differs for each industry based on the nature of the projects carried out. Experiments were conducted to determine the attributes that best fits the problem domain. Using the constructed decision trees discussions were made with the domain experts to deduce viable decision rules.

  1. Effect of adaptability of field army recruits to psychological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-xue ZHAO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of psychological education adaptability on the mental quality and mental health of recruits of field army units. Methods A total number of 1244 recruits who joined the army in 2012 were tested with Mental Quality Questionnaire of Armyman (MQQA, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Selfrating Depression Scale (SDS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and self-compiled questionnaire for adaptability psychological education. 568 recruits received adaptability psychological education for 10 times (sessions in the experimental group, and 676 in the control group did not receive the education. Results After intervention, each dimension score of experimental and control groups on MQQA significantly increased (P0.05. Psychological education showed a significant effect on improving mental quality (P0.05. After education, the anxiety, depression, state-trait anxiety scores of the two groups reduced significantly (P<0.001; compared with the control group, the anxious emotion was effectively relieved by psychological education in experimental group (P<0.001. The recruits in the experimental group showed significant difference in 30 subjective evaluation items between before- and after-education periods (P<0.001. Conclusions The adaptability psychological education has a significant effect on promoting the mental quality, mental health, emotional state and positive cognition of the recruits in field army units. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.15

  2. Success of First-Term Soldiers. The Effects of Recruiting Practices and Recruit Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buddin, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    .... This has become more important in recent years because the Army, during the lean recruiting years in the late 1990s, vigorously expanded its recruiting effort by adding and expanding enlistment...

  3. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  4. Developing a More Effective Recruitment and Retention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Walter; Kelly, Gary

    The purpose of a project was to develop a model for more effective recruitment and retention of people of color in the Associate Degree Interior Design and Diploma Interior Design Assistant Program at Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC), Wisconsin. During Activity One, individuals in MATC's Student Development and High School Relations…

  5. Identifying U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Characteristics That Correspond to Success in Specific Occupational Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    physical and biological sciences Science/ Technical Arithmetic Reasoning (AR) Ability to solve arithmetic word problems Math Word Knowledge (WK) Ability...Ability to obtain information from written passages Verbal Mathematics Knowledge (MK) Knowledge of high school mathematics principles Math ...Combat Camera 04 Logistics 48 Recruiting and Retention Specialist 05 MAGTF Plans 55 Music 06 Comm 57 CBRN 08 Arty 58 MP 11 Utilities 59 Electronics Maint

  6. Reliability of transpulmonary pressure-time curve profile to identify tidal recruitment/hyperinflation in experimental unilateral pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P; Umbrello, M; Graf, J; Adams, A B; Dries, D J; Marini, J J

    2017-08-01

    The stress index (SI) is a parameter that characterizes the shape of the airway pressure-time profile (P/t). It indicates the slope progression of the curve, reflecting both lung and chest wall properties. The presence of pleural effusion alters the mechanical properties of the respiratory system decreasing transpulmonary pressure (Ptp). We investigated whether the SI computed using Ptp tracing would provide reliable insight into tidal recruitment/overdistention during the tidal cycle in the presence of unilateral effusion. Unilateral pleural effusion was simulated in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs. Respiratory system mechanics and thoracic computed tomography (CT) were studied to assess P/t curve shape and changes in global lung aeration. SI derived from airway pressure (Paw) was compared with that calculated by Ptp under the same conditions. These results were themselves compared with quantitative CT analysis as a gold standard for tidal recruitment/hyperinflation. Despite marked changes in tidal recruitment, mean values of SI computed either from Paw or Ptp were remarkably insensitive to variations of PEEP or condition. After the instillation of effusion, SI indicates a preponderant over-distension effect, not detected by CT. After the increment in PEEP level, the extent of CT-determined tidal recruitment suggest a huge recruitment effect of PEEP as reflected by lung compliance. Both SI in this case were unaffected. We showed that the ability of SI to predict tidal recruitment and overdistension was significantly reduced in a model of altered chest wall-lung relationship, even if the parameter was computed from the Ptp curve profile.

  7. STI patients are effective recruiters of undiagnosed cases of HIV: results of a social contact recruitment study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Gift; Pettifor, Audrey E; Bonongwe, Naomi; Mapanje, Clement; Rutstein, Sarah E; Ward, Michelle; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis; Miller, William C

    2014-04-15

    Patients with newly diagnosed HIV may be part of social networks with elevated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection. Social network recruitment by persons with newly diagnosed HIV may efficiently identify undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. We assessed social network recruitment as a strategy for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. In a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, 3 groups of 45 "seeds" were enrolled: STI patients with newly diagnosed HIV, STI patients who were HIV-uninfected, and community controls. Seeds were asked to recruit up to 5 social "contacts" (sexual or nonsexual). Mean number of contacts recruited per group was calculated. HIV prevalence ratios (PRs) and number of contacts needed to test to identify 1 new case of HIV were compared between groups using generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation matrices. Mean number of contacts recruited was 1.3 for HIV-infected clinic seeds, 1.8 for HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 2.3 for community seeds. Contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds had a higher HIV prevalence (PR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 7.8) than contacts of community seeds, but contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds did not (PR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 3.3). Results were similar when restricted to nonsexual contacts. To identify 1 new case of HIV, it was necessary to test 8 contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds, 10 contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 18 contacts of community seeds. Social contact recruitment by newly diagnosed STI patients efficiently led to new HIV diagnoses. Research to replicate findings and guide implementation is needed.

  8. [Effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Tao, N; Jia, J M; Qin, X; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Liu, J W

    2016-04-20

    To explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. In October 2014, 625 young recruits enrolled in one troop of Xinjiang Military Command in 2014 were chosen as subjects by multi-stage stratified random sampling. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (JCQ)and the psychological stress self evaluation test (PEST)were used to investigate the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups with scores higher and lower than the mean score of three subscales (job requirement, degree of autonomy, and social support)of JCQ to explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. The correlation of psychological stress with three subscales of job content was evaluated using the Pearson' s correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors for psychological stress. The PEST score of young recruits was 49.98±9.98. Forty-five (7.68%)out of them had scores of ≥70 points and were diagnosed with high levels of psychological stress. When the subjects were grouped based on socio-demographic characteristics, a high level of psychological stress was significantly more frequent in subjects less than 20 years of age than in those not less than 20 years of age, in smoking subjects than in non-smoking subjects, and in urban residents than in rural residents (10.42% vs 5.03%, P0.05). In various job content domains that had impacts on psychological stress, subjects with a low score of social support had significantly higher PEST scores than those with a high score of social support (50.96±10.35 vs 48.49±9.22, Pautonomy and social support (r=-0.103, Pjob requirement and social support were influencing factors for psychological stress (OR=0.718, 95% CI= 0.718 (0.607~0.851), Pjob requirement subscale and social support subscale may be potential protective factor and risk factor for psychological stress, respectively.

  9. Interest in an online smoking cessation program and effective recruitment strategies: results from Project Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Greene, Sarah M; Wiese, Cheryl; Johnson, Karin E; Alexander, Gwen; Strecher, Victor

    2006-08-22

    The Internet is a promising venue for delivering smoking cessation treatment, either as a stand-alone program or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. However, there is little data to indicate what percent of smokers are interested in receiving online smoking cessation services or how best to recruit smokers to Internet-based programs. Using a defined recruitment sample, this study aimed to identify the percentage of smokers who expressed interest in or enrolled in Project Quit, a tailored, online, cognitive-behavioral support program offered with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy patches. In addition, we examined the effectiveness of several individual-level versus population-level recruitment strategies. Members from two large health care organizations in the United States were invited to participate in Project Quit. Recruitment efforts included proactive invitation letters mailed to 34533 likely smokers and reactive population-level study advertisements targeted to all health plan members (> 560000 adults, including an estimated 98000 smokers across both health care organizations). An estimated 1.6% and 2.5% of adult smokers from each health care organization enrolled in Project Quit. Among likely smokers who received proactive study invitations, 7% visited the Project Quit website (n = 2260) and 4% (n = 1273) were eligible and enrolled. Response rates were similar across sites, despite using different sources to assemble the invitation mailing list. Proactive individual-level recruitment was more effective than other forms of recruitment, accounting for 69% of website visitors and 68% of enrollees. Smokers were interested in receiving online smoking cessation support, even though they had access to other forms of treatment through their health insurance. Uptake rates for this program were comparable to those seen when smokers are advised to quit and are referred to other forms of smoking cessation treatment. In this sample, proactive mailings were the best

  10. Effectiveness and Challenges of Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) in the Indian Hotel Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nadda, Vipin; Rafiq, Zaman; Tyagi, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    The present study tries of evaluate the effectiveness and challenges faced by adopting RPO practice in the India Hotel sector. The research objectives are driven from the purpose of the research which deals with distinct issues related to RPO and various perspectives of utilizing RPO. These objectives guided in identifying factors influencing the rationale for outsourcing the recruitment processes. The need for RPO has gained significance with the impact of organizational structure, stringent...

  11. Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Lin, Chia-Ju; Liu, Yi; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    This poster is aims to provide directions for effective strategies for recruiting Asian cancer patients in Internet study among Asian American cancer patients. In the study, we used four different strategies to recruit Asian cancer participants: (a) general and ethnic specific Internet cancer support groups; (b) Asian Internet communities/groups; (c) Asian physician clinics, Asian community and culture center; and (d) community consultants. The most effective recruitment strategy among them was the recruitment through community consultant. The findings support the importance of using key persons in ethnic minority communities to recruit ethnic minority participants.

  12. Effectiveness of newspaper advertising for patient recruitment into a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, Adrian; Jennings, Claudine G; Wei, Li; Wilson, Adam; MacDonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S

    2014-06-01

    To measure the impact of newspaper advertising across Scotland on patient interest, and subsequent recruitment into the Standard Care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT), a clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Newspaper advertisements about the SCOT trial were placed sequentially in regional and national Scottish newspapers. The number of phone calls as a result of exposure to the advertisements and ongoing study recruitment rates were recorded before, during and after the advertising campaign. To enroll in SCOT individuals had to be registered with a participating GP practice. The total cost for the advertising campaign was £46 250 and 320 phone calls were received as a result of individuals responding to the newspaper advertisements. One hundred and seventy-two individuals were identified as possibly suitable to be included in the study. However only 36 were registered at participating GP practices, 17 completed a screening visit and 15 finally were randomized into the study. The average cost per respondent individual was £144 and the average cost per randomized patient was £3083. Analysis of recruitment rate trends showed that there was no impact of the newspaper advertising campaign on increasing recruitment into SCOT. Advertisements placed in local and national newspapers were not an effective recruitment strategy for the SCOT trial. The advertisements attracted relatively small numbers of respondents, many of whom did not meet study inclusion criteria or were not registered at a participating GP practice. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Effectiveness of newspaper advertising for patient recruitment into a clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, Adrian; Jennings, Claudine G; Wei, Li; Wilson, Adam; MacDonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S

    2014-01-01

    Aims To measure the impact of newspaper advertising across Scotland on patient interest, and subsequent recruitment into the Standard Care vs. Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT), a clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Newspaper advertisements about the SCOT trial were placed sequentially in regional and national Scottish newspapers. The number of phone calls as a result of exposure to the advertisements and ongoing study recruitment rates were recorded before, during and after the advertising campaign. To enroll in SCOT individuals had to be registered with a participating GP practice. Results The total cost for the advertising campaign was £46 250 and 320 phone calls were received as a result of individuals responding to the newspaper advertisements. One hundred and seventy-two individuals were identified as possibly suitable to be included in the study. However only 36 were registered at participating GP practices, 17 completed a screening visit and 15 finally were randomized into the study. The average cost per respondent individual was £144 and the average cost per randomized patient was £3083. Analysis of recruitment rate trends showed that there was no impact of the newspaper advertising campaign on increasing recruitment into SCOT. Conclusions Advertisements placed in local and national newspapers were not an effective recruitment strategy for the SCOT trial. The advertisements attracted relatively small numbers of respondents, many of whom did not meet study inclusion criteria or were not registered at a participating GP practice. PMID:24283948

  14. Multiple strategies to identify HIV-positive black men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City: a cross-sectional analysis of recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Julie; Mannheimer, Sharon B; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Colson, Paul W; Ortega, Hugo; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2018-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection, but are more likely to be unaware of their infection or not in care for diagnosed HIV compared to other races. Respondent driven sampling has been advanced as a method to reach stigmatized and hidden populations for HIV testing. We compared strategies to recruit black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women to identify newly diagnosed HIV infection, or those previously diagnosed but not in care. The STAR (Seek, Test, and Retain) study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01790360) used several recruitment strategies to identify black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women with undiagnosed HIV infection or with previously diagnosed HIV infection but who were not in HIV care. Respondent-driven sampling, community-based recruitment and online advertising were used to recruit participants. Incentivized peer referral was integrated into all recruitment strategies. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV testing. Demographic and HIV risk-related characteristics and recruitment strategy were summarized and stratified by HIV status. Associations were tested using Pearson's chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Factors associated with HIV-positive diagnosis at p recruitment strategies, respondent driven sampling was least effective in identifying HIV-positive participants. Integrating multiple recruitment strategies yielded a large sample of black men who have sex with men and transgender women at substantial risk for HIV. Respondent-driven sampling was less effective than other strategies at identifying men who have sex with men and transgender women with HIV. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  15. Use of manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers to eliminate atelectasis artifacts identified during thoracic computed tomography of healthy neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Joslyn, Stephen K; Mitchell, Mark A; O'Brien, Robert T; Hartman, Susan K; Kline, Kevin H

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of single manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) to eliminate atelectasis during CT of anesthetized foals. ANIMALS 6 neonatal Standardbred foals. PROCEDURES Thoracic CT was performed on spontaneously breathing anesthetized foals positioned in sternal (n = 3) or dorsal (3) recumbency when foals were 24 to 36 hours old (time 1), 4 days old (time 2), 7 days old (time 3), and 10 days old (time 4). The CT images were collected without ARMs (all times) and during ARMs with an internal airway pressure of 10, 20, and 30 cm H 2 O (times 2 and 3). Quantitative analysis of CT images measured whole lung and regional changes in attenuation or volume with ARMs. RESULTS Increased attenuation and an alveolar pattern were most prominent in the dependent portion of the lungs. Subjectively, ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis; however, they did incrementally reduce attenuation, particularly in the nondependent portion of the lungs. Quantitative differences in lung attenuation attributable to position of foal were not identified. Lung attenuation decreased significantly (times 2 and 3) and lung volume increased significantly (times 2 and 3) after ARMs. Changes in attenuation and volume were most pronounced in the nondependent portion of the lungs and at ARMs of 20 and 30 cm H 2 O. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manual ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis but reduced attenuation in nondependent portions of the lungs. Positioning of foals in dorsal recumbency for CT may be appropriate when pathological changes in the ventral portion of the lungs are suspected.

  16. Project Engage: Snowball Sampling and Direct Recruitment to Identify and Link Hard-to-Reach HIV-Infected Persons Who Are Out of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Kulkarni, Sonali; Bendetson, Jesse; Jordan, Wilbert; Bolan, Robert; Smith, Terry; Cunningham, William; Pérez, Mario J

    2017-06-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to identify and link hard-to-find persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are out of care (OOC). Project Engage, a health department-based project in Los Angeles County, used a mixed-methods approach to locate and provide linkage for PLWH who have limited contact with HIV medical and nonmedical services. Incentivized social network recruitment (SNR) and direct recruitment (DR) was used to identify eligible OOC alters for a linkage intervention that included HIV clinic selection, appointment and transportation support, reminder calls/texts, and clinic navigation. Between 2012 and 2015, 112 alters were identified using SNR (n = 74) and DR (n = 38). Most alters were male (80%), African American (38%), and gay (60%). Sizable percentages were homeless (78%), had engaged in sex work (32%) in the previous 6 months, had injected drugs (47%), were incarcerated in the previous 12 months (50%), and had only received HIV care during the previous 5 years while incarcerated (24%). SNR alters were more likely than DR alters to be African American, uninsured, unemployed, homeless, sex workers, injection drug users, recently incarcerated, and have unmet service needs. Alters linked to care within 3 (69%), 4-6 (5%), and 7-12 months (8%), and 72% were retained at 6-12 months. The percent virally suppressed increased (27% vs. 41%) and the median viral load decreased (P = 0.003) between linkage and follow-up at 6-12 months. The alternative approaches presented were effective at locating marginalized HIV-positive persons who are OOC for linkage and retention. The SNR approach was most successful at identifying alters with serious social challenges and gaps in needed medical/ancillary services.

  17. Recruitment of mental health survey participants using Internet advertising: content, characteristics and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    Postal and telephone survey research is threatened by declining response rates and high cost. Online recruitment is becoming more popular, although there is little empirical evidence about its cost-effectiveness or the representativeness of online samples. There is also limited research on optimal strategies for developing advertising content for online recruitment. The present study aimed to assess these aspects of online recruitment. Two mental health surveys used advertisements within a social network website (Facebook) to recruit adult Australian participants. The initial survey used advertisements linking directly to an external survey website, and recruited 1283 participants at $9.82 per completed survey. A subsequent survey used advertisements linking to a Facebook page that featured links to the external survey, recruiting 610 participants at $1.51 per completion. Both surveys were more cost-effective than similar postal surveys conducted previously, which averaged $19.10 per completion. Online and postal surveys both had somewhat unrepresentative samples. However, online surveys tended to be more successful in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Advertising using "problem" terminology was more effective than "positive" terminology, while there was no significant effect of altruistic versus self-gain terminology. Online recruitment is efficient, flexible and cost-effective, suggesting that online recruitment has considerable potential for specific research designs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leathem, Claire S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of patients and healthcare providers in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is important in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. However, failure to achieve recruitment targets is common and reasons why a particular recruitment strategy works for one study and not another remain unclear. We sought to describe a strategy used in a multicentre RCT in primary care, to report researchers\\' and participants\\' experiences of its implementation and to inform future strategies to maximise recruitment and retention. METHODS: In total 48 general practices and 903 patients were recruited from three different areas of Ireland to a RCT of an intervention designed to optimise secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The recruitment process involved telephoning practices, posting information, visiting practices, identifying potential participants, posting invitations and obtaining consent. Retention involved patients attending reviews and responding to questionnaires and practices facilitating data collection. RESULTS: We achieved high retention rates for practices (100%) and for patients (85%) over an 18-month intervention period. Pilot work, knowledge of the setting, awareness of change in staff and organisation amongst participant sites, rapid responses to queries and acknowledgement of practitioners\\' contributions were identified as being important. Minor variations in protocol and research support helped to meet varied, complex and changing individual needs of practitioners and patients and encouraged retention in the trial. A collaborative relationship between researcher and practice staff which required time to develop was perceived as vital for both recruitment and retention. CONCLUSION: Recruiting and retaining the numbers of practices and patients estimated as required to provide findings with adequate power contributes to increased confidence in the validity and generalisability of RCT results. A

  19. Identifying strategies to maximise recruitment and retention of practices and patients in a multicentre randomised controlled trial of an intervention to optimise secondary prevention for coronary heart disease in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houlihan Ailish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment and retention of patients and healthcare providers in randomised controlled trials (RCTs is important in order to determine the effectiveness of interventions. However, failure to achieve recruitment targets is common and reasons why a particular recruitment strategy works for one study and not another remain unclear. We sought to describe a strategy used in a multicentre RCT in primary care, to report researchers' and participants' experiences of its implementation and to inform future strategies to maximise recruitment and retention. Methods In total 48 general practices and 903 patients were recruited from three different areas of Ireland to a RCT of an intervention designed to optimise secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The recruitment process involved telephoning practices, posting information, visiting practices, identifying potential participants, posting invitations and obtaining consent. Retention involved patients attending reviews and responding to questionnaires and practices facilitating data collection. Results We achieved high retention rates for practices (100% and for patients (85% over an 18-month intervention period. Pilot work, knowledge of the setting, awareness of change in staff and organisation amongst participant sites, rapid responses to queries and acknowledgement of practitioners' contributions were identified as being important. Minor variations in protocol and research support helped to meet varied, complex and changing individual needs of practitioners and patients and encouraged retention in the trial. A collaborative relationship between researcher and practice staff which required time to develop was perceived as vital for both recruitment and retention. Conclusion Recruiting and retaining the numbers of practices and patients estimated as required to provide findings with adequate power contributes to increased confidence in the validity and generalisability of RCT

  20. Using e-mail recruitment and an online questionnaire to establish effect size: A worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Helen M; Wilson, Sue; Calvert, Melanie; Draper, Heather

    2011-06-09

    Sample size calculations require effect size estimations. Sometimes, effect size estimations and standard deviation may not be readily available, particularly if efficacy is unknown because the intervention is new or developing, or the trial targets a new population. In such cases, one way to estimate the effect size is to gather expert opinion. This paper reports the use of a simple strategy to gather expert opinion to estimate a suitable effect size to use in a sample size calculation. Researchers involved in the design and analysis of clinical trials were identified at the University of Birmingham and via the MRC Hubs for Trials Methodology Research. An email invited them to participate.An online questionnaire was developed using the free online tool 'Survey Monkey©'. The questionnaire described an intervention, an electronic participant information sheet (e-PIS), which may increase recruitment rates to a trial. Respondents were asked how much they would need to see recruitment rates increased by, based on 90%. 70%, 50% and 30% baseline rates, (in a hypothetical study) before they would consider using an e-PIS in their research.Analyses comprised simple descriptive statistics. The invitation to participate was sent to 122 people; 7 responded to say they were not involved in trial design and could not complete the questionnaire, 64 attempted it, 26 failed to complete it. Thirty-eight people completed the questionnaire and were included in the analysis (response rate 33%; 38/115). Of those who completed the questionnaire 44.7% (17/38) were at the academic grade of research fellow 26.3% (10/38) senior research fellow, and 28.9% (11/38) professor. Dependent upon the baseline recruitment rates presented in the questionnaire, participants wanted recruitment rate to increase from 6.9% to 28.9% before they would consider using the intervention. This paper has shown that in situations where effect size estimations cannot be collected from previous research, opinions

  1. Facebook as an effective recruitment strategy for mental health research of hard to reach populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Kayrouz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that Facebook (FB may facilitate recruitment of hard to reach participants into mental health research. The present study aimed to contribute to this emerging literature by exploring recruitment data from a recently completed trial of online treatment for symptoms of anxiety and depression that targeted Arab people. The present study compared traditional recruitment strategies such as media releases, emails, and print advertisements with Facebook strategies including boosting posts, promoting websites, events and FB public fan pages. The main outcomes of interest were the number of started applications and the time and cost per application associated with the FB and traditional recruitment strategies. A target sample of 350 was sought and a total of 81 participants applied to participate over the 42-week recruitment period. Overall, 86% of the resultant applications occurred via FB recruitment and a Poisson regression analysis indicated the FB strategies were more time-effective, recruiting participants 2.5 times faster than the traditional strategies. However, there were no differences in cost-effectiveness for FB ($US37 per participant and traditional strategies ($US40 per participant. The findings of the current study add to existing literature detailing the value of FB recruitment strategies, alongside more traditional strategies, as a way of recruiting hard-to-reach populations for research. However, more research is needed to explore alternative and optimal strategies for the successful recruitment of hard to reach populations via FB and other online social media platforms.

  2. An evaluation of the effectiveness of recruitment methods: the staying well after depression randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, Adele; Rudolf von Rohr, Isabelle; Muse, Kate; Duggan, Danielle; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely accepted as being the most efficient way of investigating the efficacy of psychological therapies. However, researchers conducting RCTs commonly report difficulties in recruiting an adequate sample within planned timescales. In an effort to overcome recruitment difficulties, researchers often are forced to expand their recruitment criteria or extend the recruitment phase, thus increasing costs and delaying publication of results. Research investigating the effectiveness of recruitment strategies is limited, and trials often fail to report sufficient details about the recruitment sources and resources utilized. We examined the efficacy of strategies implemented during the Staying Well after Depression RCT in Oxford to recruit participants with a history of recurrent depression. We describe eight recruitment methods utilized and two further sources not initiated by the research team and examine their efficacy in terms of (1) the return, including the number of potential participants who contacted the trial and the number who were randomized into the trial; (2) cost-effectiveness, comprising direct financial cost and manpower for initial contacts and randomized participants; and (3) comparison of sociodemographic characteristics of individuals recruited from different sources. Poster advertising, web-based advertising, and mental health worker referrals were the cheapest methods per randomized participant; however, the ratio of randomized participants to initial contacts differed markedly per source. Advertising online, via posters, and on a local radio station were the most cost-effective recruitment methods for soliciting participants who subsequently were randomized into the trial. Advertising across many sources (saturation) was found to be important. It may not be feasible to employ all the recruitment methods used in this trial to obtain participation from other populations, such as those currently unwell, or in

  3. Increasing the Pool of Minority Candidates: An Administrator's Guide on the Recruitment and Retention of Effective Minority Teachers in Inner City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Jacquelyn; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides an extensive literary review and presents guidelines and strategies to help school administrators recruit and retain highly effective minority teachers for culturally diverse school districts. The literature review identifies successful teacher recruitment approaches and specific techniques that make these approaches work.…

  4. eHealth recruitment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.

  5. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  6. The Effectiveness of Twitter as a Communication Tool in College Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen Jean

    2013-01-01

    Although some colleges are making progress in integrating new technology into their recruitment practices, many still lack an understanding of how to utilize modern communication tools, including social media sites such as Twitter, effectively. This study explored whether there is a relationship between Twitter usage and recruitment at U.S.…

  7. The contrasting effects of short-term climate change on the early recruitment of tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Inés; Katz, Daniel S W; Lee, Benjamin R

    2017-07-01

    Predictions of plant responses to climate change are frequently based on organisms' presence in warmer locations, which are then assumed to reflect future performance in cooler areas. However, as plant life stages may be affected differently by environmental changes, there is little empirical evidence that this approach provides reliable estimates of short-term responses to global warming. Under this premise, we analyzed 8 years of early recruitment data, seed production and seedling establishment and survival, collected for two tree species at two latitudes. We quantified recruitment to a wide range of environmental conditions, temperature, soil moisture and light, and simulated recruitment under two forecasted climatic scenarios. Annual demographic transitions were affected by the particular conditions taking place during their onset, but the effects of similar environmental shifts differed among the recruitment stages; seed production was higher in warmer years, while seedling establishment and survival peaked during cold years. Within a species, these effects also varied between latitudes; increasing temperatures at the southern location will have stronger detrimental effects on recruitment than similar changes at the northern locations. Our simulations illustrate that warmer temperatures may increase seed production, but they will have a negative effect on establishment and survival. When the three early recruitment processes were simultaneously considered, simulations showed little change in recruitment dynamics at the northern site and a slight decrease at the southern site. It is only when we considered these three stages that we were able to assess likely changes in early recruitment under the predicted conditions.

  8. Your Graduates and You: Effective Strategies for Graduate Recruitment and Development. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H.; Hirsh, W.; Barber, L.

    Many employing organizations in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are finding it increasingly important to have an effective strategy for recruiting and developing higher education graduates. Numerous external and internal factors affect employers' graduate recruitment and development strategies. The following main approaches to graduates' entry…

  9. [Effect of stock abundance and environmental factors on the recruitment success of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jia-hua

    2015-02-01

    Multiple hypotheses are available to explain recruitment rate. Model selection methods can be used to identify the best model that supports a particular hypothesis. However, using a single model for estimating recruitment success is often inadequate for overexploited population because of high model uncertainty. In this study, stock-recruitment data of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea collected from fishery dependent and independent surveys between 1992 and 2012 were used to examine density-dependent effects on recruitment success. Model selection methods based on frequentist (AIC, maximum adjusted R2 and P-values) and Bayesian (Bayesian model averaging, BMA) methods were applied to identify the relationship between recruitment and environment conditions. Interannual variability of the East China Sea environment was indicated by sea surface temperature ( SST) , meridional wind stress (MWS), zonal wind stress (ZWS), sea surface pressure (SPP) and runoff of Changjiang River ( RCR). Mean absolute error, mean squared predictive error and continuous ranked probability score were calculated to evaluate the predictive performance of recruitment success. The results showed that models structures were not consistent based on three kinds of model selection methods, predictive variables of models were spawning abundance and MWS by AIC, spawning abundance by P-values, spawning abundance, MWS and RCR by maximum adjusted R2. The recruitment success decreased linearly with stock abundance (P recruitment success might be due to cannibalism or food competition. Meridional wind intensity showed marginally significant and positive effects on the recruitment success (P = 0.06), while runoff of Changjiang River showed a marginally negative effect (P = 0.07). Based on mean absolute error and continuous ranked probability score, predictive error associated with models obtained from BMA was the smallest amongst different approaches, while that from models selected based on the P

  10. Recruitment of general practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    -factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make......Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...

  11. Effects of reservoirs water level variations on fish recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíula T. de Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The construction of hydroelectric power plants has many social and environmental impacts. Among them, the impacts on fish communities, which habitats are drastically modified by dams, with consequences across the ecosystem. This study aimed to assess the influence of water level (WL variations in the reservoirs of the Itá and Machadinho hydroelectric plants on the recruitment of fish species from the upper Uruguay River in southern Brazil. The data analyzed resulted from the WL variation produced exclusively by the hydroelectric plants generation and were collected between the years 2001 and 2012. The results showed significant correlations between the abundance of juvenile fish and the hydrological parameters only for some reproductive guilds. The species that spawn in nests showed, in general, a clear preference for the stability in the WL of the reservoirs, while the species that spawn in macrophytes or that release demersal eggs showed no significant correlation between the abundance of juvenile fish and hydrological parameters. A divergence of results between the two reservoirs was observed between the species that release semi-dense eggs; a positive correlation with a more stable WL was only observed in the Machadinho reservoir. This result can be driven by a wider range of WL variation in Machadinho reservoir.

  12. The net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.

  13. Identifying Effectiveness Criteria for Internet Payment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Tae-Hwan; Swatman, Paula M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines Internet payment systems (IPS): third-party, card, secure Web server, electronic token, financial electronic data interchange (EDI), and micropayment based. Reports the results of a Delphi survey of experts identifying and classifying IPS effectiveness criteria and classifying types of IPS providers. Includes the survey invitation letter…

  14. Effectiveness of community outreach and engagement in recruitment success for a prebirth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Beth B; Kaar, Jill L; Erbstein, Nancy; Silberman, Pamela; Winseck, Kate; Lopez-Class, Maria; Burbacher, Thomas M

    2017-06-01

    We describe the effectiveness of community outreach and engagement in supporting recruitment for the US National Children's Vanguard Study between 2009 and 2012. Thirty-seven study locations used 1 of 4 strategies to recruit 18-49-year-old pregnant or trying to conceive women: (1) Initial Vanguard Study used household-based recruitment; (2) Direct Outreach emphasized self-referral; (3) Enhanced Household-Based Recruitment enhanced Initial Vanguard Study strategies; and (4) Provider-Based Recruitment recruited through healthcare providers. Outreach and engagement included advance letters, interactions with healthcare providers, participation in community events, contacts with community organizations, and media outreach. After 1-2 years, 41%-74% of 9844 study-eligible women had heard about the National Children's Vanguard Study when first approached. Women who heard were 1.5-3 times more likely to consent. Hearing via word-of-mouth or the media most frequently predicted consent. The more sources women heard from the higher the odds of consent. We conclude that tailored outreach and engagement facilitate recruitment in cohort studies.

  15. Targeted Facebook Advertising is a Novel and Effective Method of Recruiting Participants into a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Nguyen, Margaret; Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Methods Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertiseme...

  16. Predator effects on reef fish settlement depend on predator origin and recruit density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2017-04-01

    During major life-history transitions, animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native vs. nonnative) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement. During a field experiment in the Caribbean, approximately 52% fewer mahogany snapper (Lutjanus mahogoni) recruited to reefs with a native predator (graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata) than to predator-free control reefs and reefs with an invasive predator (red lionfish, Pterois volitans) regardless of predator diet. These results suggest that snapper recruits do not recognize nonnative lionfish as a threat. However, these effects depended on the density of conspecific recruits, with evidence that competition may limit the response of snapper to even native predators at the highest recruit densities. In contrast, there was no effect of predator presence or conspecific density on the recruitment of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). These context-dependent responses of coral-reef fishes to predators during settlement may influence individual survival and shape subsequent population and community dynamics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Effective strategies to recruit young adults into an online wellbeing intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Objectives This paper will describe the outcomes of different methods for recruiting young adults (16-25 to the ‘Online Wellbeing Centre’, an online resource to assess wellbeing and access apps for mental health and general wellbeing. Methods Online and community strategies, which were of paid and unpaid nature, were utilised for recruiting participants aged between 16-25. Online paid strategies included 9 Facebook ads, 2 Twitter ads, 2 Google ads, and 1 YouTube ad. Online unpaid channels included Facebook and Twitter posts on the official pages of selected partner organisations, links on the websites of selected partner organisations, tailored messages and link via a University student learning portal, and bulk emails to various networks of young people. Unpaid community based recruitment strategies included a bulk email to various community contacts, and face-to-face contact via meetings and presentations in schools and mental health services. The one paid community based strategy was the use of a recruitment agency. All ads and posts were designed with final user input following principles of participatory methodology. All recruited participants were asked to complete a self-assessment of mood, energy levels, and sleep quality presented via visual analog scales, and also the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form assessment survey. Recruitment success via each of the strategies was descriptively analysed. Univariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore if self reported measures varied between paid and unpaid channels of recruitment. Results A total of 378 participants were recruited over a timeframe of 10 months. 26.7% of recruited participants were from paid channels with the recruitment agency and Facebook ads accounting for 15.6% and 8.5% respectively. Least effective paid strategies included Google ads and YouTube ads, each accounting for only 0.5% of participants. The average cost per participant recruited through paid channels was 85 AUD. Amongst

  18. Cost effectiveness of recruitment methods in an obesity prevention trial for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jodie L; Fuerch, Janene H; Winiewicz, Dana D; Salvy, Sarah J; Roemmich, James N; Epstein, Leonard H

    2007-06-01

    Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. This study determined the cost effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9+/-1.3) years in Western New York from February 2003 to November 2004, for a 2-year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n=46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n=17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1% (n=5) from other sources (e.g., word of mouth), and 2.9% (n=2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing.

  19. The effect of recruitment rate and other demographic parameters on the transmission of dengue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, A. K.; Anggriani, N.

    2015-03-01

    One of important factors which always appears in most of dengue transmission mathematical model is the number of new susceptible recruited into the susceptible compartment. In this paper we discuss the effect of different rates of recruitment on the transmission of dengue disease. We choose a dengue transmission model with the most realistic form of recruitment rate and analyze the effect of environmental change to the transmission of dengue based on the selected model. We model the effect of environmental change by considering that it can alter the value of mosquito's carrying capacity and mosquito's death rate. We found that the most prevalent effect of the environmental change to the transmission of dengue is when it can alter the death rate of the mosquitoes.

  20. Recruiting Young Gay and Bisexual Men for a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention Through Social Media: The Effects of Advertisement Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Bauermeister, Jose A; Shoben, Abigail B; Paskett, Electra D; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2017-06-02

    Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention. In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance. The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, Psocial media recruitment ads. ©Paul L Reiter, Mira L Katz, Jose A Bauermeister, Abigail B Shoben, Electra D Paskett, Annie-Laurie McRee. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 02.06.2017.

  1. Targeted Facebook Advertising is a Novel and Effective Method of Recruiting Participants into a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Nguyen, Margaret; Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-07-22

    Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertisements relating to general women's health. From November 2013 to June 2015, targeted advertising campaigns were implemented to specifically recruit women who had not received the HPV vaccine. Consenting participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire and those who had ever had sexual intercourse were asked to provide a self-collected vaginal swab. The HPV vaccination status of participants was confirmed from the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). The campaign comprised 10 advertisements shown between September 2011 and June 2015 which generated 55,381,637 impressions, yielding 23,714 clicks, at an overall cost of AUD $22,078.85. A total of 919 participants were recruited. A greater proportion of unvaccinated women (50.4%, 131/260) were recruited into the study following targeted advertising, compared with those recruited (19.3%, 127/659) prior to showing the modified advertisement (Padvertising is a rapid and cost-effective way of recruiting young unvaccinated women into a HPV vaccine effectiveness study.

  2. Recruitment and Retention of Effective Teachers in Multicultural Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore how pre-service training and professional development affected recruitment and retention of effective teachers serving in multicultural classrooms. The research questions under investigation were: (1) what pre-service training did effective educators receive before entering…

  3. [Effects of recruitment maneuver in prone position on hemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan-hua; Liu, Yuan-fei; Zhu, Hua-yong; Zhang, Min

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate effects of recruitment maneuver in prone position on hemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary infection, based on the protective pulmonary ventilation strategy. Ninety-seven cases with severe pulmonary infection admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Ganzhou City People's Hospital undergoing mechanical ventilation were involved. Volume controlled ventilation mode with small tidal volume (8 ml/kg) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 6 cm H(2)O [1 cm H(2)O = 0.098 kPa] was conducted. Each patient underwent recruitment maneuver in supine position and then in prone position [PEEP 20 cm H(2)O+pressure control (PC) 20 cm H(2)O]. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse oxygen saturation [SpO(2)] and blood gas analysis data were recorded before and after recruitment maneuver in either position. A double-lumen venous catheter was inserted into internal jugular vein or subclavian vein, and a pulse index contour cardiac output (PiCCO) catheter was introduced into femoral artery. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), intra-thoracic blood volume index (ITBVI), extra vascular lung water index (EVLWI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), global ejection fraction (GEF), stroke volume variation (SVV) and central vein pressure (CVP) were monitored. (1) Compared with data before recruitment maneuver, there were no significant differences in HR and MAP after supine position and prone position recruitment maneuver, but significant differences in SpO(2) were found between before and after recruitment maneuver when patients' position was changed (supine position: 0.954 ± 0.032 vs. 0.917 ± 0.025, P recruitment maneuver (P recruitment maneuver, CI [L×min(-1)×m(-2)], SVI (ml/m(2)), GEDVI (ml/m(2)) and GEF were decreased significantly during recruitment maneuver (supine position: CI 3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6, SVI 32.4 ± 5.6 vs. 38.8 ± 6.5, GEDVI 689 ± 44 vs. 766 ± 32, GEF 0.267 ± 0

  4. Recruitment strategy effectiveness for a cryotherapy intervention for a venous leg ulcer prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Watts, Ashlee; Wiseman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    To describe the strategies and costs associated with recruiting African American and white adults into a randomized controlled pilot trial. "Cryotherapy for Venous Disorders: A Pilot Study" is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effects of a cool gel wrap and leg elevation intervention versus a leg elevation alone intervention on skin temperature, skin microcirculation, quality of life, and pain in adults with stages 4 and 5 chronic venous disorders. We sought to recruit 60 participants (21 African Americans, 37 whites, and 2 Hispanic or Latino) to complete the study. These enrollment targets reflect the demographic distribution of the community in which the study was conducted (33% African American, 66% white, and 2% Latino). Proactive and reactive recruitment strategies were implemented to recruit subjects. Seventy-three individuals (9 African American men, 29 African American women, 11 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic woman) were screened, and of those, 67 were randomized (9 African American men, 25 African American women, 9 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic women). Fifty-eight completed the study, yielding an overall 11% attrition rate. An additional 8 subjects canceled or did not show up for a first appointment. Reactive recruitment strategies were most successful for recruiting men, women, African American, and white participants. The 3 most successful reactive strategies were referrals from providers/clinics (34%), flyers posted in the hospital elevators (22%), and targeted mailings from a business (16%). Of the healthcare provider referrals (19), wound care nurses referred 12 completed participants. The amount budgeted for advertisement was $5,000 (2% of the total grant award). The amount spent on recruitment including labor was $5,978, which averaged $103 per participant who completed the study (N = 58). Reactive strategies per participant completer proved more cost-efficient than proactive

  5. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  6. Effects of systematic mental intervention on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-zhen WANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effects of systematic mental intervention, with combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits, and explore an optimal intervention model for recruits' mental health. Methods  Two thousand and sixteen recruits in one unit were involved in the present study, among them 1064 were allocated to study group, and the remaining 952 to control group. Recruits in study group received centralized teaching with battalion as a unit, and received group interview in squad or platoon as a unit, and meanwhile individual interview was conducted. Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ were filled one month after they were enlisted in the army and 3 days before the training ended. Recruits in control group undertook the same tests mentioned above only 3 days before the training ended. Results  The total score and factor scores except hostility in SCL-90 test were significantly lower after than before systematic mental intervention (P0.05. The total score and factor scores except paranoia in SCL-90 test were significantly lower in study group than in control group after intervention (P0.05, the score of active coping was significantly higher (P<0.001, and of negative coping was significantly lower (P<0.001 after than before intervention. The ratio of the score over 2 and above declined obviously (P<0.05 in neurosis, SCL-90 abnormality, SCL-90 total scores, number of positive items, somatization, obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid, and psychotic factor after than before intervention in recruits. Conclusion  Systematic mental intervention, which consisted of combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, may promote the mental health, personality and coping style in recruits.

  7. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S; Shaw, Leah B; Schwartz, Ira B

    2013-01-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime). (paper)

  8. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  9. Multislice spiral computed tomography to determine the effects of a recruitment maneuver in experimental lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, Dietrich; Rossaint, Rolf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Anesthesiology Department, Aachen (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Guenther, Rolf W. [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Clinic of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Kuhlen, Ralf [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Operative Intensive Care Department, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Although recruitment of atelectatic lung is a common aim in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effects of a recruitment maneuver have not been assessed quantitatively. By multislice spiral CT (MSCT), we analyzed the changes in lung volumes calculated from the changes in the CT values of hyperinflated (V{sub HYP}), normally (V{sub NORM}), poorly (V{sub POOR}) and nonaerated (V{sub NON}) lung in eight mechanically ventilated pigs with saline lavage-induced acute lung injury before and after a recruitment maneuver. This was compared to single slice analysis near the diaphragm. The increase in aerated lung was mainly for V{sub POOR} and the less in V{sub NORM}. Total lung volume and intrathoracic gas increased. No differences were found for tidal volumes measured by spirometry or determined by CT. The inspiratory-expiratory volume differences were not different after the recruitment maneuver in V{sub NON} (from 62{+-}18 ml to 43{+-}26 ml, P=0.114), and in V{sub NORM} (from 216{+-}51 ml to 251{+-}37 ml, P=0.102). Single slice analysis significantly underestimated the increase in normally and poorly aerated lung. Quantitative analysis of lung volumes by whole lung MSCT revealed the increase of poorly aerated lung as the main mechanism of a standard recruitment maneuver. MSCT can provide additional information as compared to single slice CT. (orig.)

  10. Multislice spiral computed tomography to determine the effects of a recruitment maneuver in experimental lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzler, Dietrich; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Although recruitment of atelectatic lung is a common aim in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effects of a recruitment maneuver have not been assessed quantitatively. By multislice spiral CT (MSCT), we analyzed the changes in lung volumes calculated from the changes in the CT values of hyperinflated (V HYP ), normally (V NORM ), poorly (V POOR ) and nonaerated (V NON ) lung in eight mechanically ventilated pigs with saline lavage-induced acute lung injury before and after a recruitment maneuver. This was compared to single slice analysis near the diaphragm. The increase in aerated lung was mainly for V POOR and the less in V NORM . Total lung volume and intrathoracic gas increased. No differences were found for tidal volumes measured by spirometry or determined by CT. The inspiratory-expiratory volume differences were not different after the recruitment maneuver in V NON (from 62±18 ml to 43±26 ml, P=0.114), and in V NORM (from 216±51 ml to 251±37 ml, P=0.102). Single slice analysis significantly underestimated the increase in normally and poorly aerated lung. Quantitative analysis of lung volumes by whole lung MSCT revealed the increase of poorly aerated lung as the main mechanism of a standard recruitment maneuver. MSCT can provide additional information as compared to single slice CT. (orig.)

  11. Differing effects of eelgrass Zostera marina on recruitment and growth of associated blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, B.H.T.

    1998-01-01

    I studied the effects of habitat structure, provided by an eelgrass Zostera marina canopy, on shell growth rate and recruitment of co-occurring blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the Western Baltic Sea. M. edulis in clumps consisting of 10 and 30 individuals were tagged and placed in unvegetated areas

  12. Effects of Self-Monitoring and Recruiting Teacher Attention on Pre-Vocational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Christina A.; Everhart-Sherwood, Julie M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teaching self-monitoring and recruiting teacher attention on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of pre-vocational tasks by two sixth grade boys with moderate to severe intellectual disability. While completing pre-vocational tasks (e.g., sorting hangers by size, weighing amounts in ounces), the…

  13. A methodology to measure the effectiveness of academic recruitment and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the effectiveness of the recruitment and turnover of professors, in terms of their research performance. The method presented is applied tothe case of Italian universities over the period 2008–2012. The work then analyses thecorrelation between the indicators of eff...

  14. Recruiting and Retaining Effective Teachers for Urban Schools: Developing a Strategic Plan for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, Carla; Hawley, Willis D.

    This analysis discusses ways to address the persistent challenge of ensuring that students who attend urban schools are taught by highly effective teachers. It presents a four-point strategic plan that includes: (1) increase the quantity and quality of people entering and returning to teaching in urban districts (precollegiate recruitment, higher…

  15. Recruitment Combined with Retention Strategies Results in Institutional Effectiveness and Student Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Curtis

    In Winter 1994, the Marketing Department at Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) in Utah implemented an educational marketing plan that incorporated a focus on customer service to improve institutional effectiveness and student satisfaction. The plan includes a retention and recruitment program to strengthen the college's relationship with current…

  16. The effects of recruitment to direct predator cues on predator responses in meerkats

    OpenAIRE

    Zottl, M.; Lienert, R.; Clutton-Brock, T.; Millesi, E.; Manser, M B.

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral responses of animals to direct predator cues (DPCs; e.g., urine) are common and may improve their survival. We investigated wild meerkat (Suricata suricatta) responses to DPCs by taking an experimental approach. When meerkats encounter a DPC they often recruit group members by emitting a call type, which causes the group members to interrupt foraging and approach the caller. The aim of this study was to identify the qualities of olfactory predator cues, which affect the strength of...

  17. EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND MOTIVATION TO PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES AT DATACOMM DIANGRAHA COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut R Sudiarditha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the goal is to test empirically the effect of recruitment, selection and motivation of the employee performance at Datacomm Diangraha Company. The samples used were employees of Datacomm Diangraha especially the engineers with the total number of respondents was 126. The analysis used a linear regression, this research examines four variables: Recruitment (X1, Selection (X2 and Motivation (X3 as independent variables, and Performance employees (Y as the dependent variable. Partial test shows that the recruitment effect of 0175 (positive and significant on the performance. While the selection is also influenced significantly by 0347 on employee performance. And further motivation for 0295 was a significant influence on employee performance.Measurement model analysis in this study showed that all variables have met the criteria of validity and reliability, while at the structural model analysis shows that testing of hypotheses H1, H2, and H3 supports the hypothesis proposed. The resulting model of the independent variables and the effect on the dependent variable is Y = 16,408 + 0175 0347 X1 + X2 + X3 0295. The study concluded that the recruitment, selection and motivation affect the performance of employees with the results affect the performance of 95%, while 5% is determined by other variables.

  18. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Clinical Registry and a Clinical Data Warehouse for Supporting Clinical Trial Recruitment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost. PMID:21347102

  19. Optimizing donor scheduling before recruitment: An effective approach to increasing apheresis platelet collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Shike, Hiroko; Wang, Ming; Domen, Ronald E; George, Melissa R

    2018-01-01

    Typical approach for increasing apheresis platelet collections is to recruit new donors. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of an alternative strategy: optimizing donor scheduling, prior to recruitment, at a hospital-based blood donor center. Analysis of collections, during the 89 consecutive months since opening of donor center, was performed. Linear regression and segmented time-series analyses were performed to calculate growth rates of collections and to test for statistical differences, respectively. Pre-intervention donor scheduling capacity was 39/month. In the absence of active donor recruitment, during the first 29 months, the number of collections rose gradually to 24/month (growth-rate of 0.70/month). However, between month-30 and -55, collections exhibited a plateau at 25.6 ± 3.0 (growth-rate of -0.09/month) (pcollection days/week (month-72). Consequently, the scheduling capacity increased to 130/month. Post-interventions, apheresis platelet collections between month-56 and -81 exhibited a spontaneous renewed growth at a rate of 0.62/month (pcollections. Apheresis platelet collections plateau at nearly 2/3rd of the scheduling capacity. Optimizing the scheduling capacity prior to active donor recruitment is an effective strategy to increase platelet collections at a hospital-based donor center.

  20. Purposive facebook recruitment endows cost-effective nutrition education program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara; Wamboldt, Patricia

    2013-08-15

    Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation was US $18.88; cost per low-income completer was US $27.53. With Facebook we successfully recruited low-income Pennsylvanians to online nutrition program evaluations. Benefits using Facebook as a recruitment strategy included real-time recruitment management with lower costs and more efficiency compared to previous data from

  1. Effect of experimental manipulation on survival and recruitment of feral pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, L.B.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.; Jolley, D.B.; Sparklin, B.D.; Ditchkoff, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lethal removal is commonly used to reduce the density of invasive-species populations, presuming it reduces population growth rate; the actual effect of lethal removal on the vital rates contributing to population growth, however, is rarely tested. We implemented a manipulative experiment of feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA, to assess the demographic effects of harvest intensity. Using markrecapture data, we estimated annual survival, recruitment, and population growth rates of populations in a moderately harvested area and a heavily harvested area for 200406. Population growth rates did not differ between the populations. The top-ranked model for survival included a harvest intensity effect; model-averaged survival was lower for the heavily harvested population than for the moderately harvested population. Increased immigration and reproduction likely compensated for the increased mortality in the heavily harvested population. We conclude that compensatory responses in feral pig recruitment can limit the success of lethal control efforts. ?? 2009 CSIRO.

  2. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Varghese

    Full Text Available The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village, in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1 How are populations recruiting? and (2 What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for

  3. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  4. A practical, cost-effective method for recruiting people into healthy eating behavior programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paul W

    2007-04-01

    The population impact of programs designed to develop healthy eating behaviors is limited by the number of people who use them. Most public health providers and researchers rely on purchased mass media, which can be expensive, on public service announcements, or clinic-based recruitment, which can have limited reach. Few studies offer assistance for selecting high-outreach and low-cost strategies to promote healthy eating programs. The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether classified newspaper advertising is an effective and efficient method of recruiting participants into a healthy eating program and 2) to determine whether segmenting messages by transtheoretical stage of change would help engage individuals at all levels of motivation to change their eating behavior. For 5 days in 1997, three advertisements corresponding to different stages of change were placed in a Canadian newspaper with a daily circulation of 75,000. There were 282 eligible people who responded to newspaper advertisements, and the cost was Can $1.11 (U.S. $0.72) per recruit. This cost compares favorably with the cost efficiency of mass media, direct mail, and other common promotional methods. Message type was correlated with respondent's stage of change, and this correlation suggested that attempts to send different messages to different audience segments were successful. Classified advertisements appear to be a highly cost-efficient method for recruiting a diverse range of participants into healthy eating programs and research about healthy eating.

  5. Foot shape and its effect on functioning in Royal Australian Air Force recruits. Part 2: Pilot, randomized, controlled trial of orthotics in recruits with flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Adrian; Pilotto, Louis

    2005-07-01

    As part of a larger study of the effect of foot shape on functioning, 47 Royal Australian Air Force recruits with flexible flat feet who were embarking on a 10-week basic training course took part in a randomized controlled trial of orthotic therapy. In particular, recruits were assigned at random to an untreated group or a group that received Australian Orthotics Laboratory, three-quarter-length, flexible, shoe inserts. The groups were assessed at baseline and week 8. Outcome measures included pain, injury, foot health, and quality of life. The untreated group (n = 22) had a greater proportion of heavier recruits than did the treated group (n = 25). There were no significant differences in outcome measures at baseline. Only one-half of the group assigned to orthotic therapy wore the orthotics most or all of the time. At the end of the trial, although the results were not statistically significant, those who were provided with orthotics and wore them had the least lower limb pain and the best general foot health and quality of life. Notably, none of the recruits who wore their orthotics most or all of the time sustained a training injury.

  6. Pathway to STEM: Using Outreach Initiatives as a Method of Identifying, Educating and Recruiting the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Arias, Deedee; Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Greco, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) uses a host of outreach initiatives to inform the general population: the Young Women's Conference, Science Bowl, Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship, My Brother's Keeper, a variety of workshops for university faculty and undergraduate students, public and scheduled lab tours, school and community interactive plasma science demonstrations. In addition to informing and educating the public about the laboratory's important work in the areas of Plasma and Fusion, these outreach initiatives, are also used as an opportunity to identify/educate/recruit the next generation of the STEM workforce. These programs provide the laboratory with the ability to: engage the next generation at different paths along their development (K-12, undergraduate, graduate, professional), at different levels of scientific content (science demonstrations, remote experiments, lectures, tours), in some instances, targeting underrepresented groups in STEM (women and minorities), and train additional STEM educators to take learned content into their own classrooms.

  7. Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E; Mitchell, Michael S; Waits, Lisette P

    2017-09-01

    Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition and recruitment. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding grey wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758). We used noninvasive genetic sampling at wolf rendezvous sites to construct pedigrees and estimate recruitment in groups of wolves before and after harvest in Idaho, USA. Turnover of breeding females increased polygamy and potential recruits per group by providing breeding opportunities for subordinates although resultant group size was unaffected 1 year after the turnover. Breeder turnover had no effect on the number of nonbreeding helpers per group. After breeding male turnover, fewer female pups were recruited in the new males' litters. Harvest had no effect on the frequency of breeder turnover. We found that breeder turnover led to shifts in the reproductive hierarchies within groups and the resulting changes to group composition were quite variable and depended on the sex of the breeder lost. We hypothesize that nonbreeding females direct help away from non-kin female pups to preserve future breeding opportunities for themselves. Breeder turnover had marked effects on the breeding opportunities of subordinates and the number and sex ratios of subsequent litters of pups. Seemingly subtle changes to groups, such as the loss of one individual, can greatly affect group composition, genetic content, and short-term population growth when the individual lost is a breeder. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  8. Millennials in the fire service: the effectiveness of fire service recruiting, testing, and retention

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Modern-day fire service methods' ability to effectively attract and retain millennials is in question. Stale marketing and static testing processes may be contributing to smaller hiring pools and the inability to reach recruits with the skillsets needed to replace experienced firefighters lost through attrition. Millennials are looking for employment in organizations that complement four-year college degrees and offer immediate inclusi...

  9. Effectiveness of recruitment to a smartphone-delivered nutrition intervention in New Zealand: analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, Ekaterina; Michie, Jo; Corrigan, Callie; Sundborn, Gerhard; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Delivery of interventions via smartphone is a relatively new initiative in public health, and limited evidence exists regarding optimal strategies for recruitment. We describe the effectiveness of approaches used to recruit participants to a smartphone-enabled nutrition intervention trial. Methods Internet and social media advertising, mainstream media advertising and research team networks were used to recruit New Zealand adults to a fully automated smartphone-delivered nutrition ...

  10. Additive negative effects of anthropogenic sedimentation and warming on the survival of coral recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourney, Francesca; Figueiredo, Joana

    2017-09-28

    Corals worldwide are facing population declines due to global climate change and local anthropogenic impacts. Global climate change effects are hard to tackle but recent studies show that some coral species can better handle climate change stress when provided with additional energy resources. The local stressor that most undermines energy acquisition is sedimentation because it impedes coral heterotrophic feeding and their ability to photosynthesize. To investigate if reducing local sedimentation will enable corals to better endure ocean warming, we quantitatively assessed the combined effects of increased temperature and sedimentation (concentration and turbidity) on the survival of coral recruits of the species, Porites astreoides. We used sediment from a reef and a boat basin to mimic natural sediment (coarse) and anthropogenic (fine) sediment (common in dredging), respectively. Natural sediment did not negatively impact coral survival, but anthropogenic sediment did. We found that the capacity of coral recruits to survive under warmer temperatures is less compromised when anthropogenic sedimentation is maintained at the lowest level (30 mg.cm -2 ). Our study suggests that a reduction of US-EPA allowable turbidity from 29 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) above background to less than 7 NTU near coral reefs would facilitate coral recruit survival under current and higher temperatures.

  11. Sex-Specific Effects of Gender Identification on Pain Study Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Tarman, Guliz Zeynep; Fontaine, Charlotte; Harrison, Richard; Johnstone, Tom; Salomons, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies show sex differences in pain responses, with women more sensitive to nociceptive stimulation and more vulnerable to long-term pain conditions than men. Because of evidence that men are culturally reinforced for the ability to endure (or under-report) pain, some of these findings might be explained by sociocultural beliefs about gender-appropriate behavior. One potential manifestation of these effects might be differential participation in pain studies, with men adhering to stereotypical masculine roles viewing participation as a way to demonstrate their masculinity. To test this possibility, we assessed gender identification in 137 healthy participants. At the end of the assessment, they were asked if they would like to participate in other research studies. Interested participants were then asked to participate in a study involving administration of pain-evoking stimulation. We compared individuals who agreed to participate in the pain study with those who declined. We observed a significant Sex × Participation interaction in masculine gender identification, such that men (but not women) who agreed to participate identified significantly more with masculine gender. Among masculine gender traits examined, we found that high levels of aggression and competitiveness were the strongest predictors of pain study participation. Our results suggest that men in pain studies might have higher levels of masculine gender identification than the wider male population. Taken together with previous findings of lower levels of pain sensitivity (or reporting) in masculine-identifying male participants, these results suggest an explanation for some of the sex-related differences observed in pain responses. To examine whether sex and gender affect willingness to participate in pain studies, we assessed gender identification in men and women, then attempted to recruit them to participate in a pain study. Men who agree to participate

  12. Effective recruitment method for the marketing department of a metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jaba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some solutions to recruit staff for the Marketing Department of a metallurgical enterprise. Our goal is to present the psychological characteristics of a certain category of employees on a sample of 107 employees and to evaluate the relationship between the motivation to work and those characteristics. In order to realize such evaluation we used the linear mixed effects model in the statistical software program R. The results showed that a significant effect on work motivation have factors like work climate and the employee agreeability.

  13. Effect of military training stress on plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) levels in recruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Luo Nanping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of military training stress on the secretion and metabolism of adrenomedullin in recruits. Methods: Plasma ADM (with RIA) and urinary VMA (with colorimetric analysis) contents were determined both before and after 1h strenuous military exercise in 60 newly enlisted soldiers and once in 50 soliders served over 3 years (as controls). Results: For the recruits group, the plasma concentrations of ADM and urinary concentrations of VMA both before and after military training were significantly higher than those in veterans control (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01). High strength military training resulted in significant elevation of concentrations of both ADM and VMA (P<0.01, P<0.05). The elevation of plasma ADM concentration was extremely significant with an amplitude about 9 times (23.72 ± 12.63 pg/ml before training and 214.97 ± 57.75 pg/ml after training). Conclusion: 1) The stress of enrollment and military training may result in increase of secretion of ADM and VMA in recruits. 2) Appropriate stress is beneficial in terms of rapid adaptation for changes of internal and external environment, while excessive acute and repeated stress may be harmful. (authors)

  14. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  15. Beyond the bed: Effects of metal contamination on recruitment to bedded sediments and overlying substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Nicole A.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2013-01-01

    Metal-contaminated sediments pose a recognised threat to sediment-dwelling fauna. Re-mobilisation of contaminated sediments however, may impact more broadly on benthic ecosystems, including on diverse assemblages living on hard substrata patches immediately above sediments. We used manipulative field experiments to simultaneously test for the effects of metal contamination on recruitment to marine sediments and overlying hard substrata. Recruitment to sediments was strongly and negatively affected by metal contamination. However, while assemblage-level effects on hard-substratum fauna and flora were observed, most functional groups were unaffected or slightly enhanced by exposure to contaminated sediments. Diversity of hard-substratum fauna was also enhanced by metal contamination at one site. Metal-contaminated sediments appear to pose less of a hazard to hard-substratum than sediment-dwelling assemblages, perhaps due to a lower direct contaminant exposure or to indirect effects mediated by contaminant impacts on sediment fauna. Our results indicate that current sediment quality guidelines are protective of hard-substrata organisms. - Highlights: ► Potential for contaminated sediments to exert impacts beyond the sediment communities. ► We examine effects on recruitment to sediments and overlying hard substrata simultaneously. ► Metal-contaminated sediments had a strong negative impact on sediment fauna. ► Metal-contaminated sediments pose less of a hazard to hard-substratum fauna. ► Sediment quality guidelines are likely protective of hard-substrata organisms. - Under natural disturbance regimes, metal-contaminated sediments pose less of a direct risk to hard-substratum fauna than to sediment-dwelling fauna and SQG appear appropriate.

  16. A PKC-dependent recruitment of MMP-2 controls semaphorin-3A growth-promoting effect in cortical dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Gonthier

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for a crucial role of proteases and metalloproteinases during axon growth and guidance. In this context, we recently described a functional link between the chemoattractive Sema3C and Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3. Here, we provide data demonstrating the involvement of MMP-2 to trigger the growth-promoting effect of Sema3A in cortical dendrites. The in situ analysis of MMP-2 expression and activity is consistent with a functional growth assay demonstrating in vitro that the pharmacological inhibition of MMP-2 reduces the growth of cortical dendrites in response to Sema3A. Hence, our results suggest that the selective recruitment and activation of MMP-2 in response to Sema3A requires a PKC alpha dependent mechanism. Altogether, we provide a second set of data supporting MMPs as effectors of the growth-promoting effects of semaphorins, and we identify the potential signalling pathway involved.

  17. The Recruitment Process:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    , which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded......The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies...

  18. Investigating the Effect of Recruitment Variability on Length-Based Recruitment Indices for Antarctic Krill Using an Individual-Based Population Dynamics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanassekos, Stéphane; Cox, Martin J.; Reid, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; herein krill) is monitored as part of an on-going fisheries observer program that collects length-frequency data. A krill feedback management programme is currently being developed, and as part of this development, the utility of data-derived indices describing population level processes is being assessed. To date, however, little work has been carried out on the selection of optimum recruitment indices and it has not been possible to assess the performance of length-based recruitment indices across a range of recruitment variability. Neither has there been an assessment of uncertainty in the relationship between an index and the actual level of recruitment. Thus, until now, it has not been possible to take into account recruitment index uncertainty in krill stock management or when investigating relationships between recruitment and environmental drivers. Using length-frequency samples from a simulated population – where recruitment is known – the performance of six potential length-based recruitment indices is assessed, by exploring the index-to-recruitment relationship under increasing levels of recruitment variability (from ±10% to ±100% around a mean annual recruitment). The annual minimum of the proportion of individuals smaller than 40 mm (F40 min, %) was selected because it had the most robust index-to-recruitment relationship across differing levels of recruitment variability. The relationship was curvilinear and best described by a power law. Model uncertainty was described using the 95% prediction intervals, which were used to calculate coverage probabilities and assess model performance. Despite being the optimum recruitment index, the performance of F40 min degraded under high (>50%) recruitment variability. Due to the persistence of cohorts in the population over several years, the inclusion of F40 min values from preceding years in the relationship used to estimate recruitment in a given year improved its

  19. Mobile phone technology identifies and recruits trained citizens to perform CPR on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims prior to ambulance arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringh, Mattias; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Stark, Tomas; Hollenberg, Jacob

    2011-12-01

    In a two-parted study, evaluate a new concept were mobile phone technology is used to dispatch lay responders to nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Mobile phone positioning systems (MPS) can geographically locate selected mobile phone users at any given moment. A mobile phone service using MPS was developed and named Mobile Life Saver (MLS). Simulation study: 25 volunteers named mobile responders (MRs) were connected to MLS. Ambulance time intervals from 22 consecutive OHCAs in 2005 were used as controls. The MRs randomly moved in Stockholm city centre and were dispatched to simulated OHCAs (identical to controls) if they were within a 350 m distance. Real life study: during 25 weeks 1271-1801 MRs trained in CPR were connected to MLS. MLS was activated at the dispatch centre in parallel with ambulance dispatch when an OHCA was suspected. The MRs were dispatched if they were within 500 m from the suspected OHCA. Simulation study: mean response time for the MRs compared to historical ambulance time intervals was reduced by 2 min 20s (44%), pMobile phone technology can be used to identify and recruit nearby CPR-trained citizens to OHCAs for bystander CPR prior to ambulance arrival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of plant diversity following N cessation: effects of recruitment, litter, and elevated N cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M; Tilman, David

    2010-12-01

    Plant species richness has declined and composition shifted in response to elevated atmospheric deposition of biologically active nitrogen over much of the industrialized world. Litter thickness, litter nitrogen (N) content, and soil N mineralization rates often remain elevated long after inputs cease, clouding the prospects that plant community diversity and composition would recover should N inputs be reduced. Here we determined how N cycling, litter accumulation, and recruitment limitation influenced community recovery following cessation of long-term N inputs to prairie-like grasslands. We alleviated each of these potential inhibitors through a two-year full-factorial experiment involving organic carbon addition, litter removal, and seed addition. Seed addition had the largest effect on increasing seedling and species numbers and may be necessary to overcome long-term burial of seeds of target perennial grassland species. Litter removal increased light availability and bare sites for colonization, though it had little effect on reducing the biomass of competing neighbors or altering extractable soil N. Nonetheless, these positive influences were enough to lead to small increases in species richness within one year. We found that, although C addition quickly altered many factors assumed favorable for the target community (decreased N availability and biomass of nearby competitors, increased light and site availability), these changes were insufficient to positively impact species richness or seedling numbers over the experimental duration. However, only carbon addition had species-specific effects on the existing plant community, suggesting that its apparent limited utility may be more a result of slow recovery under ambient recruitment rather than from a lack of a restorative effect. There were dramatic interactions among treatments, with the positive effects of litter removal largely negated by carbon addition, and the positive effects of seed addition

  1. Effectiveness of strategies for recruiting overweight and obese Generation Y women to a clinical weight management trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Hayley J; O'Connor, Helen T; Rooney, Kieron B; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2013-01-01

    Limited research in young overweight and obese women indicates that they are difficult to recruit to weight management trials, with attrition higher and weight loss success lower than middle to older age participants. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies for a clinical weight loss trial in overweight and obese Generation Y women. Overweight and obese (BMI >=27.5 kg/m-2) women aged 18-25 years (n=70) were required for a 12 month clinical weight management trial including diet, exercise and behaviour modification. Contact with researchers and eventual recruitment are reported for the various strategies employed to engage participants. Data reported as % or mean±SE. Recruitment was challenging with only 50 of the total 70 participants recruited within the scheduled time frame (24 months). Just over one quarter (27%) of volunteers assessed were recruited. Flyers posted around local tertiary education campuses were the most successful method, yielding 36% of included participants. This was followed by advertisements on the local area health service intranet (26%) and in local and metropolitan newspapers (16%). Recruitment of overweight and obese Generation Y women for a clinical weight loss trial was difficult. Multiple strategies targeted at this age and gender group were required. Less rigorous selection criteria and reduced face-to-face intervention time may improve recruitment and retention rates into clinical trials for this age group.

  2. Is Military Advertising Effective? An Estimation Methodology and Applications to Recruiting in the 1980's and 90s

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dertouzos, James

    2003-01-01

    .... The project was sponsored by the Director for Accession Policy (Force Management Policy). This report examines issues related to the effectiveness of recruiting advertising during the 1980s and 1990s...

  3. Neural underpinnings of the identifiable victim effect: affect shifts preferences for giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevsky, Alexander; Västfjäll, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Knutson, Brian

    2013-10-23

    The "identifiable victim effect" refers to peoples' tendency to preferentially give to identified versus anonymous victims of misfortune, and has been proposed to partly depend on affect. By soliciting charitable donations from human subjects during behavioral and neural (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging) experiments, we sought to determine whether and how affect might promote the identifiable victim effect. Behaviorally, subjects gave more to orphans depicted by photographs versus silhouettes, and their shift in preferences was mediated by photograph-induced feelings of positive arousal, but not negative arousal. Neurally, while photographs versus silhouettes elicited activity in widespread circuits associated with facial and affective processing, only nucleus accumbens activity predicted and could statistically account for increased donations. Together, these findings suggest that presenting evaluable identifiable information can recruit positive arousal, which then promotes giving. We propose that affect elicited by identifiable stimuli can compel people to give more to strangers, even despite costs to the self.

  4. Employee recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaugh, James A

    2013-01-01

    The way an organization recruits can influence the type of employees it hires, how they perform, and their retention rate. This article provides a selective review of research that has addressed recruitment targeting, recruitment methods, the recruitment message, recruiters, the organizational site visit, the job offer, and the timing of recruitment actions. These and other topics (e.g., the job applicant's perspective) are discussed in terms of their potential influence on prehire (e.g., the quality of job applicants) and posthire (e.g., new employee retention) recruitment outcomes. In reviewing research, attention is given to the current state of scientific knowledge, limitations of previous research, and important issues meriting future investigation.

  5. Evaluating the negative effect of benthic egg predators on bloater recruitment in northern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David B.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Diana, James S.; Stott, Wendylee; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    As the only extant deepwater cisco in Lake Michigan, bloater is currently at record low levels of abundance.  Several mechanisms to regulate their recruitment have been proposed, including skewed sex ratios, predation on their larvae by adult alewife, and climatic factors during early life history stages, but none has unequivocal support.  In this research, we evaluated an alternative mechanism of egg predation that was supported by an inverse relationship between bloater recruitment and biomass of slimy sculpin, which are known to be effective egg predators.  To that end, we used a combination of field sampling, laboratory experiments, and modeling to estimate the proportion of bloater eggs consumed by sculpins each year between 1973 and 2008.  Monthly field sampling between January through May 2009-2010 (when bloater eggs were incubating) offshore of Frankfort (Michigan), Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), Two Rivers (Wisconsin), and Muskegon (Michigan) provided benthivore diets for subsequent laboratory processing.  Identification and enumeration of stomach contents and subsequent genetic analyses of eggs revealed that the mean proportion of bloater eggs in slimy sculpin diets (N = 1016) equaled 0.04.  Bloater eggs also were consumed by deepwater sculpins (N = 699) at a slightly lower mean proportion (0.02), and only one round goby diet among 552 enumerated revealed a bloater egg.  Based on the diet results, we developed daily ration models to estimate consumption for both deepwater and slimy sculpins.  We conducted feeding experiments to estimate gastric evacuation (GEVAC) for water temperatures ranging 2-5 °C, similar to those observed during egg incubation.  GEVAC rates equaled 0.0115/ h for slimy sculpin and 0.0147/h for deepwater sculpin, and did not vary between 2.7 and 5.1 °C for either species or between prey types (Mysis relicta and fish eggs) for slimy sculpin.  Index of fullness [(g prey/g fish weight)100%] was estimated from sculpins sampled in

  6. Ecosystems effects 25 years after Chernobyl: pollinators, fruit set and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Barnier, Florian; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2012-12-01

    Animals are assumed to play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their effects on seed set, seed consumption, seed dispersal, and maintenance of plant communities. However, there are no studies investigating the consequences of animal scarcity on seed set, seed consumption and seed dispersal at large geographical scales. We exploited the unprecedented scarcity of pollinating bumblebees and butterflies in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine, linked to the effects of radiation on pollinator abundance, to test for effects of pollinator abundance on the ecosystem. There were considerably fewer pollinating insects in areas with high levels of radiation. Fruit trees and bushes (apple Malus domestica, pear Pyrus communis, rowan Sorbus aucuparia, wild rose Rosa rugosa, twistingwood Viburnum lantana, and European cranberry bush Viburnum opulus) that are all pollinated by insects produced fewer fruit in highly radioactively contaminated areas, partly linked to the local reduction in abundance of pollinators. This was the case even when controlling for the fact that fruit trees were generally smaller in more contaminated areas. Fruit-eating birds like thrushes and warblers that are known seed dispersers were less numerous in areas with lower fruit abundance, even after controlling for the effects of radiation, providing a direct link between radiation, pollinator abundance, fruit abundance and abundance of frugivores. Given that the Chernobyl disaster happened 25 years ago, one would predict reduced local recruitment of fruit trees if fruit set has been persistently depressed during that period; indeed, local recruitment was negatively related to the level of radiation and positively to the local level of fruit set. The patterns at the level of trees were replicated at the level of villages across the study site. This study provides the first large-scale study of the effects of a suppressed pollinator community on ecosystem functioning.

  7. Cost effectiveness of screening of all newly recruited employees for diabetes at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niloufer Sultan; Khuwaja, Ali Khan

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which remains asymptomatic for long duration of time and usually diagnosed either when gets complicated or by routine or opportunistic screening. The practice of universal screening is not recommended, particularly in constraint resources. However, we embarked with a study to assess the yield of recommended screening for Type 2 diabetes in all the newly recruited employees at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. All the information required for this study was collected from medical records of all newly recruited employees of nursing services department of a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan, over a period of 5 months (August 2004 to December 2004). Out of 360 subjects, 326, whose information was found to be complete, were included for final analysis. Mean age of the study subjects was 25.3 +/- 4.7 years and their mean casual plasma glucose level was 99.1 +/- 16.3 mg/dl. 315 (96.6%) study subjects had casual plasma glucose level of 139 mg/dl or less. Only 10 (3.1%) study subjects had casual plasma glucose levels between 140 to 199 mg/dl. Just one employee, 41 years old, was found to have casual plasma glucose level of 213 mg/dl. In this study, screening of all individuals for diabetes had a very low yield. Recommendation of universal screening for diabetes does not represent a good use of resources and perhaps not cost-effective. However, periodic screening of high risk individuals should be warranted.

  8. The role of interviewers in job effective recruitment and selection processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola O. Odeku

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Interview processes are dynamic and sometimes very sensitive and as such, they need to be managed effectively and efficiently by evaluating applicants equally without showing favour or prejudice prior, during and until all processes have been completed. A lot of interview processes for purposes of appointment selections have been tainted with unethical practices where the panellists, who took part in the processes, displayed various forms of partisanship, prejudices and so on. Sometimes, a selector may have premeditated negative mind set towards an applicant which may be evidenced during the interview. This may impact on the reasoning and judgements of the selector and the panellists, thus influencing the decisions of the selector. A brilliant and well performed applicant may be found unqualified Ineffective selection and recruitment processes are increasingly affecting employers by denting their cooperate image and sometimes being subjected to vicious legal battles in courts. This article examines the problems associated with prejudices and unethical practices during selection processes particularly by the recruiters and selectors. It points out that panellists must be properly scrutinised before they are appointed to be part of any selection process and that they should disclose any interest, prejudices, bias and so on that could affect the outcome of the process. It is argued that any member of the panel who is found to have compromised his or her position in any selection processes should be punitively sanctioned.

  9. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  10. Deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression identifies parallel recruitment of trans-factors in two independent origins of C4 photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Aubry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With at least 60 independent origins spanning monocotyledons and dicotyledons, the C4 photosynthetic pathway represents one of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution. The recurrent evolution of this highly complex trait involving alterations to leaf anatomy, cell biology and biochemistry allows an increase in productivity by ∼ 50% in tropical and subtropical areas. The extent to which separate lineages of C4 plants use the same genetic networks to maintain C4 photosynthesis is unknown. We developed a new informatics framework to enable deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression in species lacking reference genomes. We exploited this to compare gene expression in species representing two independent C4 lineages (Cleome gynandra and Zea mays whose last common ancestor diverged ∼ 140 million years ago. We define a cohort of 3,335 genes that represent conserved components of leaf and photosynthetic development in these species. Furthermore, we show that genes encoding proteins of the C4 cycle are recruited into networks defined by photosynthesis-related genes. Despite the wide evolutionary separation and independent origins of the C4 phenotype, we report that these species use homologous transcription factors to both induce C4 photosynthesis and to maintain the cell specific gene expression required for the pathway to operate. We define a core molecular signature associated with leaf and photosynthetic maturation that is likely shared by angiosperm species derived from the last common ancestor of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons. We show that deep evolutionary comparisons of gene expression can reveal novel insight into the molecular convergence of highly complex phenotypes and that parallel evolution of trans-factors underpins the repeated appearance of C4 photosynthesis. Thus, exploitation of extant natural variation associated with complex traits can be used to identify regulators. Moreover, the transcription factors

  11. Deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression identifies parallel recruitment of trans-factors in two independent origins of C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sylvain; Kelly, Steven; Kümpers, Britta M C; Smith-Unna, Richard D; Hibberd, Julian M

    2014-06-01

    With at least 60 independent origins spanning monocotyledons and dicotyledons, the C4 photosynthetic pathway represents one of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution. The recurrent evolution of this highly complex trait involving alterations to leaf anatomy, cell biology and biochemistry allows an increase in productivity by ∼ 50% in tropical and subtropical areas. The extent to which separate lineages of C4 plants use the same genetic networks to maintain C4 photosynthesis is unknown. We developed a new informatics framework to enable deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression in species lacking reference genomes. We exploited this to compare gene expression in species representing two independent C4 lineages (Cleome gynandra and Zea mays) whose last common ancestor diverged ∼ 140 million years ago. We define a cohort of 3,335 genes that represent conserved components of leaf and photosynthetic development in these species. Furthermore, we show that genes encoding proteins of the C4 cycle are recruited into networks defined by photosynthesis-related genes. Despite the wide evolutionary separation and independent origins of the C4 phenotype, we report that these species use homologous transcription factors to both induce C4 photosynthesis and to maintain the cell specific gene expression required for the pathway to operate. We define a core molecular signature associated with leaf and photosynthetic maturation that is likely shared by angiosperm species derived from the last common ancestor of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons. We show that deep evolutionary comparisons of gene expression can reveal novel insight into the molecular convergence of highly complex phenotypes and that parallel evolution of trans-factors underpins the repeated appearance of C4 photosynthesis. Thus, exploitation of extant natural variation associated with complex traits can be used to identify regulators. Moreover, the transcription factors that are shared by

  12. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Shelly; Sinclair, Martha; Cunliffe, David; Leder, Karin

    2009-07-16

    Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully considered to maximise generalisability and minimise bias of the results. This paper assesses the recruitment strategies for a 1-year double-blinded randomised trial on drinking untreated rainwater. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and associated costs are described. Community recruitment of households from Adelaide, Australia occurred from February to July 2007 using four methods: electoral roll mail-out, approaches to schools and community groups, newspaper advertising, and other media involvement. Word of mouth communication was also assessed. A total of 810 callers were screened, with 53.5% eligible. Of those who were eligible and sent further information, 76.7% were willing to participate in the study and 75.1% were enrolled. The target for recruitment was 300 households, and this was achieved. The mail-out was the most effective method with respect to number of households randomised, while recruitment via schools had the highest yield (57.3%) and was the most cost effective when considering cost per household randomised (AUD$147.20). Yield and cost effectiveness were lowest for media advertising. The use of electoral roll mail-out and advertising via schools were effective in reaching households using untreated rainwater for drinking. Employing multiple strategies enabled success in achieving the recruitment target. In countries where electoral roll extracts are available to researchers, this method is likely to have a high yield for recruitment into community-based epidemiological studies.

  13. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunliffe David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully considered to maximise generalisability and minimise bias of the results. This paper assesses the recruitment strategies for a 1-year double-blinded randomised trial on drinking untreated rainwater. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and associated costs are described. Methods Community recruitment of households from Adelaide, Australia occurred from February to July 2007 using four methods: electoral roll mail-out, approaches to schools and community groups, newspaper advertising, and other media involvement. Word of mouth communication was also assessed. Results A total of 810 callers were screened, with 53.5% eligible. Of those who were eligible and sent further information, 76.7% were willing to participate in the study and 75.1% were enrolled. The target for recruitment was 300 households, and this was achieved. The mail-out was the most effective method with respect to number of households randomised, while recruitment via schools had the highest yield (57.3% and was the most cost effective when considering cost per household randomised (AUD$147.20. Yield and cost effectiveness were lowest for media advertising. Conclusion The use of electoral roll mail-out and advertising via schools were effective in reaching households using untreated rainwater for drinking. Employing multiple strategies enabled success in achieving the recruitment target. In countries where electoral roll extracts are available to researchers, this method is likely to have a high yield for recruitment into community-based epidemiological studies.

  14. Effectiveness of recruitment to a smartphone-delivered nutrition intervention in New Zealand: analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Ekaterina; Michie, Jo; Corrigan, Callie; Sundborn, Gerhard; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2017-07-02

    Delivery of interventions via smartphone is a relatively new initiative in public health, and limited evidence exists regarding optimal strategies for recruitment. We describe the effectiveness of approaches used to recruit participants to a smartphone-enabled nutrition intervention trial. Internet and social media advertising, mainstream media advertising and research team networks were used to recruit New Zealand adults to a fully automated smartphone-delivered nutrition labelling trial (no face-to-face visits were required). Recruitment of Māori and Pacific participants was a key focus and ethically relevant recruitment materials and approaches were used where possible. The effectiveness of recruitment strategies was evaluated using Google Analytics, monitoring of study website registrations and randomisations, and self-reported participant data. The cost of the various strategies and associations with participant demographics were assessed. Over a period of 13 months, there were 2448 registrations on the study website, and 1357 eligible individuals were randomised into the study (55%). Facebook campaigns were the most successful recruitment strategy overall (43% of all randomised participants) and for all ethnic groups (Māori 44%, Pacific 44% and other 43%). Significant associations were observed between recruitment strategy and age (psmartphone-delivered trial. These approaches also reached diverse ethnic groups. However, more culturally appropriate recruitment strategies are likely to be necessary in studies where large numbers of participants from specific ethnic groups are sought. ACTRN12614000644662; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Catalytic recruitment in the inactivation of acetylcholinesterase by soman: temperature dependence of the solvent isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, I.M.; Huber, J.H.A.; Schowen, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    3,3-Dimethyl-2-butyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman) recruits at least 60-70% of the catalytic power of acetylcholinesterase during phosphonylation of the active-site serine, as compared with the acetylation by acetylcholine. The solvent isotope effect is 1.34 +/- 0.11 and is temperature independent within experimental error between 5 and 45 0 C. This observation is quite similar to what has been found for the reactions of aryl acetates and anilides. Average activation parameters for the same temperature range are ΔH* = 7.3 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol and ΔS* = -4 +/- 2 eu (H 2 O) and ΔH* = 7.1 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol and ΔS* = -6 +/- 1 eu (D 2 O). A rate-limiting process with 50% contribution of an induced-fit conformational change is supported by the data

  16. The most effective strategy for recruiting a pregnancy cohort: A tale of two cities

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, D.P.; O'Beirne, M.; Lightbody, T.; Johnston, D.W.; Dymianiw, D.L.; Nastalska, K.; Anis, L.; Loehr, S.; Gilbert, A.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were recruited into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in two cities in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton. In Calgary, a larger proportion of women obtain obstetrical care from family physicians than from obstetricians; otherwise the cities have similar characteristics. Despite similarities of the cities, the recruitment success was very different. The purpose of this paper is to describe recruitment strategies, determine which were most successfu...

  17. The most effective strategy for recruiting a pregnancy cohort: a tale of two cities

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Donna P; O?Beirne, Maeve; Lightbody, Teresa; Johnston, David W; Dymianiw, Dayna-Lynn; Nastalska, Katarzyna; Anis, Lubna; Loehr, Sarah; Gilbert, Anne; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were recruited into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in two cities in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton. In Calgary, a larger proportion of women obtain obstetrical care from family physicians than from obstetricians; otherwise the cities have similar characteristics. Despite similarities of the cities, the recruitment success was very different. The purpose of this paper is to describe recruitment strategies, determine which were most successfu...

  18. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  19. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  20. Community College Faculty Recruitment Practices: The Effects of Applicant Gender, Instructional Programs, and Job Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that applied marketing and advertising theory to recruit community-college business faculty. The reactions of male and female target applicants to recruitment advertisements and job descriptions were assessed, with differences found between the two groups. Discusses results, and implications for practice, theory and research. (36…

  1. [Auditory training with wide-band white noise: effects on the recruitment (III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Ugidos, L J; Rodríguez Morejón, C; Vallés Varela, H; Iparraguirre Bolinaga, V; Knaster del Olmo, J

    2001-05-01

    The auditory training with wide-band white noise is a methodology for the qualitative recovery of the hearing loss in people suffering from sensorineural hearing loss. It is based on the application of a wide-band white modified noise. In a prospective study, we have assessed the modifications of the recruitment coefficient in a sample of 48 patients who have followed a program of 15 auditory training with wide-band white noise sessions. The average improvement of the recruitment coefficient expressed in percentage is a 7.7498%, which comes up to 23.5249% in the case of a binaural recruitment coefficient. From our results, it can be deduced that the auditory training with wide-band white noise reduces the recruitment. That is to say, the decrease of the recruitment in high intensities both binaurally and in all ears.

  2. Web-based recruitment: effects of information, organizational brand, and attitudes toward a Web site on applicant attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David G; Mahto, Raj V; Otondo, Robert F

    2007-11-01

    Recruitment theory and research show that objective characteristics, subjective considerations, and critical contact send signals to prospective applicants about the organization and available opportunities. In the generating applicants phase of recruitment, critical contact may consist largely of interactions with recruitment sources (e.g., newspaper ads, job fairs, organization Web sites); however, research has yet to fully address how all 3 types of signaling mechanisms influence early job pursuit decisions in the context of organizational recruitment Web sites. Results based on data from 814 student participants searching actual organization Web sites support and extend signaling and brand equity theories by showing that job information (directly) and organization information (indirectly) are related to intentions to pursue employment when a priori perceptions of image are controlled. A priori organization image is related to pursuit intentions when subsequent information search is controlled, but organization familiarity is not, and attitudes about a recruitment source also influence attraction and partially mediate the effects of organization information. Theoretical and practical implications for recruitment are discussed. (c) 2007 APA

  3. Effect of chest compressions only during experimental basic life support on alveolar collapse and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstaller, Klaus; Rudolph, Annette; Karmrodt, Jens; Gervais, Hendrik W; Goetz, Rolf; Becher, Anja; David, Matthias; Kempski, Oliver S; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dick, Wolfgang F; Eberle, Balthasar

    2008-10-01

    The importance of ventilatory support during cardiac arrest and basic life support is controversial. This experimental study used dynamic computed tomography (CT) to assess the effects of chest compressions only during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCO-CPR) on alveolar recruitment and haemodynamic parameters in porcine model of ventricular fibrillation. Twelve anaesthetized pigs (26+/-1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) both during basic life support and advanced cardiac life support, or (2) CCO during basic life support and IPPV during advanced cardiac life support. Measurements were acquired at baseline prior to cardiac arrest, during basic life support, during advanced life support, and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), as follows: dynamic CT series, arterial and central venous pressures, blood gases, and regional organ blood flow. The ventilated and atelectatic lung area was quantified from dynamic CT images. Differences between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and a pbasic life support in the CCO-CPR group remained clinically relevant throughout the subsequent advanced cardiac life support period and following ROSC, and was associated with prolonged impaired haemodynamics. No inter-group differences in myocardial and cerebral blood flow were observed. A lack of ventilation during basic life support is associated with excessive atelectasis, arterial hypoxaemia and compromised CPR haemodynamics. Moreover, these detrimental effects remain evident even after restoration of IPPV.

  4. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...... non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations...

  5. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  6. Effects of Demersal Otter Trawls on the Re-suspension of Copepod Resting Eggs and its Potential Effects on Recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Hay, G

    2014-01-01

    Resting eggs are important phases in the life strategy of many coastal and estuarine copepods. The egg mortality in the sediment layers where they are buried, as well as re-suspension from the sediment into the water column where eggs may hatch are factors that affect the success of this life str...... and recruit nauplii to the pelagic, egg viability was reduced by the passage of the gear components. This study also suggests that the viability is dependent on the gear component and accordingly potential effects must be considered for at this level....

  7. Recruiting nurses through social media: Effects on employer brand and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Marieke; Van Hoye, Greet; Stockman, Sara; Schollaert, Eveline; Van Theemsche, Bart; Jacobs, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether and how nurses' exposure to a hospital's profile on social media affects their perceptions of the hospital's brand and attractiveness as an employer. Since in many places across the globe hospitals are struggling with nursing shortages, competition is rising to be perceived as an attractive employer by this target group. Organizations are increasingly using social media for recruitment, however, little is known about its effects on potential applicants' perceptions of the organization as an employer. We thus examine whether these effects occur and rely on the media richness theory to explain the mechanisms at play. A between-subjects experimental design was applied. Three conditions were used: a control group, one condition that required visiting the Facebook page of a hospital and one condition that required visiting the LinkedIn page. The focal organization was an existing Belgian hospital which had a LinkedIn and a Facebook page. An online questionnaire was sent to nursing students and employed nurses over 5 months in 2015-2016. Nurses' exposure to the hospital's Facebook or LinkedIn page had a significant positive effect on a majority of the employer brand dimensions, both instrumental and symbolic. In addition, nurses who visited the Facebook page felt more attracted to working at the hospital. Most of these effects were mediated by social presence. Nurses' perceptions of employers can be positively influenced by seeing a hospital's social media page. Hospitals can thus employ social media to improve their employer brand image and attractiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  9. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    Core stabilization has been utilized for rehabilitation and prevention of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies showed that activation of the abdominal core muscles enhanced the hip muscle activity in hip extension and abduction exercises. However, the lack of the direct measurement and quantification of the activation level of the abdominal core muscles during the execution of the hip exercises affect the level of evidence to substantiate the proposed application of core exercises to promote training and rehabilitation outcome of the hip region. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of abdominal core activation, which is monitored directly by surface electromyography (EMG), on hip muscle activation while performing different hip exercises, and to explore whether participant characteristics such as gender, physical activity level and contractile properties of muscles, which is assessed by tensiomyography (TMG), have confounding effect to the activation of hip muscles in enhanced core condition. Surface EMG of bilateral internal obliques (IO), upper gluteus maximus (UGMax), lower gluteus maximus (LGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and biceps femoris (BF) of dominant leg was recorded in 20 young healthy subjects while performing 3 hip exercises: Clam, side-lying hip abduction (HABD), and prone hip extension (PHE) in 2 conditions: natural core activation (NC) and enhanced core activation (CO). EMG signals normalized to percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) were compared between two core conditions with the threshold of the enhanced abdominal core condition defined as >20%MVIC of IO. Enhanced abdominal core activation has significantly promoted the activation level of GMed in all phases of clam exercise (P recruitment in Clam, HABD and PHE exercises, and this enhancement is correlated with higher physical activity and stiffer hip muscle. Our results suggest the potential application of abdominal core activation for

  10. The effect of World Blood Donor Day on digital information seeking and donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.

  11. Compensatory effects of recruitment and survival when amphibian populations are perturbed by disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase our understanding of factors that regulate animal population dynamics has been catalysed by recent, observed declines in wildlife populations worldwide. Reliable estimates of demographic parameters are critical for addressing basic and applied ecological questions and understanding the response of parameters to perturbations (e.g. disease, habitat loss, climate change). However, to fully assess the impact of perturbation on population dynamics, all parameters contributing to the response of the target population must be estimated. We applied the reverse-time model of Pradel in Program mark to 6years of capture-recapture data from two populations of Anaxyrus boreas (boreal toad) populations, one with disease and one without. We then assessed a priori hypotheses about differences in survival and recruitment relative to local environmental conditions and the presence of disease. We further explored the relative contribution of survival probability and recruitment rate to population growth and investigated how shifts in these parameters can alter population dynamics when a population is perturbed. High recruitment rates (0??41) are probably compensating for low survival probability (range 0??51-0??54) in the population challenged by an emerging pathogen, resulting in a relatively slow rate of decline. In contrast, the population with no evidence of disease had high survival probability (range 0??75-0??78) but lower recruitment rates (0??25). Synthesis and applications.We suggest that the relationship between survival and recruitment may be compensatory, providing evidence that populations challenged with disease are not necessarily doomed to extinction. A better understanding of these interactions may help to explain, and be used to predict, population regulation and persistence for wildlife threatened with disease. Further, reliable estimates of population parameters such as recruitment and survival can guide the formulation and implementation of

  12. Effect of body position and oxygen tension on foramen ovale recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Kayla L; Beshish, Arij G; Heinowski, Nicole; Baker, Kim R; Pegelow, David F; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Bates, Melissa L

    2015-01-01

    While there is an increased prevalence of stroke at altitude in individuals who are considered to be low risk for thrombotic events, it is uncertain how venous thrombi reach the brain. The patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a recruitable intracardiac shunt between the right and left atrium. We aimed to determine whether body position and oxygen tension affect blood flow through the PFO in healthy adults. We hypothesized that hypoxia and body positions that promote right atrial filling would independently recruit the PFO. Subjects with a PFO (n = 11) performed 11 trials, combining four different fractions of inhaled oxygen (FiO₂) (1.0, 0.21, 0.15, and 0.10) and three positions (upright, supine, and 45° head down), with the exception of FiO₂ = 0.10, while 45° head down. After 5 min in each position, breathing the prescribed oxygen tension, saline bubbles were injected into an antecubital vein and a four-chamber echocardiogram was obtained to evaluate PFO recruitment. We observed a high incidence of PFO recruitment in all conditions, with increased recruitment in response to severe hypoxia and some contribution of body position at moderate levels of hypoxia. We suspect that increased pulmonary vascular pressure, secondary to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, increased right atrial pressure enough to recruit the PFO. Additionally, we hypothesize that the minor increase in breathing resistance that was added by the mouthpiece, used during experimental trials, affected intrathoracic pressure and venous return sufficiently to recruit the PFO. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The effect of in-vivo interleukin-1 on recruitment of immune cells into the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bice, D E; King-Herbert, A P; Morris, M J; Hanna, N; Haley, P J

    1988-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for recruitment of lymphocytes into the lung are not known. Data suggest that interleukin-1 (IL-1) is chemotactic for neutrophils (PMN), macrophages, and lymphocytes. Therefore, the release of IL-1 in the lung in response to antigen exposure might be important in lymphocyte recruitment. The data from this study indicate that the instillation of a low dose of human IL-lb (50 ng) into lung lobes of dogs recruited only PMN with no increase in lymphocytes. A dose of 2000 ng recruited large numbers of PMN, with a slightly increased number of lymphocytes. The instillation of 2000 ny of IL-1 into the lungs of dogs that were immunized with sheep red blood cells did not result in the recruitment of antibody-forming cells (AFC) into the treated lung lobe. These data do not support the hypothesis that IL-1 by itself is chemotactic for lymphocytes in vivo, or that inflammation induced by IL-1 alone allows the entry of APC and antibody at the same level as in lung lobes instilled with antigen. (author)

  14. The effect of in-vivo interleukin-1 on recruitment of immune cells into the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; King-Herbert, A.P.; Morris, M.J.; Hanna, N.; Haley, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for recruitment of lymphocytes into the lung are not known. Data suggest that interleukin-1 (IL-1) is chemotactic for neutrophils (PMN), macrophages, and lymphocytes. Therefore, the release of IL-1 in the lung in response to antigen exposure might be important in lymphocyte recruitment. The data from this study indicate that the instillation of a low dose of human IL-lb (50 ng) into lung lobes of dogs recruited only PMN with no increase in lymphocytes. A dose of 2000 ng recruited large numbers of PMN, with a slightly increased number of lymphocytes. The instillation of 2000 ny of IL-1 into the lungs of dogs that were immunized with sheep red blood cells did not result in the recruitment of antibody-forming cells (AFC) into the treated lung lobe. These data do not support the hypothesis that IL-1 by itself is chemotactic for lymphocytes in vivo, or that inflammation induced by IL-1 alone allows the entry of APC and antibody at the same level as in lung lobes instilled with antigen. (author)

  15. The effects of anxiety and depression on stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits: Resilience and coping as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Liu, Botao; Liu, Yunbo; Li, Min; Chen, Long; Xie, Junrun; Li, Jing; Li, Jiawen

    2016-09-01

    Stress-related growth can occur after various traumas or stressful events. In order to investigate how anxiety and depression relate to stress-related growth, this study was conducted with 443 Chinese army recruits who had just finished a 3-month recruit training program. Path analyses revealed that resilience and positive/negative coping partially mediated the effect of anxiety on perceived stress-related growth, while negative coping fully mediated the relationship between depression and perceived stress-related growth. Moreover, positive coping partially carried the influence of resilience on perceived stress-related growth. Anxiety and depression may be potential targets for intervention to enhance the development of stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calduch-Verdiell, Núria; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Vaupel, James W.

    2014-01-01

    larger size, but recent laboratory evidence further indicates that large females also produce eggs of higher quality, a phenomenon known as maternal effects. However, most traditional management models assume that all female fish contribute equally per unit biomass to future recruitment. Here we...

  17. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  18. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  19. Effects of fatigue on motor unit firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on the average firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships for the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis. Nineteen subjects performed ten maximum voluntary contractions of the dominant leg extensors. Before and after this fatiguing protocol, the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors, and bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from both muscles. These signals were then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each subject and muscle, the relationship between average firing rate and recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analyses. For the VL, the linear slope coefficients and y-intercepts for these relationships increased and decreased, respectively, after fatigue. For both muscles, many of the motor units decreased their firing rates. With fatigue, recruitment of higher threshold motor units resulted in an increase in slope for the VL. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluating a nationwide recreational football intervention: Recruitment, attendance, adherence, exercise intensity, and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preinterven......-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.......The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population......). RHR was lowered (푃 health...

  1. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: effect on neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, S S; Kwon, O J

    2000-06-01

    There have been several investigations suggesting an involvement of activated neutrophils in the development of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma. Interleukin-8 in the sputa from GD-induced asthmatic patients increased significantly after the exposure to GD. To confirm IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells when exposed to GD, and to evaluate the role of IL-8 on neutrophil recruitment. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four different concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 microg/mL of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production and neutrophil chemotaxis, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant derived from subjects with GD-induced asthma exposed to 10 microg/mL of GD, and then compared with those without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil chemotactic activity of the culture supernatant was determined by modified Boyden chamber method. Interleukin-8 production and neutrophil chemotactic activity from bronchial epithelial cells significantly increased with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05, respectively), and were significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05, respectively) at each concentration. Close correlation was noted between neutrophil chemotactic activity and IL-8 level (r = 0.87, P < .05). Compared with the untreated sample, pre-treatment of anti-IL-8 antibody induced a significant suppression (up to 67.2%) of neutrophil chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 produced from bronchial epithelial cells may be a major cytokine, which induces neutrophil migration into the airways when exposed to GD.

  2. Challenges in Identifying Effects and Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hüsecken, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide try to hinder tax avoidance. In order to implement effective tax regulations, it is essential to completely understand why corporations avoid taxes and why some appear to be more effective than others. However, various challenges in identifying effects and determinants of corporate tax avoidance cause knowledge gaps. This thesis consists of three essays highlighting the necessity of refined identification strategies. The first essay “The Undersheltering Puzzle and its P...

  3. Environmental effects on recruitment and implications for biological reference points of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Vinther, Morten; MacKenzie, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The decline of the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stock from highest to lowest stock levels on record throughout the 1980s and early 1990s was caused by a combination of recruitment failure and increasing fishing pressure at declining stock sizes. The processes driving the reproductive success...... mortality or the limit biomass reference point is indicated. However, an accepted methodology to determine these reference points in situations of changing stock productivity or system carrying capacity does not exist. Environmental conditions affecting recruitment matter not only for the determination...

  4. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  5. Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Ross D; Woledge, Roger C; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

    2012-02-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition.

  6. Using Economic Incentives to Recruit Community College Faculty: Effects of Starting Salary and Healthcare Benefits Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.; Petrosko, Joseph M.; Rodriguez, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Staffing the nation's community colleges with qualified faculty is an emerging problem. The problem results from massive retirements among members of the post-WW II "baby boom" generation and intense competition from other sectors of the economy for scarce human talent. This study was a faculty-recruitment simulation designed to investigate the…

  7. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics.

  8. The most effective strategy for recruiting a pregnancy cohort : A tale of two cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, D.P.; O'Beirne, M.; Lightbody, T.; Johnston, D.W.; Dymianiw, D.L.; Nastalska, K.; Anis, L.; Loehr, S.; Gilbert, A.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were recruited into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in two cities in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton. In Calgary, a larger proportion of women obtain obstetrical care from family physicians than from obstetricians; otherwise the cities have similar

  9. Talent Management in Academia: The Effect of Discipline and Context on Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, Catriona; Paisey, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    Although talent management is widely discussed in large for-profit organisations and multinationals, it has been little discussed in relation to higher education. This paper examines one aspect of talent management, recruitment, in academia in accounting, in two different countries, Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. It frames the study around…

  10. Effects of age and sex ratios on offspring recruitment rates in translocated black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; du Preez, Pierre; Linklater, Wayne L

    2018-06-01

    Success of animal translocations depends on improving postrelease demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like postrelease survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of data on black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations. We used the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females-a metric integrating survival, fecundity, and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity-to detect determinants of success. Our unambiguously best model (AICω = 0.986) predicted that ORR increases with female age at release as a function of lower postrelease adult rhinoceros sex ratio (males:females). Delay of first postrelease reproduction and failure of some females to recruit any calves to sexual maturity most influenced the pattern of ORRs, and the leading causes of recruitment failure were postrelease female death (23% of all females) and failure to calve (24% of surviving females). We recommend translocating older females (≥6 years old) because they do not exhibit the reproductive delay and low ORRs of juveniles (recruitment failure of juveniles and young adults (4-5.9 years old). Where translocation of juveniles is necessary, they should be released into female-biased populations, where they have higher ORRs. Our study offers the unique advantage of a long-term analysis across a large number of replicate populations-a science-by-management experiment as a proxy for a manipulative experiment, and a rare opportunity, particularly for a large, critically endangered taxon such as the black rhinoceros. Our findings differ from previous recommendations, reinforce the importance of long-term data sets and comprehensive metrics of translocation success, and suggest attention be shifted from ecological to social constraints on population growth and species recovery, particularly

  11. The effects of song familiarity and age on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during autobiographical memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jaclyn H.; Rubin, David C.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a fun...

  12. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Hersey, Kent R.; Holland, A. Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8–9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980–2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring–summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring–summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year t ) and delayed (year t−1) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics.

  13. Identifying strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...

  14. POEM: Identifying joint additive effects on regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya eBotzman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL mapping tackles the problem of identifying variation in DNA sequence that have an effect on the transcriptional regulatory network. Major computational efforts are aimed at characterizing the joint effects of several eQTLs acting in concert to govern the expression of the same genes. Yet, progress towards a comprehensive prediction of such joint effects is limited. For example, existing eQTL methods commonly discover interacting loci affecting the expression levels of a module of co-regulated genes. Such ‘modularization’ approaches, however, are focused on epistatic relations and thus have limited utility for the case of additive (non-epistatic effects.Results: Here we present POEM (Pairwise effect On Expression Modules, a methodology for identifying pairwise eQTL effects on gene modules. POEM is specifically designed to achieve high performance in the case of additive joint effects. We applied POEM to transcription profiles measured in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells across a population of genotyped mice. Our study reveals widespread additive, trans-acting pairwise effects on gene modules, characterizes their organizational principles, and highlights high-order interconnections between modules within the immune signaling network. These analyses elucidate the central role of additive pairwise effect in regulatory circuits, and provide computational tools for future investigations into the interplay between eQTLs.Availability: The software described in this article is available at csgi.tau.ac.il/POEM/.

  15. Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkovich, J.; Clark, J.D.; Murrow, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research from 2001 to 2006 on an experimentally released elk (Cervus elaphus) population at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP or Park) indicated that calf recruitment (i.e., calves reaching 1 yr of age per adult female elk) was low (0.306, total SE = 0.090) resulting in low or negative population growth (λ = 0.996, 95% CI = 0.945–1.047). Black bear (Ursus americanus) predation was the primary calf mortality factor. From 2006 to 2008, we trapped and relocated 49 bears (30 of which were radiocollared) from the primary calving areas in the Park and radiomonitored 67 (28 M:39 F) adult elk and 42 calves to compare vital rates and population growth with the earlier study. A model with annual calf recruitment rate correlating with the number of bears relocated each year was supported (ΔAICc = 0.000; β = 0.070, 95% CI = 0.028–0.112) and a model with annual calf recruitment differing from before to during bear relocation revealed an increase to 0.544 (total SE = 0.098; β = −1.092, 95% CI = −1.180 to −0.375). Using vital rates and estimates of process standard errors observed during our study, 25-yr simulations maintained a mean positive growth rate in 100% of the stochastic trials with λ averaging 1.118 (95% CI = 1.096–1.140), an increase compared with rates before bear relocation. A life table response experiment revealed that increases in population growth were mostly (67.1%) due to changes in calf recruitment. We speculate that behavioral adaptation of the elk since release also contributed to the observed increases in recruitment and population growth. Our results suggest that managers interested in elk reintroduction within bear range should consider bear relocation as a temporary means of increasing calf recruitment.

  16. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Clark, James S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Mohan, Jacqueline [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  17. Eccentric muscle damage has variable effects on motor unit recruitment thresholds and discharge patterns in elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Tamara J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A; Semmler, John G

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on recruitment threshold force and repetitive discharge properties of low-threshold motor units. Ten subjects performed four tasks involving isometric contraction of elbow flexors while electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from human biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. Tasks were 1) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) constant-force contraction at various submaximal targets; 3) motor unit recruitment threshold task; and 4) minimum motor unit discharge rate task. These tasks were performed on three separate days before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles. MVC force declined (42%) immediately after exercise and remained depressed (29%) 24 h later, indicative of muscle damage. Mean motor unit recruitment threshold for biceps brachii was 8.4+/-4.2% MVC, (n=34) before eccentric exercise, and was reduced by 41% (5.0+/-3.0% MVC, n=34) immediately after and by 39% (5.2+/-2.5% MVC, n=34) 24 h after exercise. No significant changes in motor unit recruitment threshold were observed in the brachialis muscle. However, for the minimum tonic discharge rate task, motor units in both muscles discharged 11% faster (10.8+/-2.0 vs. 9.7+/-1.7 Hz) immediately after (n=29) exercise compared with that before (n=32). The minimum discharge rate variability was greater in brachialis muscle immediately after exercise (13.8+/-3.1%) compared with that before (11.9+/-3.1%) and 24 h after exercise (11.7+/-2.4%). No significant changes in minimum discharge rate variability were observed in the biceps brachii motor units after exercise. These results indicate that muscle damage from eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment thresholds for >or=24 h, but the effect is not the same in the different elbow flexor muscles.

  18. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in a ventilator-induced injury mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Cagle

    Full Text Available Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury.To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation.5-12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85 were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers.Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation.Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points. Dynamic compliance can be used guide

  19. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in a ventilator-induced injury mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Jerold A.; Adams, Jason Y.; Harper, Richart W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Objectives To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation. Methods 5–12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85) were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers. Results Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation. Conclusions Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours) and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs). Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points

  20. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in a ventilator-induced injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Laura A; Franzi, Lisa M; Linderholm, Angela L; Last, Jerold A; Adams, Jason Y; Harper, Richart W; Kenyon, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation. 5-12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85) were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers. Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation. Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours) and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs). Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points. Dynamic compliance can be used guide the frequency

  1. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  2. Effectively identifying user profiles in network and host metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.; Berk, Vincent H.; Gregorio-de Souza, Ian

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a collection of methods that is used to effectively identify users of computers systems based on their particular usage of the software and the network. Not only are we able to identify individual computer users by their behavioral patterns, we are also able to detect significant deviations in their typical computer usage over time, or compared to a group of their peers. For instance, most people have a small, and relatively unique selection of regularly visited websites, certain email services, daily work hours, and typical preferred applications for mandated tasks. We argue that these habitual patterns are sufficiently specific to identify fully anonymized network users. We demonstrate that with only a modest data collection capability, profiles of individual computer users can be constructed so as to uniquely identify a profiled user from among their peers. As time progresses and habits or circumstances change, the methods presented update each profile so that changes in user behavior can be reliably detected over both abrupt and gradual time frames, without losing the ability to identify the profiled user. The primary benefit of our methodology allows one to efficiently detect deviant behaviors, such as subverted user accounts, or organizational policy violations. Thanks to the relative robustness, these techniques can be used in scenarios with very diverse data collection capabilities, and data privacy requirements. In addition to behavioral change detection, the generated profiles can also be compared against pre-defined examples of known adversarial patterns.

  3. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in se...

  4. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  6. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P 99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  7. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  8. Modeling the impacts of two age-related portfolio effects on recruitment variability with and without a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, Carey R; Punt, André E; Hilborn, Ray; Essington, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Many rockfish species are long-lived and thought to be susceptible to being overfished. Hypotheses about the importance of older female rockfish to population persistence have led to arguments that marine reserves are needed to ensure the sustainability of rockfish populations. However, the implications of these hypotheses for rockfish population dynamics are still unclear. We modeled two mechanisms by which reducing the proportion of older fish in a population has been hypothesized to influence sustainability, and explored whether these mechanisms influenced mean population dynamics and recruitment variability. We explored whether populations with these mechanisms could be managed more sustainably with a marine reserve in addition to a constant fishing mortality rate (F) than with a constant F alone. Both hypotheses can be seen as portfolio effects whereby risk of recruitment failure is spread over a "portfolio" of maternal ages. First, we modeled a spawning window effect whereby mothers of different ages spawned in different times or locations (windows) with local environmental conditions. Second, we modeled an offspring size effect whereby older mothers produced larger offspring than younger mothers, where length of a starvation period over which offspring could survive increased with maternal age. Recruitment variability resulting from both models was 55-65% lower than for models without maternal age-related portfolio effects in the absence of fishing and increased with increases in Fs for both models. An offspring size effect caused lower output reproductive rates such that the specified reproductive rate input as a model parameter was no longer the realized rate measured as the reproductive rate observed in model results; this quirk is not addressed in previous analyses of offspring size effects. We conducted a standardization such that offspring size effect and control models had the same observed reproductive rates. A comparison of long-term catch, the

  9. Exploring recruitment strategies to hire occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Susan; Derdall, Michele

    2005-02-01

    Recruitment issues in occupational therapy have been a long-standing concern for the profession. This descriptive study explored the strategies currently being used by employers to recruit occupational therapists for employment purposes. An 18-item survey was mailed to 251 sites where occupational therapists work in Alberta and Saskatchewan. There was a 64% response rate and data from 130 surveys were analyzed. The results indicate that employers continue to rely on a wide variety of strategies for advertising and recruiting, the most prevalent being word of mouth, postings at universities, and providing student fieldwork placements. In turn, the most effective recruitment strategies were listed as word of mouth, advertising in the general media, and providing student fieldwork placements. Various examples of financial incentives offered by employers were also listed. Many participants identified recent changes in recruitment strategies such as making a move towards web site job postings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The results suggest strategies for employers to target for recruiting occupational therapists and illustrate to both employers and students the importance of fieldwork in recruitment and hiring.

  10. The ghost of fouling communities past: the effect of original community on subsequent recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Emily A; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Biofouling on ships has been linked to the spread of invasive species, which has been identified as one of the current primary threats to the environment. Previous research on antifouling coatings suggested that the quantity of fouling, as well as community composition, on biocidal coatings was modified by prior fouling settlement. The experiment reported in this paper was designed to determine how preconditioning affected the rate and composition of subsequent fouling on transplanted silicone coatings. A series of 10 × 20 cm panels coated with Intersleek 700 or DC3140 were placed at three locations in Florida (Ponce Inlet, Sebastian Inlet, and Port of Miami), which were characterized by distinct fouling communities. Panels were immersed for four months, cleaned, and reciprocally transplanted among the three sites. Fouling community composition and coverage were characterized at bimonthly intervals both before and after transplantation. The original fouling community affected the subsequent fouling composition and recolonization by tunicates, sea anemones, barnacles, sponges, hydroids, and arborescent bryozoans. The community-level effects were short-term, lasting 2-4 months, but specific responses lasted up to 14 months post-transplant.

  11. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O' Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  12. Recruitment and enrollment of African Americans into health promoting programs: the effects of health promoting programs on cardiovascular disease risk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhomina, Victoria I; Seals, Samantha R; Marshall, Gailen D

    2018-04-03

    Randomized controlled trials (RCT) often employ multiple recruitment methods to attract participants, however, special care must be taken to be inclusive of under-represented populations. We examine how recruiting from an existing observational study affected the recruitment of African Americans into a RCT that included yoga-based interventions. In particular, we report the recruitment success of The Effects of Health Promoting Programs (HPP) on Cardiovascular Disease Risk (NCT02019953), the first yoga-based clinical trial to focus only on African Americans. To recruit participants, a multifaceted recruitment strategy was implemented exclusively in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) cohort. The HPP recruited from the JHS cohort using direct mailings, signs and flyers placed around JHS study facilities, and through JHS annual follow-up interviews. Enrollment into HPP was open to all active JHS participants that were eligible to return for the third clinic exam (n = 4644). The target sample size was 375 JHS participants over a 24 month recruitment and enrollment period. From the active members of the JHS cohort, 503 were pre-screened for eligibility in HPP. More than 90% of those pre-screened were provisionally eligible for the study. The enrollment goal of 375 was completed after a 16-month enrollment period with over 25% (n = 97) of the required sample size enrolling during the second month of recruitment. The findings show that participants in observational studies can be successfully recruited into RCT. Observational studies provide researchers with a well-defined population that may be of interest when designing clinical trials. This is particularly useful in the recruitment of a high-risk, traditionally underrepresented populations for non-pharmacological clinical trials where traditional recruitment methods may prolong enrollment periods and extend study budgets.

  13. Church-Based Recruitment to Reach Korean Immigrants: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Jang, Myoungock; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Although the Korean church has been frequently used to recruit Korean immigrants in research, little is known about the specific strategies and process. The purpose of this integrative review was to describe recruitment strategies in studies of Korean immigrants and to identify the process of Korean church-based recruitment. Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Four stages of church-based recruitment were identified: initiation, endorsement, advertisement, and implementation. This review identified aspects of the church-based recruitment process in Korean immigrants, which are different from the Black and Hispanic literature, due to their hierarchical culture and language barriers. Getting permission from pastors and announcing the study by pastors at Sunday services were identified as the key components of the process. Using the church newsletter to advertise the study was the most effective strategy for the advertisement stage. Despite several limitations, church-based recruitment is a very feasible and effective way to recruit Korean immigrants.

  14. A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of eHealth-supported patient recruitment in primary care research: the TRANSFoRm study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, Nikolaos; Andreasson, Anna; Huckvale, Kit; Larsen, Mark; Curcin, Vasa; Car, Josip; Agreus, Lars; Delaney, Brendan

    2015-02-03

    Opportunistic recruitment is a highly laborious and time-consuming process that is currently performed manually, increasing the workload of already busy practitioners and resulting in many studies failing to achieve their recruitment targets. The Translational Medicine and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm) platform enables automated recruitment, data collection and follow-up of patients, potentially improving the efficiency, time and costs of clinical research. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of TRANSFoRm in improving patient recruitment and follow-up in primary care trials. This multi-centre, parallel-arm cluster randomised controlled trial will compare TRANSFoRm-supported with standard opportunistic recruitment. Participants will be general practitioners and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease from 40 primary care centres in five European countries. Randomisation will take place at the care centre level. The intervention arm will use the TRANSFoRm tools for recruitment, baseline data collection and follow-up. The control arm will use web-based case report forms and paper self-completed questionnaires. The primary outcome will be the proportion of eligible patients successfully recruited at the end of the 16-week recruitment period. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of recruited patients with complete baseline and follow-up data and the proportion of participants withdrawn or lost to follow-up. The study will also include an economic evaluation and measures of technology acceptance and user experience. The study should shed light on the use of eHealth to improve the effectiveness of recruitment and follow-up in primary care research and provide an evidence base for future eHealth-supported recruitment initiatives. Reporting of results is expected in October 2015. EudraCT: 2014-001314-25.

  15. Boomerang recruitment: bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    In today's competitive health care recruitment environment, one of the most cost-effective and successful recruitment strategies is alumni or "boomerang" recruitment. A proven business model, alumni recruitment is just beginning to be used in a significant way in the health care arena. The cost to recruit alumni is much lower than for those in the general workforce and the alumni population is a known quantity. Alumni will assimilate much more easily into your corporate culture, will need less orientation and onboarding, and will be more productive.

  16. A bio-economic analysis of a shell fishery: The effects of recruitment and habitat in a meta population model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imeson, R.J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a bioeconomic model where fishing effort exerted has multiple impacts on the recruitment process of a sedentary shellfish population. Recognizing that sedentary populations generally possess metapopulation characteristics at the recruitment stage, we show that fishing effort

  17. Does recruitment source moderate treatment effectiveness? A subgroup analysis from the EVIDENT study, a randomised controlled trial of an internet intervention for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan Philipp; Gamon, Carla; Späth, Christina; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Hohagen, Fritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Vettorazzi, Eik; Moritz, Steffen; Schröder, Johanna

    2017-07-13

    This study aims to examine whether the effects of internet interventions for depression generalise to participants recruited in clinical settings. This study uses subgroup analysis of the results of a randomised, controlled, single-blind trial. The study takes place in five diagnostic centres in Germany. A total of 1013 people with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from clinical sources as well as internet forums, statutory insurance companies and other sources. This study uses either care-as-usual alone (control) or a 12-week internet intervention (Deprexis) plus usual care (intervention). The primary outcome measure was self-rated depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 3 months and 6 months. Further measures ranged from demographic and clinical parameters to a measure of attitudes towards internet interventions (Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions Questionnaire). The recruitment source was only associated with very few of the examined demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with participants recruited from clinical sources, participants recruited through insurance companies were more likely to be employed. Clinically recruited participants were as severely affected as those from other recruitment sources but more sceptical of internet interventions. The effectiveness of the intervention was not differentially associated with recruitment source (treatment by recruitment source interaction=0.28, p=0.84). Our results support the hypothesis that the intervention we studied is effective across different recruitment sources including clinical settings. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01636752. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Identifying research priorities for effective retention strategies in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Daykin, Anne; Shaw, Alison R G; Lane, Athene J; Blazeby, Jane M; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Gamble, Carrol

    2017-08-31

    The failure to retain patients or collect primary-outcome data is a common challenge for trials and reduces the statistical power and potentially introduces bias into the analysis. Identifying strategies to minimise missing data was the second highest methodological research priority in a Delphi survey of the Directors of UK Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and is important to minimise waste in research. Our aim was to assess the current retention practices within the UK and priorities for future research to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to reduce attrition. Seventy-five chief investigators of NIHR Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded trials starting between 2009 and 2012 were surveyed to elicit their awareness about causes of missing data within their trial and recommended practices for improving retention. Forty-seven CTUs registered within the UKCRC network were surveyed separately to identify approaches and strategies being used to mitigate missing data across trials. Responses from the current practice surveys were used to inform a subsequent two-round Delphi survey with registered CTUs. A consensus list of retention research strategies was produced and ranked by priority. Fifty out of seventy-five (67%) chief investigators and 33/47 (70%) registered CTUs completed the current practice surveys. Seventy-eight percent of trialists were aware of retention challenges and implemented strategies at trial design. Patient-initiated withdrawal was the most common cause of missing data. Registered CTUs routinely used newsletters, timeline of participant visits, and telephone reminders to mitigate missing data. Whilst 36 out of 59 strategies presented had been formally or informally evaluated, some frequently used strategies, such as site initiation training, have had no research to inform practice. Thirty-five registered CTUs (74%) participated in the Delphi survey. Research into the effectiveness of site initiation training, frequency of patient contact

  19. Child and adolescent musculoskeletal pain (CAM-Pain) feasibility study: testing a method of identifying, recruiting and collecting data from children and adolescents who consult about a musculoskeletal condition in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaleff, Zoe A; Campbell, Paul; Hay, Alastair D; Warburton, Louise; Dunn, Kate M

    2018-06-14

    Test a method of identifying, recruiting and collecting data from children and adolescents who consult their general practitioner about a musculoskeletal condition. Prospective cohort feasibility study. 13 general practices in West Midlands of England. Patients aged 8-19 years who consult their general practice about a musculoskeletal condition. Patients were identified via a relevant musculoskeletal Read code entered at the point of consultation. Feasibility was assessed in terms of study processes (recruitment rates), data collection procedures (duration, response variability), resource utilisation (mail-outs) and ethical considerations (acceptability). From October 2016 to February 2017, an eligible musculoskeletal Read code was entered on 343 occasions, 202 patients were excluded (declined, n=153; screened not suitable, n=49) at the point of consultation. The remaining 141 patients were mailed an invitation to participate (41.1%); 46 patients responded to the invitation (response rate: 32.6%), of which 27 patients consented (consent rate: 19.1%). Participants mean age was 13.7 years (SD 2.7) and current pain intensity was 2.8 (SD 2.7). All participants completed the 6-week follow-up questionnaire. All participants found the interview questions to be acceptable and would consider participating in a similar study in the future. The majority of general practitioners/nurse practitioners, and all of the research nurses reported to be adequately informed about the study and found the study processes acceptable. The expected number of participants were identified and invited, but consent rate was low (feasible (eg, for use in a large prospective study). Recruiting children and adolescents with musculoskeletal conditions in a primary care setting currently presents a challenge for researchers. Further work is needed to identify alternative ways to conduct studies in this population in order to address the current knowledge gap in this field. © Article author(s) (or

  20. Tools for monitoring aquatic environments to identify anthropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Cândido, Liliam Silva; Pereira, Joelson Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti

    2018-01-05

    Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population. The physicochemical parameters were within the limits allowed by the Brazilian law. However, contamination by metals (Cd 0.510 mg L -1 , Co 0.405 mg L -1 , and Ni 0.316 mg L -1 ) has been found at various collection points to be more than the allowable values. The antibiotic oxytetracycline was detected in stream water in quantities of up to 89 μg L -1 . In relation to microbiological contamination, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. have been isolated. The averages of chlorophyll a were up to 0.15558 mg cm -2 . Genetic tools identified greater number of micronuclei and DNA damage in periods that showed lower rainfall rates and lower amounts of metals. The analysis used for monitoring was efficient to verify the interference that animal breeding and planting of different cultures have caused on that stream. Thus, the continued use of this water for drinking, irrigation of vegetables, and recreational activities makes the population susceptible to contamination by bacteria and creates conditions for the development of genetic alterations in the long run.

  1. Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Fraser, Cynthia; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Frank; Jackson, Catherine; Taskila, Tyna K; Gardner, Heidi

    2018-02-22

    Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting (e.g. primary care versus secondary care) on recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register (CMR) in the Cochrane Library (July 2012, searched 11 February 2015); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1946 to 10 February 2015); Embase (OVID) (1996 to 2015 Week 06); Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index (ISI) (2009 to 11 February 2015) and ERIC (EBSCO) (2009 to 11 February 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used a risk difference to estimate the absolute improvement and the 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the effect in individual trials. We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We used GRADE to judge the certainty we had in the evidence coming from each comparison. We identified 68 eligible trials (24 new to this update) with more than 74,000 participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in

  2. The effectiveness of courses developed to recruit and retain minority students in the geology major at California State University, Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of diversity in the geosciences has long been recognized as a problem. While improvements have been made, the proportion of Bachelor's degrees in the earth sciences awarded to Hispanic students in 2012 was only 5.6%, a huge disparity with the 17% of the U.S. population that is Hispanic. At California State University, Sacramento, 19% of the student population is Hispanic but, of the 61 students that earned an undergraduate degree in geology between 2005 and 2010, only four were Hispanic. In response to the lack of diversity in the geology major, we developed a new Geology of Mexico course with the goal of recruiting Hispanic students to the major. We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of this course in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. Data was collected in the Geology of Mexico course and in the equivalent Physical Geology course. During the period evaluated, 93% of enrollment in Geology of Mexico was Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We found that Hispanic students in Physical Geology earned lower grades than did nonminority students, while Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico earned grades comparable with nonminority students in Physical Geology. Overall, Geology of Mexico students also showed more positive attitude changes to the geosciences and were more likely to take another geology course. The recruitment rate into the major for Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico was comparable to the recruitment rate for nonminority students in Physical Geology. Since 2008, the proportion of Hispanic geology majors has risen from 4.5% to 14.1% and, notably, the proportion of underrepresented minorities has increased from 4.5% to 22.2%, reflecting a significant overall increase in diversity of the major. In order to increase retention of minority students, we developed a field course for new majors who were not yet ready for upper division courses

  3. Scotblood 2007: Tackling local and global issues in transfusion medicine - donor recruitment, effective use of blood, stem cell plasticity, and vCJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessos, Hagop; Fraser, Robin; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2008-02-01

    This commentary briefly highlights some of the local and the global contemporary issues affecting transfusion medicine worldwide. The main areas of focus addressed this year were: donor recruitment, stem cell plasticity, the effective use of blood, and vCJD.

  4. Effective Recruiting and Intrusive Retention Strategies for Diversifying the Geosciences through a Research Experiences for Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Yuen-Lau, L.; Ikramova, M.

    2016-12-01

    Worse than in most Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, underrepresented minority (URM) groups in the geosciences are reported to be farthest beneath the national benchmarks. Even more alarming, the geosciences have the lowest diversity of all the STEM disciplines at all three levels of higher education. In order to increase the number of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program at the New York City College of Technology has implemented effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain diverse student cohorts. Recruitment efforts include: 1) establishing partnership with the local community colleges; 2) forging collaborations with scientists of color; 3) reaching out to the geoscience departments; and 4) forming relationships with STEM organizations. Unlike the other REU programs which primarily provide a summer-only research experience, this REU program engages students in a year-long research experience. Students begin their research in the summer for nine weeks, and they continue their research one day a week in the fall and spring semesters. During the academic year, they present their projects at conferences. They also serve as STEM ambassadors to community and high school outreach events. This one-year triad connection of 1) professional organizations/conferences, 2) continual research experience, and 3) service constituent has resulted in higher retention and graduation rates of URMs in the STEM disciplines. Both formative and summative program assessment have uncovered and shown that strong recruitment efforts accompanied by intrusive retention strategies are essential to: a) sustain and support STEM URMs in developing confidence as scientists; b) create formal and informal STEM communities; and c) provide a clear pathway to advanced degrees and to the geoscience workforce. This project is supported by NSF REU Grant #1560050.

  5. Digital Recruiting

    CERN Document Server

    Purvis, James

    2015-01-01

    Don’t Simply Map Existing Processes to a New Technology. Treat the Candidate as Your Customer/Understand Your Target Audience. Define Metrics. Take Decisions Based on Data, Not on Opinions. Design a Strategy. Identify and Implement Some Quick Wins with Technology. Understand When You Do and Don’t Need In-house IT. Be Aware of Technology Paradigm Shifts and the Hype Cycle. Monitor the Trends and Stay Up to Date.

  6. How to identify and recruit nurses to a survey 14 and 24 years after graduation in a context of scarce data: lessons learnt from the 2012 nurses at work pilot study on nurses' career paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Véronique; Jeannin, André; Morin, Diane; Lehmann, Philippe; Jeanneret, Floriane Roulet; Schwendimann, René

    2015-03-26

    Nursing workforce data are scarce in Switzerland, with no active national registry of nurses. The worldwide nursing shortage is also affecting Switzerland, so that evidence-based results of the nurses at work project on career paths and retention are needed as part of the health care system stewardship; nurses at work is a retrospective cohort study of nurses who graduated in Swiss nursing schools in the last 30 years. Results of the pilot study are presented here (process and feasibility). The objectives are (1) to determine the size and structure of the potential target population by approaching two test-cohorts of nursing graduates (1988 and 1998); (2) to test methods of identifying and reaching them 14 and 24 years after graduation; (3) to compute participation rates, and identify recruitment and participation biases. Graduates' names were retrieved from 26 Swiss nursing schools: 488 nurses from the 1988 cohort and 597 from 1998 were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire. Initial updated addresses (n = 278, seed sample) were found using the Swiss Nursing Association member file. In addition, a snowball method was applied for recruitment, where directly-contacted respondents provided additional names of graduate mates or sent them the invitation. The study was further advertized through the main employers, study partners, and a press release. Participation rate was 26.5% (n = 287), higher for the older cohort of 1988 (29.7%, n = 145) than for 1998 (15.6%, n = 93). Additional nurses (n = 363) not belonging to the test cohorts also answered. All schools were represented among respondents. Only 18 respondents (6%) worked outside nursing or not at all. Among respondents, 94% would 'probably' or 'maybe' agree to participate in the main study. The pilot study demonstrated that targeted nurses could be identified and approached. There is an overwhelming interest in the project from them and from policymakers. Recommendations to increase

  7. Acute effects of dynamic exercises on the relationship between the motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on motor control strategies. Fifteen men performed six sets of 10 repetitions of maximal concentric exercises or eccentric isokinetic exercises with their dominant elbow flexors on separate experimental visits. Before and after the exercise, maximal strength testing and submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions (40% of the maximal force) were performed. Both exercise conditions caused significant strength loss in the elbow flexors, but the loss was greater following the eccentric exercise (t=2.401, P=.031). The surface electromyographic signals obtained from the submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions were decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each submaximal trapezoid isometric contraction, the relationship between the average motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analysis. In contrast to the concentric exercise, which did not cause significant changes in the mean linear slope coefficient and y-intercept of the linear regression line, the eccentric exercise resulted in a lower mean linear slope and an increased mean y-intercept, thereby indicating that increasing the firing rates of low-threshold motor units may be more important than recruiting high-threshold motor units to compensate for eccentric exercise-induced strength loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Recruitment Order During a Vertical Jump: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Dabanch-Santis, Alexis; Diaz-Valenzuela, Francisco

    2018-06-22

    Kinesio taping is commonly used in sports and rehabilitation settings with the aim of prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effects of 24 and 72 hours of kinesio taping on trunk and lower limb neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a vertical jump. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of kinesio taping on height and ground reaction force during a vertical jump, in addition to trunk and lower limb muscle latency and recruitment order. Single-group pretest-posttest. University laboratory. Twelve male athletes from different sports (track and field, basketball, and soccer). They completed a single squat and countermovement jump at basal time (no kinesio taping), 24, and 72 hours of kinesio taping application on the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and longissimus. Muscle onset latencies were assessed by electromyography during a squat and countermovement jump, in addition to measurements of the jump height and normalized ground reaction force. The kinesio taping had no effect after 24 hours on either the countermovement or squat jump. However, at 72 hours, the kinesio taping increased the jump height (P = .02; d = 0.36) and normalized ground reaction force (P = .001; d = 0.45) during the countermovement jump. In addition, 72-hour kinesio taping reduced longissimus onset latency (P = .03; d = 1.34) and improved muscle recruitment order during a countermovement jump. These findings suggest that kinesio taping may improve neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a countermovement jump only after 72 hours of application on healthy and uninjured male athletes. However, no changes were observed on a squat jump. Future studies should incorporate a control group to verify kinesio taping's effects and its influence on injured athletes.

  9. Effective recruitment of participants to a phase I study using the internet and publicity releases through charities and patient organisations: analysis of the adaptive study of IL-2 dose on regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes (DILT1D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, James; Evangelou, Marina; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Anselmiova, Katerina; Guy, Catherine; O'Brien, Criona; Nutland, Sarah; Brown, Judy; Walker, Neil M; Todd, John A; Waldron-Lynch, Frank

    2015-03-11

    A barrier to the successful development of new disease treatments is the timely recruitment of participants to experimental medicine studies that are primarily designed to investigate biological mechanisms rather than evaluate clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to analyse the performance of three recruitment sources and the effect of publicity events during the Adaptive study of IL-2 dose on regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes (DILT1D). The final study outcome, demography, disease duration, residence and the effect of publicity events on the performance of three recruitment sources (clinics, type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease register and the internet) were analysed from a bespoke DILT1D recruitment database. For the internet source, the origin of website hits in relation to publicity events was also evaluated. A total of 735 potentially eligible participants were approached to identify the final 45 DILT1D participants. A total of 477 (64%) were identified via the disease register, but only 59 (12%) responded to contact. A total of 317 individuals registered with the DILT1D study team. Self-referral via the study website generated 170 (54%) registered individuals and was the most popular and successful source, with 88 (28%) sourced from diabetes clinics and 59 (19%) from the disease register. Of those with known T1D duration (N = 272), the internet and clinics sources identified a larger number (57, 21%) of newly diagnosed T1D (promotional events from organisations supporting T1D research and treatment during the trial were essential to the success of the internet recruitment strategy. Analysis of the DILT1D study recruitment outcomes illustrates the utility of an active internet recruitment strategy, supported by patient groups and charities, funding agencies and sponsors, in successfully conducting an early phase study in T1D. This recruitment strategy should now be evaluated in late-stage trials to develop treatments for T1D and other diseases. NCT

  10. Recruiting from within: Action-Oriented Research Solutions to Internal Student Recruitment in Collegiate Aviation Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent; Carstenson, Larry; Hansen, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Discusses student recruitment in aviation education and establishes that internal recruitment methods are the most productive and cost effective. Provides examples of recruitment strategies based on a model of action research. (JOW)

  11. The Recruitment Process as a Part of Effective Human Resource Management in Public Administration in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tišma, Sanja; Ozimec, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Facing global trends, recognizing and retaining talented and perspective employees became an important issue in every public administration reform. Human resources management in public administration has a mission to help an institution to meet strategic goals by attracting, maintaining and managing employees more effectively. On its way to EU Croatia also has to cope with improvements and development of its public administration system with accent on HRM importance. Taking into account other...

  12. Additive negative effects of anthropogenic sedimentation and warming on the survival of coral recruits

    OpenAIRE

    Fourney, Francesca; Figueiredo, Joana

    2017-01-01

    Corals worldwide are facing population declines due to global climate change and local anthropogenic impacts. Global climate change effects are hard to tackle but recent studies show that some coral species can better handle climate change stress when provided with additional energy resources. The local stressor that most undermines energy acquisition is sedimentation because it impedes coral heterotrophic feeding and their ability to photosynthesize. To investigate if reducing local sediment...

  13. Effects of customization on application decisions and applicant pool characteristics in a web-based recruitment context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, Brian R; Noe, Raymond A

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined 2 forms of customization in a Web-based recruitment context. Hypotheses were tested in a controlled study in which participants viewed multiple Web-based job postings that each included information about multiple fit categories. Results indicated that customization of information regarding person-organization (PO), needs-supplies, and demands-abilities (DA) fit (fit information customization) and customization of the order in which these fit categories were presented (configural customization) had differential effects on outcomes. Specifically, (a) applicant pool PO and DA fit were greater when fit information customization was provided, (b) applicant pool fit in high- versus low-relevance fit categories was better differentiated when configural customization was provided, and (c) overall application rates were lower when either or both forms of customization were provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. 45 CFR 83.12 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 83.12 Section 83.12 Public Welfare... § 83.12 Recruitment. (a) Comparable recruitment. A federally supported entity shall, with respect to... demonstrate that such action is part of a recruitment program which does not have the effect of discriminating...

  15. Conifer seedling recruitment across a gradient from forest to alpine tundra: effects of species, provenance, and site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, C.; Torn, M.S.; Germino, M.J.; Weibel, Bettina; Kueppers, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Seedling germination and survival is a critical control on forest ecosystem boundaries, such as at the alpine–treeline ecotone. In addition, while it is known that species respond individualistically to the same suite of environmental drivers, the potential additional effect of local adaptation on seedling success has not been evaluated. Aims: To determine whether local adaptation may influence the position and movement of forest ecosystem boundaries, we quantified conifer seedling recruitment in common gardens across a subalpine forest to alpine tundra gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA. Methods: We studied Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii grown from seed collected locally at High (3400 m a.s.l.) and Low (3060 m a.s.l.) elevations. We monitored emergence and survival of seeds sown directly into plots and survival of seedlings germinated indoors and transplanted after snowmelt. Results: Emergence and survival through the first growing season was greater for P. flexilis than P. engelmannii and for Low compared with High provenances. Yet survival through the second growing season was similar for both species and provenances. Seedling emergence and survival tended to be greatest in the subalpine forest and lowest in the alpine tundra. Survival was greater for transplants than for field-germinated seedlings. Conclusions: These results suggest that survival through the first few weeks is critical to the establishment of natural germinants. In addition, even small distances between seed sources can have a significant effect on early demographic performance – a factor that has rarely been considered in previous studies of tree recruitment and species range shifts.

  16. Effects of Management Practices and Topography on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Maritime Pine during Seedling Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Guignabert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi can be important for regeneration success. In a context of increasing regeneration failures in the coastal forest of maritime pine in Southwest France, we tried to identity whether differences in ECM communities could partly explain the variation of regeneration success and how they are influenced by forest practices and stand characteristics. In particular, we focused on the effects of harvesting methods (comparing mature forest with seed-tree regeneration and clear-cuts and topography (bottom-, mid-, and top positions. Five field trials (two in regeneration failure areas and three in successful areas were used to sample 450 one-year-old seedlings. Assessments of ECM of seedling nutrient concentrations and of seedling growth based on exploration types were made. ECM root colonisation was similar in all harvesting treatments, suggesting that enough inoculum remained alive after logging. Harvesting-induced effects modifying soil properties and light availability respectively impacted ECM composition and seedling growth. Topography-induced variations in water and nutrient availability led to changes in ECM composition, but had little impact on seedling growth. Contact, short-distance, and long-distance exploration types improved the nutritional status of seedlings (Ca, K, and N, showing that mycorrhization could play an important role in seedling vitality. However, neither ECM root colonisation nor exploration types could be related to regeneration failures.

  17. Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, José L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldán; Chittka, Lars

    2005-08-01

    When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.

  18. The effect of speediness on personality questionnaires: an experiment on applicants within a job recruiting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LALE KHORRAMDEL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted an experiment to determine how a particular design of personality questionnaires influences applicant responses on personality scales. A completely crossed 2 x 2 x 2 design was carried out with real-world applicants and individuals in a job application training program in which speed (with or without a time limit, response format (dichotomous or analogue, and instructions (neutral standard instruction or a repeated warning that people who fake can be detected were manipulated. Two hundred eight participants completed the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory and a German Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC-based questionnaire. Although providing a warning showed no influence, response format and the interaction between speed and response format showed a significant effect for some scales.

  19. Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

  20. Microsite and elevation zone effects on seed pilferage, germination, and seedling survival during early whitebark pine recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansing, Elizabeth R; Tomback, Diana F; Wunder, Michael B; French, Joshua P; Wagner, Aaron C

    2017-11-01

    Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress. We monitored caches for two years for pilferage, germination, and seedling survival. Odds of pilferage (both study areas), germination (northern study area), and survival (southern study area) were higher at treeline relative to subalpine forest. At the southern study area, we found higher odds of 1) pilferage near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest, 2) germination near rocks relative to trees within both elevation zones, and 3) seedling survival near rocks and trees relative to no object at treeline. No microsite effects were detected at the northern study area. Findings indicated that the microsite distribution of seed caches changes with seed/seedling stage. Higher odds of seedling survival near rocks and trees were observed at treeline, suggesting abiotic stress may limit safe site availability, thereby shifting the spatial distribution toward protective microsites. Higher odds of pilferage at treeline, however, suggest rodents may limit treeline recruitment. Further, odds of pilferage were higher near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest but did not differ among microsites at treeline, suggesting pilferage can modulate the spatial structure of regeneration, a finding supported by

  1. Recruitment of older adults to three preventative lifestyle improvement studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Robin; Newbould, Louise; Sprange, Kirsty; Hind, Daniel; Mountain, Gail; Shortland, Katy; Powell, Lauren; Gossage-Worrall, Rebecca; Chater, Tim; Keetharuth, Anju; Lee, Ellen; Woods, Bob

    2018-02-20

    Recruiting isolated older adults to clinical trials is complex, time-consuming and difficult. Previous studies have suggested querying existing databases to identify appropriate potential participants. We aim to compare recruitment techniques (general practitioner (GP) mail-outs, community engagement and clinician referrals) used in three randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies assessing the feasibility or effectiveness of two preventative interventions in isolated older adults (the Lifestyle Matters and Putting Life In Years interventions). During the three studies (the Lifestyle Matters feasibility study, the Lifestyle Matters RCT, the Putting Life In Years RCT) data were collected about how participants were recruited. The number of letters sent by GP surgeries for each study was recorded. In the Lifestyle Matters RCT, we qualitatively interviewed participants and intervention facilitators at 6 months post randomisation to seek their thoughts on the recruitment process. Referrals were planned to be the main source of recruitment in the Lifestyle Matters feasibility study, but due to a lack of engagement from district nurses, community engagement was the main source of recruitment. District nurse referrals and community engagement were also utilised in the Lifestyle Matters and Putting Life In Years RCTs; both mechanisms yielded few participants. GP mail-outs were the main source of recruitment in both the RCTs, but of those contacted, recruiting yield was low (recruited. Participants recommended that direct contact with health professionals would be the most beneficial way to recruit. Recruitment to the Lifestyle Matters RCT did not mirror recruitment to the feasibility study of the same intervention. Direct district nurse referrals were not effective at recruiting participants. The majority of participants were recruited via GP mail-outs, which may have led to isolated individuals not being recruited to the trials. Further research is required into

  2. Drug Repurposing Screening Identifies Novel Compounds That Effectively Inhibit Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Ashley J.; Drozda, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of parasite invasion and replication but did so independently of inhibition of dopamine or other neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Tamoxifen, which is an established inhibitor of the estrogen receptor, also reduced parasite invasion and replication. Even though Toxoplasma can activate the estrogen receptor, tamoxifen inhibits parasite growth independently of this transcription factor. Tamoxifen is also a potent inducer of autophagy, and we find that the drug stimulates recruitment of the autophagy marker light chain 3-green fluorescent protein onto the membrane of the vacuolar compartment in which the parasite resides and replicates. In contrast to other antiparasitic drugs, including pimozide, tamoxifen treatment of infected cells leads to a time-dependent elimination of intracellular parasites. Taken together, these data suggest that tamoxifen restricts Toxoplasma growth by inducing xenophagy or autophagic destruction of this obligate intracellular parasite. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop new therapies to treat microbial infections, and the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as one approach to achieving this goal. Using the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a library of 1,120 compounds and identified several compounds with significant antiparasitic activities. Among these were pimozide and tamoxifen, which are well-characterized drugs prescribed to treat patients with psychiatric disorders and breast cancer

  3. Recruiting Future Engineers Through Effective Guest Speaking In Elementary School Classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Young

    2007-11-01

    teachers typically have a limited education in engineering and are eager to have career engineers speak with their students. As an engineer, there are many opportunities to get involved with guest speaking at the elementary school level. If you have a young child, start by meeting with her or his teacher and volunteering to give a presentation on engineering to the class. Many organizations have formal speakers bureaus. If your organization does not have one, consider starting one. There are several excellent resources on the Internet, such as the IEEE Center for Pre-University Engineering Education’s TryEngineering.org Web site. This site is designed for young students, teachers and parents, giving information on engineering careers and engineering activities the guest speaker can use to prepare a dynamic and informative presentation. Young students who have experienced a positive interaction with an engineer are more likely to pursue a career in engineering. Effective guest speaking by engineers in elementary school classrooms today will increase the likelihood these young students will become the desperately needed engineers of our future.

  4. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  5. The effects of model composition design choices on high-fidelity simulations of motoneuron recruitment and firing behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John M.; Elbasiouny, Sherif M.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Computational models often require tradeoffs, such as balancing detail with efficiency; yet optimal balance should incorporate sound design features that do not bias the results of the specific scientific question under investigation. The present study examines how model design choices impact simulation results. Approach. We developed a rigorously-validated high-fidelity computational model of the spinal motoneuron pool to study three long-standing model design practices which have yet to be examined for their impact on motoneuron recruitment, firing rate, and force simulations. The practices examined were the use of: (1) generic cell models to simulate different motoneuron types, (2) discrete property ranges for different motoneuron types, and (3) biological homogeneity of cell properties within motoneuron types. Main results. Our results show that each of these practices accentuates conditions of motoneuron recruitment based on the size principle, and minimizes conditions of mixed and reversed recruitment orders, which have been observed in animal and human recordings. Specifically, strict motoneuron orderly size recruitment occurs, but in a compressed range, after which mixed and reverse motoneuron recruitment occurs due to the overlap in electrical properties of different motoneuron types. Additionally, these practices underestimate the motoneuron firing rates and force data simulated by existing models. Significance. Our results indicate that current modeling practices increase conditions of motoneuron recruitment based on the size principle, and decrease conditions of mixed and reversed recruitment order, which, in turn, impacts the predictions made by existing models on motoneuron recruitment, firing rate, and force. Additionally, mixed and reverse motoneuron recruitment generated higher muscle force than orderly size motoneuron recruitment in these simulations and represents one potential scheme to increase muscle efficiency. The examined model

  6. The effects of song familiarity and age on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Rubin, David C; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-09-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a function of age. In an event-related functional neuroimaging study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories associated with age-specific popular musical clips. Participants rated song familiarity, as well as the temporal specificity and emotional valence of each memory. Song familiarity was associated with increased dmPFC activity and ratings of temporal specificity and positivity across participants. In addition, behavioral and neuroimaging findings suggest age differences in familiarity-related effects in which familiarity was more associated with enhancement of memory detail in young adults and affective positivity in older adults. These findings highlight important age-related shifts in how individuals retrieve autobiographical events and how personally-relevant musical cues may be used to facilitate memory retrieval.

  7. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Interviews with Excellent Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    merit of an expert modeling system of the skills and strategies used by excel- lent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the...7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Steven R. Frieman 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S...Recruiting 2M AUSTIRACT (rcnttm ame r orw am nssry i Identify by block number) s-This report describes a program of research on communication strategies and

  8. Ventilatory protective strategies during thoracic surgery: effects of alveolar recruitment maneuver and low-tidal volume ventilation on lung density distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozian, Alf; Schilling, Thomas; Schütze, Hartmut; Senturk, Mert; Hachenberg, Thomas; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2011-05-01

    The increased tidal volume (V(T)) applied to the ventilated lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) enhances cyclic alveolar recruitment and mechanical stress. It is unknown whether alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) and reduced V(T) may influence tidal recruitment and lung density. Therefore, the effects of ARM and OLV with different V(T) on pulmonary gas/tissue distribution are examined. Eight anesthetized piglets were mechanically ventilated (V(T) = 10 ml/kg). A defined ARM was applied to the whole lung (40 cm H(2)O for 10 s). Spiral computed tomographic lung scans were acquired before and after ARM. Thereafter, the lungs were separated with an endobronchial blocker. The pigs were randomized to receive OLV in the dependent lung with a V(T) of either 5 or 10 ml/kg. Computed tomography was repeated during and after OLV. The voxels were categorized by density intervals (i.e., atelectasis, poorly aerated, normally aerated, or overaerated). Tidal recruitment was defined as the addition of gas to collapsed lung regions. The dependent lung contained atelectatic (56 ± 10 ml), poorly aerated (183 ± 10 ml), and normally aerated (187 ± 29 ml) regions before ARM. After ARM, lung volume and aeration increased (426 ± 35 vs. 526 ± 69 ml). Respiratory compliance enhanced, and tidal recruitment decreased (95% vs. 79% of the whole end-expiratory lung volume). OLV with 10 ml/kg further increased aeration (atelectasis, 15 ± 2 ml; poorly aerated, 94 ± 24 ml; normally aerated, 580 ± 98 ml) and tidal recruitment (81% of the dependent lung). OLV with 5 ml/kg did not affect tidal recruitment or lung density distribution. (Data are given as mean ± SD.) The ARM improves aeration and respiratory mechanics. In contrast to OLV with high V(T), OLV with reduced V(T) does not reinforce tidal recruitment, indicating decreased mechanical stress.

  9. Lung recruitment maneuver effects on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Fen; Zeng, Zhen-Guo; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments showed that recruitment maneuver (RM) and protective ventilation strategy of the lung could improve oxygenation and reduce extravascular lung water. This study was to investigate the effects of RM on respiratory mechanics and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty patients with ARDS were randomized into a RM group and a non-RM group. In the RM group, after basic mechanical ventilation stabilized for 30 minutes, RM was performed and repeated once every 12 hours for 3 days. In the non-RM group, lung protective strategy was conducted without RM. Oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), Plateau pressure (Pplat), static pulmonary compliance (Cst) and EVLWI of patients before treatment and at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after the treatment were measured and compared between the groups. Hemodynamic changes were observed before and after RM. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test and Fisher's exact test were used to process the data. The levels of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst increased after treatment in the two groups, but they were higher in the RM group than in the non-RM group (P0.05). RM could reduce EVLWI, increase oxygenation and lung compliance. The effect of RM on hemodynamics was transient.

  10. Identifying the effects of Enterprise System implementation and use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    This paper reports the results of an explorative study of six large Danish companies regarding the effects of ERP implementation and use. The study is part of a larger ERP study programme at the Aarhus School of Business. The data collection approach applied was based on interviews and management...

  11. Identifying the effects of microsaccades in tripolar EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, Rachel; Steele, Preston; Bartels, Rachel; Lei Ding; Sunderam, Sridhar; Besio, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Microsaccades are tiny, involuntary eye movements that occur during fixation, and they are necessary to human sight to maintain a sharp image and correct the effects of other fixational movements. Researchers have theorized and studied the effects of microsaccades on electroencephalography (EEG) signals to understand and eliminate the unwanted artifacts from EEG. The tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) sensors are used to acquire TCRE EEG (tEEG). The tEEG detects extremely focal signals from directly below the TCRE sensor. We have noticed a slow wave frequency found in some tEEG recordings. Therefore, we conducted the current work to determine if there was a correlation between the slow wave in the tEEG and the microsaccades. This was done by analyzing the coherence of the frequency spectrums of both tEEG and eye movement in recordings where microsaccades are present. Our preliminary findings show that there is a correlation between the two.

  12. Towards Measurements of Chiral Effects Using Identified Particles from STAR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wen, Lw.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 756-759 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * chiral magnetic effect * chiral magnetic wave * gamma correlation * k(K) parameter Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  13. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure, brain swelling, and mean arterial pressure in patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Alana M; Gooderham, Peter A; Griesdale, Donald E; Argue, Ruth; Toyota, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Although recruitment maneuvers have been advocated as part of a lung protective ventilation strategy, their effects on cerebral physiology during elective neurosurgery are unknown. Our objectives were to determine the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure (SDP), brain relaxation score (BRS), and cerebral perfusion pressure among patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection. In this prospective crossover study, patients scheduled for resection of a supratentorial brain tumour were randomized to undergo either a recruitment maneuver (30 cm of water for 30 sec) or a "sham" maneuver (5 cm of water for 30 sec), followed by the alternative intervention after a 90-sec equilibration period. Subdural pressure was measured through a dural perforation following opening of the cranium. Subdural pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously. The blinded neurosurgeon provided a BRS at baseline and at the end of each intervention. During each treatment, the changes in SDP, BRS, and MAP were compared. Twenty-one patients underwent the study procedure. The increase in SDP was higher during the recruitment maneuver than during the sham maneuver (difference, 3.9 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 5.6; P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure decreased further in the recruitment maneuver than in the sham maneuver (difference, -9.0 mmHg; 95% CI, -12.5 to -5.6; P < 0.001). Cerebral perfusion pressure decreased 14 mmHg (95% CI, 4 to 24) during the recruitment maneuver. The BRS did not change with either maneuver. Our results suggest that recruitment maneuvers increase subdural pressure and reduce cerebral perfusion pressure, although the clinical importance of these findings is thus far unknown. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02093117.

  15. Effects of macroalgae, with emphasis on Sargassum spp., on coral reef recruitment processes in Martinique (French West Indies)

    OpenAIRE

    Thabard, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many coral reef ecosystems have undergone profound ecological changes over the past decades leading sometimes to a shift from coral to macroalgal-dominated areas. In Martinique (Caribbean region), the proliferation of macroalgae is an important phenomenon. Coral reef resilience, involving reef building species recruitment, might be modified by macroalgal presence. This work aimed at understanding reef recruitment processes in areas dominated either by macroalgae, coral or intermediate, based ...

  16. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  17. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-08-10

    Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was less cost effective in later endpoints

  18. The Warburg effect in mycobacterial granulomas is dependent on the recruitment and activation of macrophages by interferon-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelberg, Rui; Moreira, Diana; Barreira-Silva, Palmira; Borges, Margarida; Silva, Letícia; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Resende, Mariana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Jordan, Michael B; Ferreira, Nuno C; Abrunhosa, Antero J; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Granulomas are the hallmark of mycobacterial disease. Here, we demonstrate that both the cell recruitment and the increased glucose consumption in granulomatous infiltrates during Mycobacterium avium infection are highly dependent on interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Mycobacterium avium-infected mice lacking IFN-γ signalling failed to developed significant inflammatory infiltrations and lacked the characteristic uptake of the glucose analogue fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). To assess the role of macrophages in glucose uptake we infected mice with a selective impairment of IFN-γ signalling in the macrophage lineage (MIIG mice). Although only a partial reduction of the granulomatous areas was observed in infected MIIG mice, the insensitivity of macrophages to IFN-γ reduced the accumulation of FDG. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays showed that macrophage activated by IFN-γ displayed increased rates of glucose uptake and in vitro studies showed also that they had increased lactate production and increased expression of key glycolytic enzymes. Overall, our results show that the activation of macrophages by IFN-γ is responsible for the Warburg effect observed in organs infected with M. avium. PMID:25807843

  19. Analysis of Recruit Attrition from the Navy's Delayed Entry Program and Recruit Training Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neuhalfen, Jon K

    2007-01-01

    .... The analysis uses the PRIDE database, provided by Commander, Navy Recruiting Command. Trend analyses are used to identify significant changes in enlistment and attrition behavior for recruits who joined from fiscal years 1998 through 2005...

  20. Recruitment of Mobility Limited Older Adults Into a Facility-Led Exercise-Nutrition Study: The Effect of Social Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael P; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Reid, Kieran F; Kirn, Dylan; Fielding, Roger A; Folta, Sara C

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are among the most challenging population groups to enroll into health-related research. This article describes two methods used by investigators to recruit mobility limited older adults residing at assisted living or senior housing (SH) facilities into a facility-led exercise-nutrition research study. Sedentary older adults were recruited from 42 different assisted living facilities (ALFs) or SH communities. Two different recruitment approaches were used: At 22 sites, investigators conducted heavily advertised informational sessions to recruit participants (Info only). At 20 locations, these sessions were preceded by attendance of a study team member at various activities offered by the facility over the preceding 2 weeks (activity attendance). Population reach, enrollment, personnel cost, and time required to recruit at least five participants at each facility was measured. Reasons for declining participation and withdrawal rate were also measured. Sixty percent more residents elected to be screened for eligibility when study personnel attended an activity offered by the facility. Activity attendance resulted in significantly less time, costs, and participant withdrawals compared with facilities with no activity attendance. Study team member attendance at activities offered by senior living facilities reduces cost and duration of recruitment and improves study retention. Interventions targeting this demographic are likely to benefit from deliberately building trust and familiarity among the resident population at senior living communities as part of the recruitment process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on patients with severe burn complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Wenbin; Chen, Bib; Liu, Changling; Cao, Wenjuan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on ARDS complicating patients with severe burn. Clinical data of 15 severely burned patients with ARDS admitted to our burn ICU from September 2011 to September 2013 and conforming to the study criteria were analyzed. Right after the diagnosis of acute lung injury/ARDS, patients received mechanical ventilation with lung protective ventilation strategy. When the oxygenation index (OI) was below or equal to 200 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0. 133 kPa), lung recruitment maneuver was performed combining incremental positive end-expiratory pressure. When OI was above 200 mmHg, lung recruitment maneuver was stopped and ventilation with lung protective ventilation strategy was continued. When OI was above 300 mmHg, mechanical ventilation was stopped. Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, variables of blood gas analysis (pH, PaO2, and PaCO2) were obtained by blood gas analyzer, and the OI values were calculated; hemodynamic parameters including heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP) of all patients and the cardiac output (CO), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) of 4 patients who received pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring were monitored. Treatment measures and outcome of patients were recorded. Data were processed with analysis of variance of repeated measurement of a single group and LSD test. (1) Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, the levels of PaO2 and OI of patients were respectively (77 ± 8), (113 ± 5), (142 ± 6) mmHg, and (128 ± 12), (188 ± 8), (237 ± 10) mmHg. As a whole, levels of PaO2 and OI changed significantly at different time points (with F values respectively 860. 96 and 842. 09, P values below

  2. Effects of a prior high-intensity knee-extension exercise on muscle recruitment and energy cost: a combined local and global investigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Bringard, Aurélien; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David

    2009-06-01

    The effects of a priming exercise bout on both muscle energy production and the pattern of muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent exercise bout are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a prior exercise bout which is known to increase O(2) supply and to induce a residual acidosis could alter energy cost and muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent heavy-intensity knee-extension exercise. Fifteen healthy subjects performed two 6 min bouts of heavy exercise separated by a 6 min resting period. Rates of oxidative and anaerobic ATP production, determined with (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and breath-by-breath measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake were obtained simultaneously. Changes in muscle oxygenation and muscle fibre recruitment occurring within the quadriceps were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography. The priming heavy-intensity exercise increased motor unit recruitment (P exercise bout but did not alter muscle energy cost. We also observed a reduced deoxygenation time delay, whereas the deoxygenation amplitude was increased (P exercise led to an increased recruitment of motor units in the early part of the second bout of heavy exercise. Considering the increased oxidative cost and the unaltered energy cost, one could suggest that our results illustrate a reduced metabolic strain per fibre.

  3. Developing Online Recruitment Process for Cinnabon Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopyrev, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Since the times internet started to become accessible to the general public, employers noticed its effectiveness as a recruitment tool. Nowadays, a big percentage of recruitment happens online. Internet presents cost-effective opportunities to reach large pool of candidates, compared to pre-internet era recruitment tools. In this thesis, the aim is to develop online recruitment process for Finnish franchisee of Cinnabon – an international chain of bakeries famous for its cinnamon rolls. T...

  4. A thematic analysis of factors influencing recruitment to maternal and perinatal trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Philippa F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment of eligible participants remains one of the biggest challenges to successful completion of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Only one third of trials recruit on time, often requiring a lengthy extension to the recruitment period. We identified factors influencing recruitment success and potentially effective recruitment strategies. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to December Week 2, 2006, the Cochrane Library Methodology Register in December 2006, and hand searched reference lists for studies of any design which focused on recruitment to maternal/perinatal trials, or if no studies of maternal or perinatal research could be identified, other areas of healthcare. Studies of nurses' and midwives' attitudes to research were included as none specifically about trials were located. We synthesised the data narratively, using a basic thematic analysis, with themes derived from the literature and after discussion between the authors. Results Around half of the included papers (29/53 were specific to maternal and perinatal healthcare. Only one study was identified which focused on factors for maternal and perinatal clinicians and only seven studies considered recruitment strategies specific to perinatal research. Themes included: participant assessment of risk; recruitment process; participant understanding of research; patient characteristics; clinician attitudes to research and trials; protocol issues; and institutional or organisational issues. While no reliable evidence base for strategies to enhance recruitment was identified in any of the review studies, four maternal/perinatal primary studies suggest that specialised recruitment staff, mass mailings, physician referrals and strategies targeting minority women may increase recruitment. However these findings may only be applicable to the particular trials and settings studied. Conclusion Although factors reported by both participants and clinicians

  5. The effect of army vest design on the occurrence of stress fractures and overuse injuries in female military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Frankl, M; Nyska, M; Hetsroni, I; Constantini, N; Trejo, L; Bechar, R; Novak, G; Lankovsky, Z; Mann, G

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures (SFs) occur when microdamage caused by repetitive mechanical load exceeds the biological load-bearing capacity of the bone. The study objective was to test whether a vest specifically designed and manufactured for female recruits, compared with the standard vest used on a regular basis by Border Police recruits, would reduce the incidence of SF in female Border Police recruits. Data based on reports of military personnel show that women are more likely to sustain SFs. A follow-up of 240 female Border Police infantry recruits, divided into two trial groups, was conducted from 2007 to 2009. Two different vests were evaluated-the standard special unit fighting vest, which was conventionally used by both men and women during basic training, and the new fighting vest, specially design for female body shape. No significant difference was noted in the number of SFs between the two groups which may be attributed to increased weight of the new vest. There was a lower incidence of long bone SFs which may have been due to the superior vest design. The female Border Police Infantry recruits expressed great satisfaction with the new vest. Increased effort should be invested to further reduce the weight of female combat gear, alongside efforts to improve fit and comfort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. New York's Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act: an investigation of the effects of nonrecurring increases in health worker wage on health worker supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kavin

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes New York's Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2002. The analysis comes in 4 parts: part 1 provides a brief overview of New York's economy as it relates to health care, a feel for the political climate at the time, and a detailed presentation of the chain of events that connect this climate to the birth of the Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2002; part 2 consists of a breakdown of the provisions contained within bill, including major and minor goals, intended effects, and the mechanics behind raising supporting funds; part 3 explores what actually happened by evaluating available data to determine whether the bill's 2 major goals of workforce recruitment and retention were fulfilled; and finally, part 4 will take all the aforementioned information to determine the overall success of the bill, the implications, and specific suggestions for future policy changes that time has revealed since its inception.

  7. PAR and UVBR effects on photosynthesis, viability, growth and DNA in different life stages of two coexisting Gigartinales : implications for recruitment and zonation pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roleda, MY; van de Poll, WH; Hanelt, D; Wiencke, C

    2004-01-01

    The effects that ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280 to 400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) had on early life stages of Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus were studied to determine if differences in UVR tolerance could influence their recruitment success on the

  8. Differential effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on microvascular recruitment and glucose metabolism in short- and long-term Insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Rattigan, Stephen; Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Acute infusion of glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) has potent effects on blood flow distribution through the microcirculation in healthy humans and rats. High fat diet induces impairments in insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment (MVR) and muscle glucose uptake, and here we examined whether......-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by 90% (Prights...

  9. The effect of incorporation of SDF-1alpha into PLGA scaffolds on stem cell recruitment and the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Paul T; Nair, Ashwin M; Shen, Jinhui; Lotfi, Parisa; Ko, Cheng-Yu; Tang, Liping

    2010-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the understanding of tissue responses to biomaterials, most implants are still plagued by inflammatory responses which can lead to fibrotic encapsulation. This is of dire consequence in tissue engineering, where seeded cells and bioactive components are separated from the native tissue, limiting the regenerative potential of the design. Additionally, these interactions prevent desired tissue integration and angiogenesis, preventing functionality of the design. Recent evidence supports that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can have beneficial effects which alter the inflammatory responses and improve healing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stem cells could be targeted to the site of biomaterial implantation and whether increasing local stem cell responses could improve the tissue response to PLGA scaffold implants. Through incorporation of SDF-1alpha through factor adsorption and mini-osmotic pump delivery, the host-derived stem cell response can be improved resulting in 3X increase in stem cell populations at the interface for up to 2 weeks. These interactions were found to significantly alter the acute mast cell responses, reducing the number of mast cells and degranulated mast cells near the scaffold implants. This led to subsequent downstream reduction in the inflammatory cell responses, and through altered mast cell activation and stem cell participation, increased angiogenesis and decreased fibrotic responses to the scaffold implants. These results support that enhanced recruitment of autologous stem cells can improve the tissue responses to biomaterial implants through modifying/bypassing inflammatory cell responses and jumpstarting stem cell participation in healing at the implant interface. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From COPD epidemiology to studies of pathophysiological disease mechanisms: challenges with regard to study design and recruitment process: Respiratory and Cardiovascular Effects in COPD (KOLIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anne; Linder, Robert; Backman, Helena; Eriksson Ström, Jonas; Frølich, Andreas; Nilsson, Ulf; Rönmark, Eva; Johansson Strandkvist, Viktor; Behndig, Annelie F; Blomberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background : Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a largely underdiagnosed disease including several phenotypes. In this report, the design of a study intending to evaluate the pathophysiological mechanism in COPD in relation to the specific phenotypes non-rapid and rapid decline in lung function is described together with the recruitment process of the study population derived from a population based study. Method : The OLIN COPD study includes a population-based COPD cohort and referents without COPD identified in 2002-04 ( n  = 1986), and thereafter followed annually since 2005. Lung function decline was estimated from baseline in 2002-2004 to 2010 (first recruitment phase) or to 2012/2013 (second recruitment phase). Individuals who met the predefined criteria for the following four groups were identified; group A) COPD grade 2-3 with rapid decline in FEV 1 and group B) COPD grade 2-3 without rapid decline in FEV 1 (≥60 and ≤30 ml/year, respectively), group C) ever-smokers, and group D) non-smokers with normal lung function. Groups A-C included ever-smokers with >10 pack years. The intention was to recruit 15 subjects in each of the groups A-D. Results : From the database groups A-D were identified; group A n  = 37, group B n  = 29, group C n  = 41, and group D n  = 55. Fifteen subjects were recruited from groups C and D, while this goal was not reached in the groups A ( n  = 12) and B ( n  = 10). The most common reasons for excluding individuals identified as A or B were comorbidities contraindicating bronchoscopy, or inflammatory diseases/immune suppressive medication expected to affect the outcome. Conclusion : The study is expected to generate important results regarding pathophysiological mechanisms associated with rate of decline in lung function among subjects with COPD and the in-detail described recruitment process, including reasons for non-participation, is a strength when interpreting the results in forthcoming studies.

  11. Predicting mechanisms across scales: amplified effects of abiotic constraints on the recruitment of yew Taxus baccata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Rubén; Pulido, Fernando; Nogues, David Bravo

    2009-01-01

    hypothesized that the recruitment rates in a given population would be strongly affected by water availability, which should result in a predictable pattern of regeneration success at regional and continental scales. Accordingly, we predicted: 1) at the regional scale water availability should be higher...... southwards. To test these predictions we first monitored seedling emergence and survival in two central Spanish populations over two years, and confirmed that yew recruitment is limited by water availability. Additionally, our analysis supported predictions 1 and 2: water availability strongly affected yew...

  12. Recruitment strategies for caregivers of children with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruche, Ukamaka M; Gerkensmeyer, Janis E; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Scott, Eric; Lindsey, Laura M; Mullins, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies for recruiting participants into an intervention study that focused on improving problem-solving skills in caregivers of children with mental health problems. Caregivers of children with mental health problems report feeling physically and psychologically overwhelmed and have high rates of depression because of the demands of caregiving. Research on the needs of these caregivers and interventions to ameliorate their stress is needed. However, recruiting this population can be particularly difficult because of the stigma of mental illness. Available literature on recruitment of caregivers of persons with physical illness cannot be transferred to caregivers of children with mental health problems because of the different caregiving situations. There is a need to identify effective recruitment strategies to reduce cost and answer research questions. Clinical nurse specialists have the skills to facilitate the recruitment of research participants. We revised and expanded health system referrals, community outreach, and recruiting advertisement (ads). When these strategies did not increase recruitment, radio ads were used. The Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was selected as a guiding framework. Radio ads were the most effective strategy for recruiting caregivers of children with mental health problems for this study. Recruitment was ultimately successful because we were flexible and made decisions consistent with the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization. Clinical nurse specialists who study this population of caregivers should really consider the use of radio ads and systematically track which recruitment strategies lead to the greatest number of participants screened, eligible, and enrolled into studies.

  13. Enhancing Recruitment Using Teleconference and Commitment Contract (ERUTECC): study protocol for a randomised, stepped-wedge cluster trial within the EFFECTS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Erik; Isaksson, Eva; Wester, Per; Laska, Ann-Charlotte; Näsman, Per

    2018-01-08

    Many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) fail to meet their recruitment goals in time. Trialists are advised to include study recruitment strategies within their trials. EFFECTS is a Swedish, academic-led RCT of fluoxetine for stroke recovery. The trial's primary objective is to investigate whether 20 mg fluoxetine daily compared with placebo for 6 months after an acute stroke improves the patient's functional outcome. The first patient was included on 20 October 2014 and, as of 31 August 2017, EFFECTS has included 810 of planned 1500 individuals. EFFECTS currently has 32 active centres. The primary objective of the ERUTECC (Enhancing Recruitment Using Teleconference and Commitment Contract) study is to investigate whether a structured teleconference re-visit with the study personnel at the centres, accompanied by a commitment contract, can enhance recruitment by 20% at 60 days post intervention, compared with 60 days pre-intervention, in an ongoing RCT. ERUTECC is a randomised, stepped-wedge cluster trial embedded in EFFECTS. The plan is to start ERUTECC with a running-in period of September 2017. The first intervention is due in October 2017, and the study will continue for 12 months. We are planning to intervene at all active centres in EFFECTS, except the five top recruiting centres (n = 27). The rationale for not intervening at the top recruiting centres is that we believe they have reached their full potential and the intervention would be too weak for them. The hypothesis of this study is that a structured teleconference re-visit with the study personnel at the centres, accompanied by a commitment contract, can enhance recruitment by 20% 60 days post intervention, compared to 60 days pre-intervention, in an ongoing RCT. EFFECTS is a large, pragmatic RCT of stroke in Sweden. Results from the embedded ERUTECC study could probably be generalised to high-income Western countries, and is relevant to trial management and could improve trial management in the

  14. Mechanical breath profile of airway pressure release ventilation: the effect on alveolar recruitment and microstrain in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Emr, Bryanna; Smith, Bradford; Roy, Shreyas; Jain, Sumeet; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Bates, Jason; Marx, William; Nieman, Gary; Gatto, Louis A

    2014-11-01

    Improper mechanical ventilation settings can exacerbate acute lung injury by causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury. It is therefore important to establish the mechanism by which the ventilator induces lung injury to develop protective ventilation strategies. It has been postulated that the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury is the result of heterogeneous, elevated strain on the pulmonary parenchyma. Acute lung injury has been associated with increases in whole-lung macrostrain, which is correlated with increased pathology. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation on alveolar microstrain remains unknown. To examine whether the mechanical breath profile of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), consisting of a prolonged pressure-time profile and brief expiratory release phase, reduces microstrain. In a randomized, nonblinded laboratory animal study, rats were randomized into a controlled mandatory ventilation group (n = 3) and an APRV group (n = 3). Lung injury was induced by polysorbate lavage. A thoracotomy was performed and an in vivo microscope was placed on the lungs to measure alveolar mechanics. In the controlled mandatory ventilation group, multiple levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; 5, 10, 16, 20, and 24 cm H2O) were tested. In the APRV group, decreasing durations of expiratory release (time at low pressure [T(low)]) were tested. The T(low) was set to achieve ratios of termination of peak expiratory flow rate (T-PEFR) to peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% (the smaller this ratio is [ie, 10%], the more time the lung is exposed to low pressure during the release phase, which decreases end-expiratory lung volume and potentiates derecruitment). Alveolar perimeters were measured at peak inspiration and end expiration using digital image analysis, and strain was calculated by normalizing the change in alveolar perimeter length to the original length. Macrostrain was measured by volume

  15. Recruitment of mobility limited older adults into a facility-led exercise-nutrition study: the effect of social involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose of the Study: Older adults are among the most challenging population groups to enroll into health-related research. This article describes two methods used by investigators to recruit mobility limited older adults residing at assisted living or senior housing (SH) facilities into a facility-...

  16. Measuring the Effect of In-Country Recruitment Activities on Future International Enrollment at a Large Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltice, John G.

    2016-01-01

    There are many recruitment methods and tactics an institution can choose to pursue diversification of international student enrollment goals. Return on investment in a choice of tactic can take up to three or more years to determine thus initial choice is vital. Just as important though is in our ability to measure the return. If we can not…

  17. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration and recruitment maneuver on lung inflammation and hyperinflation in experimental acid aspiration-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Aline M; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A; Malbouisson, Luiz M S; Auler, Jose O C; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.

  18. Technology and Navy Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golfin, Peggy

    1997-01-01

    Since November 1996, CNA has participated on a Technology Task Force established by the Commander, Navy Recruiting Command, to address several issues concerning the use of technology and Navy recruiting...

  19. Effects of seasonal variability in across- and alongshore transport of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae on model-based pre-recruitment indices off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Colas, Francois; Soto-Mendoza, Samuel; Castro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae was coupled to a climatological hydrodynamic (Regional Oceanic Modeling System, ROMS) model for central-southern Chile to answer the question as to whether or not across- and alongshore transport off central-southern Chile enhances retention in the spawning areas during the winter and summer reproductive periods, using model-based pre-recruitment indices (simulated transport success to nursery areas). The hydrodynamic model validation showed that ROMS captures the mean Seas Surface Temperature and Eddie Kinetic Energy observed in satellite-based data over the entire region. The IBM was used to simulate the transport of eggs and larvae from spawning zones in central Chile (Constitución, Dichato, Gulf of Arauco and Lebu-Corral) to historical nursery areas (HRZ, region between 35°S and 37°S). Model results corroborated HRZ as the most successful pre-recruitment zone (particles originated in the Dichato and Gulf of Arauco spawning areas), as well as identifying Lebu-Corral as a zone of high retention with a high associated pre-recruitment index (particles originated in the Lebu-Corral spawning zone). The highest pre-recruitment values were mainly found in winter. The Constitución and Dichato spawning zones displayed a typical summer upwelling velocity pattern, while the Gulf of Arauco in summertime showed strong offshore and alongshore velocity components. The Lebu-Corral region in winter presented important near-surface cross-shore transport towards the coast (associated with downwelling events), this might be one of the major mechanisms leading to high retention levels and a high pre-recruitment index for Lebu-Corral spawning zone. The limitations of the modeling approach are discussed and put into perspective for future work.

  20. Participant recruitment and motivation for participation in optical technology for cervical cancer screening research trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhatovich, Olga M; Sharman, Mathilde P; Mirabal, Yvette N; Earle, Nan R; Follen, Michele; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of recruitment strategies used in current trials. A trial to test optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia recruited 1000 women from the community; the trial evaluated the emerging technology against Pap smears and colposcopically directed biopsies for cervical dysplasia. We have examined women's reasons for participating as well as the effectiveness and efficiency for each recruitment strategy. Reasons for participation were identified and compared between trials. The recruitment method that resulted in the most contacts was newspaper reportorial coverage and advertising, followed by family and friends, then television news coverage. The most cost-effective method for finding eligible women who attend the research appointment is word of mouth from a family member or friend. Recommendations are given for maximizing the efficiency of recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials.

  1. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    (AUD) $139 per person. The least expensive modality was electronic (AUD $37), largely due to a free feature story on one university Web home page, despite Facebook advertising costing AUD $945 per enrolment. The most expensive was print media at AUD $213 and GP letters at AUD $145 per enrolment. Conclusions The research indicated that free electronic media was the most cost-effective strategy, with GP letters the least expensive of the paid strategies in comparison to the other strategies. This study is an important contribution for future research into efficacy, translation, and implementation of cost-effective programs for the prevention of weight gain in young adults. Procedural frameworks for recruitment protocols are required, along with systematic reporting of recruitment strategies to reduce unnecessary expenditure and allow for valuable public health prevention programs to go beyond the research setting. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000924853; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362872 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YpNfv1gI). PMID:26048581

  2. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette Ty; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-06-05

    modality was electronic (AUD $37), largely due to a free feature story on one university Web home page, despite Facebook advertising costing AUD $945 per enrolment. The most expensive was print media at AUD $213 and GP letters at AUD $145 per enrolment. The research indicated that free electronic media was the most cost-effective strategy, with GP letters the least expensive of the paid strategies in comparison to the other strategies. This study is an important contribution for future research into efficacy, translation, and implementation of cost-effective programs for the prevention of weight gain in young adults. Procedural frameworks for recruitment protocols are required, along with systematic reporting of recruitment strategies to reduce unnecessary expenditure and allow for valuable public health prevention programs to go beyond the research setting. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000924853; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362872 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YpNfv1gI).

  3. Effect of protective lung ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of protective lung ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver (RM in the treatment patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.Methods: Totally 74 patients with ARDS admitted to the Department of Intensive Care Unit, Changshu Second People's Hospital in Jiangsu Province between September 2010 and June 2013 were selected and randomly divided into lung recruitment group and non-lung recruitment group, and the initial ventilation solution for both groups was synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV. For RM, SIMV mode (pressure control and pressure support was adopted. Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased by 5 cm H2O every time and maintained for 40-50 s before entering the next increasing period, and the peak airway pressure was kept below 45 cm H2O. After PEEP reached the maximum value, it was gradually reduced by 5 cm H2O every time and finally maintained at 15 cm H2O for 10 min.Results: A total of 74 patients with mean age of (49.0±18.6 years old were enrolled, 36 patients were enrolled in lung recruitment maneuver (RM group and 38 patients were enrolled into non-lung recruitment maneuver (non-RM group. 44 were male and accounted for 59.5% of all the patients. For the indicators such as PEEP, pressure support (PS, plateau airway pressure (Pplat, peak airway pressure (Ppeak, vital capacity (VC and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2, no statistical differences in the indicators were found between the RM group and non-RM group on D1, D3 and D7 (P>0.05, except that only FiO2 of RM group on D7 was significantly lower than that of non-RM group (47.2±10.0 vs. (52.2±10.5, P0.05. 28-day mortality, ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality were 25% vs. 28.9%, 25% vs. 26.3% and 36.1% vs. 39.5% respectively between RM group and non-RM group (all P>0.05.Conclusion: Protective lung ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver can improve

  4. Improving healthcare recruitment: the jupiter medical center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uomo, Paul Dell; Schwieters, Jill

    2009-04-01

    Hospitals that want to improve their recruitment efforts should: Make recruitment a priority within the organization. Take steps to reduce high vacancy rates and turnover among first-year employees. Develop a recruitment marketing plan for key positions. Establish human resources metrics to track costs and effectiveness of recruiting efforts. Enhance the recruitment process for hiring managers and job candidates.

  5. A Blueprint for Student Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Frank M.

    1977-01-01

    A marketing plan from the Young Presidents' Organization Task Force is offered: define the market; identify the target student; clarify the college selection process; assess the competition; define the college in terms of market needs; develop a recruiting strategy; develop objectives for the year; spell out the tactics; and manage for results.…

  6. Effect of stock size, climate, predation, and trophic status on recruitment of alewives in Lake Ontario, 1978-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert; Lantry, Brian F.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    2004-01-01

    The population of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario is of great concern to fishery managers because alewives are the principal prey of introduced salmonines and because alewives negatively influence many endemic fishes. We used spring bottom trawl catches of alewives to investigate the roles of stock size, climate, predation, and lake trophic status on recruitment of alewives to age 2 in Lake Ontario during 1978–2000. Climate was indexed from the temperature of water entering a south-shore municipal treatment plant, lake trophic status was indexed by the mean concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in surface water in spring, and predation was indexed by the product of the number of salmonines stocked and relative, first-year survival of Chinook salmonOncorhynchus tshawytscha. A Ricker-type parent–progeny model suggested that peak production of age-1 alewives could occur over a broad range of spawning stock sizes, and the fit of the model was improved most by the addition of terms for spring water temperature and winter duration. With the addition of the two climate terms, the Ricker model indicated that when water was relatively warm in spring and the winter was relatively short, peak potential production of young was nine times higher than when water temperature and winters were average, and 73 times higher than when water was cold in spring and winters were long. Relative survival from age 1 to recruitment at age 2 was best described by a multiple linear regression with terms for adult abundance, TP, and predation. Mean recruitment of age-2 fish in the 1978–1998 year-classes predicted by using the two models in sequence was only about 20% greater than the observed mean recruitment. Model estimates fit the measured data exceptionally well for all but the largest four year-classes, which suggests that the models will facilitate improvement in estimates of trophic transfer due to alewives.

  7. The effect of action observation/execution on mirror neuron system recruitment: an fMRI study in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Roberto; Rocca, Maria A; Fumagalli, Silvia; Cattrysse, Erik; Kerckhofs, Eric; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Action observation and execution activate regions that are part of the motor and mirror neuron systems (MNS). Using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), we defined the presence and extent of MNS activation during three different motor tasks with the dominant, right-upper limb in healthy individuals. The influence of the modality of task administration (execution, observation, observation and execution) was also investigated. fMRI scans during the execution (E) of a motor task, the observation (O) of a video showing the same task performed by another person and the simultaneous observation and execution (OE) of the task were obtained from three groups of healthy subjects (15 subjects per group) randomized to perform: a simple motor (SM) task, a complex motor (CM) task and a finalistic motor (FM) task. Manual dexterity was assessed using the 9-hole peg test and maximum finger tapping frequency. MNS activation was higher during FM than SM or CM tasks, independently from the modality of administration (E, O, or OE). Inferior frontal gyrus recruitment was more significant during SM than CM tasks in the E and O conditions. Compared to SM and FM, CM task resulted in increased recruitment of brain regions involved in complex motor task performance. Compared to O and E, OE resulted in the recruitment of additional, specific, brain areas in the cerebellum, temporal and parietal lobes. The modality of administration and the type of task modulated MNS recruitment during motor acts. This might have practical implications for the set-up of individualized motor rehabilitation strategies.

  8. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérubin, Laurent Marcel; Garavelli, Lysel

    2016-01-01

    The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns. PMID:26942575

  9. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marcel Chérubin

    Full Text Available The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.

  10. Effects of recruitment maneuver and positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics and transpulmonary pressure during laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnella, Gilda; Grasso, Salvatore; Spadaro, Savino; Rauseo, Michela; Mirabella, Lucia; Salatto, Potito; De Capraris, Antonella; Nappi, Luigi; Greco, Pantaleo; Dambrosio, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that during laparoscopic surgery, Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may worsen chest wall elastance, concomitantly decreasing transpulmonary pressure, and that a protective ventilator strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction, by increasing transpulmonary pressure, would result in alveolar recruitment and improvement in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. In 29 consecutive patients, a recruiting maneuver followed by positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H(2)O maintained until the end of surgery was applied after pneumoperitoneum induction. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, blood pressure, and cardiac index were measured before (T(BSL)) and after pneumoperitoneum with zero positive end-expiratory pressure (T(preOLS)), after recruitment with positive end-expiratory pressure (T(postOLS)), and after peritoneum desufflation with positive end-expiratory pressure (T(end)). Esophageal pressure was used for partitioning respiratory mechanics between lung and chest wall (data are mean ± SD): on T(preOLS), chest wall elastance (E(cw)) and elastance of the lung (E(L)) increased (8.2 ± 0.9 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 cm H(2)O/L, respectively, on T(BSL); P = 0.00016; and 11.69 ± 1.68 vs. 9.61 ± 1.52 cm H(2)O/L on T(BSL); P = 0.0007). On T(postOLS), both chest wall elastance and E(L) decreased (5.2 ± 1.2 and 8.62 ± 1.03 cm H(2)O/L, respectively; P = 0.00015 vs. T(preOLS)), and Pao(2)/inspiratory oxygen fraction improved (491 ± 107 vs. 425 ± 97 on T(preOLS); P = 0.008) remaining stable thereafter. Recruited volume (the difference in lung volume for the same static airway pressure) was 194 ± 80 ml. Pplat(RS) remained stable while inspiratory transpulmonary pressure increased (11.65 + 1.37 cm H(2)O vs. 9.21 + 2.03 on T(preOLS); P = 0.007). All respiratory mechanics parameters remained stable after abdominal desufflation. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable throughout the study. In patients submitted to laparoscopic surgery in

  11. Recruiting a special sample with sparse resources: lessons from a study of Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Laura C; Ritchie, Janis B; Javors, Jennifer M; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is the most common failure point for clinical studies, with recruitment failure adversely affecting science, dollar costs, human capital, and the ethical risk-benefit trade-off to study participants. Added problems attend recruitment of special and/or challenging candidate populations, particularly in settings of sparse recruitment resources. Obstacles to study recruitment and participation of ill Gulf War veterans (GWVs) include health barriers, work and family obligations, mistrust of the medical/scientific community, and challenges to identifying/reaching potential participants. We sought to identify and implement a minimal-cost multipronged recruitment approach for a small single-site (recruitment settings and larger multisite studies. Categories of recruitment approach included directed as well as general media, collaborations with support groups/interest groups, local free advertising resources (Craigslist and Backpage), physician outreach, Internet-based approaches, and referrals from study participants and screenees. We describe the subcategories and yield of each approach within each approach. Each approach contributed candidates to the final recruitment tally, with the largest fractional contribution by directed media (52%). Among the remainder, no other individual approach was clearly dominant (largest contribution: 13%). Special population subsamples present special challenges; all approaches cited may not be useful in all settings and subpopulations. A multipronged suite of minimal-cost approaches led to successful recruitment to target for this single-site clinical trial for a special population with significant recruitment challenges. It additionally yielded a nation-wide corpus of several hundred individuals interested in participation in future studies of GWVs. While certain approaches produced disproportionate yield, it was not possible to predict these a priori. We suggest that this model, which incorporates a suite of approaches, and

  12. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  13. Physiologic effects of alveolar recruitment and inspiratory pauses during moderately-high-frequency ventilation delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe lung injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Cordioli

    Full Text Available To investigate whether performing alveolar recruitment or adding inspiratory pauses could promote physiologic benefits (VT during moderately-high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (MHFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.Prospective experimental laboratory study with eight pigs. Induction of acute lung injury with sequential pulmonary lavages and injurious ventilation was initially performed. Then, animals were ventilated on a conventional mechanical ventilator with a respiratory rate (RR = 60 breaths/minute and PEEP titrated according to ARDS Network table. The first two steps consisted of a randomized order of inspiratory pauses of 10 and 30% of inspiratory time. In final step, we removed the inspiratory pause and titrated PEEP, after lung recruitment, with the aid of electrical impedance tomography. At each step, PaCO2 was allowed to stabilize between 57-63 mmHg for 30 minutes.The step with RR of 60 after lung recruitment had the highest PEEP when compared with all other steps (17 [16,19] vs 14 [10, 17]cmH2O, but had lower driving pressures (13 [13,11] vs 16 [14, 17]cmH2O, higher P/F ratios (212 [191,243] vs 141 [105, 184] mmHg, lower shunt (23 [20, 23] vs 32 [27, 49]%, lower dead space ventilation (10 [0, 15] vs 30 [20, 37]%, and a more homogeneous alveolar ventilation distribution. There were no detrimental effects in terms of lung mechanics, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Neither the addition of inspiratory pauses or the alveolar recruitment maneuver followed by decremental PEEP titration resulted in further reductions in VT.During MHFPPV set with RR of 60 bpm delivered by a conventional ventilator in severe ARDS swine model, neither the inspiratory pauses or PEEP titration after recruitment maneuver allowed reduction of VT significantly, however the last strategy decreased driving pressures and improved both shunt and dead space.

  14. Process evaluation of the Data-driven Quality Improvement in Primary Care (DQIP) trial: quantitative examination of variation between practices in recruitment, implementation and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischulte, Tobias; Grant, Aileen; Hapca, Adrian; Guthrie, Bruce

    2018-01-05

    The cluster randomised trial of the Data-driven Quality Improvement in Primary Care (DQIP) intervention showed that education, informatics and financial incentives for general medical practices to review patients with ongoing high-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiplatelets reduced the primary end point of high-risk prescribing by 37%, where both ongoing and new high-risk prescribing were significantly reduced. This quantitative process evaluation examined practice factors associated with (1) participation in the DQIP trial, (2) review activity (extent and nature of documented reviews) and (3) practice level effectiveness (relative reductions in the primary end point). Invited practices recruited (n=33) and not recruited (n=32) to the DQIP trial in Scotland, UK. (1) Characteristics of recruited versus non-recruited practices. Associations of (2) practice characteristics and 'adoption' (self-reported implementation work done by practices) with documented review activity and (3) of practice characteristics, DQIP adoption and review activity with effectiveness. (1) Recruited practices had lower performance in the quality and outcomes framework than those declining participation. (2) Not being an approved general practitioner training practice and higher self-reported adoption were significantly associated with higher review activity. (3) Effectiveness ranged from a relative increase in high-risk prescribing of 24.1% to a relative reduction of 77.2%. High-risk prescribing and DQIP adoption (but not documented review activity) were significantly associated with greater effectiveness in the final multivariate model, explaining 64.0% of variation in effectiveness. Intervention implementation and effectiveness of the DQIP intervention varied substantially between practices. Although the DQIP intervention primarily targeted review of ongoing high-risk prescribing, the finding that self-reported DQIP adoption was a stronger predictor of

  15. Recruiting for health, medical or psychosocial research using Facebook: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Thornton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting participants is a challenge for many health, medical and psychosocial research projects. One tool more frequently being used to improve recruitment is the social networking website Facebook. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that have used Facebook to recruit participants of all ages, to any psychosocial, health or medical research. 110 unique studies that used Facebook as a recruitment source were included in the review. The majority of studies used a cross-sectional design (80% and addressed a physical health or disease issue (57%. Half (49% of the included studies reported specific details of the Facebook recruitment process. Researchers paid between $1.36 and $110 per completing participants (Mean = $17.48, SD = $23.06. Among studies that examined the representativeness of their sample, the majority concluded (86% their Facebook-recruited samples were similarly representative of samples recruited via traditional methods. These results indicate that Facebook is an effective and cost-efficient recruitment method. Researchers should consider their target group, advertisement wording, offering incentives and no-cost methods of recruitment when considering Facebook as a recruitment source. It is hoped this review will assist researchers to make decisions regarding the use of Facebook as a recruitment tool in future research.

  16. Changes in recruitment, growth, and stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) at West Greenland: temperature and density-dependent effects at released predation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai

    2005-01-01

    was carried out oil a spatially disaggregated basis in order to account for the latitudinal differences in bottom temperature and shrimp density. Changes in recruitment and, with a lag of 2 years, in stock biomass were most pronounced in the northern part of its distributional range, while bottom temperature......-dependent effects have become prominent in parts of study area. (c) 2005 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Recruitment Strategies and Activities Used by Agriculture Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brian E.; Dyer, James E.; Breja, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent student recruitment strategies reported by 275 secondary agriculture teachers were (in order of effectiveness) feeder schools, personal contacts, FFA, publications, strong curriculum, support groups, and special events. Specific activities for each strategy were identified. (Contains 34 references.) (SK)

  18. The Use of Social Media in Recruitment for Medical Research Studies: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Natarajan, Karthik

    2016-11-07

    Recruiting an adequate number of participants into medical research studies is challenging for many researchers. Over the past 10 years, the use of social media websites has increased in the general population. Consequently, social media websites are a new, powerful method for recruiting participants into such studies. The objective was to answer the following questions: (1) Is the use of social media more effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? (2) Does social media recruit a sample of research participants comparable to that recruited via other methods? (3) Is social media more cost-effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? Using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases, all medical research studies that used social media and at least one other method for recruitment were identified. These studies were then categorized as either interventional studies or observational studies. For each study, the effectiveness of recruitment, demographic characteristics of the participants, and cost-effectiveness of recruitment using social media were evaluated and compared with that of the other methods used. The social media sites used in recruitment were identified, and if a study stated that the target population was "difficult to reach" as identified by the authors of the study, this was noted. Out of 30 studies, 12 found social media to be the most effective recruitment method, 15 did not, and 3 found social media to be equally effective as another recruitment method. Of the 12 studies that found social media to be the best recruitment method, 8 were observational studies while 4 were interventional studies. Of the 15 studies that did not find social media to be the best recruitment method, 7 were interventional studies while 8 were observational studies. In total, 8 studies stated that the target population was "hard-to-reach," and 6 of these studies found social media to be the most effective recruitment

  19. The Use of Social Media in Recruitment for Medical Research Studies: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting an adequate number of participants into medical research studies is challenging for many researchers. Over the past 10 years, the use of social media websites has increased in the general population. Consequently, social media websites are a new, powerful method for recruiting participants into such studies. Objective The objective was to answer the following questions: (1) Is the use of social media more effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? (2) Does social media recruit a sample of research participants comparable to that recruited via other methods? (3) Is social media more cost-effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? Methods Using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases, all medical research studies that used social media and at least one other method for recruitment were identified. These studies were then categorized as either interventional studies or observational studies. For each study, the effectiveness of recruitment, demographic characteristics of the participants, and cost-effectiveness of recruitment using social media were evaluated and compared with that of the other methods used. The social media sites used in recruitment were identified, and if a study stated that the target population was “difficult to reach” as identified by the authors of the study, this was noted. Results Out of 30 studies, 12 found social media to be the most effective recruitment method, 15 did not, and 3 found social media to be equally effective as another recruitment method. Of the 12 studies that found social media to be the best recruitment method, 8 were observational studies while 4 were interventional studies. Of the 15 studies that did not find social media to be the best recruitment method, 7 were interventional studies while 8 were observational studies. In total, 8 studies stated that the target population was “hard-to-reach,” and 6 of these studies found social

  20. E-recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    2012-01-01

    E-recruitment, also known as online or web-based recruitment, is little discussed in research from an organizational perspective. The purpose of this chapter is therefore to analyze and discuss the process of e-recruitment, its key constituents and organizing principles. In doing so I draw...... on the results of a qualitative study conducted in 2008-2009, and on data stemming from industrial reports, articles from practitioner magazines, and in-depth interviews. The chapter provides a summary of e-recruitment properties and a composite matrix of the overall elements of e-recruitment organizing. E-recruitment...... is viewed as a case of virtual organizing- the organization of processes and activities which, via technology and human agents, facilitate time- and space-independent interaction and collaboration. In closure I offer a brief discussion of implications of the findings for HR managers and professionals...

  1. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (Pmuscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast......The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (Pfibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41...

  2. Assessing the Effects of Periodic Flooding on the Population Structure and Recruitment Rates of Riparian Tree Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside land. This exploratory study assesses the impacts of successive floods on tree dynamics and regeneration in an active sedimentation area, while determining the age of the stands using the recruitment rates, tree structure and tree rings based on dendrochronological analysis. Environmental data were also recorded for each vegetation quadrat. In total, 2633 tree stems were tallied throughout the quadrats (200 m2, and tree specimens were analyzed based on the various flood zones. A total of 720 specimens were counted (100 m2 strip to measure natural regeneration. Higher recruitment rates are noted for the no-flood zones and lower rates in active floodplains. During the period of the establishment of tree species, the survival rates are comparable between the flood zones and the no-flood zones. Tree diameter distribution reveals a strong predominance of young trees in flooded areas. Different factors appear to come into play in the dynamics of riparian forest stands, including the disruptions associated with successive flooding.

  3. Review on hard coral recruitment (Cnidaria: Scleractinia in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F. Dueñas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment, defined and measured as the incorporation of new individuals (i.e. coral juveniles into a population, is a fundamentalprocess for ecologists, evolutionists and conservationists due to its direct effect on population structure and function. Because most coralpopulations are self-feeding, a breakdown in recruitment would lead to local extinction. Recruitment indirectly affects both renewal andmaintenance of existing and future coral communities, coral reef biodiversity (bottom-up effect and therefore coral reef resilience. This process has been used as an indirect measure of individual reproductive success (fitness and is the final stage of larval dispersal leading to population connectivity. As a result, recruitment has been proposed as an indicator of coral-reef health in marine protected areas, as well as a central aspect of the decision-making process concerning management and conservation. The creation of management plans to promote impact mitigation, rehabilitation and conservation of the Colombian coral reefs is a necessity that requires firstly, a review and integration of existing literature on scleractinian coral recruitment in Colombia and secondly, larger scale field studies. This motivated us to summarize and analyze all existing information on coral recruitment to determine the state of knowledge, isolate patterns, identify gaps, and suggest future lines of research.

  4. The effect of resistance level and stability demands on recruitment patterns and internal loading of spine in dynamic flexion and extension using a simple trunk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Dariush, Behzad; Hemami, Hooshang; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2011-07-01

    The effects of external resistance on the recruitment of trunk muscles in sagittal movements and the coactivation mechanism to maintain spinal stability were investigated using a simple computational model of iso-resistive spine sagittal movements. Neural excitation of muscles was attained based on inverse dynamics approach along with a stability-based optimisation. The trunk flexion and extension movements between 60° flexion and the upright posture against various resistance levels were simulated. Incorporation of the stability constraint in the optimisation algorithm required higher antagonistic activities for all resistance levels mostly close to the upright position. Extension movements showed higher coactivation with higher resistance, whereas flexion movements demonstrated lower coactivation indicating a greater stability demand in backward extension movements against higher resistance at the neighbourhood of the upright posture. Optimal extension profiles based on minimum jerk, work and power had distinct kinematics profiles which led to recruitment patterns with different timing and amplitude of activation.

  5. Microvascular Recruitment in Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    the resonating sound from the microbubbles in the systemic circulation were recorded for determination of microvascular recruitment in designated muscle segments. Results showed that microvascular recruitment increased with insulin stimulation by ~30% in rats and ~40% in humans (study I). Furthermore......, it was observed that muscle contractions increased muscle perfusion rapidly by 3-4 fold and by 1-2 fold compared to basal and insulin, respectively, in both rat and human skeletal muscle (study I). The real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound method was applied to investigate the vaso-active effect of the incretin...... hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the microcirculation. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogs are drugs used for treatments of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but the vascular effects of GLP-1 in vivo are elusive. Here it was shown that GLP-1 rapidly increased the microvascular recruitment...

  6. Enabling recruitment success in bariatric surgical trials: pilot phase of the By-Band-Sleeve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, S; Rogers, C A; Welbourn, R; Byrne, J P; Salter, N; Mahon, D; Noble, H; Kelly, J; Mazza, G; Whybrow, P; Andrews, R C; Wilson, C; Blazeby, J M; Donovan, J L

    2017-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving surgical procedures are challenging for recruitment and infrequent in the specialty of bariatrics. The pilot phase of the By-Band-Sleeve study (gastric bypass versus gastric band versus sleeve gastrectomy) provided the opportunity for an investigation of recruitment using a qualitative research integrated in trials (QuinteT) recruitment intervention (QRI). The QRI investigated recruitment in two centers in the pilot phase comparing bypass and banding, through the analysis of 12 in-depth staff interviews, 84 audio recordings of patient consultations, 19 non-participant observations of consultations and patient screening data. QRI findings were developed into a plan of action and fed back to centers to improve information provision and recruitment organization. Recruitment proved to be extremely difficult with only two patients recruited during the first 2 months. The pivotal issue in Center A was that an effective and established clinical service could not easily adapt to the needs of the RCT. There was little scope to present RCT details or ensure efficient eligibility assessment, and recruiters struggled to convey equipoise. Following presentation of QRI findings, recruitment in Center A increased from 9% in the first 2 months (2/22) to 40% (26/65) in the 4 months thereafter. Center B, commencing recruitment 3 months after Center A, learnt from the emerging issues in Center A and set up a special clinic for trial recruitment. The trial successfully completed pilot recruitment and progressed to the main phase across 11 centers. The QRI identified key issues that enabled the integration of the trial into the clinical setting. This contributed to successful recruitment in the By-Band-Sleeve trial-currently the largest in bariatric practice-and offers opportunities to optimize recruitment in other trials in bariatrics.

  7. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  8. LUBAC-Recruited CYLD and A20 Regulate Gene Activation and Cell Death by Exerting Opposing Effects on Linear Ubiquitin in Signaling Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Draber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are crucial for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes. LUBAC-generated linear (M1 ubiquitin is important for signaling via various immune receptors. We show here that the deubiquitinases CYLD and A20, but not OTULIN, are recruited to the TNFR1- and NOD2-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC, at which they cooperate to limit gene activation. Whereas CYLD recruitment depends on its interaction with LUBAC, but not on LUBAC’s M1-chain-forming capacity, A20 recruitment requires this activity. Intriguingly, CYLD and A20 exert opposing effects on M1 chain stability in the TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC. While CYLD cleaves M1 chains, and thereby sensitizes cells to TNF-induced death, A20 binding to them prevents their removal and, consequently, inhibits cell death. Thus, CYLD and A20 cooperatively restrict gene activation and regulate cell death via their respective activities on M1 chains. Hence, the interplay between LUBAC, M1-ubiquitin, CYLD, and A20 is central for physiological signaling through innate immune receptors.

  9. Uncover the recruiter in you!

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    2013 saw the launch of the one-day training course "Selecting the best person for CERN". So far, 10 courses have taken place and over 100 participants have taken part in this interactive, hands on experience.   The course has been met with much enthusiasm and positive feedback, with participants not only feeling better prepared and organised for the recruitment boards, but also equipped with concrete tools on how to prepare and conduct an effective selection interview. Following on from this success, further sessions are planned in 2014: we look forward to welcoming recruiting supervisors and board members who are likely to take part in a recruitment process, whether for LD or LD2IC, and who are interested in finding out more about how to get the most out of this important process! To enrol to this course, please follow this link: "Selecting the best person for CERN".

  10. Recruiting Strategies for Women's Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for combating declining applicant pools at women's colleges are discussed. Research suggests that effective student recruitment can be facilitated by the use of single-gender market niche as a means for differentiation and parent influence for promotion. Review of strategies currently used indicate these marketing methods are underused and…

  11. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel – Ethical and Systems Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairi Brugha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code’s articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles – giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand – was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that

  12. Effect of Ocean Acidification and pH Fluctuations on the Growth and Development of Coralline Algal Recruits, and an Associated Benthic Algal Assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Y Roleda

    Full Text Available Coralline algae are susceptible to the changes in the seawater carbonate system associated with ocean acidification (OA. However, the coastal environments in which corallines grow are subject to large daily pH fluctuations which may affect their responses to OA. Here, we followed the growth and development of the juvenile coralline alga Arthrocardia corymbosa, which had recruited into experimental conditions during a prior experiment, using a novel OA laboratory culture system to simulate the pH fluctuations observed within a kelp forest. Microscopic life history stages are considered more susceptible to environmental stress than adult stages; we compared the responses of newly recruited A. corymbosa to static and fluctuating seawater pH with those of their field-collected parents. Recruits were cultivated for 16 weeks under static pH 8.05 and 7.65, representing ambient and 4× preindustrial pCO2 concentrations, respectively, and two fluctuating pH treatments of daily [Formula: see text] (daytime pH = 8.45, night-time pH = 7.65 and daily [Formula: see text] (daytime pH = 8.05, night-time pH = 7.25. Positive growth rates of new recruits were recorded in all treatments, and were highest under static pH 8.05 and lowest under fluctuating pH 7.65. This pattern was similar to the adults' response, except that adults had zero growth under fluctuating pH 7.65. The % dry weight of MgCO3 in calcite of the juveniles was reduced from 10% at pH 8.05 to 8% at pH 7.65, but there was no effect of pH fluctuation. A wide range of fleshy macroalgae and at least 6 species of benthic diatoms recruited across all experimental treatments, from cryptic spores associated with the adult A. corymbosa. There was no effect of experimental treatment on the growth of the benthic diatoms. On the community level, pH-sensitive species may survive lower pH in the presence of diatoms and fleshy macroalgae, whose high metabolic activity may raise the pH of the local microhabitat.

  13. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel--Ethical and Systems Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugha, Ruairí; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-05-20

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code's articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles--giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand--was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health

  14. Effect of Ocean Acidification and pH Fluctuations on the Growth and Development of Coralline Algal Recruits, and an Associated Benthic Algal Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleda, Michael Y.; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Feng, Yuanyuan; McGraw, Christina M.; Smith, Abigail M.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    2015-01-01

    Coralline algae are susceptible to the changes in the seawater carbonate system associated with ocean acidification (OA). However, the coastal environments in which corallines grow are subject to large daily pH fluctuations which may affect their responses to OA. Here, we followed the growth and development of the juvenile coralline alga Arthrocardia corymbosa, which had recruited into experimental conditions during a prior experiment, using a novel OA laboratory culture system to simulate the pH fluctuations observed within a kelp forest. Microscopic life history stages are considered more susceptible to environmental stress than adult stages; we compared the responses of newly recruited A. corymbosa to static and fluctuating seawater pH with those of their field-collected parents. Recruits were cultivated for 16 weeks under static pH 8.05 and 7.65, representing ambient and 4× preindustrial pCO2 concentrations, respectively, and two fluctuating pH treatments of daily x~ = 8.05 (daytime pH = 8.45, night-time pH = 7.65) and daily x~ = 7.65 (daytime pH = 8.05, night-time pH = 7.25). Positive growth rates of new recruits were recorded in all treatments, and were highest under static pH 8.05 and lowest under fluctuating pH 7.65. This pattern was similar to the adults’ response, except that adults had zero growth under fluctuating pH 7.65. The % dry weight of MgCO3 in calcite of the juveniles was reduced from 10% at pH 8.05 to 8% at pH 7.65, but there was no effect of pH fluctuation. A wide range of fleshy macroalgae and at least 6 species of benthic diatoms recruited across all experimental treatments, from cryptic spores associated with the adult A. corymbosa. There was no effect of experimental treatment on the growth of the benthic diatoms. On the community level, pH-sensitive species may survive lower pH in the presence of diatoms and fleshy macroalgae, whose high metabolic activity may raise the pH of the local microhabitat. PMID:26469945

  15. Paid and Unpaid Online Recruitment for Health Interventions in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Battersby, Malcolm; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need to identify new and innovative approaches to recruit representative samples of young adults in health intervention research. The current study used a data set of screening information from an online well-being intervention trial of young adults, to investigate cost-effectiveness of different recruitment strategies and whether the clinical and demographic characteristics of participants differed depending on paid or unpaid online recruitment sources. Data were collected from 334 18- to 25-year-old Australians. The study was advertised through a variety of paid and unpaid online recruitment channels (e.g., Google, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, recruitment agency), with response rates to different recruitment channels tracked using unique Web links. Well-being of participants was measured using the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. Analyses consisted of independent t tests and χ 2 tests. Overall, unpaid recruitment channels had a considerably higher yield than paid recruitment channels. Of paid recruitment channels, a recruitment agency and paid Facebook advertisements attracted the largest number of individuals. This study also found differences between paid and unpaid online recruitment channels with regard to the well-being and mood of participants. Although the success of online recruitment channels is likely subject to a complex interplay between the number of exposures, the targeted sample, the wording, and placement of the advertisement, as well as study characteristics, our study demonstrated that unpaid recruitment channels are more effective than paid channels and that paid and unpaid channels may result in samples with different characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Lessons learned from recruiting young female students to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaz, Stella; Brennan, Sarah; Dean, Sally; Hay, Sima; Hay, Phillip; Kerry, Sally; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2006-04-01

    Recruitment is a problem in many trials. Two female medical students offered to help with recruiting problems in a community-based trial of chlamydia screening to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease. We need to recruit 2500 sexually active female students and ask them to provide a self-taken low vaginal swab and complete a questionnaire with follow-up after a year. To identify recruitment difficulties in a community-based trial of chlamydia screening and to investigate how they might be overcome. Descriptive study. London South Bank and Kingston Universities. The students observed the recruitment methods used for the first 4 months of the trial. This comprised single researchers recruiting individual women in student bars and common rooms. With the researchers they piloted a new method of group recruitment with pairs of researchers making announcements at the end of lectures after first sending out all male students and those aged>25 years. This involved extra time planning and liaising with the lecturers in advance of recruitment sessions. The recruitment rate had been averaging only 25 participants per week. Many students were ineligible: never been sexually active, too old, recently been tested for chlamydia. Many eligible students were reluctant to take part because of embarrassment or anxiety about providing a swab. Using a new method of group recruitment after lectures we recruited 192 participants in 2 weeks. For a study on a sensitive topic, two researchers recruiting women in groups after lectures may be a more effective and cost-effective way than individual recruitment by researchers working alone.

  17. Motivated reasoning during recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David

    2018-03-01

    This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  19. Predicting the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction factors on recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Diane Smith

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain which extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction areas are most predictive of rehabilitation professionals' career satisfaction and desire to stay on the job. This article discusses the results of a survey conducted on practicing occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists regarding factors that contribute to career satisfaction and desire to stay on the job. Five hundred surveys were mailed to each profession; 463 were returned, of which 328 were able to be analyzed. Results from regression analysis showed that intrinsic factors such as professional growth and having a work environment in line with personal values are more significant in predicting career satisfaction than are extrinsic factors such as pay and continuing education. These same intrinsic factors are also significant in predicting the rehabilitation professional's desire to stay on the job. These findings are significant to healthcare managers desiring to recruit and retain qualified occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists. In addition to extrinsic benefits such as pay, healthcare managers need to focus on provision of intrinsic factors such as opportunities for professional growth, recognition of accomplishments, and opportunities for departmental input to motivate rehabilitation professionals.

  20. Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of data from multi-site randomized trials provides a potential opportunity to use instrumental variables methods to study the effects of multiple hypothesized mediators of the effect of a treatment. We derive nine assumptions needed to identify the effects of multiple mediators when using site-by-treatment interactions…

  1. Three novel approaches to structural identifiability analysis in mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D

    2016-05-06

    Structural identifiability is a concept that considers whether the structure of a model together with a set of input-output relations uniquely determines the model parameters. In the mathematical modelling of biological systems, structural identifiability is an important concept since biological interpretations are typically made from the parameter estimates. For a system defined by ordinary differential equations, several methods have been developed to analyse whether the model is structurally identifiable or otherwise. Another well-used modelling framework, which is particularly useful when the experimental data are sparsely sampled and the population variance is of interest, is mixed-effects modelling. However, established identifiability analysis techniques for ordinary differential equations are not directly applicable to such models. In this paper, we present and apply three different methods that can be used to study structural identifiability in mixed-effects models. The first method, called the repeated measurement approach, is based on applying a set of previously established statistical theorems. The second method, called the augmented system approach, is based on augmenting the mixed-effects model to an extended state-space form. The third method, called the Laplace transform mixed-effects extension, is based on considering the moment invariants of the systems transfer function as functions of random variables. To illustrate, compare and contrast the application of the three methods, they are applied to a set of mixed-effects models. Three structural identifiability analysis methods applicable to mixed-effects models have been presented in this paper. As method development of structural identifiability techniques for mixed-effects models has been given very little attention, despite mixed-effects models being widely used, the methods presented in this paper provides a way of handling structural identifiability in mixed-effects models previously not

  2. Improving Human Resources Recruitment in Maritime Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Surugiu Felicia; Dragomir Cristina

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve maritime human resources recruitment, most crewing and shipping companies implement an internal procedure of recruitment and management of ship’s crew. Based on observations at several crewing companies, this paper presents an example of such procedure meant to ensure that qualified and competent personnel is recruited and all ships in the fleet have crew members understanding their roles, duties and responsibilities and capable of working effectively in teams

  3. Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in mozambique. ... This study characterizes the population structure and identifies nursery areas and recruitment seasons of penaeid shrimps in the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westermeyer, Roger H

    2008-01-01

    .... Recruiting and retaining this highly skilled workforce is a significant challenge for the Air Force due to the high public and private sector demand for people with IT and related engineering skills...

  5. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-07

    2007 hearing of the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Policy, Gregory Wilshusen, director of Information Technology at...Abbott Laboratories in Chicago, recruiters are reaching out to College students by offering flexible work schedules, telecommuting , full tuition

  6. The impact of social media on recruitment: Are you LinkedIn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Koch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: With many organisations vying for the same talent, it is important to ensure that the correct methods are utilised in identifying and attracting the best talent to an organisation. Research purpose: This research investigates the impact of social media on the recruitment process in South Africa. Motivation for the study: As the competition for qualified talent increases, organisations need to understand where to focus their resources to attract the best talent possible. The use of social media is growing daily and its use in the recruitment process seems to have grown exponentially. Research design, approach and method: The sample comprised 12 recruiters, spanning a wide range of industries in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and a thematic analysis was utilised to identify themes and subthemes. Main findings: Despite still utilising some traditional methods of recruiting, South African recruiters follow their international counterparts, with LinkedIn being central to their respective recruitment processes. The use of Twitter and Facebook for recruitment was found to be substantially lower in South Africa than elsewhere. Without following a focused approach, the volume of work that emanates from using social media may overwhelm a recruiter. Practical and managerial implications: Recruiters cannot execute effective recruitment without applying social media tools such as LinkedIn. However, training in the optimal use of social media is essential. Contribution: This study indicates that LinkedIn has a major impact on recruitment in South Africa, but that social media is not a panacea for recruitment issues.

  7. Nurse recruitment. Going places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2002-08-01

    Overseas nurses account for 40 per cent of all new registrations in the UK and this may be rising to 50 per cent. This upward trend is likely to continue. International recruitment is to be part of the NHS's long-term strategy and is becoming the focus of increasing policy attention. The international labour market will become tighter: the US needs to recruit an extra million nurses of its own.

  8. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  9. Linked Patient-Reported Outcomes Data From Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Recruited on an Open Internet Platform to Health Care Claims Databases Identifies a Representative Population for Real-Life Data Analysis in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risson, Valery; Ghodge, Bhaskar; Bonzani, Ian C; Korn, Jonathan R; Medin, Jennie; Saraykar, Tanmay; Sengupta, Souvik; Saini, Deepanshu; Olson, Melvin

    2016-09-22

    An enormous amount of information relevant to public health is being generated directly by online communities. To explore the feasibility of creating a dataset that links patient-reported outcomes data, from a Web-based survey of US patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) recruited on open Internet platforms, to health care utilization information from health care claims databases. The dataset was generated by linkage analysis to a broader MS population in the United States using both pharmacy and medical claims data sources. US Facebook users with an interest in MS were alerted to a patient-reported survey by targeted advertisements. Eligibility criteria were diagnosis of MS by a specialist (primary progressive, relapsing-remitting, or secondary progressive), ≥12-month history of disease, age 18-65 years, and commercial health insurance. Participants completed a questionnaire including data on demographic and disease characteristics, current and earlier therapies, relapses, disability, health-related quality of life, and employment status and productivity. A unique anonymous profile was generated for each survey respondent. Each anonymous profile was linked to a number of medical and pharmacy claims datasets in the United States. Linkage rates were assessed and survey respondents' representativeness was evaluated based on differences in the distribution of characteristics between the linked survey population and the general MS population in the claims databases. The advertisement was placed on 1,063,973 Facebook users' pages generating 68,674 clicks, 3719 survey attempts, and 651 successfully completed surveys, of which 440 could be linked to any of the claims databases for 2014 or 2015 (67.6% linkage rate). Overall, no significant differences were found between patients who were linked and not linked for educational status, ethnicity, current or prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT) treatment, or presence of a relapse in the last 12 months. The frequencies of the

  10. Extending existing structural identifiability analysis methods to mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D

    2018-01-01

    The concept of structural identifiability for state-space models is expanded to cover mixed-effects state-space models. Two methods applicable for the analytical study of the structural identifiability of mixed-effects models are presented. The two methods are based on previously established techniques for non-mixed-effects models; namely the Taylor series expansion and the input-output form approach. By generating an exhaustive summary, and by assuming an infinite number of subjects, functions of random variables can be derived which in turn determine the distribution of the system's observation function(s). By considering the uniqueness of the analytical statistical moments of the derived functions of the random variables, the structural identifiability of the corresponding mixed-effects model can be determined. The two methods are applied to a set of examples of mixed-effects models to illustrate how they work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The anti-tumor effect of the quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod: blockade of recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chi cells to tumor tissue reduces tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deronic, Adnan; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of the small molecule quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod in pre-clinical cancer models. To better understand the anti-tumor effects of tasquinimod in transplantable tumor models, we have evaluated the impact of the compound both on recruitment of myeloid cells to tumor tissue and on tumor-induced myeloid cell expansion as these cells are known to promote tumor development. Mice bearing subcutaneous 4 T1 mammary carcinoma tumors were treated with tasquinimod in the drinking water. A BrdU-based flow cytometry assay was utilized to assess the impact of short-term tasquinimod treatment on myeloid cell recruitment to tumors. Additionally, long-term treatment was performed to study the anti-tumor effect of tasquinimod as well as its effects on splenic myeloid cells and their progenitors. Myeloid cell populations were also immune-depleted by in vivo antibody treatment. Short-term tasquinimod treatment did not influence the proliferation of splenic Ly6C hi and Ly6G hi cells, but instead reduced the influx of Ly6C hi cells to the tumor. Treatment with tasquinimod for various periods of time after tumor inoculation revealed that the anti-tumor effect of this compound mainly operated during the first few days of tumor growth. Similar to tasquinimod treatment, antibody-mediated depletion of Ly6C hi cells within that same time frame, caused reduced tumor growth, thereby confirming a significant role for these cells in tumor development. Additionally, long-term tasquinimod treatment reduced the splenomegaly and expansion of splenic myeloid cells during a later phase of tumor development. In this phase, tasquinimod normalized the tumor-induced alterations in myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the spleen but had only limited impact on the same populations in the bone marrow. Our results indicate that tasquinimod treatment reduces tumor growth by operating early after tumor

  12. Anomalously High Recruitment of the 2010 Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) Year Class: Evidence of Indirect Effects from the Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Geiger, Harold J; Haney, J Christopher; Voss, Christine M; Vozzo, Maria L; Guillory, Vincent; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) exhibited unprecedented juvenile recruitment in 2010 during the year of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, exceeding the prior 39-year mean by more than four standard deviations near the Mississippi River. Abundance of that cohort remained exceptionally high for two subsequent years as recruits moved into older age classes. Such changes in this dominant forage fish population can be most parsimoniously explained as consequences of release from predation. Contact with crude oil induced high mortality of piscivorous seabirds, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), waders, and other fish-eating marsh birds, all of which are substantial consumers of Gulf menhaden. Diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River to protect coastal marshes from oiling depressed salinities, impairing access to juvenile Gulf menhaden by aquatic predators that avoid low-salinity estuarine waters. These releases from predation led to an increase of Gulf menhaden biomass in 2011 to 2.4 million t, or more than twice the average biomass of 1.1 million t for the decade prior to 2010. Biomass increases of this magnitude in a major forage fish species suggest additional trophically linked effects at the population-, trophic-level and ecosystem scales, reflecting an heretofore little appreciated indirect effect that may be associated with major oil spills in highly productive marine waters.

  13. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.G. Steuten (Lotte); K.M.M. Lemmens (Karin); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); H.J.M. Vrijhoef (Hubertus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified. Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multicomponent disease

  14. The use of random-effects models to identify health care center-related characteristics modifying the effect of antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordon, Clementine; Battin, Constance; Verdoux, Helene; Haro, Josef Maria; Belger, Mark; Abenhaim, Lucien; van Staa, Tjeerd Pieter

    2017-01-01

    A case study was conducted, exploring methods to identify drugs effects modifiers, at a health care center level. Data were drawn from the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcome cohort, including hierarchical information on 6641 patients, recruited from 899 health care centers from across ten European countries. Center-level characteristics included the following: psychiatrist's gender, age, length of practice experience, practice setting and type, countries' Healthcare System Efficiency score, and psychiatrist density in the country. Mixed multivariable linear regression models were used: 1) to estimate antipsychotic drugs' effectiveness (defined as the association between patients' outcome at 3 months - dependent variable, continuous - and antipsychotic drug initiation at baseline - drug A vs other antipsychotic drug); 2) to estimate the similarity between clustered data (using the intra-cluster correlation coefficient); and 3) to explore antipsychotic drug effects modification by center-related characteristics (using the addition of an interaction term). About 23% of the variance found for patients' outcome was explained by unmeasured confounding at a center level. Psychiatrists' practice experience was found to be associated with patient outcomes ( p =0.04) and modified the relative effect of "drug A" ( p <0.001), independent of center- or patient-related characteristics. Mixed models may be useful to explore how center-related characteristics modify drugs' effect estimates, but require numerous assumptions.

  15. 'Any body is better than nobody?' Ethical questions around recruiting and/or retaining health professionals in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C; McDonald, F

    2011-01-01

    The literature on recruiting and/or retaining health professionals in rural areas focuses primarily on the development of recruitment and retention strategies and assessing whether such strategies are effective. The objective of this article is to argue that it is important for all stakeholders involved in rural recruitment and/or retention processes to consider their decisions and actions from an ethics perspective. Recruitment and/or retention processes are not value neutral and it is important to understand their ethical dimensions. From the literature, elements of the recruitment and/or retention strategies that have been employed were identified and organised in respect of levels of governance (namely, the levels of health system/government, community, and individual health professionals). The elements identified in these levels were subjected to analysis to identify their ethical dimensions and to determine whether a clash or complement of values arose at each level of governance or between governance levels. There is very little literature in this area that considers the ethical dimensions of rural recruitment and/or retention processes. However, all policies and practices have ethical dimensions that need to be identified and understood as they may have significant implications for recruitment and/or retention processes. This article recommends the application of an ethics perspective when reflecting on rural recruitment and/or retention strategies. The collective decisions of all involved in rural recruitment and/or retention processes may fundamentally influence the 'health' (broadly understood) of rural communities.

  16. Identification of Homophily and Preferential Recruitment in Respondent-Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W; Aronow, Peter M; Zeng, Li; Li, Jianghong

    2018-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a link-tracing procedure used in epidemiologic research on hidden or hard-to-reach populations in which subjects recruit others via their social networks. Estimates from RDS studies may have poor statistical properties due to statistical dependence in sampled subjects' traits. Two distinct mechanisms account for dependence in an RDS study: homophily, the tendency for individuals to share social ties with others exhibiting similar characteristics, and preferential recruitment, in which recruiters do not recruit uniformly at random from their network alters. The different effects of network homophily and preferential recruitment in RDS studies have been a source of confusion and controversy in methodological and empirical research in epidemiology. In this work, we gave formal definitions of homophily and preferential recruitment and showed that neither is identified in typical RDS studies. We derived nonparametric identification regions for homophily and preferential recruitment and showed that these parameters were not identified unless the network took a degenerate form. The results indicated that claims of homophily or recruitment bias measured from empirical RDS studies may not be credible. We applied our identification results to a study involving both a network census and RDS on a population of injection drug users in Hartford, Connecticut (2012-2013). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Leora; Janssen, Patricia A; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives People of South Asian ethnicity are under-represented in health research studies. The objectives of this scoping review were to examine the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research studies and to describe strategies for improving recruitment. Design Scoping review Methods Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework for scoping reviews, we comprehensively searched electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Studies that identified barriers and facilitators to recruitment, or recruitment strategies for South Asian populations were included. Recruitment barriers, facilitators and strategies were grouped thematically and summarised narratively. Synthesis Of 1846 potentially relevant articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. Multiple facilitators and barriers to enrolment of South Asians in health research studies were identified; these most commonly related to logistical challenges, language and cultural barriers, concerns about adverse consequences of participating and mistrust of research. Several actionable strategies were discussed, the most common being engagement of South Asian communities, demonstration of cultural competency, provision of incentives and benefits, language sensitivity through the use of translators and translated materials and the development of trust and personal relationships. Conclusion There is a growing awareness of the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asian participants to health research studies. Knowledge of effective recruitment strategies and implementation during the grant funding stages may reduce the risk of poor recruitment and representation of South Asians. PMID:28576896

  18. Recruiting older people at nutritional risk for clinical trials: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Cynthia; Chapman, Ian M; Naganathan, Vasi; Hunter, Peter; Cameron, Ian D; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2015-04-15

    The difficulty of recruiting older people to clinical trials is well described, but there is limited information about effective ways to screen and recruit older people into trials, and the reasons for their reluctance to enrol. This paper examines recruitment efforts for a community-based health intervention study that targeted older adults. One year randomized control trial. Undernourished men and women, aged ≥ 65 years and living independently in the community were recruited in three Australian states. Participants were allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. Hospital admissions, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, and other variables were assessed. 4023 potential participants were identified and 767 were screened by a variety of methods: hospital note screening, referrals from geriatric health services, advertising and media segments/appearances. 53 participants (7% of total screened) were recruited. The majority of potentially eligible participants declined participation in the trial after reading the information sheet. Media was the more successful method of recruiting, whereas contacting people identified by screening a large number of hospital records was not successful in recruiting any participants. Recruitment of frail and older participants is difficult and multiple strategies are required to facilitate participation. Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066 date registered 4/5/2010.

  19. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species.

  1. Profiling, Screening and Criminal Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cotton; Cheng Li

    2012-01-01

    We model major criminal activity as a game in which a law enforcement officer chooses the rate at which to screen different population groups and a criminal organization (e.g., drug cartel, terrorist cell) chooses the observable characteristics of its recruits. Our model best describes smuggling or terrorism activities at borders, airports and other security checkpoints. When the social costs of crime are high, law enforcement is most-effective when it is unconstrained in its ability to profi...

  2. Issues about Human Resources Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-01-01

    As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex a...

  3. An Efficient, Noniterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we also provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. An Efficient, Non-iterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we additionally provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. PMID:25926282

  5. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  6. Multiple Logics as a Source of New Practices and Variations in Employee Recruitment Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    Academic research in recruitment lacks insights into why there are variations in organizations’ recruitment strategies and practices. The contribution of this research is to address this question from the perspective of institutional logic at the organizational level of analysis and thereby go some...... way to filling this gap. The data for the research were collected from a population of organizations in Denmark in 2008-2009, mainly by means of qualitative interviews. Three major institutional logics which guide recruitment practices were identified and are presented in this paper. These logics...... - administration, efficiency and effectiveness – suggest that organizations’ recruitment practices are dominated by diverse goals and different means of achieving them, which can explain the variations in recruitment strategies and practices....

  7. Sales Force Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviu MEGHISAN

    2008-01-01

    The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.

  8. Recruitment and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Jolene

    1986-01-01

    Suggests ways community college journalism instructors can recruit and retain students in journalism classes (e.g., host a high school press day, fund a journalism scholarship, sponsor events for high school journalism teachers and advisers, serve as counselor for journalism majors, have a yearly journalism convocation, and involve campus…

  9. E-recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    tasks and subtasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. In addition, a new on-going task of maintaining a corporate career website has become an integral part of the new recruitment process. The new design is presented in the following, and its implications...

  10. Identifying transposon insertions and their effects from RNA-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Julian R; Kas, Sjors M; Schut, Eva; Adams, David J; Koudijs, Marco J; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Jonkers, Jos

    2017-07-07

    Insertional mutagenesis using engineered transposons is a potent forward genetic screening technique used to identify cancer genes in mouse model systems. In the analysis of these screens, transposon insertion sites are typically identified by targeted DNA-sequencing and subsequently assigned to predicted target genes using heuristics. As such, these approaches provide no direct evidence that insertions actually affect their predicted targets or how transcripts of these genes are affected. To address this, we developed IM-Fusion, an approach that identifies insertion sites from gene-transposon fusions in standard single- and paired-end RNA-sequencing data. We demonstrate IM-Fusion on two separate transposon screens of 123 mammary tumors and 20 B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, respectively. We show that IM-Fusion accurately identifies transposon insertions and their true target genes. Furthermore, by combining the identified insertion sites with expression quantification, we show that we can determine the effect of a transposon insertion on its target gene(s) and prioritize insertions that have a significant effect on expression. We expect that IM-Fusion will significantly enhance the accuracy of cancer gene discovery in forward genetic screens and provide initial insight into the biological effects of insertions on candidate cancer genes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological research often requires collection of data from a representative sample of the community or recruitment of specific groups through broad community approaches. The population coverage of traditional survey methods such as mail-outs to residential addresses, and telephone contact via public directories or random-digit-dialing is declining and survey response rates are falling. There is a need to explore new sampling frames and consider multiple response modes including those offered by changes in telecommunications and internet technology. Methods We evaluated response rates and cost-effectiveness for three modes of survey administration (postal invitation/postal survey, postal invitation/internet survey and postal invitation/telephone survey) and two styles of contact approach (personalised and generic) in a community survey of greywater use. Potential respondents were contacted only once, with no follow up of non-responders. Results The telephone survey produced the highest adjusted response rate (30.2%), followed by the personalised postal survey (10.5%), generic postal survey (7.5%) and then the internet survey (4.7% for the personalised approach and 2.2% for the generic approach). There were some differences in household characteristics and greywater use rates between respondents to different survey modes, and between respondents to personalised and generic approaches. These may be attributable to the differing levels of motivations needed for a response, and varying levels of interest in the survey topic among greywater users and non-users. The generic postal survey had the lowest costs per valid survey received (Australian $22.93), followed by the personalised postal survey ($24.75). Conclusions Our findings suggest that postal surveys currently remain the most economic option for population-based studies, with similar costs for personalised and generic approaches. Internet surveys may be effective for specialised groups where email

  13. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The identifiable victim effect in charitable giving: evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Tine; Rasmussen, O. D.

    2014-01-01

    or a statistical victim. Unlike much previous research, which has used only laboratory experiments, we find that the campaign letter focusing on one identifiable victim did not result in significantly larger donations than the campaign letter focusing on the statistical victim. In addition to the role......We design a natural field experiment to enhance our understanding of the role of the identifiable victim effect in charitable giving. Using direct mail solicitations to 25797 prior donors of a nonprofit charity, we tested the responsiveness of donors to make a contribution to either an identifiable...... campaigns. We find some evidence of crowding out, indicating that charitable giving could be a zero-sum game; however, the treatment letters did not have different effects on other payments....

  15. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-05-12

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents.

  16. Antidepressant-like effect of losartan involves TRKB transactivation from angiotensin receptor type 2 (AGTR2) and recruitment of FYN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Cassiano R A F; Casarotto, Plinio C; Fred, Senem M; Biojone, Caroline; Castrén, Eero; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2018-06-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before. Accordingly, in the forced swimming test, we observed an antidepressant-like effect of systemic losartan but not with captopril or enalapril treatment. Moreover, infusion of losartan into the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) mimicked the consequences of systemically injected losartan, whereas K252a (a blocker of TRK) infused into these brain areas impaired such effect. PD123319, an antagonist of AT2 receptor (AGTR2), also prevented the systemic losartan effect when infused into PL but not into vHC. Cultured cortical cells of rat embryos revealed that angiotensin II (ANG2), possibly through AGTR2, increased the surface levels of TRKB and its coupling to FYN, a SRC family kinase. Higher Agtr2 levels in cortical cells were reduced after stimulation with glutamate, and only under this condition an interaction between losartan and ANG2 was achieved. TRKB/AGTR2 heterodimers were also observed, in MG87 cells GFP-tagged AGTR2 co-immunoprecipitated with TRKB. Therefore, the antidepressant-like effect of losartan is proposed to occur through a shift of ANG2 towards AGTR2, followed by coupling of TRK/FYN and putative TRKB transactivation. Thus, the blockade of AGTR1 has therapeutic potential as a novel antidepressant therapy. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: Context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody eTousignant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Body-object interaction (BOI is a semantic richness variable that measures the perceived ease with which the human body can physically interact with a word’s referent. Lexical and semantic processing is facilitated when words are associated with relatively more bodily experience (high BOI words, e.g., belt. To date, BOI effects have been examined in only one semantic decision context (is it imageable?. It has been argued that semantic processing is dynamic and can be modulated by context. We examined these influences by testing how task knowledge modulated BOI effects. We presented the same stimuli (high- and low-BOI entity words and a set of action words in each of four action/entity semantic categorization tasks (SCTs. Task framing was manipulated: participants were told about one (actions or entities or both (actions and entities categories of words in the decision task. Facilitatory BOI effects were observed when participants knew that ‘entity’ was part of the decision category, regardless of whether the high- and low-BOI entity words appeared on the affirmative or negative side of the decision. That BOI information was only useful when participants had expectations that object words would be presented suggests a strong role for the decision context in lexical-semantic processing, and supports a dynamic view of conceptual knowledge.

  18. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  19. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  20. The Use of a Performance Assessment for Identifying Gifted Lebanese Students: Is DISCOVER Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance- based assessment in identifying gifted Lebanese students. The sample consisted of 248 students (121 boys, 127 girls) from Grades 3-5 at two private schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Students were administered DISCOVER and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices…

  1. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  2. A side-effect free method for identifying cancer drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Md Izhar; Ong, Seng-Kai; Mujawar, Shama; Pawar, Shrikant; More, Pallavi; Paul, Somnath; Lahiri, Chandrajit

    2018-04-27

    Identifying effective drug targets, with little or no side effects, remains an ever challenging task. A potential pitfall of failing to uncover the correct drug targets, due to side effect of pleiotropic genes, might lead the potential drugs to be illicit and withdrawn. Simplifying disease complexity, for the investigation of the mechanistic aspects and identification of effective drug targets, have been done through several approaches of protein interactome analysis. Of these, centrality measures have always gained importance in identifying candidate drug targets. Here, we put forward an integrated method of analysing a complex network of cancer and depict the importance of k-core, functional connectivity and centrality (KFC) for identifying effective drug targets. Essentially, we have extracted the proteins involved in the pathways leading to cancer from the pathway databases which enlist real experimental datasets. The interactions between these proteins were mapped to build an interactome. Integrative analyses of the interactome enabled us to unearth plausible reasons for drugs being rendered withdrawn, thereby giving future scope to pharmaceutical industries to potentially avoid them (e.g. ESR1, HDAC2, F2, PLG, PPARA, RXRA, etc). Based upon our KFC criteria, we have shortlisted ten proteins (GRB2, FYN, PIK3R1, CBL, JAK2, LCK, LYN, SYK, JAK1 and SOCS3) as effective candidates for drug development.

  3. Participant Recruitment and Engagement in Automated eHealth Trial Registration: Challenges and Opportunities for Recruiting Women Who Experience Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C

    2016-10-25

    Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people's early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated, and randomized), 412 (82.2%) were

  4. Participant Recruitment and Engagement in Automated eHealth Trial Registration: Challenges and Opportunities for Recruiting Women Who Experience Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people’s early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. Objective The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. Methods In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. Results The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated

  5. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  6. Normative study of theme identifiability: Instructions with and without explanation of the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Cadavid, Sara

    2016-12-01

    False-memory illusions have been widely studied using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). In this paradigm, words semantically related to a single nonpresented critical word are studied. In a later memory test, critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present normative study was conducted to measure the theme identifiability of 60 associative word lists in Spanish that include six words (e.g., stove, coat, blanket, scarf, chill, and bonnet) that are simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., HEAT, COLD, and WINTER; Beato & Díez, Psicothema, 26, 457-463, 2011). Different levels of backward associative strength were used in the construction of the DRM lists. In addition, we used two types of instructions to obtain theme identifiability. In the without-explanation condition, traditional instructions were used, requesting participants to write the theme list. In the with-explanation condition, the false-memory effect and how the lists were built were explained, and an example of a DRM list and critical words was shown. Participants then had to discover the critical words. The results showed that all lists produced theme identifiability. Moreover, some lists had a higher theme identifiability rate (e.g., 61 % for the critical words LOVE, BOYFRIEND, COUPLE) than others (e.g., 24 % for CITY, PLACE, VILLAGE). After comparing the theme identifiabilities in the different conditions, the results indicated higher theme identifiability when the false-memory effect was explained than without such an explanation. Overall, these new normative data provide a useful tool for those experiments that, for example, aim to analyze the wide differences observed in false memory with DRM lists and the role of theme identifiability.

  7. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  8. Cost-effectiveness of identifying aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arterial disease with angiography or duplex scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffi, S.B.; Ubbink, D.Th.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W.; Reekers, J.A.; Legemate, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Cost-effectiveness analysis of three diagnostic imaging strategies for the assessment of aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The strategies were: angiography as the reference strategy, duplex scanning (DS) plus supplementary angiography (S1) and DS plus confirmative angiography (S2). Design, materials and methods: A decision model was built with sensitivity and specificity data from literature, supplemented with prospective hospital cost data in Euro ( Euro ). The probability of correctly identifying the status of a lesion was taken as the primary outcome. We compared strategies by assessing the extra costs per additional correctly identified case. Results: Assuming no false positive or false negative results, angiography is the most effective strategy if the prevalence of significant obstructive lesions in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal tract exceeds 70%, or if the sensitivity of duplex scanning is lower than 83%. In case of lower prevalence, strategy S1 becomes equally or even more effective than angiography. At a prevalence of 75%, performing angiography costs Euro 8443 per extra correctly identified case compared with strategy S1. Conclusions: In most situations angiography is more effective than diagnostic strategy S1. However, if society is unwilling to pay more than Euro 8443 for knowing a patient's disease status, diagnostic strategy S1 is a cost-effective alternative to angiography, especially at lower prevalence values

  9. Effects of increased discharge on spawning and age-0 recruitment of rainbow trout in the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Luke A.; Korman, Josh; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative interactions of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha pose challenges to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) to manage for both species in the Colorado River. Operations to enhance the Rainbow Trout tailwater fishery may lead to an increase in downstream movement of the trout to areas where they are likely to interact with Humpback Chub. We evaluated the effects of dam operations on age-0 Rainbow Trout in the tailwater fishery to inform managers about how GCD operations could benefit a tailwater fishery for Rainbow Trout; although this could affect a Humpback Chub population farther downstream. A near year-long increase in discharge at GCD in 2011 enabled us to evaluate whether high and stable flows led to increased spawning and production of age-0 Rainbow Trout compared with other years. Rainbow Trout spawning was monitored by fitting a model to observed redd counts to estimate the number of redds created over a spawning season. Data collected during electrofishing trips in July–September and November were used to acquire age-0 trout population and mortality rate estimates. We found that high and stable flows in 2011 resulted in 3,062 redds (1.7 times the mean of all survey years) and a population estimate of 686,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout (second highest on record). Despite high initial abundance, mortality remained low through the year (0.0043%/d) resulting in significant recruitment with a record high November population estimate of 214,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout. Recent monitoring indicates this recruitment event was followed by an increase in downstream migration, which may lead to increased interactions with downstream populations of Humpback Chub. Consequently, while our results indicate that manipulating flow at GCD can be used to manage Rainbow Trout spawning and recruitment, fisheries managers should use flow manipulation in moderation to minimize downstream migration in order to reduce negative

  10. Identifying Effective Components of Child Maltreatment Interventions: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Assink, Mark; Gubbels, Jeanne; Boekhout van Solinge, Noëlle F

    2018-06-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about specific components that make interventions effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to increase this knowledge by summarizing findings on effects of interventions for child maltreatment and by examining potential moderators of this effect, such as intervention components and study characteristics. Identifying effective components is essential for developing or improving child maltreatment interventions. A literature search yielded 121 independent studies (N = 39,044) examining the effects of interventions for preventing or reducing child maltreatment. From these studies, 352 effect sizes were extracted. The overall effect size was significant and small in magnitude for both preventive interventions (d = 0.26, p child maltreatment. For preventive interventions, larger effect sizes were found for short-term interventions (0-6 months), interventions focusing on increasing self-confidence of parents, and interventions delivered by professionals only. Further, effect sizes of preventive interventions increased as follow-up duration increased, which may indicate a sleeper effect of preventive interventions. For curative interventions, larger effect sizes were found for interventions focusing on improving parenting skills and interventions providing social and/or emotional support. Interventions can be effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. © 2014 D. L. Linton et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  13. Patterns of Saccharina latissima recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guri Sogn Andersen

    Full Text Available The lack of recovery in Norwegian populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus C. E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl & G. W. Saunders after a large-scale disturbance that occurred sometime between the late 1990s and early 2000s has raised considerable concerns. Kelp forests are areas of high production that serve as habitats for numerous species, and their continued absence may represent the loss of an entire ecosystem. Some S. latissima populations remain as scattered patches within the affected areas, but today, most of the areas are completely devoid of kelp. The question is if natural recolonization by kelp and the reestablishment of the associated ecosystem is possible. Previous studies indicate that a high degree of reproductive synchrony in macrophytes has a positive effect on their potential for dispersal and on the connectivity between populations, but little is known about the patterns of recruitment in Norwegian S. latissima. More is, however, known about the development of fertile tissue (sori on adult individuals, which is easily observed. The present study investigated the degree of coupling between the appearance of sori and the recruitment on clean artificial substrate beneath adult specimens. The pattern of recruitment was linked to the retreat of visible sori (i.e. spore release and a seasonal component unrelated to the fertility of the adults. The formation and the retreat of visible sori are processes that seem synchronized along the south coast of Norway, and the link between sori development and recruitment may therefore suggest that the potential for S. latissima dispersal is relatively large. These results support the notion that the production and dispersal of viable spores is unlikely to be the bottleneck preventing recolonization in the south of Norway, but studies over larger temporal and spatial scales are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Recruitment decline in North Sea herring is accompanied by reduced larval growth rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Ross, Stine Dalmann; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    The stock of North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) has shown an unprecedented sequence of ten years of sharply reduced recruitment, in spite of a high spawning biomass. Recent work has identified this below-expected recruitment as being determined during the larval phase: however...... rate of 8%, concurrent with the reduced larval survival and recruitment, was identified: after correcting for the effect of other explanatory variables (e.g. temperature changes), the gross reduction was found to be 12%. This reduction is most probably due to changes in either the amount or quality...... and larvae survival, thereby narrowing the range of potential mechanisms underlying the observed reduction in the recruitment of North Sea autumn spawning herring...

  15. Making Web Sites an Effective Recruitment Asset: Content Management Solutions Keep Web Sites Fresh and Relevant--and Students Engaged. Noel-Levitz White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Have you updated your Web site today? Is it possible that answering "yes" to this simple question is the key to the success of your marketing and recruiting efforts? In the current recruitment arena, the ability to update and maintain this one high-value asset (your Web site) might be the key to the potency of your institutional…

  16. Direct and indirect effects of a dense understory on tree seedling recruitment in temperate forests: habitat-mediated predation versus competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2008-01-01

    In forests characterized by a dense woody and herbaceous understory layer, seedling recruitment is often directly suppressed via interspecific competition. Alternatively, these dense layers may indirectly lower tree recruitment by providing a haven for seed and seedling predators that prey on neighboring plant species. To simultaneously...

  17. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  18. Lack of Effectiveness of the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Vaccine in Reducing All-Cause Pneumonias Among Healthy Young Military Recruits: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    outpatient disease s unknown and there are diagnostic difficulties in identifying S. neumoniae , these reports likely underestimate the true impact of...Outcome measures included S. pneumonia infections, any-cause neumonia , any-cause respiratory disease, recruit training clin- cal pneumonia (radiographically

  19. Clinical trials recruitment planning: A proposed framework from the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grant D; Bull, Jonca; Johnston McKee, Kelly; Mahon, Elizabeth; Harper, Beth; Roberts, Jamie N

    2018-03-01

    Patient recruitment is widely recognized as a key determinant of success for clinical trials. Yet a substantial number of trials fail to reach recruitment goals-a situation that has important scientific, financial, ethical, and policy implications. Further, there are important effects on stakeholders who directly contribute to the trial including investigators, sponsors, and study participants. Despite efforts over multiple decades to identify and address barriers, recruitment challenges persist. To advance a more comprehensive approach to trial recruitment, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) convened a project team to examine the challenges and to issue actionable, evidence-based recommendations for improving recruitment planning that extend beyond common study-specific strategies. We describe our multi-stakeholder effort to develop a framework that delineates three areas essential to strategic recruitment planning efforts: (1) trial design and protocol development, (2) trial feasibility and site selection, and (3) communication. Our recommendations propose an upstream approach to recruitment planning that has the potential to produce greater impact and reduce downstream barriers. Additionally, we offer tools to help facilitate adoption of the recommendations. We hope that our framework and recommendations will serve as a guide for initial efforts in clinical trial recruitment planning irrespective of disease or intervention focus, provide a common basis for discussions in this area and generate targets for further analysis and continual improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A biomechanical model for fibril recruitment: Evaluation in tendons and arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Tim; Merabet, Nadege; Hornsby, Jack; Watton, Paul N; Thompson, Mark S

    2018-06-06

    Simulations of soft tissue mechanobiological behaviour are increasingly important for clinical prediction of aneurysm, tendinopathy and other disorders. Mechanical behaviour at low stretches is governed by fibril straightening, transitioning into load-bearing at recruitment stretch, resulting in a tissue stiffening effect. Previous investigations have suggested theoretical relationships between stress-stretch measurements and recruitment probability density function (PDF) but not derived these rigorously nor evaluated these experimentally. Other work has proposed image-based methods for measurement of recruitment but made use of arbitrary fibril critical straightness parameters. The aim of this work was to provide a sound theoretical basis for estimating recruitment PDF from stress-stretch measurements and to evaluate this relationship using image-based methods, clearly motivating the choice of fibril critical straightness parameter in rat tail tendon and porcine artery. Rigorous derivation showed that the recruitment PDF may be estimated from the second stretch derivative of the first Piola-Kirchoff tissue stress. Image-based fibril recruitment identified the fibril straightness parameter that maximised Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) with estimated PDFs. Using these critical straightness parameters the new method for estimating recruitment PDF showed a PCC with image-based measures of 0.915 and 0.933 for tendons and arteries respectively. This method may be used for accurate estimation of fibril recruitment PDF in mechanobiological simulation where fibril-level mechanical parameters are important for predicting cell behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  2. IDENTIFYING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS METRICS (Case study: East Azerbaijan`s industrial units)

    OpenAIRE

    Faridyahyaie, Reza; Faryabi, Mohammad; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The Paper attempts to identify marketing eff ectiveness metrics in industrial units. The metrics investigated in this study are completely applicable and comprehensive, and consequently they can evaluate marketing eff ectiveness in various industries. The metrics studied include: Market Share, Profitability, Sales Growth, Customer Numbers, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty. The findings indicate that these six metrics are impressive when measuring marketing effectiveness. Data was ge...

  3. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Identifying Treatment Effect Modifiers in the STarT Back Trial: A Secondary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneciuk, Jason M; Hill, Jonathan C; Campbell, Paul; Afolabi, Ebenezer; George, Steven Z; Dunn, Kate M; Foster, Nadine E

    2017-01-01

    Identification of patient characteristics influencing treatment outcomes is a top low back pain (LBP) research priority. Results from the STarT Back trial support the effectiveness of prognostic stratified care for LBP compared with current best care, however, patient characteristics associated with treatment response have not yet been explored. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to identify treatment effect modifiers within the STarT Back trial at 4-month follow-up (n = 688). Treatment response was dichotomized using back-specific physical disability measured using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (≥7). Candidate modifiers were identified using previous literature and evaluated using logistic regression with statistical interaction terms to provide preliminary evidence of treatment effect modification. Socioeconomic status (SES) was identified as an effect modifier for disability outcomes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71, P = .028). High SES patients receiving prognostic stratified care were 2.5 times less likely to have a poor outcome compared with low SES patients receiving best current care (OR = .40, P = .006). Education level (OR = 1.33, P = .109) and number of pain medications (OR = .64, P = .140) met our criteria for effect modification with weaker evidence (.20 > P ≥ .05). These findings provide preliminary evidence for SES, education, and number of pain medications as treatment effect modifiers of prognostic stratified care delivered in the STarT Back Trial. This analysis provides preliminary exploratory findings about the characteristics of patients who might least likely benefit from targeted treatment using prognostic stratified care for LBP. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying the Average Causal Mediation Effects with Multiple Mediators in the Presence of Treatment Non-Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the causal mechanisms is becoming more essential in social and medical sciences. In the presence of treatment non-compliance, the Intent-To-Treated effect (hereafter, ITT effect) is identified as long as the treatment is randomized (Angrist et al., 1996). However, the mediated portion of effect is not identified without additional…

  6. Recruiting Effects of Army Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation; and from Colonels Donald Borden and William Graf of the Directorate of Advertising and Sales Promotion . Ani Haigazian provided valuable...because they include numerous non- media items, such as lead fulfillment, sales promotion , market research, printed bro- chures, and special programs

  7. Online Recruitment Methods for Web-Based and Mobile Health Studies: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Taylor S; Armin, Julie; Gordon, Judith S

    2015-07-22

    better outcomes with traditional (eg in-person) methods of recruitment. Only one study recorded retention rates in their results, and half (50%; 6/12) of the studies recorded survey completion rates. Although online methods of recruitment may be promising in experimental research, more empirical evidence is needed to make specific recommendations. Several barriers to using online recruitment were identified, including participant retention. These unique challenges of virtual interventions can affect the generalizability and validity of findings from Web-based and mHealth studies. There is a need for additional research to evaluate the effectiveness of online recruitment methods and participant retention in experimental mHealth studies.

  8. Issues about Human Resources Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex and expensive activity and, concomitantly, an independent activity, sustained both through the necessary work volume as well as through its importance for the organization.

  9. Effective use of forensic science in volume crime investigations: identifying recurring themes in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Anika; Fraser, Jim

    2014-01-01

    New scientific, technological and legal developments, particularly the introduction of national databases for DNA and fingerprints, have led to increased use of forensic science in the investigation of crime. There is an assumption, and in some instances specific assertions, that such developments bring improvements either in broad criminal justice terms or more narrowly in terms of economic or practical efficiencies. The underlying presumption is that the new technological opportunities will be understood and effectively implemented. This research investigates whether such increases in activity have also been accompanied by improvements in the effective use of forensic science. A systematic review of thirty-six reports published (predominantly in England and Wales) since the 1980s, which have considered the use of forensic science in the investigation of volume crimes, was carried out. These reports have identified a number of recurrent themes that influenced how effectively forensic science was used in investigations. The themes identified included forensic knowledge and training of investigators, communication and information exchange between specialists and investigators, timeliness of forensic results, interagency relationships and deployment of crime scene examiner resources. The research findings suggest that these factors continue to hinder the effective use of forensic science despite technological advances and this paper considers their potential causes. © 2013.

  10. Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency–reversing drug combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Gregory M.; Bullen, C. Korin; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Martin, Alyssa R.; Hill, Alison L.; Durand, Christine M.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Reversal of HIV-1 latency by small molecules is a potential cure strategy. This approach will likely require effective drug combinations to achieve high levels of latency reversal. Using resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s) from infected individuals, we developed an experimental and theoretical framework to identify effective latency-reversing agent (LRA) combinations. Utilizing ex vivo assays for intracellular HIV-1 mRNA and virion production, we compared 2-drug combinations of leading candidate LRAs and identified multiple combinations that effectively reverse latency. We showed that protein kinase C agonists in combination with bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or histone deacetylase inhibitors robustly induce HIV-1 transcription and virus production when directly compared with maximum reactivation by T cell activation. Using the Bliss independence model to quantitate combined drug effects, we demonstrated that these combinations synergize to induce HIV-1 transcription. This robust latency reversal occurred without release of proinflammatory cytokines by rCD4s. To extend the clinical utility of our findings, we applied a mathematical model that estimates in vivo changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA from ex vivo measurements of virus production. Our study reconciles diverse findings from previous studies, establishes a quantitative experimental approach to evaluate combinatorial LRA efficacy, and presents a model to predict in vivo responses to LRAs. PMID:25822022

  11. Evaluating the Efficacy of a Registry linked to a Consent to Re-Contact Program and Communication Strategies for Recruiting and Enrolling Participants into Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood-Grady, Elizabeth; Clark, Virginia C; Bauer, Angie; Morelli, Lauren; Horne, Patrick; Krieger, Janice L; Nelson, David R

    2017-12-01

    Although registries can rapidly identify clinical study participants, it is unknown which follow up methods for recruiting are most effective. Our goal is to examine the efficacy of three communication strategies for recruiting and enrolling patients who were identified via a contact registry (i.e., registry linked to a consent to re-contact program). Patients who met the study criteria were identified via the contact registry and targeted for recruitment. In condition 1, patients established in the university hepatology specialty clinics were contacted one time via phone call by the study coordinator and asked to participate (C1). In condition 2, non-established specialty clinic patients were mailed an IRB-approved letter with study information and instructions for calling the study coordinator to participate (C2). Condition 2A included patients who called within two weeks of receiving the letter (C2A); condition 2B included patients who did not call after receiving the letter but were subsequently contacted via phone call. A registry identified 1,060 patients, of which 661were eligible and targeted for recruiting. All 37 patients were reached in C1 and 17 (45.9%) were recruited. Nineteen of the 624 patients in C2A were reached and 10 were recruited whereas 120 of the 605 patients in C2B were reached and 53 (8.7%) were recruited. Seventy patients enrolled with C2B being the most effective (total, cost) recruitment strategy ( n = 50) ( p recruiting.

  12. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks through local effective spreading paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun; Zhao, Chengli

    2017-05-01

    How to effectively identify a set of influential spreaders in complex networks is of great theoretical and practical value, which can help to inhibit the rapid spread of epidemics, promote the sales of products by word-of-mouth advertising, and so on. A naive strategy is to select the top ranked nodes as identified by some centrality indices, and other strategies are mainly based on greedy methods and heuristic methods. However, most of those approaches did not concern the connections between nodes. Usually, the distances between the selected spreaders are very close, leading to a serious overlapping of their influence. As a consequence, the global influence of the spreaders in networks will be greatly reduced, which largely restricts the performance of those methods. In this paper, a simple and efficient method is proposed to identify a set of discrete yet influential spreaders. By analyzing the spreading paths in the network, we present the concept of effective spreading paths and measure the influence of nodes via expectation calculation. The numerical analysis in undirected and directed networks all show that our proposed method outperforms many other centrality-based and heuristic benchmarks, especially in large-scale networks. Besides, experimental results on different spreading models and parameters demonstrates the stability and wide applicability of our method.

  13. Ethics and Privacy Implications of Using the Internet and Social Media to Recruit Participants for Health Research: A Privacy-by-Design Framework for Online Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Alaina B; Arbuckle, Luk; Ferris, Lorraine E

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet and social media offer promising ways to improve the reach, efficiency, and effectiveness of recruitment efforts at a reasonable cost, but raise unique ethical dilemmas. We describe how we used social media to recruit cancer patients and family caregivers for a research study, the ethical issues we encountered, and the strategies we developed to address them. Objective Drawing on the principles of Privacy by Design (PbD), a globally recognized standard for privacy protection, we aimed to develop a PbD framework for online health research recruitment. Methods We proposed a focus group study on the dietary behaviors of cancer patients and their families, and the role of Web-based dietary self-management tools. Using an established blog on our hospital website, we proposed publishing a recruitment post and sharing the link on our Twitter and Facebook pages. The Research Ethics Board (REB) raised concern about the privacy risks associated with our recruitment strategy; by clicking on a recruitment post, an individual could inadvertently disclose personal health information to third-party companies engaged in tracking online behavior. The REB asked us to revise our social media recruitment strategy with the following questions in mind: (1) How will you inform users about the potential for privacy breaches and their implications? and (2) How will you protect users from privacy breaches or inadvertently sharing potentially identifying information about themselves? Results Ethical guidelines recommend a proportionate approach to ethics assessment, which advocates for risk mitigation strategies that are proportional to the magnitude and probability of risks. We revised our social media recruitment strategy to inform users about privacy risks and to protect their privacy, while at the same time meeting our recruitment objectives. We provide a critical reflection of the perceived privacy risks associated with our social media recruitment strategy and

  14. "Recruitment to the organsization for security and co-operation in Europe`s mission to Bosnia- Herzegovina" : applying organizational theory to effective peacebuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Nørgaard, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Research on international peacebuilding has paid very little attention to the possible influence of internal organizational structures within the organizations carrying out the work. This thesis seeks to add to this knowledge, by providing insights into the recruitment and selection process of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH). The purpose of this study is to build knowledge about how the OSCE recruit, and use that knowledge to better ...

  15. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-re...

  16. Recruitment of subjects into clinical trials for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebl, Janice A; Patki, Deepti

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of Americans. It reduces the ability of the individual to remain independent, places a burden on caregivers, and substantially increases healthcare costs. New treatments are being tested in numerous clinical trials with the goal of preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease, slowing or modifying the disease's course, or finding a cure for patients with the disease. Alzheimer disease research can successfully proceed only if individuals who have this illness are willing to participate in clinical trials. However, recruitment and retention of subjects in clinical trials for Alzheimer disease is a challenging task. Furthermore, because of reductions in decision-making capacities of individuals with Alzheimer disease, clinical trials also need to involve caregivers. The present article delineates unique hurdles encountered in the recruitment process for Alzheimer disease clinical trials. The article also identifies strategies for effective recruitment of subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, including guidelines to help principal investigators and clinical research coordinators reach recruitment goals.

  17. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  18. Effectively identifying regulatory hotspots while capturing expression heterogeneity in gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a tool that can systematically identify genetic variation affecting gene expression. eQTL mapping studies have shown that certain genomic locations, referred to as regulatory hotspots, may affect the expression levels of many genes. Recently, studies have shown that various confounding factors may induce spurious regulatory hotspots. Here, we introduce a novel statistical method that effectively eliminates spurious hotspots while retaining genuine hotspots. Applied to simulated and real datasets, we validate that our method achieves greater sensitivity while retaining low false discovery rates compared to previous methods. PMID:24708878

  19. Effects of a preemptive alveolar recruitment strategy on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation with different tidal volumes in patients with normal pulmonary function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Dal; Kim, Sang Hun; Yu, Byung Sik; Kim, Hye Ji

    2014-08-01

    Hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) remains a major concern. The present study compared the effect of alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) on arterial oxygenation during OLV at varying tidal volumes (Vt) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). In total, 120 patients undergoing wedge resection by video assisted thoracostomy were randomized into four groups comprising 30 patients each: those administered a 10 ml/kg tidal volume with or without preemptive ARS (Group H and Group H-ARS, respectively) and those administered a 6 ml/kg tidal volume and a 8 cmH2O PEEP with or without preemptive ARS (Group L and Group L-ARS, respectively). ARS was performed using pressure-controlled ventilation with a 40 cmH2O plateau airway pressure and a 15 cmH2O PEEP for at least 10 breaths until OLV began. Preemptive ARS significantly improved the PaO2/FiO2 ratio compared to the groups that did not receive ARS (P volume combined with 8 cmH2O PEEP after preemptive ARS may reduce the risk of pulmonary injury caused by high tidal volume during one-lung ventilation in patients with normal pulmonary function.

  20. Effects of Sustained Lung Inflation, a lung recruitment maneuver in primary acute respiratory distress syndrome, in respiratory and cerebral outcomes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Chiara; Sciacca, Pietro; Giacchi, Valentina; Carpinato, Caterina; Mattia, Carmine; Palano, Grazia Maria; Betta, Pasqua

    2015-01-01

    Sustained Lung Inflation (SLI) is a maneuver of lung recruitment in preterm newborns at birth that can facilitate the achieving of larger inflation volumes, leading to the clearance of lung fluid and formation of functional residual capacity (FRC). To investigate if Sustained Lung Inflation (SLI) reduces the need of invasive procedures and iatrogenic risks. 78 newborns (gestational age≤34 weeks, weighing≤2000 g) who didn't breathe adequately at birth and needed to receive SLI in addition to other resuscitation maneuvers (2010 guidelines). 78 preterm infants born one after the other in our department of Neonatology of Catania University from 2010 to 2012. The need of intubation and surfactant, the ventilation required, radiological signs, the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy in prematurity from III to IV plus grades, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, pneumothorax and necrotizing enterocolitis. In the SLI group infants needed less intubation in the delivery room (6% vs 21%; phemorrhage in the SLI group (23% vs 14%; p=0.15; OR=1.83). SLI is easier to perform even with a single operator, it reduces the necessity of more complicated maneuvers and surfactant without statistically evident adverse effects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Calibrated photostimulated luminescence is an effective approach to identify irradiated orange during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Yunhee; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chung, Namhyeok; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Park, Yunji; Park, Hae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) has been employed as a fast screening method for various irradiated foods. In this study the potential use of PSL was evaluated to identify oranges irradiated with gamma ray, electron beam and X-ray (0–2 kGy) and stored under different conditions for 6 weeks. The effects of light conditions (natural light, artificial light, and dark) and storage temperatures (4 and 20 °C) on PSL photon counts (PCs) during post-irradiation periods were studied. Non-irradiated samples always showed negative values of PCs, while irradiated oranges exhibited intermediate results after first PSL measurements. However, the irradiated samples had much higher PCs. The PCs of all the samples declined as the storage time increased. Calibrated second PSL measurements showed PSL ratio <10 for the irradiated samples after 3 weeks of irradiation confirming their irradiation status in all the storage conditions. Calibrated PSL and sample storage in dark at 4 °C were found out to be most suitable approaches to identify irradiated oranges during storage. - Highlights: • Photostimulatedluminescence (PSL) was studied to identify irradiated orange for quarantine application. • PSL detection efficiency was compared amonggamma,electron, and X irradiation during shelf-life of oranges • PSL properties of samples were characterized by standard samples • Calibrated PSL gave a clear verdict on irradiation extending potential of PSL technique

  2. Local recruitment experience in a study comparing the effectiveness of a low glycaemic index diet with a low calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiomo, William; Read, Anna; Golding, Mary; Silcocks, Paul; Razali, Nuguelis; Sarkar, Sabitabrata; Hardiman, Paul; Thornton, Jim

    2009-09-01

    Feasibility of a clinical-trial comparing a low-glycaemic diet with a low-calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with PCOS. A pilot Randomised-Controlled-Trial using different recruitment strategies. A University Hospital in the United Kingdom. Women seen at specialist gynaecology clinics over a 12 month period in one University Hospital, and women self identified through a website and posters. Potential recruits were assessed for eligibility, gave informed consent, randomised, treated and assessed as in the definitive trial. Eligibility and recruitment rates, compliance with the allocated diet for 6 months and with clinical assessments, blood tests, pelvic ultrasound scans and endometrial biopsies. 1433 new and 2598 follow up patients were seen in 153 gynaecology clinics for over 12 months. 441 (11%) potentially eligible women were identified, 19 (0.4%) of whom met the trial entry criteria. Eleven consented to take part, of which 8 (73%) completed the study. Planned future trials on over-weight women with PCOS should be multicentre and should incorporate primary care. This data will help other researchers plan and calculate the sample size and potential recruitment rates in future clinical trials in PCOS. The results will also be useful for inclusion in future meta-analyses.

  3. Enhancing regulatory effectiveness by improving the process for identifying and resolving generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Molen, Harold J.

    2001-01-01

    The Generic Issues Program first began formally in response to a Commission directive in October of 1976. In 1983, it became one of the first programs to make successful use of probabilistic risk information to aid in regulatory decision-making. In the 16 years since the program became quantitative, 836 issues have been processed. Of these, 106 reactor safety issues were prioritized as requiring further evaluation to determine the final resolution. Approximately a dozen generic issues remain unresolved. Although there is far less reactor licensing activity than in the 1970s, new issues continue to be identified from research and operational experience. These issues often involve complex and controversial questions of safety and regulation, and an efficient and effective means of addressing these issues is essential for regulatory effectiveness. Issues that involve a significant safety question require swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective regulatory actions. Issues that are of little safety significance must be quickly shown to be so and dismissed in an expeditious manner so as to avoid unnecessary expenditure of limited resources and to reduce regulatory uncertainty. Additionally, in the time since the generic issue program began, probabilistic risk assessment techniques have advanced significantly while agency resources have continued to diminish. Accordingly, the paper discusses the steps that have been taken to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the generic issue resolution process. Additionally, four resolved issues are discussed, along with key elements of a proposed new procedure for resolving potential generic issues

  4. Feasibility of recruiting a diverse sample of men who have sex with men: observation from Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available Respondent-driven-sampling (RDS has well been recognized as a method for sampling from most hard-to-reach populations like commercial sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men. However the feasibility of this sampling strategy in terms of recruiting a diverse spectrum of these hidden populations has not been understood well yet in developing countries.In a cross sectional study in Nanjing city of Jiangsu province of China, 430 MSM were recruited including 9 seeds in 14 weeks of study period using RDS. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk behavior were collected and testing was done for HIV and syphilis. Duration, completion, participant characteristics and the equilibrium of key factors were used for assessing feasibility of RDS. Homophily of key variables, socio-demographic distribution and social network size were used as the indicators of diversity.In the study sample, adjusted HIV and syphilis prevalence were 6.6% and 14.6% respectively. Majority (96.3% of the participants were recruited by members of their own social network. Although there was a tendency for recruitment within the same self-identified group (homosexuals recruited 60.0% homosexuals, considerable cross-group recruitment (bisexuals recruited 52.3% homosexuals was also seen. Homophily of the self-identified sexual orientations was 0.111 for homosexuals. Upon completion of the recruitment process, participant characteristics and the equilibrium of key factors indicated that RDS was feasible for sampling MSM in Nanjing. Participants recruited by RDS were found to be diverse after assessing the homophily of key variables in successive waves of recruitment, the proportion of characteristics after reaching equilibrium and the social network size. The observed design effects were nearly the same or even better than the theoretical design effect of 2.RDS was found to be an efficient and feasible sampling method for recruiting a diverse

  5. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-10-15

    The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this

  6. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

    . This study was a direct reaction to the first recruitment attempt that had a 10% response rate. This study consisted of four groups of randomly selected elderly married people (65-81 years) receiving a postal questionnaire measuring depression, social support, coping style, adult attachment, life......  Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  7. The effect a of community-based social marketing campaign on recruitment and retention of low-income groups into physical activity programmes - a controlled before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Janet; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R

    2012-10-02

    The beneficial effect of physical activity for the prevention of a range of chronic diseases is widely acknowledged. These conditions are most prevalent in low-income groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. Social marketing is the government's recommended approach to promoting physical activity but evidence of its effectiveness is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a social marketing campaign on the monthly recruitment, attendance and retention levels at a community-based physical activity programme in a low income area. A six-month social marketing campaign was designed and delivered in a highly-deprived suburban neighbourhood. Analysis of variance was used to assess effects on recruitment and attendance. χ2 tests of independence were used to compare dropouts and adherers and effectiveness of recruitment mechanisms. Percentages were used to compare adherence rates at intervention, pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and control area sessions. Attendance data were collected weekly and presented and analysed monthly to provide a view of changing participation over the six month intervention period, as compared to attendance at pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and in a control area. Recruitment into intervention sessions was significantly greater than into pre-existing and control area sessions in Month 1 (18.13v1.04 p = .007, 18.13v.30 p=.005), Month 5 (3.45v.84 p=.007, 3.45v.30 pmarketing techniques (posters/outdoor banners/flyers) had the greatest influence on recruitment compared to word of mouth communication (84.5%v15.5%). In months five and six word of mouth influenced 57.5% of new recruits. Direct comparisons with other programmes were difficult due to a lack of standard definitions of recruitment and adherence and limited reporting of findings. However when compared to pre-existing sessions and sessions delivered in a control area, monthly attendance patterns indicated that a

  8. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  9. Recruiting in remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, C. [Enerflex Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided details of Enerflex, a leading supplier of products and services to the oil and gas industry, and outlined their personnel hiring policies. Enerflex's core values include community involvement and divisional logo branding. The extensive training that is provided places an emphasis on employee empowerment. The company also places an emphasis on employee safety, diversity, and team building. Competitive salaries are offered along with generous equipment allowances and a flexible benefits program. Benefits include travel and overtime rates; health benefits; retirement savings; scholarship programs; career opportunities; and apprenticeship programs. External technical training is provided. An employee referral program has been developed, and the company's recruitment program also advertises in remote newspapers to develop career streams within remote communities. tabs., figs.

  10. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human-wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions.

  11. Successful recruitment to trials: findings from the SCIMITAR+ Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Emily; Arundel, Catherine; Bailey, Della; Callen, Tracy; Cusack, Christina; Crosland, Suzanne; Foster, Penny; Herlihy, Hannah; Hope, James; Ker, Suzy; McCloud, Tayla; Romain-Hooper, Crystal-Bella; Stribling, Alison; Phiri, Peter; Tait, Ellen; Gilbody, Simon

    2018-01-19

    Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations. SCIMITAR+ is a multi-centre pragmatic two-arm parallel-group RCT, which aimed to recruit 400 participants with severe mental ill health who smoke and would like to cut down or quit. The study recruited primarily in secondary care through community mental health teams and psychiatrists with a smaller number of participants recruited through primary care. Recruitment opened in October 2015 and closed in December 2016, by which point 526 participants had been recruited. We gathered information from recruiting sites on strategies which led to the successful recruitment in SCIMITAR+ and in this article present our approach to trial management along with the strategies employed by the recruiting sites. Alongside having a dedicated trial manager and trial management team, we identified three main themes that led to successful recruitment. These were: clinicians with a positive attitude to research; researchers and clinicians working together; and the use of NHS targets. The overriding theme was the importance of relationships between both the researchers and the recruiting clinicians and the recruiting clinicians and the participants. This study makes a significant contribution to the limited evidence base of real-world cases of successful recruitment to RCTs and offers practical guidance to those planning and conducting trials. Building positive relationships between clinicians, researchers and participants is crucial to successful recruitment.

  12. Recruiting and Advising Challenges in Actuarial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…

  13. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  14. SPATA2-Mediated Binding of CYLD to HOIP Enables CYLD Recruitment to Signaling Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kupka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of the deubiquitinase CYLD to signaling complexes is mediated by its interaction with HOIP, the catalytically active component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC. Here, we identify SPATA2 as a constitutive direct binding partner of HOIP that bridges the interaction between CYLD and HOIP. SPATA2 recruitment to TNFR1- and NOD2-signaling complexes is dependent on HOIP, and loss of SPATA2 abolishes CYLD recruitment. Deficiency in SPATA2 exerts limited effects on gene activation pathways but diminishes necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF, resembling loss of CYLD. In summary, we describe SPATA2 as a previously unrecognized factor in LUBAC-dependent signaling pathways that serves as an adaptor between HOIP and CYLD, thereby enabling recruitment of CYLD to signaling complexes.

  15. Recruitment of Older Adult Patient-Caregiver Dyads for an Online Caregiver Resource Program: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert

    2012-01-12

    Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations.

  16. A qualitative case study to identify possible barriers that limit effective elementary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Donald Carey

    The purpose of this case study was to identify barriers that limit the effectiveness of elementary teachers in the teaching of science. It is of the utmost urgency that barriers be first identified, so that possible solutions can be explored to bring about the improvement of elementary science education. This urgency has been imposed by the scheduled national testing of students in science by 2007, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Using qualitative case study methods, the researcher conducted interviews with 8 elementary teachers from two schools within one school district who taught 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. These interviews were designed to gain insight into barriers these elementary teachers perceived as factors limiting their effectiveness in teaching science and preparing students for high-stakes testing. Barriers in the areas of teacher background, typical teaching day, curriculum, inservices, and legislative influences were explored. This study concluded that the barriers explored do have a substantial negative affect on the teaching and learning of science in the elementary grades. Specifically, the barriers revealed in this study include the limited science background of elementary teachers, inadequate class time devoted to science, non-comprehensive curriculum, ineffective or lack of inservice training, and pressures from legislated mandates. But it is also clear that these barriers are so intertwined that one cannot remove these barriers one at a time. It will take a collective effort from all involved, including legislators, administrators, teachers, parents, and students, to alleviate these barriers and discover effective solutions to improve elementary science education.

  17. Are whooping cranes destined for extinction? Climate change imperils recruitment and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew J; Metzger, Kristine L; Harris, Grant M

    2017-04-01

    Identifying climatic drivers of an animal population's vital rates and locating where they operate steers conservation efforts to optimize species recovery. The population growth of endangered whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) hinges on juvenile recruitment. Therefore, we identify climatic drivers (solar activity [sunspots] and weather) of whooping crane recruitment throughout the species' life cycle (breeding, migration, wintering). Our method uses a repeated cross-validated absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach to identify drivers of recruitment. We model effects of climate change on those drivers to predict whooping crane population growth given alternative scenarios of climate change and solar activity. Years with fewer sunspots indicated greater recruitment. Increased precipitation during autumn migration signified less recruitment. On the breeding grounds, fewer days below freezing during winter and more precipitation during breeding suggested less recruitment. We predicted whooping crane recruitment and population growth may fall below long-term averages during all solar cycles when atmospheric CO 2 concentration increases, as expected, to 500 ppm by 2050. Species recovery during a typical solar cycle with 500 ppm may require eight times longer than conditions without climate change and the chance of population decline increases to 31%. Although this whooping crane population is growing and may appear secure, long-term threats imposed by climate change and increased solar activity may jeopardize its persistence. Weather on the breeding grounds likely affects recruitment through hydrological processes and predation risk, whereas precipitation during autumn migration may influence juvenile mortality. Mitigating threats or abating climate change should occur within ≈30 years or this wild population of whooping cranes may begin declining.

  18. Employee Motivation, Recruitment Practices and Banks Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Mukarramah Modupe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many organisations recognizes the use of human resource as a major influence to their success. And with today’s competitive environment, it is imperative for organisations to find ways to be more effective and efficient in utilizing their resources so as to improve their general performance. Hence, there is need to recruit and retain highly qualified and motivated employees in order to remain competitive in the unstable environment. This study evaluates the relationship between recruitment practices, employee motivation and their impact on organisational performance focusing on the Nigerian banking industry, with a view to investigating factors that motivate employees of Nigerian banks and the methods banks adopt to motivate their employees. The study also assesses recruitment and selection methods used by Nigerian banks to select effective employees. The study is a cross-sectional in time and the primary data collected from a conveniently selected sample of 60 employees each of the seven selected banks. Face-to-face survey and interview was carried out in order to achieve the research objectives and back up theoretical findings. Using correlation and thematic analysis, the results indicated that there was a strong positive relationship between employee motivation, recruitment practices and organisational performance. Findings from the analysis identified that bank employees are mostly extrinsically motivated; although intrinsic factors also motivate them, it is not as motivating as extrinsic factors. The banks also provide more of extrinsic motivators to increase the performance of their employees. The banks make use of various methods of employee selection, by dividing the methods into stages. In addition, recruiting is mostly undertaken through recruitment agencies or advert placements. The study provides future recommendations that banks in Nigeria should be firmer in their selection processes; this will allow them to identify unsuitable

  19. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  20. Online recruitment and testing of infants with Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michelle; Cabral, Laura; Patel, Ronak; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-04-01

    Testing infants in the laboratory is expensive in time and money; consequently, many studies are underpowered, reducing their reproducibility. We investigated whether the online platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), could be used as a resource to more easily recruit and measure the behavior of infant populations. Using a looking time paradigm, with users' webcams we recorded how long infants aged 5 to 8months attended while viewing children's television programs. We found that infants (N=57) were more reliably engaged by some movies than by others and that the most engaging movies could maintain attention for approximately 70% of a 10- to 13-min period. We then identified the cinematic features within the movies. Faces, singing-and-rhyming, and camera zooms were found to increase infant attention. Together, we established that MTurk can be used as a rapid tool for effectively recruiting and testing infants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of random-effects models to identify health care center-related characteristics modifying the effect of antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordon C

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clementine Nordon,1 Constance Battin,1 Helene Verdoux,2 Josef Maria Haro,3 Mark Belger,4 Lucien Abenhaim,1 Tjeerd Pieter van Staa5 On behalf of the IMI GetReal WP2 Group 1Epidemiological Research, Analytica LASER, Paris, 2Population Health Research Center, Team Pharmaco-Epidemiology, UMR 1219, Bordeaux-2 University, INSERM, Bordeaux, France; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Erl Wood Manor, Windlesham, 5Farr Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Purpose: A case study was conducted, exploring methods to identify drugs effects modifiers, at a health care center level.Patients and methods: Data were drawn from the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcome cohort, including hierarchical information on 6641 patients, recruited from 899 health care centers from across ten European countries. Center-level characteristics included the following: psychiatrist’s gender, age, length of practice experience, practice setting and type, countries’ Healthcare System Efficiency score, and psychiatrist density in the country. Mixed multivariable linear regression models were used: 1 to estimate antipsychotic drugs’ effectiveness (defined as the association between patients’ outcome at 3 months – dependent variable, continuous – and antipsychotic drug initiation at baseline – drug A vs other antipsychotic drug; 2 to estimate the similarity between clustered data (using the intra-cluster correlation coefficient; and 3 to explore antipsychotic drug effects modification by center-related characteristics (using the addition of an interaction term.Results: About 23% of the variance found for patients’ outcome was explained by unmeasured confounding at a center level. Psychiatrists’ practice experience was found to be associated with patient outcomes (p=0.04 and modified the relative effect of “drug A” (p<0.001, independent of center- or patient

  2. Identifying treatment effect heterogeneity in clinical trials using subpopulations of events: STEPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ann A; Bonetti, Marco; Cole, Bernard F; Yip, Wai-Ki; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Investigators conducting randomized clinical trials often explore treatment effect heterogeneity to assess whether treatment efficacy varies according to patient characteristics. Identifying heterogeneity is central to making informed personalized healthcare decisions. Treatment effect heterogeneity can be investigated using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP), a non-parametric graphical approach that constructs overlapping patient subpopulations with varying values of a characteristic. Procedures for statistical testing using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot when the endpoint of interest is survival remain an area of active investigation. A STEPP analysis was used to explore patterns of absolute and relative treatment effects for varying levels of a breast cancer biomarker, Ki-67, in the phase III Breast International Group 1-98 randomized clinical trial, comparing letrozole to tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Absolute treatment effects were measured by differences in 4-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer recurrence, while relative effects were measured by the subdistribution hazard ratio in the presence of competing risks using O-E (observed-minus-expected) methodology, an intuitive non-parametric method. While estimation of hazard ratio values based on O-E methodology has been shown, a similar development for the subdistribution hazard ratio has not. Furthermore, we observed that the subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis may not produce results, even with 100 patients within each subpopulation. After further investigation through simulation studies, we observed inflation of the type I error rate of the traditional test statistic and sometimes singular variance-covariance matrix estimates that may lead to results not being produced. This is due to the lack of sufficient number of events within the subpopulations, which we refer to as instability of

  3. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  4. High-speed kymography identifies the immediate effects of voiced vibration in healthy vocal folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta, Regina Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of voiced vibration technique can be assessed by laryngeal imaging. Kymographic images derived from high-speed videoendoscopy allow actual visualization of vocal folds vibration. Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the immediate effects of the voiced vibration technique in healthy vocal folds using high-speed digital laryngeal imaging. Methods: Samples were obtained from 15 healthy subjects with no history of voice disorders (6 men and 9 women aged 21 to 43 years. High-speed videoendoscopy recordings were performed before and after the voiced vibration technique. Kymographic images were obtained using high-speed videoendoscopy. The vocal folds were examined in their open and closed positions and the characteristics of the opening and closing phases were determined. A customize computational routine was used quantify these parameters. The closing, opening, and speed quotients were also calculated. Results: In this study, women displayed statistically significant differences in opened phase (P= 0.05*, closed phase (P= 0.046*, and closing phase (P= 0.026* phase characteristics. Men displayed the highest difference rate in opening time characteristics (P= 0.06. The closing and opening quotients for the female group showed significant differences (P= 0.029* and P= 0.049*, respectively. The speed quotient exhibited statistically significant differences in the male group (P= 0.048*. Conclusion: The kymographic images indicated that the immediate effect of the voiced vibration technique was smooth contact in healthy vocal fold vibration.

  5. Comparing spatially explicit ecological and social values for natural areas to identify effective conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett Anthony; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Crossman, Neville David; King, Darran

    2011-02-01

    Consideration of the social values people assign to relatively undisturbed native ecosystems is critical for the success of science-based conservation plans. We used an interview process to identify and map social values assigned to 31 ecosystem services provided by natural areas in an agricultural landscape in southern Australia. We then modeled the spatial distribution of 12 components of ecological value commonly used in setting spatial conservation priorities. We used the analytical hierarchy process to weight these components and used multiattribute utility theory to combine them into a single spatial layer of ecological value. Social values assigned to natural areas were negatively correlated with ecological values overall, but were positively correlated with some components of ecological value. In terms of the spatial distribution of values, people valued protected areas, whereas those natural areas underrepresented in the reserve system were of higher ecological value. The habitats of threatened animal species were assigned both high ecological value and high social value. Only small areas were assigned both high ecological value and high social value in the study area, whereas large areas of high ecological value were of low social value, and vice versa. We used the assigned ecological and social values to identify different conservation strategies (e.g., information sharing, community engagement, incentive payments) that may be effective for specific areas. We suggest that consideration of both ecological and social values in selection of conservation strategies can enhance the success of science-based conservation planning. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Calibrated photostimulated luminescence is an effective approach to identify irradiated orange during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yunhee; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chung, Namhyeok; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Park, Yunji; Park, Hae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) has been employed as a fast screening method for various irradiated foods. In this study the potential use of PSL was evaluated to identify oranges irradiated with gamma ray, electron beam and X-ray (0-2 kGy) and stored under different conditions for 6 weeks. The effects of light conditions (natural light, artificial light, and dark) and storage temperatures (4 and 20 °C) on PSL photon counts (PCs) during post-irradiation periods were studied. Non-irradiated samples always showed negative values of PCs, while irradiated oranges exhibited intermediate results after first PSL measurements. However, the irradiated samples had much higher PCs. The PCs of all the samples declined as the storage time increased. Calibrated second PSL measurements showed PSL ratio <10 for the irradiated samples after 3 weeks of irradiation confirming their irradiation status in all the storage conditions. Calibrated PSL and sample storage in dark at 4 °C were found out to be most suitable approaches to identify irradiated oranges during storage.

  7. Recruitment of a hidden population: African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional and effective whole brain connectivity using magnetoencephalography to identify monozygotic twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuru, M; Gouw, A A; Hillebrand, A; Stam, C J; van Dijk, B W; Scheltens, P; Tijms, B M; Konijnenberg, E; Ten Kate, M; den Braber, A; Smit, D J A; Boomsma, D I; Visser, P J

    2017-08-29

    Resting-state functional connectivity patterns are highly stable over time within subjects. This suggests that such 'functional fingerprints' may have strong genetic component. We investigated whether the functional (FC) or effective (EC) connectivity patterns of one monozygotic twin could be used to identify the co-twin among a larger sample and determined the overlap in functional fingerprints within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs using resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG). We included 32 cognitively normal MZ twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register who participate in the EMIF-AD preclinAD study (average age 68 years). Combining EC information across multiple frequency bands we obtained an identification rate over 75%. Since MZ twin pairs are genetically identical these results suggest a high genetic contribution to MEG-based EC patterns, leading to large similarities in brain connectivity patterns between two individuals even after 60 years of life or more.

  9. Effect of Friction-Induced Nonlinearity on OMA-Identified Dynamic Characteristics of Offshore Platform Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tobias; Orfanos, Antonios; Katsanos, Evangelos

    The identification of the modal characteristics of engineering systems under operational conditions is commonly conducted with the use of the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA), being a class of useful tools employed within various fields of structural, mechanical as well as marine and naval...... engineering. The current OMA methods have been advanced on the basis of two fundamental, though, restrictive assumptions: (i) linearity and (ii) stationarity. Nevertheless, there are several applications that are inherently related to various nonlinear mechanisms, which, in turn, violate the two cornerstones...... of OMA and hence, question its robustness and efficiency. Along these lines, the current study addresses the effect of friction-induced nonlinearity on OMA-identified dynamic characteristics of an experimental set up consisting of a pair of reduced scale offshore platform models that are connected...

  10. Effect of the size of an artificial neural network used as pattern identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso V, M.R.; Vega C, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    A novel way to extract relevant parameters associated with the outgoing ions from nuclear reactions, obtained by digitizing the signals provided by a Bragg curve spectrometer (BCS) is presented. This allowed the implementation of a more thorough pulse-shape analysis. Due to the complexity of this task, it was required to take advantage of new and more powerful computational paradigms. This was fulfilled using a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) as a pattern identifier. Over training of ANNs is a common problem during the training stage. In the performance of the ANN there is a compromise between its size and the size of the training set. Here, this effect will be illustrated in relation to the problem of Bragg Curve (BC) identification. (Author)

  11. Effect of the size of an artificial neural network used as pattern identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso V, M.R.; Vega C, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A novel way to extract relevant parameters associated with the outgoing ions from nuclear reactions, obtained by digitizing the signals provided by a Bragg curve spectrometer (BCS) is presented. This allowed the implementation of a more thorough pulse-shape analysis. Due to the complexity of this task, it was required to take advantage of new and more powerful computational paradigms. This was fulfilled using a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) as a pattern identifier. Over training of ANNs is a common problem during the training stage. In the performance of the ANN there is a compromise between its size and the size of the training set. Here, this effect will be illustrated in relation to the problem of Bragg Curve (BC) identification. (Author)

  12. A systematic review of recruitment for older Chinese immigrants into clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to identify barriers and discuss strategies for recruitment of older Chinese immigrants into clinical research studies. A review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. PubMed, WEB of Science, CINAHL Plus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published between 2001 and 2014. Empirical studies with Chinese immigrants aged 60 years or older were identified and analyzed. Numerical analysis, such as calculation of response rates as indexes for recruitment outcomes, was conducted. Content analyses for recruitment barriers were abstracted. Thirteen studies of 4,753 subjects were analyzed. Response rates ranged from 39% to 99%. Recruitment barriers included age (i.e., 60-70 years old, low health literacy, longer length of stay (LOS in the United States, limited English speaking ability, low acculturation, time constraints, inadequate transportation, social stigma about diseases, and mistrust of researchers. Recruitment can be facilitated by overcoming the aforementioned barriers, which included the following strategies: 1 using convenience sampling methods, particularly personal referral; 2 using special techniques to recruit a younger subgroup of Chinese elders, such as doing outreach on holidays or weekends; 3 communicating effectively using participants’ native language; 4 exercising cultural competency; 5 establishing relationships of trust with participants and community leaders; 6 answering misconceptions about clinical trials; 7 providing incentives for participation; and 8 proper selection of research and interview locations.

  13. Recruitment of older women: lessons learned from the Baltimore Hip Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Concha, Betty; Burgess, Judy Graham; Fine, Mary Louise; West, Linda; Baylor, Karen; Nahm, Eun Shim; Buie, Verita Custis; Werner, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Magaziner, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This study used a qualitative approach in which participants were asked to write about their experiences in recruiting older women into either one of two exercise intervention studies that are part of the Baltimore Hip Studies. The sample included 8 researcher nurses all women, White, and 42-53 years of age. Older adults, particularly older women, are less likely to participate in research studies when compared to their younger counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore the techniques successfully used by research nurses in the Baltimore Hip Studies to recruit older women after hip fracture into exercise intervention studies. Data analysis was performed using basic content analysis (Crabtree & Miller, 1992; Miles & Huberman, 1984) "in vivo" coding (Dowd, 1991), or "grounded" coding (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), which involves using the informants' own words to capture a particular idea. A total of 16 codes were identified and reduced to nine themes. Seven themes focused on techniques that facilitated recruitment: (a) caring for individuals; (b) emphasizing benefits; (c) eliciting support from others; (d) being an expert; (e) using role models; (f) using good timing; and (g) giving good first impressions. The remaining two themes identified barriers to recruitment: (a) time commitment and (b) lack of support. Based on these themes, specific recruitment techniques are recommended. Ongoing research, however, is needed to establish the most effective recruitment procedures with older women.

  14. Community-based obesity prevention in Australia: Background, methods and recruitment outcomes for the evaluation of the effectiveness of OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leslie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL intervention program targets families and communities to improve children’s eating and physical activity patterns. We outline the quantitative evaluation design and recruitment results for baseline data collection. Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experimental design, with baseline data collection and five-year follow-up. Participants targeted are children, parents, and school principals/directors from primary, secondary/R-12 schools, pre-schools, childcare and out-of-school-hours-care (OSHC centers in 20 selected communities across South Australia (SA, and one in the Northern Territory (NT. A total of 277 (262 SA, 15 NT schools participated; 4860 9-11 year olds and 1164 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were taken from 5531 students; 6552 parents, 276 pre/school/childcare directors, 139 OSHC directors and 237 principals completed questionnaires. Data include measurements of child participants’ weight/height/waist circumference; paper-based/online surveys of informants in early childhood, primary/secondary school and community settings; and secondary growth check data for 4-5 year old children. Serial cross-sectional analyses will compare intervention to matched comparison communities. Results: Overall school response rate was 50%. Student response rates were 20-22% and 11-13% (questionnaires and measurements respectively; 14-21% of parents, 49-55% of directors, and 26-44% of principals completed and returned questionnaires. Changes to child weight status; eating practices; sleep, physical activity/sedentary behaviors; physical environments; community capacity; and economic evaluation (Quality Adjusted Life year gain will examine program effectiveness. Conclusions: As the most significant program of its kind in Australia, OPAL will contribute to obesity prevention efforts on an international scale.

  15. Effects of environmental and biological conditions on the recruitment and growth of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Lyeol; Kwon, Soon Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Yu, Ok Hwan

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which is often dominant in intertidal zones, is influenced by both environmental and biological conditions. However, there have been few comprehensive studies on the interactive effects of these two groups of factors. The present study examined the environmental and biological parameters determining the population dynamics of the clams that is a dominant component of the intertidal communities of Euhangri and Padori on the west coast of Korean peninsula. We collected R. philippinarum and other members of the macrobenthos (> 1 mm long) monthly from 0.25 m2 quadrats deployed in the intertidal zones at Euhangri, Taean, and Padori during the period from August 2013 to January 2015. Physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment were measured at the same time. Water temperature and salinity is high and low in the summer to winter, respectively. While mean grain size of the sediment was higher at Euhangri than at Padori, total mean density of R. philippinarum was higher at Euhangri (325 ind./ 0.25 m2 at Padori vs. 194 ind./0.25 m2 at Euhangri). Settled spat (population increased, the condition index of individual clams decreased, but as the population density of the spat increased the body condition index increased. The chlorophyll a content of the sediments at Padori exceeded that at Euhangri and decreased as the population of R. philippinarum increased. The shapes of R. philippinarum shells at Euhangri were more prolate than those at Padori, and the condition index at Euhangri exceeded that at Padori, indicating better growth conditions at Euhangri. The condition index and density of R. philippinarum were affected by the amount of chlorophyll a in the water column and in the sediment. The recruitment success of spats was negatively influenced by spat density. We suggest that regulation of habitat conditions for R. philippinarum, including the food supply, will optimize production of these commercial

  16. Effects of Career Duration, Concussion History, and Playing Position on White Matter Microstructure and Functional Neural Recruitment in Former College and Professional Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael D; Varangis, Eleanna M L; Champagne, Allen A; Giovanello, Kelly S; Shi, Feng; Kerr, Zachary Y; Smith, J Keith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2018-03-01

    Purpose To better understand the relationship between exposure to concussive and subconcussive head impacts, white matter integrity, and functional task-related neural activity in former U.S. football athletes. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 61 cognitively unimpaired former collegiate and professional football players (age range, 52-65 years) provided informed consent to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants were stratified across three crossed factors: career duration, concussion history, and primary playing position. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent signal change (PSC) were measured with diffusion-weighted and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Analyses of variance of FA and BOLD PSC were used to determine main or interaction effects of the three factors. Results A significant interaction between career duration and concussion history was observed; former college players with more than three concussions had lower FA in a broadly distributed area of white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t29 = 2.774; adjusted P = .037), and the opposite was observed for former professional players (t29 = 3.883; adjusted P = .001). A separate interaction between concussion history and position was observed: Nonspeed players with more than three concussions had lower FA in frontal white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t25 = 3.861; adjusted P = .002). Analysis of working memory-task BOLD PSC revealed a similar interaction between concussion history and position (all adjusted P history on white matter structure and neural recruitment. The differences in brain structure and function were observed in the absence of clinical impairment, which suggested that multimodal imaging may provide early markers of onset of traumatic neurodegenerative disease. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Identifying the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of riverbank stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, A.; Amiri-Tokaldany, E.; Darby, S. E.

    2009-05-01

    Bank retreat is a key process in fluvial dynamics affecting a wide range of physical, ecological and socioeconomic issues in the fluvial environment. To predict the undesirable effects of bank retreat and to inform effective measures to prevent it, a wide range of bank stability models have been presented in the literature. These models typically express bank stability by defining a factor of safety as the ratio of driving and resisting forces acting on the incipient failure block. These forces are affected by a range of controlling factors that include such aspects as the bank profile (bank height and angle), the geotechnical properties of the bank materials, as well as the hydrological status of the riverbanks. In this paper we evaluate the extent to which uncertainties in the parameterization of these controlling factors feed through to influence the reliability of the resulting bank stability estimate. This is achieved by employing a simple model of riverbank stability with respect to planar failure (which is the most common type of bank stability model) in a series of sensitivity tests and Monte Carlo analyses to identify, for each model parameter, the range of values that induce significant changes in the simulated factor of safety. These identified parameter value ranges are compared to empirically derived parameter uncertainties to determine whether they are likely to confound the reliability of the resulting bank stability calculations. Our results show that parameter uncertainties are typically high enough that the likelihood of generating unreliable predictions is typically very high (> ˜ 80% for predictions requiring a precision of < ± 15%). Because parameter uncertainties are derived primarily from the natural variability of the parameters, rather than measurement errors, much more careful attention should be paid to field sampling strategies, such that the parameter uncertainties and consequent prediction unreliabilities can be quantified more

  18. Identifying and prioritizing the factors effective in customer satisfaction using the TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Forougozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Customer satisfaction has been suggested as one of the interesting and challenging issues of management in the new millennium. In addition, oral and dental health and the quality of the services the health centers delivered to the patients directly affect the customer satisfaction. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify, investigate, and rank the factors affecting the customer satisfaction in the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. Method: The present descriptive study was conducted on the specialists and patients of the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. The validity of the questionnaire utilized in the study was confirmed by expert professors and its reliability was approved using the Cronbach’s alpha formula. Finally, the study data were analyzed in SPSS statistical software (v. 16, using inferential statistics. Results: All the hypotheses were confirmed by the results of the statistical analyses and quality, services, and expenditures revealed to affect the customer satisfaction in the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. Moreover, these factors were ranked using the TOPSIS method and the results showed quality and expenditures as the most and the least effective factors in customer satisfaction, respectively. Conclusion: Since restoring and arranging the organization based on the customer needs is among the main priorities of designing an organization, managers are suggested to take measures for organizational reformation based on the customers’ priorities. Of course, conducting such programs is of utmost importance in health and treatment environments, leading to provision of better services and facilitation of learning, education, and research. Thus, identifying the effective factors in customer satisfaction and ranking them are highly important.

  19. The habits of highly effective phages: population dynamics as a framework for identifying therapeutic phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Bull

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents is being actively researched on a global scale. Typically, the phages used are isolated from the wild by plating on the bacteria of interest, and a far larger set of candidate phages is often available than can be used in any application. When an excess of phages is available, how should the best phages be identified? Here we consider phage-bacterial population dynamics as a basis for evaluating and predicting phage success. A central question is whether the innate dynamical properties of phages are the determinants of success, or instead, whether extrinsic, indirect effects can be responsible. We address the dynamical perspective, motivated in part by the absence of dynamics in previously suggested principles of phage therapy. Current mathematical models of bacterial-phage dynamics do not capture the realities of in vivo dynamics, nor is this likely to change, but they do give insight to qualitative properties that may be generalizable. In particular, phage adsorption rate may be critical to treatment success, so understanding the effects of the in vivo environment on host availability may allow prediction of useful phages prior to in vivo experimentation. Principles for predicting efficacy may be derived by developing a greater understanding of the in vivo system, or such principles could be determined empirically by comparing phages with known differences in their dynamic properties. The comparative approach promises to be a powerful method of discovering the key to phage success. We offer five recommendations for future study: (i compare phages differing in treatment efficacy to identify the phage properties associated with success, (ii assay dynamics in vivo, (iii understand mechanisms of bacterial escape from phages, (iv test phages in model infections that are relevant to the intended clinical applications, and (v develop new classes of models for phage growth in spatially heterogeneous

  20. Recruitment of young adults into a randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention: message development, methods, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Deborah F; LaRose, Jessica G; Griffin, Leah P; Erickson, Karen E; Robichaud, Erica F; Perdue, Letitia; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R

    2014-08-16

    Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP). We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic. The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited. These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).

  1. 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pansoy, Andrea; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Valen, Eivind

    2010-01-01

    responsive element. Conventional ChIP confirmed recruitment of AHR to 26 regions with target gene responses to 3MC varying from activation to inhibition to having no effect. A comparison of identified AHR-3MC bound regions with AHR-TCDD bound regions in from our previous study (Ahmed, S., Valen, E., Sandelin...

  2. Improving healthcare practice behaviors: an exploratory study identifying effective and ineffective behaviors in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D; Peterson, Tim O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of exploratory research designed to develop an awareness of healthcare behaviors, with a view toward improving the customer satisfaction with healthcare services. It examines the relationship between healthcare providers and their consumers/patients/clients. The study uses a critical incident methodology, with both effective and ineffective behavioral specimens examined across different provider groups. The effects of these different behaviors on what Berry (1999) identified as the common core values of service organizations are examined, as those values are required to build a lasting service relationship. Also examined are categories of healthcare practice based on the National Quality Strategy priorities. The most obvious is the retrospective nature of the method used. How accurate are patient or consumer memories? Are they capable of making valid judgments of healthcare experiences (Berry and Bendapudi, 2003)? While an obvious limitation, such recollections are clearly important as they may be paramount in following the healthcare practitioners' instructions, loyalty for repeat business, making recommendations to others and the like. Further, studies have shown retrospective reports to be accurate and useful (Miller et al., 1997). With this information, healthcare educators should be in a better position to improve the training offered in their programs and practitioners to better serve their customers. The findings would indicate that the human values of excellence, innovation, joy, respect and integrity play a significant role in building a strong service relationship between consumer and healthcare provider. Berry (1999) has argued that the overriding importance in building a lasting service business is human values. This exploratory study has shown how critical incident analysis can be used to determine both effective and ineffective practices of different medical providers. It also provides guidelines as

  3. Identifying effective pathways in a successful continuous quality improvement programme: the GEDAPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodicoat, Danielle H; Mundet, Xavier; Gray, Laura J; Cos, Xavier; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Cano, Juan-Franciso

    2014-12-01

    Continuous quality improvement programmes often target several aspects of care, some of which may be more effective meaning that resources could be focussed on these. The objective was to identify the effective and ineffective aspects of a successful continuous quality improvement programme for individuals with type 2 diabetes in primary care. Data were from a series of cross-sectional studies (GEDAPS) in primary care, Catalonia, Spain, in 55 centres (2239 participants) in 1993, and 92 centres (5819 participants) in 2002. A structural equation modelling approach was used. The intervention was associated with improved microvascular outcomes through microalbuminuria and funduscopy screening, which had a direct effect on microvascular outcomes, and through attending 2-4 nurse visits and having ≥1 blood pressure measurement, which acted through reducing systolic blood pressure. The intervention was associated with improved macrovascular outcomes through blood pressure measurement and attending 2-4 nurse visits (through systolic blood pressure) and having ≥3 education topics, ≥1 HbA1c measurement and adequate medication (through HbA1c). Cholesterol measurement, weight measurement and foot examination did not contribute towards the effectiveness of the intervention. The pathways through which a continuous quality improvement programme appeared to act to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications were driven by reductions in systolic blood pressure and HbA1c, which were attained through changes in nurse and education visits, measurement and medication. This suggests that these factors are potential areas on which future quality improvement programmes should focus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Comparison of Three Online Recruitment Strategies for Engaging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather; Gliske, Kate; Rudi, Jessie H

    2016-10-01

    Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically diverse sample, in a short period of time, with little cost. Listservs reached a large number of participants and resulted in a comparatively homogeneous sample. Facebook was not successful in recruiting a general sample of parents. Findings provide information that can help family researchers and practitioners be intentional about recruitment strategies and study design.

  5. Identifying the Components of Effective Learning Environments Based on Health Students\\' Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi Afrashteh M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Effective learning environment can lead to establish and strengthen the appropriate conditions of learning in higher education. This study aimed to identify and define the factors associated with effective learning environment in the field of health education. Participants & Methods: This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted in 2013. Participants were 9 graduate and 7 undergraduate students of health majors that were selected using purposive sampling method. Data were recorded by interview and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed 4 themes and 13 classes active and interactive teaching (participating viewpoints of students in educational planning, engaging students in class discussions, providing practical examples to understand the content, relaxing about expressed thoughts, the possibility of constructive criticism master plan of activities and according to the conditions and individual differences between students, Joyful atmosphere (academic motivation, the joy of learning and attendance, a sense of acceptance and respect from teachers and classroom dynamics and vitality and fatigue, relation of courses with professional needs (knowledge of the needs of the job in training course content and related training to the needs of job opportunities and professors’ scientific and power and expert (expertise and scientific capabilities in the field of teaching. Conclusion: 4 major themes and their characteristics can help to organize the learning environment in medical education.

  6. Isolating social influences on vulnerability to earthquake shaking: identifying cost-effective mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic; McCloskey, John; Pelling, Mark; Naylor, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Until expensive engineering solutions become more universally available, the objective targeting of resources at demonstrably effective, low-cost interventions might help reverse the trend of increasing mortality in earthquakes. Death tolls in earthquakes are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as the exposure of the population to strong shaking, and the resilience of the exposed population along with supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. The identification of socio-economic factors that contribute to earthquake mortality is crucial to identifying and developing successful risk management strategies. Here we develop a quantitative methodology more objectively to assess the ability of communities to withstand earthquake shaking, focusing on, in particular, those cases where risk management performance appears to exceed or fall below expectations based on economic status. Using only published estimates of the shaking intensity and population exposure for each earthquake, data that is available for earthquakes in countries irrespective of their level of economic development, we develop a model for mortality based on the contribution of population exposure to shaking only. This represents an attempt to remove, as far as possible, the physical causes of mortality from our analysis (where we consider earthquake engineering to reduce building collapse among the socio-economic influences). The systematic part of the variance with respect to this model can therefore be expected to be dominated by socio-economic factors. We find, as expected, that this purely physical analysis partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures, for example GDP, focusing analytical attention on the power of economic measures to explain variance in observed distributions of earthquake risk. The model allows the definition of a vulnerability index which, although broadly it demonstrates the expected income-dependence of vulnerability to

  7. Identify the Effective Wells in Determination of Groundwater Depth in Urmia Plain Using Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Babaei Hessar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Groundwater is the most important resource of providing sanitary water for potable and household consumption. So continuous monitoring of groundwater level will play an important role in water resource management. But because of the large amount of information, evaluation of water table is a costly and time consuming process. Therefore, in many studies, the data and information aren’t suitable and useful and so, must be neglected. The PCA technique is an optimized mathematical method that reserve data with the highest share in affirming variance with recognizing less important data and limits the original variables into to a few components. In this technique, variation factors called principle components are identified with considering data structures. Thus, variables those have the highest correlation coefficient with principal components are extracted as a result of identifying the components that create the greatest variance. Materials and Methods: The study region has an area of approximately 962 Km2 and area located between 37º 21´ N to 37º 49´ N and 44º 57´ E to 45º 16´ E in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. This area placed along the mountainous north-west of the country, which ends with the plane Urmia Lake and has vast groundwater resources. However, recently the water table has been reduced considerably because of the exceeded exploitation as a result of urbanization and increased agricultural and horticultural land uses. In the present study, the annual water table datasets in 51wells monitored by Ministry of Energy during statistical periods of 2002-2011 were used to data analysis. In order to identify the effective wells in determination of groundwater level, the PCA technique was used. In this research to compute the relative importance of each well, 10 wells were identified with the nearest neighbor for each one. The number of wells (p as a general rule must be less or equal to the maximum number of

  8. Recruitment and selection of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Čermochová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...

  9. Overcoming barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities to mental health research: a typology of recruitment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Waquas; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Woodham, Adrine; Allen, Gill; Bower, Peter

    2015-05-02

    The ethnic minority population in developed countries is increasing over time. These groups are at higher risk of mental illness and demonstrate lower participation in research. Published evidence suggests that multiple factors like stigma, lack of trust, differences in explanatory models, logistical issues and lack of culturally aware researchers act as barriers to ethnic minority recruitment into mental health research. To reduce inequalities in participation, there is a need to devise innovative and culturally sensitive recruitment strategies. It is important that researchers share their experience of employing these strategies so that ethnic minority participation can be facilitated. We previously published a systematic review of barriers to recruiting ethnic minority participants into mental health research. The nine papers included in our prior review formed the basis for developing a typology of barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities into mental health research. This typology identified 33 barriers, described under five themes. We further extracted data on the strategies used to overcome these recruitment barriers, as described in the included studies. The strategies employed by the authors could be matched to all but two barriers (psychopathology/substance misuse and limited resource availability). There was evidence that multiple strategies were employed, and that these depended upon the population, clinical set-up and resources available. This typology of strategies to overcome barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities provides guidance on achieving higher rates of recruitment. It is important that researchers plan to deploy these strategies well in advance of initiating recruitment. Whilst adopting these strategies, the authors have not been able to quantify the positive impact of these strategies on recruitment. The typology should encourage researchers to employ these strategies in future research, refine them further and quantitatively evaluate their

  10. Recruit and ADVANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  11. Recruitment Practices And Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm

    Up to now, there has been little research on recruitment practices from an organizational perspective, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in the recruitment practices of Danish organizations. We employ new institutional theory......, and individuals’ social cognition. Among other things, this is reflected in the use of online recruitment and employer branding. The study concludes that the recruitment field has transformed and reviewed its practices due to institutional changes in how individuals search for employment and expect to be hired....

  12. Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of Effective Simulation (Preclinical) Teachers as Identified by Dental Students: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Mucciolo, Thomas W; Jahangiri, Leila

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this qualitative research study was to identify and categorize criteria for simulation teacher quality preferences as reported by dental students. Second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry in 2015 were given a two-question, open-ended survey asking what qualities they liked most and least in a simulation or preclinical teacher. Responses were collected until data saturation was reached. Key words in the responses were identified and coded based on similar relationships and then were grouped into defined categories. A total of 168 respondents out of the target group of 363 students (46.3%) provided 1,062 written comments. Three core themes-character, competence, and communication-emerged from 16 defined categories, which were validated using references from the educational literature. The theme of character encompassed eight of the defined categories (motivation, available, caring, patience, professionalism, empathy, fairness, and happiness) and accounted for 50% of the total student responses. The theme of competence comprised five categories (expertise, knowledgeable, efficient, skillful, and effective) and represented 34% of all responses. The communication theme covered the remaining three categories (feedback, approachable, and interpersonal communication) and contained 17% of the responses. Positive and negative comments in the category of motivation accounted for 11.2% of all student responses. Expertise was the next highest category with 9.3% of the responses, followed closely by 9.1% in the category of available. Among these students, the top five attributes of simulation teachers were motivation, expertise, available, caring, and feedback. While the study did not attempt to correlate these findings with improved student performance, the results can be used in the development of assessment tools for faculty and targeted faculty development programs.

  14. Experimentally Identify the Effective Plume Chimney over a Natural Draft Chimney Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Chu, C. M.; Tahir, A. M.; Ismail, M. A. bin; Misran, M. S. bin; Ling, L. S.

    2017-07-01

    The demands of energy are in increasing order due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The researchers and scientists are working hard to improve the performance of the industry so that the energy consumption can be reduced significantly. Industries like power plant, timber processing plant, oil refinery, etc. performance mainly depend on the cooling tower chimney’s performance, either natural draft or forced draft. Chimney is used to create sufficient draft, so that air can flow through it. Cold inflow or flow reversal at chimney exit is one of the main identified problems that may alter the overall plant performance. The presence Effective Plume Chimney (EPC) is an indication of cold inflow free operation of natural draft chimney. Different mathematical model equations are used to estimate the EPC height over the heat exchanger or hot surface. In this paper, it is aim to identify the EPC experimentally. In order to do that, horizontal temperature profiling is done at the exit of the chimneys of face area 0.56m2, 1.00m2 and 2.25m2. A wire mesh screen is installed at chimneys exit to ensure cold inflow chimney operation. It is found that EPC exists in all modified chimney models and the heights of EPC varied from 1 cm to 9 cm. The mathematical models indicate that the estimated heights of EPC varied from 1 cm to 2.3 cm. Smoke test is also conducted to ensure the existence of EPC and cold inflow free option of chimney. Smoke test results confirmed the presence of EPC and cold inflow free operation of chimney. The performance of the cold inflow free chimney is increased by 50% to 90% than normal chimney.

  15. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  16. Navy Enlisted Recruiting: Alternatives for Improving Recruiter Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Instruction CR Chief Recruiter CRF Career Recruiting Force CS Culinary Specialist CT Command Trainer CTI Cryptologic Technician...third week (Module 2) when the students are taught about trends in sales and marketplaces, the art and science of sales, how to prospect for new...8, Aviation Machinist Mates (AD), Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Culinary Specialists (CS), and Fire Controlman (FC) had the highest average

  17. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  18. Identifying the quality of life effects of urinary incontinence with depression in an Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Jodie C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life. Methods Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2% were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610, and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459 of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression were more likely to be aged between 15 and 34 years and never married when compared to those with incontinence only. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in people with incontinence, the risk of having comorbid depression was increased by an overall health status of Fair or Poor, or the perception that their incontinence was moderately or very serious. Respondents reporting that they experienced incontinence with comorbid depression scored significantly lower than those experiencing incontinence without depression on all dimensions of the SF-36. The interaction of the presence of incontinence and the presence of depression was significantly associated with the dimensions of physical functioning. Conclusions Depression and incontinence both reduce QOL. When they occur together there appears to be an additive effect which affects both physical and mental health, perhaps by increasing a person’s negative perceptions of their illness. Clinicians should identify and manage comorbid depression when treating patients who have incontinence to improve their overall QOL.

  19. Concept mapping-An effective method for identifying diversity and congruity in cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Jablokow, Kathryn; Rosas, Scott R; Wopereis, Iwan G J H; Kirschner, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cognitive style for decision making on the behaviour of participants in different phases of the group concept mapping process (GCM). It is argued that cognitive style should be included directly in the coordination of the GCM process and not simply considered as yet another demographic variable. The cognitive styles were identified using the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory, which locates each person's style on a continuum ranging from very adaptive to very innovative. Cognitive style could explain diversity in the participants' behaviour in different phases of the GCM process. At the same time, the concept map as a group's common cognitive construct can consolidate individual differences and serves as a tool for managing diversity in groups of participants. Some of the results were that: (a) the more adaptive participants generated ideas that fit to a particular, well-established and consensually agreed paradigm, frame of reference, theory or practice; (b) the more innovative participants produced ideas that were more general in scope and required changing a settled structure (paradigm, frame of reference, theory or practice); and (c) the empirical comparison of the map configurations through Procrustes analysis indicated a strong dissimilarity between cognitive styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  1. Identifying and analyzing the construction and effectiveness of offensive plays in basketball by using systematic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jordi; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2009-08-01

    In the field of sports research, there is a growing need for the rigorous collection of data that provide empirical evidence about the complex reality they refer to. Although sports psychology research has advanced considerably in recent years, in both extent and quality, one area of research that remains relatively unexplored is the dynamics of the sports group and the influence of the group on its members (George & Feltz, 1995; Widmeyer, Brawley, & Carron, 1992). Key aspects in this regard include the presence of regularities that are not detectable through visual inference or traditional methods of data analysis, the lack of standard observation instruments, and, assuming priority, the need to develop powerful, computerized coding systems, all of which must form part of an approach that is suitable for natural and habitual contexts. The present study is part of a broader research project concerning ACB teams (first Spanish basketball division) and considers the interaction context before teams try to score (where this is understood as how teams create scoring opportunities) as the core aspect that links team play. This investigation proposes a new model of analysis for studying the effectiveness and construction of offensive basketball plays in order to identify their outcomes, thus providing coaches with an important device for improving or consolidating them.

  2. Recruiting Participants and Determining Eligibility | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each Screening Center was responsible for establishing its own procedures for identifying and recruiting participants into the trial based on guidelines disseminated by the Coordinating Center and developed by NCI. Each Screening Center was also encouraged to develop and use other materials, such as introductory letters and answers to FAQs, to assist with recruitments. Once

  3. Walleye recruitment success is less resilient to warming water temperatures in lakes with abundant largemouth bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Lakes respond heterogeneously to climate, with implications for fisheries management. We analyzed walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment to age-0 in 359 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, to (i) quantify the relationship between annual water temperature degree days (DD) and walleye recruitment success and (ii) identify the influence of lake characteristics — area, conductivity, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) catch rates, and mean DD — on this relationship. The relationship between walleye recruitment and annual DD varied among lakes and was not distinguishable from zero overall (posterior mean = −0.11, 90% CI = −0.34, 0.15). DD effects on recruitment were negative in 198 lakes (55%) and positive in 161 (45%). The effect of annual DD was most negative in lakes with high largemouth bass densities, and, on average, the probability of recruitment was highest in large lakes with low largemouth bass densities. Conductivity and mean DD influenced neither recruitment nor the effect of annual DD. Walleye recruitment was most resilient to warming in lakes with few largemouth bass, suggesting that the effects of climate change depend on lake-specific food-web and habitat contexts.

  4. Comparative effectiveness trial of family-supported smoking cessation intervention versus standard telephone counseling for chronically ill veterans using proactive recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian LA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lori A Bastian,1–3 Laura J Fish,4 Jennifer, M Gierisch,3,5 Lesley D Rohrer,3 Karen M Stechuchak,3 Steven C Grambow3,61Veterans Affairs Connecticut, West Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA; 3Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, 5Department of Medicine, 6Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: Smoking cessation among patients with chronic medical illnesses substantially decreases morbidity and mortality. Chronically ill veteran smokers may benefit from interventions that assist them in harnessing social support from family and friends.Methods: We proactively recruited veteran smokers who had cancer, cardiovascular disease, or other chronic illnesses (diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and randomized them to either standard telephone counseling or family-supported telephone counseling focused on increasing support for smoking cessation from family and friends. Participants each received a letter from a Veterans Affairs physician encouraging them to quit smoking, a self-help cessation kit, five telephone counseling sessions, and nicotine replacement therapy, if not contraindicated. The main outcome was 7-day point prevalent abstinence at 5 months.Results: We enrolled 471 participants with mean age of 59.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 7.9 years. 53.0% were white, 8.5% were female, and 55.4% were married/living as married. Overall, 42.9% had cardiovascular disease, 34.2% had cancer, and 22.9% had other chronic illnesses. At baseline, participants were moderately dependent on cigarettes as measured by the Heaviness of Smoking Index (mean = 2.8, SD = 1.6, expressed significant depressive symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (54.8% > 10, and

  5. The effect a of community-based social marketing campaign on recruitment and retention of low-income groups into physical activity programmes - a controlled before-and-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withall Janet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effect of physical activity for the prevention of a range of chronic diseases is widely acknowledged. These conditions are most prevalent in low-income groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. Social marketing is the government’s recommended approach to promoting physical activity but evidence of its effectiveness is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a social marketing campaign on the monthly recruitment, attendance and retention levels at a community-based physical activity programme in a low income area. Methods A six-month social marketing campaign was designed and delivered in a highly-deprived suburban neighbourhood. Analysis of variance was used to assess effects on recruitment and attendance. χ2 tests of independence were used to compare dropouts and adherers and effectiveness of recruitment mechanisms. Percentages were used to compare adherence rates at intervention, pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and control area sessions. Results Attendance data were collected weekly and presented and analysed monthly to provide a view of changing participation over the six month intervention period, as compared to attendance at pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and in a control area. Recruitment into intervention sessions was significantly greater than into pre-existing and control area sessions in Month 1 (18.13v1.04 p = .007, 18.13v.30 p=.005, Month 5 (3.45v.84 p=.007, 3.45v.30 p Conclusions Direct comparisons with other programmes were difficult due to a lack of standard definitions of recruitment and adherence and limited reporting of findings. However when compared to pre-existing sessions and sessions delivered in a control area, monthly attendance patterns indicated that a reasonably well funded social marketing campaign increased recruitment into exercise sessions, maintained good levels of attendance and reasonable levels

  6. Fast-Track Teacher Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Franklin Dean

    2001-01-01

    Schools need a Renaissance human-resources director to implement strategic staffing and fast-track teacher-recruitment plans. The HR director must attend to customer satisfaction, candidate supply, web-based recruitment possibilities, stabilization of newly hired staff, retention of veteran staff, utilization of retired employees, and latest…

  7. Engaging workplace representatives in research: what recruitment strategies work best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A

    2018-05-23

    Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.

  8. Recruitment strategies and costs associated with community-based research in a Mexican-origin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S; Mangione, Carol M

    2011-06-01

    We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. We employed several recruitment methods to identify and solicit 154 female caregivers for participation in qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys. Recruitment approaches included using flyers and word of mouth, attending health fairs, and partnering with nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs) to sponsor targeted recruitment events. Face-to-face contact with community residents and partnerships with CBOs were most effective in enrolling caregivers into the studies. Almost 70% of participants attended a recruitment event sponsored or supported by CBOs. The least effective recruitment strategy was the use of flyers, which resulted in only 7 completed interviews or questionnaires. Time and costs related to carrying out the research varied by study, where personal interviews cost more on a per-participant basis ($1,081) than the questionnaires ($298). However, almost the same amount of time was spent in the community for both studies. Partnerships with CBOs were critical for reaching the target enrollment for our studies. The relationship between the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Resource Center for Minority Aging Research/Center for Health Improvement for Minority Elderly and the Department of Aging provided the infrastructure for maintaining connections with academic-community partnerships. Nevertheless, building partnerships required time, effort, and resources for both researchers and local organizations.

  9. Recruitment methods for survey research: Findings from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Roumie, Christianne L; Harris, Paul A; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Pulley, Jill; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Williams, Neely A; Crenshaw, David; Leak, Cardella; Scherdin, Jon; Muñoz, Daniel; Bachmann, Justin; Rothman, Russell L; Kripalani, Sunil

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to report survey response rates and demographic characteristics of eight recruitment approaches to determine acceptability and effectiveness of large-scale patient recruitment among various populations. We conducted a cross sectional analysis of survey data from two large cohorts. Patients were recruited from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network using clinic-based recruitment, research registries, and mail, phone, and email approaches. Response rates are reported as patients who consented for the survey divided by the number of eligible patients approached. We contacted more than 90,000 patients and 13,197 patients completed surveys. Median age was 56.3years (IQR 40.9, 67.4). Racial/ethnic distribution was 84.1% White, non-Hispanic; 9.9% Black, non-Hispanic; 1.8% Hispanic; and 4.0% other, non-Hispanic. Face-to-face recruitment had the highest response rate of 94.3%, followed by participants who "opted-in" to a registry (76%). The lowest response rate was for unsolicited emails from the clinic (6.1%). Face-to-face recruitment enrolled a higher percentage of participants who self-identified as Black, non-Hispanic compared to other approaches (18.6% face-to-face vs. 8.4% for email). Technology-enabled recruitment approaches such as registries and emails are effective for recruiting but may yield less racial/ethnic diversity compared to traditional, more time-intensive approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated With Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic–community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. Results: We employed several recruitment methods to identify and solicit 154 female caregivers for participation in qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys. Recruitment approaches included using flyers and word of mouth, attending health fairs, and partnering with nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs) to sponsor targeted recruitment events. Face-to-face contact with community residents and partnerships with CBOs were most effective in enrolling caregivers into the studies. Almost 70% of participants attended a recruitment event sponsored or supported by CBOs. The least effective recruitment strategy was the use of flyers, which resulted in only 7 completed interviews or questionnaires. Time and costs related to carrying out the research varied by study, where personal interviews cost more on a per-participant basis ($1,081) than the questionnaires ($298). However, almost the same amount of time was spent in the community for both studies. Implications: Partnerships with CBOs were critical for reaching the target enrollment for our studies. The relationship between the University of California–Los Angeles (UCLA) Resource Center for Minority Aging Research/Center for Health Improvement for Minority Elderly and the Department of Aging provided the infrastructure for maintaining connections with academic–community partnerships. Nevertheless, building partnerships required time, effort, and resources for both researchers and local organizations. PMID:21565824

  11. Strategies to enhance patient recruitment and retention in research involving patients with a first episode of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Ivana; Cheung, Amy H; Dewa, Carolyn S; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-11-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is often the most labor-intensive and difficult component of clinical trials. Poor recruitment and retention frequently pose as a major barrier in the successful completion of clinical trials. In fact, many studies are prematurely terminated, or their findings questioned due to low recruitment and retention rates. The conduct of clinical trials involving youth with a first episode of mental illness comes with additional challenges in recruitment and retention including barriers associated with engagement and family involvement. To develop effective early interventions for first episode mental illness, it is necessary to develop strategies to enhance recruitment and retention in this patient population. This article presents the recruitment and retention challenges experienced in two clinical trials: one involving participants experiencing a first episode of depression and one involving participants experiencing a first episode psychosis. Challenges with recruitment and retention are identified and reviewed at both the patient level and clinician level. Strategies that were implemented to enhance recruitment and retention in these two studies are also discussed. Finally, ethical issues to consider when implementing these strategies are also highlighted.

  12. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  13. 43 CFR 41.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 41.310 Section 41.310 Public... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  14. 14 CFR 1253.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1253.310 Section 1253.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  15. 6 CFR 17.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 17.310 Section 17.310 Domestic... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  16. 41 CFR 101-4.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 101-4.310... Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 101-4.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  17. 15 CFR 8a.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 8a.310 Section 8a.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 8a.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  18. 28 CFR 54.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.310 Section 54.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  19. Identifying the Essential Elements of Effective Science Communication: What Do the Experts Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Belinda; France, Bev; Gilbert, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Experts in science communication were asked to identify the essential elements of a science communication course for post-graduate students. A Delphi methodology provided a framework for a research design that accessed their opinions and allowed them to contribute to, reflect on and identify 10 essential elements. There was a high level of…

  20. An effective automatic procedure for testing parameter identifiability of HIV/AIDS models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomani, Maria Pia

    2011-08-01

    Realistic HIV models tend to be rather complex and many recent models proposed in the literature could not yet be analyzed by traditional identifiability testing techniques. In this paper, we check a priori global identifiability of some of these nonlinear HIV models taken from the recent literature, by using a differential algebra algorithm based on previous work of the author. The algorithm is implemented in a software tool, called DAISY (Differential Algebra for Identifiability of SYstems), which has been recently released (DAISY is freely available on the web site http://www.dei.unipd.it/~pia/ ). The software can be used to automatically check global identifiability of (linear and) nonlinear models described by polynomial or rational differential equations, thus providing a general and reliable tool to test global identifiability of several HIV models proposed in the literature. It can be used by researchers with a minimum of mathematical background.

  1. The 1994 College Relations and Recruitment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents results of a survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers of its employer members. Responding organizations (n=422) rated on-campus recruitment as the most effective method of attracting college graduates. General trends are analyzed in terms of diversity, downsizing, company growth, competition, and selectivity. (JPS)

  2. Recruitment Methods for a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo, Artemio; Murray, Steve

    1979-01-01

    Among the most effective tools of recruitment found in this survey were the college catalog, newspaper publicity, and brochures. "Word of mouth" from friends such as alumni, students, and the community, and publicity materials in newspapers, including advertising, were found to be the best sources of information about the college. (Author)

  3. Recruiting and Selecting a New Superintendent. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Edmund L., Ed.

    The recruitment and selection of a new superintendent is a difficult and time-consuming task. It is the single most critical responsibility of a school board. The decision will ultimately affect the entire education program of the district. Careful and thoughtful preparation, definition of orderly and effective procedures, conformity with ethical…

  4. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P recruitment was significantly (P recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Research on U.S. Military Women: Recruitment and Retention Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lisa A; Kennedy, Holly P; Sadler, Lois S; Dixon, Jane

    2015-12-01

    To examine literature on recruitment and retention of military women in research studies as an underrepresented, and potentially marginalized, population. A literature search was conducted to examine challenges, identify potential barriers and facilitators, and to inform strategies for recruitment and retention of military women in research studies. This search was supplemented by findings in military-specific databases and discussions with Military Women's Health Research Interest Group subject matter experts. Ten articles addressed research recruitment and retention challenges and strategies in marginalized/underrepresented populations, providing an effective context to inform research recruitment and retention in military settings. Research with military women is often challenged by logistical, cultural, social, ethical, and methodological issues, which may hinder exploration of potentially sensitive issues. Researchers must consider military-specific challenges to conducting research that include lengthy deployments, unpredictable military exercises, and foreign assignments, in accessing research participants. A case example shows strategies used in a military cervical cancer screening study. There are few published articles specific to research recruitment and retention in female military populations. Available resources broadly address recruitment challenges for Veterans, marginalized, hard-to-access, and transient research participants, which may provide guidance and strategies for success when applied to military populations. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Changing job seekers' image perceptions during recruitment visits: the moderating role of belief confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Jerel E; Cable, Daniel M; Turban, Daniel B

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how an important construct in social psychology-confidence in one's beliefs-could both (a) influence the effectiveness of organizations' recruiting processes and (b) be changed during recruitment. Using a sample of recruits to a branch of the United States military, the authors studied belief confidence before and after recruits' formal visits to the organization's recruiting stations. Personal sources of information had a stronger influence on recruits' belief confidence than impersonal sources. Moreover, recruits' confidence in their initial beliefs affected how perceptions of the recruiter changed their employer images. Among participants with low-initial confidence, the relation between recruitment experiences and employer images was positive and linear across the whole range of recruitment experiences. Among recruits with high-initial confidence, however, the recruitment experience-image relationship was curvilinear, such that recruitment experiences were related to images only at more positive recruitment experiences. The relationship between recruitment experiences and changes in belief confidence was also curvilinear, such that only more positive recruitment experiences led to changes in confidence. These results indicate not only that belief confidence influences the effectiveness of recruiting efforts but also that recruiting efforts can influence belief confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. "Don't wait for them to come to you, you go to them". A qualitative study of recruitment approaches in community based walking programmes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Anne; Brennan, Graham; Kelly, Paul; McAdam, Chloe; Mutrie, Nanette; Foster, Charles

    2012-08-10

    This study aimed to examine the experiences of walking promotion professionals on the range and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within community based walking programmes within the United Kingdom. Two researchers recruited and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and project co-ordinators of community based walking programmes, across the UK, using a purposive sampling frame. Twenty eight interviews were conducted, with community projects targeting participants by age, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. ethnic group) or by health status. Three case studies were also conducted with programmes aiming to recruit priority groups and also demonstrating innovative recruitment methods. Data analysis adopted an approach using analytic induction. Two types of programmes were identified: those with explicit health aims and those without. Programme aims which required targeting of specific groups adopted more specific recruitment methods. The selection of recruitment method was dependent on the respondent's awareness of 'what works' and the resource capacity at their disposal. Word of mouth was perceived to be the most effective means of recruitment but using this approach took time and effort to build relationships with target groups, usually through a third party. Perceived effectiveness of recruitment was assessed by number of participants rather than numbers of the right participants. Some programmes, particularly those targeting younger adult participants, recruited using new social communication media. Where adopted, social marketing recruitment strategies tended to promote the 'social' rather than the 'health' benefits of walking. Effective walking programme recruitment seems to require trained, strategic, labour intensive, word-of-mouth communication, often in partnerships, in order to understand needs and develop trust and motivation within disengaged sedentary communities. Walking promotion professionals

  8. Human Resources Marketing and Recruiting: Essentials of Digital Recruiting

    CERN Document Server

    Purvis, James

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will cover digital recruitment from its definition thru to its history in recruitment and trends. The subject itself could cover an entire book or an entire module at university, so this chapter will broadly touch upon the key elements and considerations. Under cultural perspective, the recruitment life cycle will be broken down into its individual parts, and digital solutions will be examined for each individual part of the process together with the impact this has on the knowledge and challenges for the manager and team. The economic perspective will assist in prioritizing initiatives and building a business case for the introduction of digital recruiting solutions. The risk perspective will raise awareness of the potential pitfalls and the operational perspective on the key considerations for a successful implementation. Finally, the key messages of this chapter are summarized in the Do’s and Don’ts.

  9. A summation of online recruiting practices for health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Kanak S

    2005-01-01

    Worker shortage is among the foremost challenges facing US health care today. Health care organizations are also confronted with rising costs of recruiting and compensating scarce workers in times of declining reimbursement. Many health care organizations are adopting online recruitment as a nontraditional, low-cost method for hiring staff. Online recruitment is the fastest growing method of recruitment today, and has advantages over traditional recruiting in terms of cost, reach, and time-saving. Several health care organizations have achieved great success in recruiting online. Yet awareness of online recruiting remains lower among health care managers than managers in other industries. Many health care organizations still search for job candidates within a 30-mile radius using traditional methods. This article describes the various aspects of online recruitment for health care organizations. It is meant to help health care managers currently recruiting online by answering frequently asked questions (eg, Should I be advertising on national job sites? Why is my Web site not attracting job seekers? Is my online ad effective?). It is also meant to educate health care managers not doing online recruiting so that they try recruiting online. The article discusses the salient aspects of online recruiting: (a) using commercial job boards; (b) building one's own career center; (c) building one's own job board; (d) collecting and storing resumes; (e) attracting job seekers to one's Web site; (f) creating online job ads; (g) screening and evaluating candidates online; and (h) building long-term relationships with candidates. Job seekers in health care are adopting the Internet faster than health care employers. To recruit successfully during the current labor shortage, it is imperative that employers adopt and expand online recruiting.

  10. When clinical trials compete: prioritising study recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E; Cohen, I Glenn

    2017-12-01

    It is not uncommon for multiple clinical trials at the same institution to recruit concurrently from the same patient population. When the relevant pool of patients is limited, as it often is, trials essentially compete for participants. There is evidence that such a competition is a predictor of low study accrual, with increased competition tied to increased recruitment shortfalls. But there is no consensus on what steps, if any, institutions should take to approach this issue. In this article, we argue that an institutional policy that prioritises some trials for recruitment ahead of others is ethically permissible and indeed prima facie preferable to alternative means of addressing recruitment competition. We motivate this view by appeal to the ethical importance of minimising the number of studies that begin but do not complete, thereby exposing their participants to unnecessary risks and burdens in the process. We then argue that a policy of prioritisation can be fair to relevant stakeholders, including participants, investigators and funders. Finally, by way of encouraging and helping to frame future debate, we propose some questions that would need to be addressed when identifying substantive ethical criteria for prioritising between studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Demographic processes limiting seedling recruitment in arid grassland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony J. Svejcar; Matthew J. Rinella

    2011-01-01

    Seeding is an important management tool in aridland restoration, but seeded species often fail to establish. Previous research has largely focused on the technical aspects of seeding with little effort directed at identifying demographic processes driving recruitment failures.

  12. Recruitment strategy cost and impact on minority accrual to a breast cancer prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Alexander; Khan, Seema; Babinski, Christie; Michel, Nancy; Heffernan, Marie; Stephan, Stefanie; Jordan, Neil; Jovanovic, Borko; Carney, Paula; Bergan, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    Recruitment of minorities to cancer prevention trials is difficult and costly. Early-phase cancer prevention trials have fewer resources to promote recruitment. Identifying cost-effective strategies that can replace or supplement traditional recruitment methods and improve minority accrual to small, early-phase cancer prevention trials are of critical importance. To compare the costs of accrual strategies used in a small breast cancer prevention trial and assess their impact on recruitment and minority accrual. A total of 1196 potential subjects with a known recruitment source contacted study coordinators about the SOY study, a breast cancer prevention trial. Recruitment strategies for this study included recruitment from within the Northwestern University network (internal strategy), advertisements placed on public transportation (Chicago Transit Authority (CTA)), health-related events, media (print/radio/television), and direct mail. Total recruitment strategy cost included the cost of study personnel and material costs calculated from itemized receipts. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of each recruitment strategy. If a strategy was more costly and less effective than its comparator, then that strategy was considered dominated. Scenarios that were not dominated were compared. The primary effectiveness measure was the number of consents. Separate ICERs were calculated using the number of minority consents as the effectiveness measure. The total cost of SOY study recruitment was US$164,585, which included the cost of materials (US$26,133) and personnel (US$138,452). The internal referral strategy was the largest source of trial contacts (748/1196; 63%), consents (107/150; 71%), and minority consents (17/34; 50%) and was the most expensive strategy (US$139,033). CTA ads generated the second largest number of trial contacts (326/1196; 27%), the most minority contacts (184/321; 57%), and 16

  13. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  14. Recruitment barriers in a randomized controlled trial from the physicians' perspective – A postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrer Werner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, most surveys have focused on the patients' perspective of recruitment barriers whereas the perspective of recruiting physicians has received less attention. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a postal survey among recruiting physicians of a multi-center trial to weigh barriers according to their impact on recruitment. Methods We identified any potential recruitment barriers from the literature and from our own experience with a multi-center trial of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We developed and pilot-tested a self-administered questionnaire where recruiting physicians were asked to express their agreement with statements about recruitment barriers on a Likert-type scale from 1 (full agreement with statement = very substantial recruitment barrier to 7 (no agreement with statement = no recruitment barrier. Results 38 of 55 recruiting physicians returned questionnaires (69% response rate, of which 35 could be analyzed (64% useable response rate. Recruiting physicians reported that "time constraints" (median agreement of 3, interquartile range 2–5 had the most negative impact on recruitment followed by "difficulties including identified eligible patients" (median agreement of 5, IQR 3–6. Other barriers such as "trial design barriers", "lack of access to treatment", "individual barriers of recruiting physicians" or "insufficient training of recruiting physicians" were perceived to have little or no impact on patient recruitment. Conclusion Physicians perceived time constraints as the most relevant recruitment barrier in a randomized trial. To overcome recruitment barriers interventions, that are affordable for both industry- and investigator-driven trials, need to be

  15. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise K; Harris, Keith; Baker, Amanda L; Johnson, Martin; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting participants to addiction research via Facebook. Participants were recruited via an advertisement on Facebook, a local research register and university psychology courses. Participants completed a self-report survey regarding substance use, history of mental health issues and current psychological distress. The 524 participants recruited via Facebook cost $1.86 per participant; and 418 participants were recruited via more traditional methods. There were significantly fewer women in the Facebook sample compared with the non-Facebook sample (χ(2)  = 196.61, P Facebook participants reported current use of tobacco (women: Facebook = 57%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2)  = 39.71, P Facebook = 62%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2)  = 32.429, P Facebook = 26%, non-Facebook = 7%, χ(2)  = 14.364, P Facebook = 46%, non-Facebook = 24%, χ(2)  = 6.765, P Facebook sample contained a higher percentage of high-severity cannabis users (women: Facebook = 24%, non-Facebook = 4%, χ(2)  = 18.12, P Facebook = 43%, non-Facebook = 16%, χ(2)  = 10.00, P Facebook, we were able to capture a greater proportion of people with high-severity substance use and mental health issues and were able to capture a greater and more severe range of substance use behaviours. This suggests social networking sites are efficient, cost-effective ways to recruit large numbers of participants, with relevant behaviours and conditions, to addiction research. [Thornton LK, Harris K, Baker AL, Johnson M, Kay-Lambkin FJ. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:494-502]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Recruitment of family child care homes for an obesity prevention intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S. Ward

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Results of these enhanced recruitment strategies demonstrate the many lessons learned about successful recruitment of a difficult-to-reach population, family child care homes; specifically, the importance of building relationships, communicating clearly, and identifying key motivators.

  17. Internet Recruitment of Asian American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Kim, Sangmi; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Shapira, Marilyn M; Mao, Jun James

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity; (c) difficulties in gaining entrée from the webmasters or Web site owners of Internet communities/groups; (d) the necessity of racially/ethnically matched research team members; (e) flexibility required in recruitment strategies; and (f) strategies to overcome the low response rate.

  18. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Brian A; Givens, Eric

    2008-01-01

    ...) market based on data from: * DMDC (All services) * IRR (HRC-St. Louis) * AC/RC transition (HRC-Alexandria); 2) To recommend possible recruiting pools of applicants from the analyzed market data...

  19. Information networks and worker recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, A.; Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies experimentally how the existence of social information networks affects the ways in which firms recruit new personnel. Through such networks firms learn about prospective employees' performance in previous jobs. Assuming individualistic preferences social networks are predicted

  20. Student Recruitment: The Hard Sell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tony

    1975-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons concerning advertising for recruitment using three modes of analyses - economics, ethics, and law. The author concludes that advertising is an invaluable technique for information dispersal in higher education. (Author/PG)

  1. Lessons learned from recruiting socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers into a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore the role of Exercise Assisted Reduction then Stop (EARS) smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tom P; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian H

    2015-02-12

    Research is needed on what influences recruitment to smoking reduction trials, and how to increase their reach. The present study aimed to i) assess the feasibility of recruiting a disadvantaged population, ii) examine the effects of recruitment methods on participant characteristics, iii) identify resource requirements for different recruitment methods, and iv) to qualitatively assess the acceptability of recruitment. This was done as part of a pilot two-arm trial of the effectiveness of a novel behavioral support intervention focused on increasing physical activity and reducing smoking, among disadvantaged smokers not wishing to quit. Smokers were recruited through mailed invitations from three primary care practices (62 participants) and one National Health Stop Smoking Service (SSS) database (31 participants). Six other participants were recruited via a variety of other community-based approaches. Data were collected through questionnaires, field notes, work sampling, and databases. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics of participants. We randomized between 5.1 and 11.1% of those invited through primary care and SSS, with associated researcher time to recruit one participant varying from 18 to 157 minutes depending on time and intensity invested.Only six participants were recruited through a wide variety of other community-based approaches, with an associated researcher time of 469 minutes to recruit one participant. Targets for recruiting a disadvantaged population were met, with 91% of the sample in social classes C2 to E (NRS social grades, UK), and 41% indicating mental health problems. Those recruited from SSS were more likely to respond to an initial letter, had used cessation aids before, and had attempted to quit in the past year. Overall, initial responders were more likely to be physically active than those who were recruited via follow-up telephone calls. No other demographics or behaviour characteristics were

  2. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  3. A network analysis of the Chinese medicine Lianhua-Qingwen formula to identify its main effective components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Wang, Yue-Fei; Jia, Wei-Na; Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Chinese medicine is known to treat complex diseases with multiple components and multiple targets. However, the main effective components and their related key targets and functions remain to be identified. Herein, a network analysis method was developed to identify the main effective components and key targets of a Chinese medicine, Lianhua-Qingwen Formula (LQF). The LQF is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of viral influenza in China. It is composed of 11 herbs, gypsum and menthol with 61 compounds being identified in our previous work. In this paper, these 61 candidate compounds were used to find their related targets and construct the predicted-target (PT) network. An influenza-related protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and integrated with the PT network. Then the compound-effective target (CET) network and compound-ineffective target network (CIT) were extracted, respectively. A novel approach was developed to identify effective components by comparing CET and CIT networks. As a result, 15 main effective components were identified along with 61 corresponding targets. 7 of these main effective components were further experimentally validated to have antivirus efficacy in vitro. The main effective component-target (MECT) network was further constructed with main effective components and their key targets. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the MECT network predicted key functions such as NO production being modulated by the LQF. Interestingly, five effective components were experimentally tested and exhibited inhibitory effects on NO production in the LPS induced RAW 264.7 cell. In summary, we have developed a novel approach to identify the main effective components in a Chinese medicine LQF and experimentally validated some of the predictions.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis and Bounding of Causal Effects with Alternative Identifying Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2011-01-01

    When identification of causal effects relies on untestable assumptions regarding nonidentified parameters, sensitivity of causal effect estimates is often questioned. For proper interpretation of causal effect estimates in this situation, deriving bounds on causal parameters or exploring the sensitivity of estimates to scientifically plausible…

  5. An effect from anticipation also in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without identified mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Susanne; Therkildsen, Christina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola

    2009-01-01

    the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC and showed normal MMR function and/or lack of disease-predisposing MMR gene mutation. In total, 319 cancers from 212 parent-child pairs in 99 families were identified. A paired t-test and a bivariate statistical model were used to assess anticipation. Both methods demonstrated...

  6. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Webcast Introduction: Identifying, Recognizing, and Learning From Effective Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ray; Jung, Britt; Johnson, Joseph; Wallinger, Linda; Bamberg, Wanda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this series of webcasts is to communicate directly with state educational agency (SEA) and local educational agency (LEA) staff - those who guide and support the work of schools - on issues related to the implementation of NCLB. The goal of this webcast is to prompt SEAs and LEAs to think about how to identify the qualities of…

  7. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data : A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, John D.; Price, David B.; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A.; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Josephs, Lynn K.; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    BACKGROUND: Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent

  8. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  9. Recruitment of black and Latina women to a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anika; Negron, Rennie; Balbierz, Amy; Bickell, Nina; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    Minority women are often not adequately represented in randomized controlled trials, limiting the generalizability of research trial results. We implemented a recruitment strategy for a postpartum depression prevention trial that utilized patient feedback to identify and understand the recruitment barriers of black and Latina postpartum women. Feedback on patients' reasons for trial refusal informed adaptations to the recruitment process. We calculated weekly recruitment rates and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from patient refusals. Of the 668 women who were approached and completed the consent process, 540 enrolled in the trial and 128 declined participation. Over 52-weeks of recruitment, refusal rates decreased from 40% to 19%. A taxonomy of eight reasons for refusal derived from patient responses identified barriers to recruitment and generated targeted revisions to the recruitment message. A recruitment strategy designed to incorporate and respond to patient feedback improved recruitment of Black and Latina women to a clinical trial.

  10. 'Away Days' in multi-centre randomised controlled trials: a questionnaire survey of their use and a case study on the effect of one Away Day on patient recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Laura; Cook, Liz; Keding, Ada; Brealey, Stephen; Handoll, Helen; Rangan, Amar

    2015-11-06

    'Away Days' (trial promotion and training events for trial site personnel) are a well-established method used by trialists to encourage engagement of research sites in the recruitment of patients to multi-centre randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We explored the use of Away Days in multi-centre RCTs and analysed the effect on patient recruitment in a case study. Members of the United Kingdom Trial Managers' Network were surveyed in June 2013 to investigate their experiences in the design and conduct of Away Days in RCTs. We used data from a multi-centre pragmatic surgical trial to explore the effects