WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify early indicators

  1. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  2. Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoff, Ronald; Wood, Jillian; Chernock, Maria C; Tipping, Diane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of visual freeze indicators on vaccines would assist health care providers in identifying vaccines that may have been exposed to potentially damaging temperatures. Twenty-seven sites in Connecticut involved in the Vaccine for Children Program participated. In addition to standard procedures, visual freeze indicators (FREEZEmarker ® L; Temptime Corporation, Morris Plains, NJ) were affixed to each box of vaccine that required refrigeration but must not be frozen. Temperatures were monitored twice daily. During the 24 weeks, all 27 sites experienced triggered visual freeze indicator events in 40 of the 45 refrigerators. A total of 66 triggered freeze indicator events occurred in all 4 types of refrigerators used. Only 1 of the freeze events was identified by a temperature-monitoring device. Temperatures recorded on vaccine data logs before freeze indicator events were within the 35°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) range in all but 1 instance. A total of 46,954 doses of freeze-sensitive vaccine were stored at the time of a visual freeze indicator event. Triggered visual freeze indicators were found on boxes containing 6566 doses (14.0% of total doses). Of all doses stored, 14,323 doses (30.5%) were of highly freeze-sensitive vaccine; 1789 of these doses (12.5%) had triggered indicators on the boxes. Visual freeze indicators are useful in the early identification of freeze events involving vaccines. Consideration should be given to including these devices as a component of the temperature-monitoring system for vaccines.

  3. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  4. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A. Boucher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs: Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. Methods: The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1 potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2 indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3 selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4 final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5 indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Results: Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Conclusion: Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  5. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Beatrice A; Manafò, Elizabeth; Boddy, Meaghan R; Roblin, Lynn; Truscott, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS) integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs): Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1) potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2) indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3) selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4) final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5) indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  6. Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tari

    Full Text Available With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process.In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications.To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7% are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8% are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has the potential to discover novel drug indications for

  7. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice A. Boucher; Elizabeth Manafò; Meaghan R. Boddy; Lynn Roblin; Rebecca Truscott

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS) integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes ...

  8. Early Reading Proficiency. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  9. Identifying pelagic ecosystem indicators for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, Verena; Hintzen, Niels; Rindorf, Anna

    2013-01-01

    When exploiting fish populations under the ecosystem approach, aiming for MSY is not necessarily sufficient to ensure wider ecosystem sustainability. All of the large stocks of pelagic fish are managed through harvest control rules based on an MSY approach. Ensuring good environmental status...... will probably require further constraints to be imposed by management. Most of the current paradigm with regards to GES for fisheries has been based on demersal fish. Pelagic fisheries and fish are operationally and biologically respectively different. We use the example of applying the ecosystem approach...... between objectives and indicators were explored for a range of examples highlighting the importance of the biology and the interaction between the pelagic ecosystem and humans. Considering MSY targets alone will not fulfil GES objectives with regards to e.g. genetic, phenotypic, and behavioural dimensions...

  10. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  11. Identifying early Earth microfossils in unsilicified sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Asael, Dan; Bekker, Andrey; Debaille, Vinciane; Derenne, Sylvie; Hofmann, Axel; Mattielli, Nadine; Poulton, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The search for life on the early Earth or beyond Earth requires the definition of biosignatures, or "indices of life". These traditionally include fossil molecules, isotopic fractionations, biosedimentary structures and morphological fossils interpreted as remnants of life preserved in rocks. This research focuses on traces of life preserved in unsilicified siliciclastic sediments. Indeed, these deposits preserve well sedimentary structures indicative of past aqueous environments and organic matter, including the original organic walls of microscopic organisms. They also do not form in hydrothermal conditions which may be source of abiotic organics. At our knowledge, the only reported occurrence of microfossils preserved in unsilicified Archean sediments is a population of large organic-walled vesicles discovered in shales and siltstones of the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa. (Javaux et al, Nature 2010). These have been interpreted as microfossils based on petrographic and geochemical evidence for their endogenicity and syngeneity, their carbonaceous composition, cellular morphology and ultrastructure, occurrence in populations, taphonomic features of soft wall deformation, and the geological context plausible for life, as well as lack of abiotic explanation falsifying a biological origin. Demonstrating that carbonaceous objects from Archaean rocks are truly old and truly biological is the subject of considerable debate. Abiotic processes are known to produce organics and isotopic signatures similar to life. Spheroidal pseudofossils may form as self-assembling vesicles from abiotic CM, e.g. in prebiotic chemistry experiments (Shoztak et al, 2001), from meteoritic lipids (Deamer et al, 2006), or hydrothermal fluids (Akashi et al, 1996); by artifact of maceration; by migration of abiotic or biotic CM along microfractures (VanZuilen et al, 2007) or along mineral casts (Brasier et al, 2005), or around silica spheres formed in silica-saturated water (Jones and

  12. Identifying Indicators Related to Constructs for Engineering Design Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    This study ranked constructs articulated by Childress and Rhodes (2008) and identified the key indicators for each construct as a starting point to explore what should be included on an instrument to measure the engineering design process and outcomes of students in high schools that use the PLTW and EbDTM curricula in Idaho. A case-study design…

  13. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  14. [Identifying indicators of good practice in clinical and healthcare management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez Tamayo, C; Olry de Labry Lima, A; García Mochón, L

    2018-03-06

    To identify good practices in order to develop and implement indicators of health outcomes for clinical and healthcare management, as well as the characteristics for an indicator to be considered adequate. A scoping review was performed, with the following phases: 1) Search and identification of bibliography. 2) Selection of relevant documents. Including those studies that discussed issues related to good practices for the use of health indicators in the management field. Those published in a language other than English or Spanish or before 2006 were excluded. 3) Analysis and extraction of information. 4) Consultation with stakeholders, using a qualitative methodology through Concept Mapping, with the participation of 40 experts (decision-makers, scientific societies, and health professionals). The data collection process included an inductive and structured procedure, with prioritisation of ideas grouped into clusters, according to feasibility and importance criteria (0-10 scale). Good practices identified 2 levels: 1) macro-management: Define a framework for the evaluation of indicators and establish a benchmark of indicators. 2) meso-management: Establish indicators according to evidence and expert consensus, taking into account priority areas and topics, testing before final use, and communicate results adequately. The characteristics of a suitable indicator are: 1) Approach of an important issue, 2) Scientific validity, 3) Possibility of measurement with reliable data, 4) Meaning of useful and applicable measurement, and 5) Wide scope. The best practices for the use of indicators in clinical and healthcare management can make it easier to monitor performance and accountability, as well as to support the decision-making addressed at the development of initiatives for quality improvement. Copyright © 2018 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Searching for Moral Dumbfounding: Identifying Measurable Indicators of Moral Dumbfounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian McHugh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Moral dumbfounding is defined as maintaining a moral judgement, without supporting reasons. The most cited demonstration of dumbfounding does not identify a specific measure of dumbfounding and has not been published in peer-review form, or directly replicated. Despite limited empirical examination, dumbfounding has been widely discussed in moral psychology. The present research examines the reliability with which dumbfounding can be elicited, and aims to identify measureable indicators of dumbfounding. Study 1 aimed at establishing the effect that is reported in the literature. Participants read four scenarios and judged the actions described. An Interviewer challenged participants’ stated reasons for judgements. Dumbfounding was evoked, as measured by two indicators, admissions of not having reasons (17%, unsupported declarations (9% with differences between scenarios. Study 2 measured dumbfounding as the selecting of an unsupported declaration as part of a computerised task. We observed high rates of dumbfounding across all scenarios. Studies 3a (college sample and 3b (MTurk sample, addressing limitations in Study 2, replaced the unsupported declaration with an admission of having no reason, and included open-ended responses that were coded for unsupported declarations. As predicted, lower rates of dumbfounding were observed (3a 20%; 3b 16%; or 3a 32%; 3b 24% including unsupported declarations in open-ended responses. Two measures provided evidence for dumbfounding across three studies; rates varied with task type (interview/computer task, and with the particular measure being employed (admissions of not having reasons/unsupported declarations. Possible cognitive processes underlying dumbfounding and limitations of methodologies used are discussed as a means to account for this variability.

  16. Cranial Indicators Identified for Peak Incidence of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony S; Wang, Eugene; Yuan, Derek; Fischer, Daniel; Bluestone, Charles; Marquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence. Growth was divided into five dental eruption stages ranging from edentulous neonates (Stage 1) to adults with erupted third maxillary molars (Stage 5). A total of 32 three-dimensional landmarks were used and Generalized Procrustes Analysis was performed. Next, we performed principal components analysis and calculated univariate measures. It was found that growth change in Stage 1 was the most rapid and comprised the largest amount of overall growth in upper respiratory tract proportions (where time is represented by the natural logarithmic transformation of centroid size). The analysis of univariate measures showed that Stage 1 humans did indeed possess the relatively shortest and most horizontally oriented CET's with the greatest amount of growth change occurring at the transition to Stage 2 (eruption of deciduous dentition at five postnatal months, commencing peak AOM incidence) and ceasing by Stage 3 (approximately six postnatal years). Skeletal indicators appear related to peak ages of AOM incidence and may contribute to understanding of a nearly ubiquitous human disease. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1721-1740, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identifying mechanistic indicators of childhood asthma from blood gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthmatic individuals have been identified as a susceptible subpopulation for air pollutants. However, asthma represents a syndrome with multiple probable etiologies, and the identification of these asthma endotypes is critical to accurately define the most susceptible subpopula...

  18. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  19. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  20. Identifying marine pelagic ecosystem management objectives and indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, Verena M.; Hintzen, Niels T.; Farnsworth, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    . Overall 26 objectives were proposed, with 58% agreement in proposed objectives between two workshops. Based on published evidence for pressure-state links, examples of operational objectives and suitable indicators for each of the 26 objectives were then selected. It is argued that given the strong......International policy frameworks such as the Common Fisheries Policy and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive define high-level strategic goals for marine ecosystems. Strategic goals are addressed via general and operational management objectives. To add credibility and legitimacy...... scale in some cases. In the evidence-based approach used in this study, the selection of species or region specific operational objectives and indicators was based on demonstrated pressure-state links. Hence observed changes in indicators can reliably inform on appropriate management measures. (C) 2015...

  1. Indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Dekkers, S.; Kandhai, M.C.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Booij, C.J.H.; Heer, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select the most important indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. The study was based on a holistic approach and, consequently, potential indicators were evaluated not only from the food production chain but

  2. From control system security indices to attack identifiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; Sandberg, H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate detectability and identifiability of attacks on linear dynamical systems that are subjected to external disturbances. We generalize a concept for a security index, which was previously introduced for static systems. The index exactly quantifies the resources

  3. Identifying Value Indicators and Social Capital in Community Health Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Alice J.; Becker, Julie; Brawer, Rickie

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, public health practice is turning to the application of community collaborative models to improve population health status. Despite the growth of these activities, however, evaluations of the national demonstrations have indicated that community health partnerships fail to achieve measurable results and struggle to maintain integrity…

  4. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Antunes Beraldo

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART.It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HP, thigh circumference (TC and calculated body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist to hip ratio (WHR and waist to thigh ratio (WTR. There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity.WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05, triglycerides (only males, p<0.001, HDL cholesterol (p<0.05, LDL cholesterol (p<005 and fasting glycemic (p<005. WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs: 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively, while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females, respectively, in this population.The central adiposity measure (WC had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical practice routinely to prevent

  5. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  6. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  7. Lexical retrieval in discourse: an early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Obler, Loraine K; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2013-12-01

    We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS) and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7-9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2-4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD.

  8. PREDICT-PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J; R'Bibo, Lea; Peress, Luisa; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Adams-Carr, Kerala L; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Hawkes, Christopher H; Masters, Joseph M; Wood, Nicholas; Hardy, John; Giovannoni, Gavin; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2017-02-01

    A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations. Risk scores were calculated based on the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD, and individuals were grouped into higher (above 15th centile), medium, and lower risk groups (below 85th centile). Previously defined indicators of increased risk of PD ("intermediate markers"), including smell loss, rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder, and finger-tapping speed, and incident PD were used as outcomes. The correlation of risk scores with intermediate markers and movement of individuals between risk groups was assessed each year and prospectively. Exploratory Cox regression analyses with incident PD as the dependent variable were performed. A total of 1323 participants were recruited at baseline and >79% completed assessments each year. Annual risk scores were correlated with intermediate markers of PD each year and baseline scores were correlated with intermediate markers during follow-up (all P values < 0.001). Incident PD diagnoses during follow-up were significantly associated with baseline risk score (hazard ratio = 4.39, P = .045). GBA variants or G2019S LRRK2 mutations were found in 47 participants, and the predictive power for incident PD was improved by the addition of genetic variants to risk scores. The online PREDICT-PD algorithm is a unique and simple method to identify indicators of PD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder

  9. Clinical indicators for success of misoprostol treatment after early pregnancy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, C; Zhang, J; Troendle, J; Barnhart, K; Creinin, M D; Westhoff, C; Huang, X; Frederick, M

    2007-10-01

    To identify clinical indicators for success of misoprostol treatment after early pregnancy failure. A total of 473 women with early pregnancy failure received 800 microg of vaginal misoprostol on treatment day 1. At the follow-up visit on day 3, a second dose was given if expulsion was incomplete. On day 8, vacuum aspiration was offered if expulsion had not occurred. Ultrasonography was used as gold standard for success. A Classification and Regression Tree analysis was undertaken to derive two decision trees for the success of misoprostol treatment on study days 3 and 8. Heavy bleeding after the first dose and an open cervical os were identified as clinical indicators of treatment success on day 3. Treatment success occurred in 84% of women with either or both indicators. Reporting passage of tissue after a second misoprostol dose and old blood in the vagina were potential indicators of treatment success or failure on day 8. A woman with either of these indicators has a 65% chance of treatment success after the second dose. Conversely, a woman with neither indicator on day 8 has a 94% chance of treatment failure. Standard clinical findings may be useful as indicators for success or failure of medical management of early pregnancy failure in settings with limited or no access to ultrasonography. More research to identify even better indicators is warranted.

  10. Early indicators and risk factors for ethical issues in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Hersh, Mary; Shirk, Marilyn; Nudelman, Olga

    2011-03-01

    Nurses in all clinical settings encounter ethical issues that frequently lead to moral distress. This critical incident study explored nurses' descriptions of ethically difficult situations to identify risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts. Employing the critical incident technique, researchers developed a questionnaire that collected information on ethically difficult situations, their risk factors and early indicators, nurse actions, and situational outcomes. Two nurse researchers independently analyzed and categorized data using a constant comparison technique. Most of the ethically difficult situations pertained to end-of-life care for children and adults. Conflicts in interpersonal relationships were prevalent. Nurses were especially moved by patient and family suffering and concerned about patient vulnerability, harm-benefit ratio, and patient autonomy. Researchers discovered risk factor categories for patients, families, healthcare providers, and health systems. Additionally, researchers found subcategories in six major categories of early indicators: signs of conflict, patient suffering, nurse distress, ethics violation, unrealistic expectations, and poor communication. Nurses are keenly aware of pertinent risk factors and early indicators of unfolding ethical conflicts. Many nurses reported feeling powerless in the face of ethical conflict. Research that develops interventions to strengthen nurses' voices in ethically difficult situation is warranted. Nurses are in a key position to identify patient situations with a high risk for ethical conflict. Initiating early ethics consultation and interventions can alter the course of pending conflicts and diminish the potential for patient and family suffering and nurses' moral distress. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. EXTERNAL VALIDATION OF THE DIABETES EARLY READMISSION RISK INDICATOR (DERRI™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel J; Recco, Dominic; Turchin, Alexander; Zhao, Huaqing; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2018-04-06

    The Diabetes Early Readmission Risk Indicator (DERRI ™ ) was previously developed and internally validated as a tool to predict the risk of all-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge (30-d readmission) of hospitalized patients with diabetes. In this study, the predictive performance of the DERRI ™ with and without additional predictors was assessed in an external sample. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with diabetes discharged from 2 academic medical centers between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2014. We applied the previously developed DERRI ™ , which includes admission laboratory results, sociodemographics, a diagnosis of certain comorbidities, and recent discharge information, and evaluated the effect of adding metabolic indicators on predictive performance using multivariable logistic regression. Total cholesterol and A1c were selected based on clinical relevance and univariate association with 30-d readmission. Among 105,974 discharges, 19,032 (18.0%) were followed by 30-d readmission for any cause. The DERRI ™ had a C-statistic of 0.634 for 30-d readmission. Total cholesterol (TC) was the lipid parameter most strongly associated with 30-d readmission. The DERRI ™ predictors, A1c, and TC were significantly associated with 30-d readmission; however, their addition to the DERRI ™ did not significantly change model performance (C-statistic 0.643 [95% CI, 0.638-0.647], p=0.92). Performance of the DERRI ™ in this external cohort was modest but comparable to other readmission prediction models. Addition of A1c and TC to the DERRI ™ did not significantly improve performance. Although the DERRI ™ may be useful to direct resources toward diabetes patients at higher risk, better prediction is needed. DERRI = Diabetes Early Readmission Risk Indicator; TC = Total cholesterol; A1c = hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; HHS

  12. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  13. Aconitase and Developmental End Points as Early Indicators of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Vasyliovuch Lozinsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the toxicity of the different xenobiotics was tested on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster model system. Methods: Fly larvae were raised on food supplemented with xenobiotics at different concentrations (sodium nitroprusside (0.1-1.5 mM, S-nitrosoglutathione (0.5-4 mM, and potassium ferrocyanide (1 mM. Emergence of flies, food intake by larvae, and pupation height preference as well as aconitase activity (in 2-day old flies were measured. Results: Food supplementation with xenobiotics caused a developmental delay in the flies and decreased pupation height. Biochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidants and their associated enzymes were carried out on 2-day-old flies emerged from control larvae and larvae fed on food supplemented with chemicals. Larval exposure to chemicals resulted in lower activities of aconitase in flies of both sexes and perturbation in activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that among a variety of parameters tested, aconitase activity, developmental endpoints, and pupation height may be used as reliable early indicators of toxicity caused by different chemicals.

  14. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Nurses' knowledge to identify early acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Roseli Aparecida Matheus do; Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar; Silva, João Manoel; Amendola, Cristina Prata; Carvalho, Taysa Martindo de; Lima, Emerson Quintino; Lobo, Suzana Margareth Ajeje

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledgeof nurses on early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care, emergency and hospitalization units. A prospective multi-center study was conducted with 216 nurses, using a questionnaire with 10 questions related to AKI prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. 57.2% of nurses were unable to identify AKI clinical manifestations, 54.6% did not have knowledge of AKI incidence in patients admitted to the ICU, 87.0% of the nurses did not know how to answer as regards the AKI mortality rate in patients admitted to the ICU, 67.1% answered incorrectly that slight increases in serum creatinine do not have an impact on mortality, 66.8% answered incorrectly to the question on AKI prevention measures, 60.4% answered correctly that loop diuretics for preventing AKI is not recommended, 77.6% answered correctly that AKI does not characterize the need for hemodialysis, and 92.5% said they had no knowledge of the Acute Kidney Injury Networkclassification. Nurses do not have enough knowledge to identify early AKI, demonstrating the importance of qualification programs in this field of knowledge. Avaliar o conhecimento do enfermeiro na identificação precoce da Injúria Renal Aguda (IRA) em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Unidade de Internação e Emergência. Estudo multicêntrico, prospectivo.Participaram do estudo 216 enfermeiros,por meio de questionário com 10 questões relacionadas à prevenção, ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento da IRA. 57,2% não souberam identificar as manifestações clínicas da IRA, 54,6% não têm conhecimento da incidência de IRA em pacientes internados na UTI, 87,0% dos enfermeiros não souberam responder ao índice de mortalidade de IRA em pacientes internados na UTI, 67,1% responderam incorretamente que aumentos discretos da creatinina sérica não têm impacto na mortalidade, 66,8% responderam incorretamente à questão sobre as medidas de prevenção da IRA, 60,4% acertaram quando responderam que não

  16. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards ecosystem-based management: Identifying operational food-web indicators for marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tam, Jamie C.; Link, Jason S.; Rossberg, Axel G.

    2017-01-01

    ) are an important aspect of all marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Here we describe and discuss a process to evaluate the selection of operational food-web indicators for use in evaluating marine ecosystem status. This process brought together experts in food-web ecology, marine ecology, and resource management......, to identify available indicators that can be used to inform marine management. Standard evaluation criteria (availability and quality of data, conceptual basis, communicability, relevancy to management) were implemented to identify practical food-web indicators ready for operational use and indicators...... that hold promise for future use in policy and management. The major attributes of the final suite of operational food-web indicators were structure and functioning. Indicators that represent resilience of the marine ecosystem were less developed. Over 60 potential food-web indicators were evaluated...

  18. Identifying critical thinking indicators and critical thinker attributes in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Chang; Clark, Mary Jo; Tan, Jung-Ying

    2013-09-01

    Critical thinking is an essential skill in the nursing process. Although several studies have evaluated the critical thinking skills of nurses, there is limited information related to the indicators of critical thinking or evaluation of critical thinking in the context of the nursing process. This study investigated the potential indicators of critical thinking and the attributes of critical thinkers in clinical nursing practice. Knowledge of these indicators can aid the development of tools to assess nursing students' critical thinking skills. The study was conducted between September 2009 and August 2010. In phase 1, a literature review and four focus groups were conducted to identify the indicators of critical thinking in the context of nursing and the attributes of critical thinkers. In phase 2, 30 nursing professionals participated in a modified Delphi research survey to establish consensus and the appropriateness of each indicator and attribute identified in phase 1. We identified 37 indicators of critical thinking and 10 attributes of critical thinkers. The indicators were categorized into five subscales within the context of the nursing process toreflect nursing clinical practice: assessment, 16 indicators of ability to apply professional knowledge and skills to analyze and interpret patient problems; diagnosis, five indicators of ability to propose preliminary suppositions; planning, five indicators of ability to develop problem-solving strategies; implementation, five indicators of ability to implement planning; and evaluation, six indicators of ability to self-assess and reflect. The study operationalized critical thinking into a practical indicator suitable for nursing contexts in which critical thinking is required for clinical problem solving. Identified indicators and attributes can assist clinical instructors to evaluate student critical thought skills and development-related teaching strategies.

  19. Identifying key performance indicators for nursing and midwifery care using a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCance, Tanya; Telford, Lorna; Wilson, Julie; Macleod, Olive; Dowd, Audrey

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain consensus on key performance indicators that are appropriate and relevant for nursing and midwifery practice in the current policy context. There is continuing demand to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency in health and social care and to communicate this at boardroom level. Whilst there is substantial literature on the use of clinical indicators and nursing metrics, there is less evidence relating to indicators that reflect the patient experience. A consensus approach was used to identify relevant key performance indicators. A nominal group technique was used comprising two stages: a workshop involving all grades of nursing and midwifery staff in two HSC trusts in Northern Ireland (n = 50); followed by a regional Consensus Conference (n = 80). During the workshop, potential key performance indicators were identified. This was used as the basis for the Consensus Conference, which involved two rounds of consensus. Analysis was based on aggregated scores that were then ranked. Stage one identified 38 potential indicators and stage two prioritised the eight top-ranked indicators as a core set for nursing and midwifery. The relevance and appropriateness of these indicators were confirmed with nurses and midwives working in a range of settings and from the perspective of service users. The eight indicators identified do not conform to the majority of other nursing metrics generally reported in the literature. Furthermore, they are strategically aligned to work on the patient experience and are reflective of the fundamentals of nursing and midwifery practice, with the focus on person-centred care. Nurses and midwives have a significant contribution to make in determining the extent to which these indicators are achieved in practice. Furthermore, measurement of such indicators provides an opportunity to evidence of the unique impact of nursing/midwifery care on the patient experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  1. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  2. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  3. Identifying and prioritizing the indicators of talent management in recruiting radiology technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegheh Hosseinzadeh Nojedeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was identifying and prioritizing the indicators of talent management in recruiting the radiology technicians. The sample for the study was drawn randomly from all managers and personnel of the radiology sector in Ardabil public hospitals. Shannon entropy was applied to weighted criteria. In the next stage, for ranking the indicators of talent management, we employed multi-criteria decision-making techniques of TOPSIS method. Eight indicators were identified and prioritized using the TOPSIS method. These indicators are interest, commitment, skill, specialized knowledge, intelligence, the ability to solve the problem or issue, proper treatment with patient, and relationships with colleagues. The findings indicated that recruiting staff that do their work with love and are committed to the organization tend to be effective in improving hospital performance.

  4. Early Childhood Stuttering and Electrophysiological Indices of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies elicited by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations elicited greater negative amplitudes for the early time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 elicited by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes elicited by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in event-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as early as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672

  5. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  6. A Delphi Study to Identify Indicators of Poorly Managed Pain for Pediatric Postoperative and Procedural Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Twycross

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse health care events are injuries occurring as a result of patient care. Significant acute pain is often caused by medical and surgical procedures in children, and it has been argued that undermanaged pain should be considered to be an adverse event. Indicators are often used to identify other potential adverse events. There are currently no validated indicators for undertreated pediatric pain.

  7. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yulan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Li Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under the Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Yao Runming, E-mail: r.yao@reading.ac.u [School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: {yields}Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. {yields}The group AHP method for weighting indicators. {yields}Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  8. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yulan; Li Baizhan; Yao Runming

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: →Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. →The group AHP method for weighting indicators. →Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  9. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Liu, Hu-Chen; Huang, Jia

    2017-08-19

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that "accidents/adverse events", "nosocomial infection", ''incidents/errors", "number of operations/procedures" are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of "length of stay", "bed occupancy" and "financial measures" play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions.

  10. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  11. A multi-indicator approach for identifying shoreline sewage pollution hotspots adjacent to coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaya, Leilani M; Wiegner, Tracy N; Colbert, Steven L; Beets, James P; Carlson, Kaile'a M; Kramer, K Lindsey; Most, Rebecca; Couch, Courtney S

    2018-04-01

    Sewage pollution is contributing to the global decline of coral reefs. Identifying locations where it is entering waters near reefs is therefore a management priority. Our study documented shoreline sewage pollution hotspots in a coastal community with a fringing coral reef (Puakō, Hawai'i) using dye tracer studies, sewage indicator measurements, and a pollution scoring tool. Sewage reached shoreline waters within 9 h to 3 d. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were high and variable, and δ 15 N macroalgal values were indicative of sewage at many stations. Shoreline nutrient concentrations were two times higher than those in upland groundwater. Pollution hotspots were identified with a scoring tool using three sewage indicators. It confirmed known locations of sewage pollution from dye tracer studies. Our study highlights the need for a multi-indicator approach and scoring tool to identify sewage pollution hotspots. This approach will be useful for other coastal communities grappling with sewage pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced butyrylcholinesterase activity is an early indicator of trauma-induced acute systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic AR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Jochen Bender, Thorsten Brenner, Stefan Hofer,* Karsten Schmidt* Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Early diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome is fundamentally important for an effective and a goal-directed therapy. Various inflammation biomarkers have been used in clinical and experimental practice. However, a definitive diagnostic tool for an early detection of systemic inflammation remains to be identified. Acetylcholine (Ach has been shown to play an important role in the inflammatory response. Serum cholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] is the major Ach hydrolyzing enzyme in blood. The role of this enzyme during inflammation has not yet been fully understood. This study tests whether a reduction in the BChE activity could indicate the onset of the systemic inflammatory response upon traumatic injury. Patients and methods: This observational study measured BChE activity in patients with traumatic injury admitted to the emergency room by using point-of-care-test system (POCT. In addition, the levels of routine inflammation biomarkers during the initial treatment period were measured. Injury Severity Score was used to assess the trauma severity. Results: Altered BChE activity was correlated with trauma severity, resulting in systemic inflammation. Reduction in the BChE activity was detected significantly earlier compared to those of routinely measured inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusion: This study suggests that the BChE activity reduction might serve as an early indicator of acute systemic inflammation. Furthermore, BChE activity, measured using a POCT system, might play an important role in the early diagnosis of the trauma-induced systemic inflammation. Keywords: trauma, injury, early diagnostics, cholinergic, pseudocholinesterase, SIRS

  13. Power analysis as a tool to identify statistically informative indicators for monitoring coral reef disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Gilbert, Antoine; Guillemot, Nicolas; Heintz, Tom; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Extensive biological field surveys are costly and time consuming. To optimize sampling and ensure regular monitoring on the long term, identifying informative indicators of anthropogenic disturbances is a priority. In this study, we used 1800 candidate indicators by combining metrics measured from coral, fish, and macro-invertebrate assemblages surveyed from 2006 to 2012 in the vicinity of an ongoing mining project in the Voh-Koné-Pouembout lagoon, New Caledonia. We performed a power analysis to identify a subset of indicators which would best discriminate temporal changes due to a simulated chronic anthropogenic impact. Only 4% of tested indicators were likely to detect a 10% annual decrease of values with sufficient power (>0.80). Corals generally exerted higher statistical power than macro-invertebrates and fishes because of lower natural variability and higher occurrence. For the same reasons, higher taxonomic ranks provided higher power than lower taxonomic ranks. Nevertheless, a number of families of common sedentary or sessile macro-invertebrates and fishes also performed well in detecting changes: Echinometridae, Isognomidae, Muricidae, Tridacninae, Arcidae, and Turbinidae for macro-invertebrates and Pomacentridae, Labridae, and Chaetodontidae for fishes. Interestingly, these families did not provide high power in all geomorphological strata, suggesting that the ability of indicators in detecting anthropogenic impacts was closely linked to reef geomorphology. This study provides a first operational step toward identifying statistically relevant indicators of anthropogenic disturbances in New Caledonia's coral reefs, which can be useful in similar tropical reef ecosystems where little information is available regarding the responses of ecological indicators to anthropogenic disturbances.

  14. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Freya A V; Keane, Aidan M; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W; Jones, Julia P G

    2012-02-22

    Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour.

  15. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all poverweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  16. Liver Function Indicators Performed Better to Eliminate Cardioembolic Stroke than to Identify It from Stroke Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ge; Yuan, Ruozhen; Hao, Zilong; Lei, Chunyan; Xiong, Yao; Xu, Mangmang; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the etiology of ischemic stroke is essential to acute management and secondary prevention. The value of liver function indicators in differentiating stroke subtypes remains to be evaluated. A total of 1333 acute ischemic stroke patients were included. Liver function indicators collected within 24 hours from stroke onset, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BILI), were collapsed into quartiles (Q) and also dichotomized by Q1. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent association between liver function indicators and cardioembolic stroke (SCE). Area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted, and sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), positive prospective value (PPV), and negative prospective value (NPV) were determined to evaluate the predictive value of liver function indicators for SCE. AST, GGT, and BILI were associated with SCE. After adjustment, only AST was related to SCE independently. The incidence of SCE in the Q1 of AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly in the Q1 of AST, was quite low. The ability of AST, GGT, and BILI to identify SCE was poor, with low AUC, Sen, and PPV. The value of AST, GGT, and BILI in eliminating SCE from stroke subtypes was good, with high Spe and moderate NPV, and was enhanced after combining each liver function indicator. Results of present study demonstrated that AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly AST, had a potential to eliminate SCE from stroke subtypes, and the ability of eliminating SCE would be strengthened after combining each liver function indicator together. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Early Eocene equable climate problem: can perturbations of climate model parameters identify possible solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Navjit; Valdes, Paul; Flecker, Rachel; Gregoire, Lauren J

    2013-10-28

    Geological data for the Early Eocene (56-47.8 Ma) indicate extensive global warming, with very warm temperatures at both poles. However, despite numerous attempts to simulate this warmth, there are remarkable data-model differences in the prediction of these polar surface temperatures, resulting in the so-called 'equable climate problem'. In this paper, for the first time an ensemble with a perturbed climate-sensitive model parameters approach has been applied to modelling the Early Eocene climate. We performed more than 100 simulations with perturbed physics parameters, and identified two simulations that have an optimal fit with the proxy data. We have simulated the warmth of the Early Eocene at 560 ppmv CO2, which is a much lower CO2 level than many other models. We investigate the changes in atmospheric circulation, cloud properties and ocean circulation that are common to these simulations and how they differ from the remaining simulations in order to understand what mechanisms contribute to the polar warming. The parameter set from one of the optimal Early Eocene simulations also produces a favourable fit for the last glacial maximum boundary climate and outperforms the control parameter set for the present day. Although this does not 'prove' that this model is correct, it is very encouraging that there is a parameter set that creates a climate model able to simulate well very different palaeoclimates and the present-day climate. Interestingly, to achieve the great warmth of the Early Eocene this version of the model does not have a strong future climate change Charney climate sensitivity. It produces a Charney climate sensitivity of 2.7(°)C, whereas the mean value of the 18 models in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is 3.26(°)C±0.69(°)C. Thus, this value is within the range and below the mean of the models included in the AR4.

  18. Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kenchington

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores, and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here

  19. Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity in high content analysis: application of heterogeneity indices to drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H Gough

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

  20. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to

  1. Identifying Features of Bodily Expression As Indicators of Emotional Experience during Multimedia Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Riemer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emotions experienced by learners during their interaction with multimedia learning systems, such as serious games, underscores the need to identify sources of information that allow the recognition of learners’ emotional experience without interrupting the learning process. Bodily expression is gaining in attention as one of these sources of information. However, to date, the question of how bodily expression can convey different emotions has largely been addressed in research relying on acted emotion displays. Following a more contextualized approach, the present study aims to identify features of bodily expression (i.e., posture and activity of the upper body and the head that relate to genuine emotional experience during interaction with a serious game. In a multimethod approach, 70 undergraduates played a serious game relating to financial education while their bodily expression was captured using an off-the-shelf depth-image sensor (Microsoft Kinect. In addition, self-reports of experienced enjoyment, boredom, and frustration were collected repeatedly during gameplay, to address the dynamic changes in emotions occurring in educational tasks. Results showed that, firstly, the intensities of all emotions indeed changed significantly over the course of the game. Secondly, by using generalized estimating equations, distinct features of bodily expression could be identified as significant indicators for each emotion under investigation. A participant keeping their head more turned to the right was positively related to frustration being experienced, whereas keeping their head more turned to the left was positively related to enjoyment. Furthermore, having their upper body positioned more closely to the gaming screen was also positively related to frustration. Finally, increased activity of a participant’s head emerged as a significant indicator of boredom being experienced. These results confirm the value of bodily

  2. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  3. Indicators of ecosystem function identify alternate states in the sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, Emily; Rocca, Monique E; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    Models of ecosystem change that incorporate nonlinear dynamics and thresholds, such as state-and-transition models (STMs), are increasingly popular tools for land management decision-making. However, few models are based on systematic collection and documentation of ecological data, and of these, most rely solely on structural indicators (species composition) to identify states and transitions. As STMs are adopted as an assessment framework throughout the United States, finding effective and efficient ways to create data-driven models that integrate ecosystem function and structure is vital. This study aims to (1) evaluate the utility of functional indicators (indicators of rangeland health, IRH) as proxies for more difficult ecosystem function measurements and (2) create a data-driven STM for the sagebrush steppe of Colorado, USA, that incorporates both ecosystem structure and function. We sampled soils, plant communities, and IRH at 41 plots with similar clayey soils but different site histories to identify potential states and infer the effects of management practices and disturbances on transitions. We found that many IRH were correlated with quantitative measures of functional indicators, suggesting that the IRH can be used to approximate ecosystem function. In addition to a reference state that functions as expected for this soil type, we identified four biotically and functionally distinct potential states, consistent with the theoretical concept of alternate states. Three potential states were related to management practices (chemical and mechanical shrub treatments and seeding history) while one was related only to ecosystem processes (erosion). IRH and potential states were also related to environmental variation (slope, soil texture), suggesting that there are environmental factors within areas with similar soils that affect ecosystem dynamics and should be noted within STMs. Our approach generated an objective, data-driven model of ecosystem dynamics

  4. IDENTIFYING BRAȘOV COUNTY’S TOURISTIC VISITORS’ PROFILE USING EUROPEAN TOURISM INDICATORS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghita Dinca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for sustainable development of regions is a current topic that concern both local authorities and academic experts, as demonstrated by this paper through case study in Brașov County, one of Romania’s main tourist regions. This paper is based on a research project meant to develop an original testing technique of European Tourism Indicators System of Sustainable Destinations (ETIS for Brașov County. The paper presents the results of a market survey carried out on a sample of 1,119 visitors and meant to identify travel characteristics of tourists from

  5. Identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khalilazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this research is identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations. According to widespread permeation of technology, especially social media in different organizational dimensions and functional view to this phenomenon in knowledge management, performance measurement of this kind of media in order to meet organizational goals seems necessary. KM2.0 key performance indicators in this article has been identified and weighted through Delphi methodology, via questionnaire in three rounds. KM2.0 KPIs which are identified and weighted in this article are applicable in organizations that are eager to implement KM2.0 initiative and they can measure the performance of KM2.0 activities therefore this research is applicable in goal oriented approach. According to the results, KM2.0 participation process consists of 3 stages and 8 steps as mentioned below: First stage which is presence, consists of 3 steps which are registration, visit and download. Second stage which is feedback consists of 3 steps which are conversation, applause and amplification. Finally, third stage which is creation consists of 2 steps which are codification and personalization. Ultimate contribution of this research is identifying and weighting KPIs of KM2.0 in conceptual framework of KM2.0. Based on developing a conceptual framework and participation process in KM2.0 and listing related KPIs as an applicable solution in order to measure and improve the performance of organizational social media, this research has unique innovation among related and other articles.

  6. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  7. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhyun Kang

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC, whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes and AGCs (3104 genes. A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010. The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  8. Why was this transfusion given? Identifying clinical indications for blood transfusion in health care data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hoeven LR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Loan R van Hoeven,1,2 Aukje L Kreuger,3,4 Kit CB Roes,1 Peter F Kemper,2,4 Hendrik Koffijberg,5 Floris J Kranenburg,3,4,6 Jan MM Rondeel,7 Mart P Janssen1,2 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Transfusion Technology Assessment Department, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 4Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands; 5Department of Health Technology & Services Research, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 6Department of Intensive Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 7Department of Clinical Chemistry, Isala, Zwolle, the Netherlands Background: To enhance the utility of transfusion data for research, ideally every transfusion should be linked to a primary clinical indication. In electronic patient records, many diagnostic and procedural codes are registered, but unfortunately, it is usually not specified which one is the reason for transfusion. Therefore, a method is needed to determine the most likely indication for transfusion in an automated way.Study design and methods: An algorithm to identify the most likely transfusion indication was developed and evaluated against a gold standard based on the review of medical records for 234 cases by 2 experts. In a second step, information on misclassification was used to fine-tune the initial algorithm. The adapted algorithm predicts, out of all data available, the most likely indication for transfusion using information on medical specialism, surgical procedures, and diagnosis and procedure dates relative to the transfusion date.Results: The adapted algorithm was able to predict 74.4% of indications in the sample correctly (extrapolated to the full data set 75.5%. A kappa

  9. Performing drought indices to identify the relationship between agricultural losses and drought events in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Gallardo, Marina; Serrano, Sergio Martín Vicente; Portugués Santiago, Beguería; Burguera Miquel, Tomás

    2017-04-01

    Drought leads to crop failures reducing the productivity. For this reason, the need of appropriate tool for recognize dry periods and evaluate the impact of drought on crop production is important. In this study, we provide an assessment of the relationship between drought episodes and crop failures in Spain as one of the direct consequences of drought is the diminishing of crop yields. First, different drought indices [the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI); the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); the self-calibrated Palmer Moisture Anomaly Index (Z-Index), the self-calibrated Crop Moisture Index (CMI) and the Standardized Palmer Drought Index (SPDI)] have been calculated at different time scales in order to identify the dry events occurred in Spain and determine the duration and intensity of each event. Second, the drought episodes have been correlated with crop production estimated and final crop production data provided by the Spanish Crop Insurance System for the available period from 1995 to 2014 at the municipal spatial scale, with the purpose of knowing if the characteristics of the drought episodes are reflected on the agricultural losses. The analysis has been carried out in particular for two types of crop, wheat and barley. The results indicate the existence of an agreement between the most important drought events in Spain and the response of the crop productions and the proportion of hectare insurance. Nevertheless, this agreement vary depending on the drought index applied. Authors found a higher competence of the drought indices calculated at different time scales (SPEI, SPI and SPDI) identifying the begging and end of the drought events and the correspondence with the crop failures.

  10. The use of citation indicators to identify and support high-quality research in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    In large, mostly English-speaking countries, where the "critical mass" of scientists working in different subfields of science is achieved, the peer review system may be sufficient to assess the quality of scientific research. However, in smaller countries, outside the Anglo-American circle, it is important to introduce different systems to identify research of high quality. In Poland, a parametric system for assessing the quality of research has been introduced. It was largely based on the impact factor of scientific journals. While the use of this indicator to assess research quality is highly questionable, the implementation of the system in the Polish reality is even worse. Therefore it is important to change and improve the system currently used by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education to both evaluate and, more importantly, finance science in Poland. Here, a system based on three factors, i.e. the impact factor, the institutional h-index, and the institutional number of citations, is proposed. The scientific quality of institutions in Division VI: Medical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences were evaluated and the results were compared with the existing system. Moreover, a method to identify high-quality researchers and institutions at the national level based on the quantity of highly cited papers is shown. Additionally, an attempt to identify the highest quality Polish research on an international level is proposed. This is based on the number of individual citations, the individual h-index, the number of publications, and the priority of the discovery.

  11. Parallel ICA identifies sub-components of resting state networks that covary with behavioral indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Wildenberg, Joseph C; Liu, Jingyu; Chen, Jiayu; Calhoun, Vince D; Biswal, Bharat B; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Parallel Independent Component Analysis (para-ICA) is a multivariate method that can identify complex relationships between different data modalities by simultaneously performing Independent Component Analysis on each data set while finding mutual information between the two data sets. We use para-ICA to test the hypothesis that spatial sub-components of common resting state networks (RSNs) covary with specific behavioral measures. Resting state scans and a battery of behavioral indices were collected from 24 younger adults. Group ICA was performed and common RSNs were identified by spatial correlation to publically available templates. Nine RSNs were identified and para-ICA was run on each network with a matrix of behavioral measures serving as the second data type. Five networks had spatial sub-components that significantly correlated with behavioral components. These included a sub-component of the temporo-parietal attention network that differentially covaried with different trial-types of a sustained attention task, sub-components of default mode networks that covaried with attention and working memory tasks, and a sub-component of the bilateral frontal network that split the left inferior frontal gyrus into three clusters according to its cytoarchitecture that differentially covaried with working memory performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the validity of para-ICA in cases with unbalanced dimensions using simulated data.

  12. Prognostic indicators for early mortality after tracheostomy in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsikia, Afshin; Goodwin, Matthew; Wells, Zachary; Gauthier, Zoe; Bascom, Molli; Suh, Moon; Meloro, Beth; Ortiz, Jorge; Joshi, Amit R T

    2016-11-01

    Tracheostomy is indicated for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic indicators for early mortality after tracheostomy to potentially avoid futility in the intensive care unit. Patients who underwent tracheostomy and died within 30 d of admission (futile group) were compared with patients who underwent tracheostomy and survived more than 30 d after admission (nonfutile group). Categorical data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Continuous variables were analyzed using T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Prognostic factors were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Overall, 88.3% of patients underwent nonfutile tracheostomy, while 11.7% underwent futile tracheostomy. Serum albumin level (1.5 g/dL versus 1.9 g/dL, P = 0.040) and mechanical ventilation duration before procedure (10 versus 12 d, P = 0.029) were significantly less in the futile group. Hypoalbuminemia (tracheostomy in multivariable analysis. Hypoalbuminemia may serve as a prognostic indicator and risk factor for early mortality after tracheostomy. In patients with hypoalbuminemia, treatment of underlying disease processes and trending serum albumin level recovery in response to treatment may provide some insight to clinicians with regard to timing of tracheostomy. Better prognostic tools are still needed for critically ill patients to avoid futility in the intensive care unit. In this cohort, 88.3% of patients undergoing tracheostomy survived past 30 d. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pluripotent cell models of fanconi anemia identify the early pathological defect in human hemoangiogenic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoya M; Niwa, Akira; Yabe, Miharu; Hira, Asuka; Okada, Chihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Heike, Toshio; Takata, Minoru; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Saito, Megumu K

    2015-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of genomic instability characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. Although various consequences in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have been attributed to FA-BMF, the quest to identify the initial pathological event is still ongoing. To address this issue, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of six patients with FA and FANCA mutations. An improved reprogramming method yielded iPSC-like colonies from all patients, and iPSC clones were propagated from two patients. Quantitative evaluation of the differentiation ability demonstrated that the differentiation propensity toward the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages is already defective in early hemoangiogenic progenitors. The expression levels of critical transcription factors were significantly downregulated in these progenitors. These data indicate that the hematopoietic consequences in FA patients originate from the early hematopoietic stage and highlight the potential usefulness of iPSC technology for elucidating the pathogenesis of FA-BMF. ©AlphaMed Press.

  14. Early Warning Indicators for Population-Based Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance in 6 African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Hamers, Raph L.; Menke, Jack; Labib, Moheb; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Kityo, Cissy; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Geskus, Ronald B.; Stevens, Wendy S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing are not routinely available for therapeutic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. World Health Organization HIVDR early warning indicators (EWIs) assess ART

  15. Banking, debt, and currency crises in developed countries: stylized facts and early warning indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, December (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crises * developed countries * early warning indicators Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  16. Banking, debt, and currency crises in developed countries: stylized facts and early warning indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, December (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crises * developed countries * early warning indicators Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  17. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  18. Identifying and Structuring Values to Guide the Choice of Sustainability Indicators for Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Alcántara Maya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, the National Trust for Tourism Promotion (FONATUR needs to lead development of Integrally Planned Tourist Centers (IPC towards sustainability. As the development of these IPCs leads to changes in local communities and their environment, it is necessary to define how to establish a path towards sustainability and how to measure progress towards that goal. The objective of this study is to contribute toward identifying the main stakeholder’s values, defining sustainability indicators at a local level, and to discuss their adequacy in the context of tourism development. The study was performed in a Mexican community facing its probable inclusion in tourism development and special attention was given to the values of stakeholders in defining which objectives to monitor. Using Value-Focused Thinking as a framework, a series of interviews were analyzed and the opinions were organized in a tree of values, encompassing environmental, economic, social and political/institutional aspects. A set of indicators associated with these objectives was subsequently proposed. This information may serve as a guide to design and monitor plans that are more appealing from a sustainability perspective and as an aid in the identification of future information needs.

  19. Research advances in indicators for early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Lifang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver is closely associated with the kidney, and liver injury in various stages can cause various kidney diseases to varying degrees, which further lead to renal impairment. Such renal impairment in the early stage is often functional and can be reversed by drugs, otherwise it can progress to hepatorenal syndrome, cause acute renal failure, and even threaten human life. The indicators such as serum creatinine and urea nitrogen have a limited effect in the early diagnosis of renal impairment and cannot be used for early monitoring and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment. Therefore, early monitoring of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment has always been a hot topic in this field. This article summarizes the research advances in the indicators for early diagnosis of renal impairment.

  20. Identifying intestinal malrotation on magnetic resonance examinations ordered for unrelated indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Jill S.; Chernyak, Victoria; Taragin, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical imaging findings indicating normal bowel rotation can be identified on cross-sectional imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for non-related indications. The goal of our study was to assess whether non-targeted MRI can accurately assess intestinal malrotation. Four anatomical landmarks were assessed on MRIs of the chest, spine or abdomen performed from January 2006 to June 2014, on patients who also had upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) performed within 10 years of the MRI date: 1) retroperitoneal duodenum, 2) left upper quadrant duodenojejunal junction, 3) superior mesenteric artery to the left of the superior mesenteric vein, and 4) right lower quadrant cecum. Two attending radiologists, one pediatric and one abdominal radiologist, independently reviewed the MR images. The pediatric radiologist reviewed images from UGI (considered the gold standard) to determine the intestinal rotation for each case. Validation of the criteria was performed on new patients imaged through January 2016. The original cohort included 109 MRIs (15 chest, 41 spine and 53 abdomen) done on 109 patients (42% males, mean age: 10.2 years). If each of the 4 anatomical questions were answered ''yes'' (4-YES), specificity was 100% for each radiologist and malrotation was appropriately excluded. Using the 4-YES criteria, the pediatric radiologist excluded malrotation in 71 patients (65%) and the abdominal radiologist excluded it in 65 (60%), with concurrence for 57 patients. Validation of the 4-YES criteria in 23 new patients appropriately proved the 4-YES rule, with neither labeling the one new malrotation case 4-YES. If a radiologist can confidently answer ''yes'' to the four questions evaluated in this study, then intestinal rotation can be safely considered normal. Normal bowel rotation should be commented upon in MRI reports when these four anatomical locations are imaged, thus helping patients avoid unnecessary

  1. Identifying intestinal malrotation on magnetic resonance examinations ordered for unrelated indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, Jill S.; Chernyak, Victoria; Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Anatomical imaging findings indicating normal bowel rotation can be identified on cross-sectional imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for non-related indications. The goal of our study was to assess whether non-targeted MRI can accurately assess intestinal malrotation. Four anatomical landmarks were assessed on MRIs of the chest, spine or abdomen performed from January 2006 to June 2014, on patients who also had upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) performed within 10 years of the MRI date: 1) retroperitoneal duodenum, 2) left upper quadrant duodenojejunal junction, 3) superior mesenteric artery to the left of the superior mesenteric vein, and 4) right lower quadrant cecum. Two attending radiologists, one pediatric and one abdominal radiologist, independently reviewed the MR images. The pediatric radiologist reviewed images from UGI (considered the gold standard) to determine the intestinal rotation for each case. Validation of the criteria was performed on new patients imaged through January 2016. The original cohort included 109 MRIs (15 chest, 41 spine and 53 abdomen) done on 109 patients (42% males, mean age: 10.2 years). If each of the 4 anatomical questions were answered ''yes'' (4-YES), specificity was 100% for each radiologist and malrotation was appropriately excluded. Using the 4-YES criteria, the pediatric radiologist excluded malrotation in 71 patients (65%) and the abdominal radiologist excluded it in 65 (60%), with concurrence for 57 patients. Validation of the 4-YES criteria in 23 new patients appropriately proved the 4-YES rule, with neither labeling the one new malrotation case 4-YES. If a radiologist can confidently answer ''yes'' to the four questions evaluated in this study, then intestinal rotation can be safely considered normal. Normal bowel rotation should be commented upon in MRI reports when these four anatomical locations are imaged, thus helping patients avoid unnecessary

  2. Indicators of financial crises do work! : an early-warning system for six Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, [No Value; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2003-01-01

    Indicators of financial crisis generally do not have a good track record. This paper presents an early warning system for six countries in Asia, in which indicators do work.We distinguish three types of financial crises, currency crises, banking crises and debt crises, and extract four groups of

  3. New Tools to Identify the Location of Seagrass Meadows: Marine Grazers as Habitat Indicators

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2018-02-21

    Seagrasses are hugely valuable to human life, but the global extent of seagrass meadows remains unclear. As evidence of their value, a United Nations program exists (http://data.unep-wcmc.org/datasets/7) to try and assess their distribution and there has been a call from 122 scientists across 28 countries for more work to manage, protect and monitor seagrass meadows (http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37606827). Emerging from the 12th International Seagrass Biology Workshop, held in October 2016, has been the view that grazing marine megafauna may play a useful role in helping to identify previously unknown seagrass habitats. Here we describe this concept, showing how detailed information on the distribution of both dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) obtained, for example, by aerial surveys and satellite tracking, can reveal new information on the location of seagrass meadows. We show examples of how marine megaherbivores have been effective habitat indicators, revealing major, new, deep-water seagrass meadows and offering the potential for more informed estimates of seagrass extent in tropical and sub-tropical regions where current information is often lacking.

  4. The impact of indicated prevention and early intervention on co-morbid eating disorder and depressive symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.

  5. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, G.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Zanten, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Schoonhoven, L.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning

  6. Intraoperative radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer: potential indications and evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A M

    2015-01-01

    Following early results of recent studies of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early breast cancer, the clinical utility of IORT is a subject of much recent debate within the breast oncology community. This review describes the intraoperative techniques available, the potential indications and the evidence to date pertaining to local control and toxicity. We also discuss any implications for current practice and future research. PMID:25734489

  7. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-15

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Selection Patterns of College Roommates as Identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchors, W. Scott; Hale, John, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated patterns and processes by which students (N=422) made unassisted roommate pairings within residence halls using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results indicated introverts, intuitives, feelers, and perceivers each tended to self-select. (BL)

  9. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    , three transcripts directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced in the metal treatments at 2 weeks and were further up-regulated at 4 weeks. Overall, correlation of tissue concentrations and gene expression responses indicates that as mussels accumulate higher concentrations of metals, initial stress responses are mobilized to protect tissues. However, given the role of UPR in apoptosis, it serves as an early indicator of stress, which once overwhelmed will result in adverse physiological effects.

  10. The importance of retesting the hearing screening as an indicator of the real early hearing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polo Camargo da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of hearing loss minimizes its impact on child development. We studied factors that influence the effectiveness of screening programs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between gender, weight at birth, gestational age, risk factors for hearing loss, venue for newborn hearing screening and "pass" and "fail" results in the retest.METHODS: Prospective cohort study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital. The screening was performed in 565 newborns through transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in three admission units before hospital discharge and retest in the outpatient clinic. Gender, weight at birth, gestational age, presence of risk indicators for hearing loss and venue for newborn hearing screening were considered.RESULTS: Full-term infants comprised 86% of the cases, preterm 14%, and risk factors for hearing loss were identified in 11%. Considering the 165 newborns retested, only the venue for screening, Intermediate Care Unit, was related to "fail" result in the retest.CONCLUSIONS: Gender, weight at birth, gestational age and presence of risk factors for hearing loss were not related to "pass" and/or "fail" results in the retest. The screening performed in intermediate care units increases the chance of continued "fail" result in the Transient Otoacoustic Evoked Emissions test.

  11. Identifying future research directions for biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability : perspectives from early-career researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, S.; Pogue, S.J.; Trenchard, L.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.; Washbourne, C-L.; Muiruri, E.W.; Tomczyk, A.M.; García-Llorente, M.; Hale, R.; Hevia, V.; Adams, T.; Tavallali, L.; De, Bell S.; Pye, M.; Resende, F.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify priority research questions in the field of biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability (BESS), based on a workshop held during the NRG BESS Conference for Early Career Researchers on BESS, and to compare these to existing horizon scanning exercises. This work highlights

  12. Indications for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of abdominal CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishoku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1986-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 39 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the indications for surgery and infection as an aggravating factor in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades: severe (CT score ≥ 6; surgical therapy), moderate (CT score = 5, 4; medical therapy possible), and mild (CT score ≤ 3; medical therapy) as determined by CT. Emergency surgery was performed in seven of 10 patients in whom pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of the three patients without infection were relieved. The extent of inflammatory lesions of severe pancreatitis was severe by CT, and the CT scores were especially high in cases with infection. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be an serious aggravating factor. It was concluded, therefore, that, in the early stage, CT was very useful as a helpful guide to early judgement and an indicator for emergency surgery. (author)

  13. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation is a cornerstone of systematic conservation planning. However, biodiversity, or even the distribution of all species, cannot be directly quantified, due to the inherent complexity of natural systems. Species indicator groups may...... serve as important tools for the identification of priority areas for conservation. Yet, it is unclear which factors make certain indicator groups perform better than others. In this study, using data on the Danish distribution of 847 species of plants, vertebrates and insects, we assessed whether...... the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  14. Early decision indicators for foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graeme Garner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disease managers face many challenges when deciding on the most effective control strategy to manage an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD. Decisions have to be made under conditions of uncertainty and where the situation is continually evolving. In addition, resources for control are often limited. A modelling study was carried out to identify characteristics measurable during the early phase of a FMD outbreak that might be useful as predictors of the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The study involved two modelling platforms in two countries (Australia and New Zealand and encompassed a large number of incursion scenarios. Linear regression, classification and regression tree and boosted regression tree analyses were used to quantify the predictive value of a set of parameters on three outcome variables of interest: the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The number of infected premises, number of pending culls, area under control, estimated dissemination ratio, and cattle density around the index herd at days 7, 14 and 21 following first detection were associated with each of the outcome variables. Regression models for the size of the area under control had the highest predictive value (R2 = 0.51-0.9 followed by the number of infected premises (R2 = 0.3-0.75 and outbreak duration (R2 = 0.28-0.57. Predictability improved at later time points in the outbreak. Predictive regression models using various cut-points at day 14 to define small and large outbreaks had positive predictive values of 0.85‒0.98 and negative predictive values of 0.52‒0.91, with 79‒97% of outbreaks correctly classified. On the strict assumption that each of the simulation models used in this study provide a realistic indication of the spread of FMD in animal populations our conclusion is that relatively simple metrics available early in a control program can be

  15. Identifying individual changes in performance with composite quality indicators while accounting for regression to the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Byron J; Dunton, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Almost a decade ago Morton and Torgerson indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to "regression to the mean." Despite this caution, the regression to the mean "effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth" (Jones and Spiegelhalter). As a response, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression to the mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one-variable quality indicators. Therefore, in our view, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual quality indicators into a composite score. Our question is, can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the "regression to the mean" literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on 4 indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. A simulation study further demonstrates its "proof of concept."

  16. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fordyce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. METHODOLOGY: Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. CONCLUSIONS: The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  17. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, James A

    2010-07-23

    Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  18. Network based early warning indicators of vegetation changes in a land–atmosphere model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.; Dekker, S.C.; Rietkerk, M.; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Numerous model studies demonstrate that ecosystems might not shift smoothly with a gradual change in resource concentration. At specific points, vegetation can suddenly shift from one stable state to another. To predict such undesirable shifts, statistical indicators are proposed for early

  19. The Utility of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in Predicting Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Julie M. Young

    2010-01-01

    Reading proficiency is the goal of many local and national reading initiatives. A key component of these initiatives is accurate and reliable reading assessment. In this high-stakes testing arena, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) has emerged as a preferred measure for identification of students at risk for reading…

  20. Identifying differences in early literacy skills across subgroups of language-minority children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Goodrich, J Marc; Farver, JoAnn M

    2018-04-01

    Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Identifying key performance indicators in food technology contract R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, S.M.; Sanden, van der M.C.A.; Velden, van der T.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.; Osseweijer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Innovating companies increasingly rely on outsourcing to Contract Research Organisations (CROs) for their Research and Development (R&D), which are largely understudied. This paper presents the outcome of a case study in the field of food technology contract research, identifying context

  2. The geometric preference subtype in ASD: identifying a consistent, early-emerging phenomenon through eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrienne; Wozniak, Madeline; Yousef, Andrew; Barnes, Cindy Carter; Cha, Debra; Courchesne, Eric; Pierce, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The wide range of ability and disability in ASD creates a need for tools that parse the phenotypic heterogeneity into meaningful subtypes. Using eye tracking, our past studies revealed that when presented with social and geometric images, a subset of ASD toddlers preferred viewing geometric images, and these toddlers also had greater symptom severity than ASD toddlers with greater social attention. This study tests whether this "GeoPref test" effect would generalize across different social stimuli. Two hundred and twenty-seven toddlers (76 ASD) watched a 90-s video, the Complex Social GeoPref test, of dynamic geometric images paired with social images of children interacting and moving. Proportion of visual fixation time and number of saccades per second to both images were calculated. To allow for cross-paradigm comparisons, a subset of 126 toddlers also participated in the original GeoPref test. Measures of cognitive and social functioning (MSEL, ADOS, VABS) were collected and related to eye tracking data. To examine utility as a diagnostic indicator to detect ASD toddlers, validation statistics (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, ROC, AUC) were calculated for the Complex Social GeoPref test alone and when combined with the original GeoPref test. ASD toddlers spent a significantly greater amount of time viewing geometric images than any other diagnostic group. Fixation patterns from ASD toddlers who participated in both tests revealed a significant correlation, supporting the idea that these tests identify a phenotypically meaningful ASD subgroup. Combined use of both original and Complex Social GeoPref tests identified a subgroup of about 1 in 3 ASD toddlers from the "GeoPref" subtype (sensitivity 35%, specificity 94%, AUC 0.75.) Replicating our previous studies, more time looking at geometric images was associated with significantly greater ADOS symptom severity. Regardless of the complexity of the social images used (low in the original GeoPref test vs high in

  3. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identifying Important Career Indicators of Undergraduate Geoscience Students Upon Completion of Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2012-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through

  5. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Gooske; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; van Zanten, Arthur R H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning Score levels not reaching this point. Dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score comprises nine indicators underlying nurses' 'worry' about a patient's condition. All indicators independently show significant association with unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality. Prediction of this outcome improved by adding the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators to an Early Warning Score based on vital signs. An observational cohort study was conducted on three surgical wards in a tertiary university-affiliated teaching hospital. Included were surgical, native-speaking, adult patients. Nurses scored presence of 'worry' and/or dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators every shift or when worried. Vital signs were measured according to the prevailing protocol. Unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality was the composite endpoint. Percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators were calculated at various Early Warning Score levels in control and event groups. Entering all dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators in a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated a weighted score and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value and negative predicted value for each possible total score. In 3522 patients, 102 (2·9%) had an unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admissions (n = 97) or unexpected mortality (n = 5). Patients with such events and only slightly changed vital signs had significantly higher percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators expressed than patients in the control group. Increasing number

  6. Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Identify Quality in Use (QU) Indicators from User Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Syn, Wendy Tan Wei; How, Bong Chih; Atoum, Issa

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a novel approach to categorize users' reviews according to the three Quality in Use (QU) indicators defined in ISO: effectiveness, efficiency and freedom from risk. With the tremendous amount of reviews published each day, there is a need to automatically summarize user reviews to inform us if any of the software able to meet requirement of a company according to the quality requirements. We implemented the method of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and its subspace to predi...

  7. Identifying future research directions for biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability: perspectives from early-career researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, S.; Pogue, S.J.; Trenchard, L.; Oudenhoven, van, A.P.E.; Washbourne, C-L.; Muiruri, E.W.; Tomczyk, A.M.; García-Llorente, M.; Hale, R.; Hevia, V.; Adams, T.; Tavallali, L.; De, Bell S.; Pye, M.; Resende, F.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify priority research questions in the field of biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainability (BESS), based on a workshop held during the NRG BESS Conference for Early Career Researchers on BESS, and to compare these to existing horizon scanning exercises. This work highlights the need for improved data availability through collaboration and knowledge exchange, which, in turn, can support the integrated valuation and sustainable management of ecosystems in response to g...

  8. Value of platelet indices in identifying complete resolution of thrombus in deep venous thrombosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevuk, Utkan; Altindag, Rojhat; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Ay, Nurettin; Demirtas, Ertan; Ayaz, Fırat

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are helpful to identify complete thrombus resolution (CTR) after acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Patients who had first-time episode of acute proximal DVT were included in this retrospective study. 100 patients with DVT were divided into two groups according to absence (group 1; n = 68) or presence (group 2; n = 32) of CTR on doppler ultrasonography at month 6. There were no significant difference in admission MPV and PDW levels between group 1 and group 2. MPV (p = 0.03) and PDW (p venous thrombosis in DVT patients. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a 8.4 % decrease in admission MPV at month 6 provided 62 % sensitivity and 62 % specificity (AUC: 0.64) and a 15.4 % decrease in admission PDW at month 6 provided 87 % sensitivity and 94 % specificity (AUC: 0.89) for prediction of CTR in DVT patients. Percent change in admission MPV and PDW levels at month 6 may be used to identify the patients with CTR after a first episode of acute proximal DVT.

  9. Strength-based well-being indicators for Indigenous children and families: A literature review of Indigenous communities' identified well-being indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings.

  10. Key goals and indicators for successful aging of adults with early-onset disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and independence. However, indicators suggest that elevated risk factors for aging-related chronic diseases, including smoking, obesity, and inactivity, as well as barriers to prevention and the diminished social and economic situation of adults with disabilities are continuing impediments to successful aging that must be addressed. Increased provider awareness that people with early-onset disabilities are aging and can age successfully and the integration of disability and aging services systems are transformative steps that will help adults with early-onset disability to age more successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Indication for and frequency of early orthodontic therapy or interceptive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The early treatment of nonskeletal and skeletal orthodontic anomalies in the deciduous and early mixed dentition is intended to prevent the development of pronounced anomalies in the late mixed and permanent dentition with the ultimate aim of reducing or even eliminating the need for later orthodontic treatment. There is a general consensus in the international literature that early therapy is indicated in cases of anterior and lateral crossbite and Class III malocclusion, and possibly for extreme forms of mandibular retrognathism (overjet > or =10 mm) and of open bite. However, evidence of the efficiency of early orthodontic measures is just as rare as studies providing serviceable information on the incidence of tooth malalignments and malocclusions in the deciduous and early mixed dentition, some of whose findings are in any case highly divergent. This makes it substantially more difficult to draw conclusions on the extent to which early orthodontic therapy may be indicated. In order to obtain information on the incidence of nonskeletal and skeletal orthodontic problems constituting a treatment need, 2326 first-year schoolchildren aged between 6 and 7 years were examined in Frankfurt am Main and in the Rural District of Offenbach. In only 14.7% of the children were no relevant orthodontic findings recorded. 77.2% displayed mild to severe dysgnathic symptoms, though without early orthodontic therapy being considered indicated. Treatment with orthodontic appliances was considered urgent for 187 of the children (8.04%). With 8.3% and 7.9% respectively, lateral and anterior crossbite were top of the list of anomalies with an urgent treatment need. Among the patients with lateral crossbite, the prognostically less favorable unilateral form was recorded approximately four times more often than the bilateral form. Markedly increased sagittal overjet > or =10 mm) was registered in only 1.4% of the children, and negative overjet (Class III) (with the exception of edge

  12. Developing a methodology for identifying correlations between LERF and early fatality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyung Min; Jae, Moo Sung; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2009-01-01

    The correlations between Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) and Early Fatality need to be investigated for risk-informed application and regulation. In RG-1.174, there are decision-making criteria using the measures of CDF and LERF, while there are no specific criteria on LERF. Since there are both huge uncertainty and large cost need in off-site consequence calculation, a LERF assessment methodology need to be developed and its correlation factor needs to be identified for risk-informed decision-making. This regards, the robust method for estimating off-site consequence has been performed for assessing health effects caused by radioisotopes released from severe accidents of nuclear power plants. And also, MACCS2 code are used for validating source term quantitatively regarding health effects depending on release characteristics of radioisotopes during severe accidents has been performed. This study developed a method for identifying correlations between LERF and Early Fatality and validates the results of the model using MACCS2 code. The results of this study may contribute to defining LERF and finding a measure for risk-informed regulations and risk-informed decision making

  13. Stability of the Associations between Early Life Risk Indicators and Adolescent Overweight over the Evolving Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight...... at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966) and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986). In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors......, maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year), and preschool BMI (age 2-5 years). We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (90) and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight...

  14. Poor Prognosis Indicated by Venous Circulating Tumor Cell Clusters in Early-Stage Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Reddy, Rishindra M; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Zhao, Lili; Ishikawa, Martin K; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Philip; Lynch, William R; Orringer, Mark B; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Beer, David G; Wicha, Max S; Ramnath, Nithya; Azizi, Ebrahim; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-09-15

    Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTC), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Because of the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared with preoperative Pe ( P ontology analysis revealed enrichment of cell migration and immune-related pathways in CTC clusters, suggesting survival advantage of clusters in circulation. Clusters display characteristics of therapeutic resistance, indicating the aggressive nature of these cells. Thus, CTCs isolated from early stages of lung cancer are predictive of poor prognosis and can be interrogated to determine biomarkers predictive of recurrence. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5194-206. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Karen E.

    1984-01-01

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  16. Are fish outside their usual ranges early indicators of climate-driven range shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Hannah E; Burrows, Michael T; Pecl, Gretta T; Robinson, Lucy M; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2017-05-01

    Shifts in species ranges are a global phenomenon, well known to occur in response to a changing climate. New species arriving in an area may become pest species, modify ecosystem structure, or represent challenges or opportunities for fisheries and recreation. Early detection of range shifts and prompt implementation of any appropriate management strategies is therefore crucial. This study investigates whether 'first sightings' of marine species outside their normal ranges could provide an early warning of impending climate-driven range shifts. We examine the relationships between first sightings and marine regions defined by patterns of local climate velocities (calculated on a 50-year timescale), while also considering the distribution of observational effort (i.e. number of sampling days recorded with biological observations in global databases). The marine trajectory regions include climate 'source' regions (areas lacking connections to warmer areas), 'corridor' regions (areas where moving isotherms converge), and 'sink' regions (areas where isotherms locally disappear). Additionally, we investigate the latitudinal band in which first sightings were recorded, and species' thermal affiliations. We found that first sightings are more likely to occur in climate sink and 'divergent' regions (areas where many rapid and diverging climate trajectories pass through) indicating a role of temperature in driving changes in marine species distributions. The majority of our fish first sightings appear to be tropical and subtropical species moving towards high latitudes, as would be expected in climate warming. Our results indicate that first sightings are likely related to longer-term climatic processes, and therefore have potential use to indicate likely climate-driven range shifts. The development of an approach to detect impending range shifts at an early stage will allow resource managers and researchers to better manage opportunities resulting from range

  17. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Early and Late Elementary Age Groupings (Grades 1-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  18. A Proteomic Approach Identifies Candidate Early Biomarkers to Predict Severe Dengue in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang My Nhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe dengue with severe plasma leakage (SD-SPL is the most frequent of dengue severe form. Plasma biomarkers for early predictive diagnosis of SD-SPL are required in the primary clinics for the prevention of dengue death.Among 63 confirmed dengue pediatric patients recruited, hospital based longitudinal study detected six SD-SPL and ten dengue with warning sign (DWS. To identify the specific proteins increased or decreased in the SD-SPL plasma obtained 6-48 hours before the shock compared with the DWS, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ technology was performed using four patients each group. Validation was undertaken in 6 SD-SPL and 10 DWS patients.Nineteen plasma proteins exhibited significantly different relative concentrations (p<0.05, with five over-expressed and fourteen under-expressed in SD-SPL compared with DWS. The individual protein was classified to either blood coagulation, vascular regulation, cellular transport-related processes or immune response. The immunoblot quantification showed angiotensinogen and antithrombin III significantly increased in SD-SPL whole plasma of early stage compared with DWS subjects. Even using this small number of samples, antithrombin III predicted SD-SPL before shock occurrence with accuracy.Proteins identified here may serve as candidate predictive markers to diagnose SD-SPL for timely clinical management. Since the number of subjects are small, so further studies are needed to confirm all these biomarkers.

  19. A combined sensitivity analysis and kriging surrogate modeling for early validation of health indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Benjamin; Mechbal, Nazih; Massé, Jean-Rémi

    2014-01-01

    To increase the dependability of complex systems, one solution is to assess their state of health continuously through the monitoring of variables sensitive to potential degradation modes. When computed in an operating environment, these variables, known as health indicators, are subject to many uncertainties. Hence, the stochastic nature of health assessment combined with the lack of data in design stages makes it difficult to evaluate the efficiency of a health indicator before the system enters into service. This paper introduces a method for early validation of health indicators during the design stages of a system development process. This method uses physics-based modeling and uncertainties propagation to create simulated stochastic data. However, because of the large number of parameters defining the model and its computation duration, the necessary runtime for uncertainties propagation is prohibitive. Thus, kriging is used to obtain low computation time estimations of the model outputs. Moreover, sensitivity analysis techniques are performed upstream to determine the hierarchization of the model parameters and to reduce the dimension of the input space. The validation is based on three types of numerical key performance indicators corresponding to the detection, identification and prognostic processes. After having introduced and formalized the framework of uncertain systems modeling and the different performance metrics, the issues of sensitivity analysis and surrogate modeling are addressed. The method is subsequently applied to the validation of a set of health indicators for the monitoring of an aircraft engine’s pumping unit

  20. Type II cytokeratin gene expression is indicative of early cell differentiation in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Embryonic development in vertebrates appears to involve a series of inductive tissue interactions that lead to regional specializations, which eventually become elaborated in the basic body plan of the embryo. The inductive interactions leading to early regionalization of the embryo are often particularly difficult to evaluate because of the absence of available morphological or biochemical evidence that such events have occurred. In the 36 hour chick embryo, the regional subdivision of the early ectoderm is evidence by a marked lens-forming bias in the head ectoderm, which is absent in the presumptive dorsal epidermis of the trunk region. As a strategy for isolating genes whose differential expression might reflect this regional subdivision, a cDNA library from 36 hour embryos was prepared and screened for differential hybridization to [ 32 P]cDNA probes synthesized using template RNA isolated from 36 hour head ectoderm and trunk ectoderm. A cDNA clone (T4) was isolated which hybridizes to transcripts present at much higher levels in trunk ectoderm than in head ectoderm. Partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of this clone indicate that it represents a gene encoding a type II cytokeratin. The distribution of transcripts complementary to the T4 probe was evaluated in early embryos using RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization to tissue sections

  1. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labe, Zachary; Ault, Toby; Zurita-Milla, Raul

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal transitions from winter to spring impact a wide variety of ecological and physical systems. While the effects of early springs across North America are widely documented, changes in their frequency and likelihood under the combined influences of climate change and natural variability are poorly understood. Extremely early springs, such as March 2012, can lead to severe economical losses and agricultural damage when these are followed by hard freeze events. Here we use the new Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project and Extended Spring Indices to simulate historical and future spring onsets across the United States and in the particular the Great Lakes region. We found a marked increase in the frequency of March 2012-like springs by midcentury in addition to an overall trend towards earlier spring onsets, which nearly doubles that of observational records. However, changes in the date of last freeze do not occur at the same rate, therefore, causing a potential increase in the threat of plant tissue damage. Although large-scale climate modes, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, have previously dominated decadal to multidecadal spring onset trends, our results indicate a decreased role in natural climate variability and hence a greater forced response by the end of the century for modulating trends. Without a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, our study suggests that years like 2012 in the US could become normal by mid-century.

  2. Fatigue in older adults: An early indicator of the aging process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on fatigue in older adults, with a focus on fatigue as an early indicator of the aging process. Fatigue is a strong predictor of functional limitations, disability, mortality, and other adverse outcomes in young-old and old-old populations......, between men and women, and in different geographic localities. Several biological, physiological and social explanations are proposed: fatigue may be seen not only as a self-reported indicator of frailty, defined as a physiologic state of increased vulnerability to stressors, which results from decreased...... physiologic reserves and even dysregulation of multiple physiologic systems, but also this state may be accelerated because of the cumulative impact of social, mental and biological factors throughout life....

  3. Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) - a bottom-up, science-led approach to identifying indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengis, Nadine; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces the Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) method, a bottom-up approach which combines expert judgment and statistical information to systematically select transparent, nonredundant indicators for a comprehensive assessment of the state of the Earth system. The methods consists of two basic steps: (1) the calculation of a correlation matrix among variables relevant for a given research question and (2) the systematic evaluation of the matrix, to identify clusters of variables with similar behavior and respective mutually independent indicators. Optional further analysis steps include (3) the interpretation of the identified clusters, enabling a learning effect from the selection of indicators, (4) testing the robustness of identified clusters with respect to changes in forcing or boundary conditions, (5) enabling a comparative assessment of varying scenarios by constructing and evaluating a common correlation matrix, and (6) the inclusion of expert judgment, for example, to prescribe indicators, to allow for considerations other than statistical consistency. The example application of the SCoMaE method to Earth system model output forced by different CO2 emission scenarios reveals the necessity of reevaluating indicators identified in a historical scenario simulation for an accurate assessment of an intermediate-high, as well as a business-as-usual, climate change scenario simulation. This necessity arises from changes in prevailing correlations in the Earth system under varying climate forcing. For a comparative assessment of the three climate change scenarios, we construct and evaluate a common correlation matrix, in which we identify robust correlations between variables across the three considered scenarios.

  4. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  5. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  6. Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Sonia A.; Luecke, Linda B.; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Gammon, Seth T.; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  7. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy identifies early lineage commitment in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraud, Philip; Ng, Elizabeth S; Caine, Sally; Yu, Qing C; Hirst, Claire; Mayberry, Robyn; Bruce, Amanda; Wood, Bayden R; McNaughton, Don; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G

    2010-03-01

    Human ESCs (hESCs) are a valuable tool for the study of early human development and represent a source of normal differentiated cells for pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications and ultimately for cell replacement therapies. For all applications, it will be necessary to develop assays to validate the efficacy of hESC differentiation. We explored the capacity for FTIR spectroscopy, a technique that rapidly characterises cellular macromolecular composition, to discriminate mesendoderm or ectoderm committed cells from undifferentiated hESCs. Distinct infrared spectroscopic "signatures" readily distinguished hESCs from these early differentiated progeny, with bioinformatic models able to correctly classify over 97% of spectra. These data identify a role for FTIR spectroscopy as a new modality to complement conventional analyses of hESCs and their derivatives. FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to provide low-cost, automatable measurements for the quality control of stem and differentiated cells to be used in industry and regenerative medicine. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dental caries risk indicators in early childhood and their association with caries polarization in adolescence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemaitiene, Migle; Grigalauskiene, Ruta; Andruskeviciene, Vilija; Matulaitiene, Zivile Kristina; Zubiene, Jurate; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle

    2016-07-02

    Based on the hypothesis that biological and social risks accumulate during life, it is important to identify possible dental caries risk indicators from the life course of early childhood and assess their association with caries polarization in adolescence. A cross-sectional design was applied to the study, and a multistage cluster sampling method used to draw a representative sample of 1063 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents. The dental examinations were performed according to the methodology for oral status evaluation recommended by the World Health Organization. Parents of the participating adolescents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their children's life course during early childhood. The interdependence of characteristics was evaluated by chi-square (χ (2)) and Student's (t) criteria. A multivariate logistic regression model with the Significant Caries (SiC) index as an outcome was performed. The mean scores for the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed teeth (DT) in the SiC positive group were higher than the corresponding values in the SiC negative group (6.14 [SD, 2.30] and 1.67 [SD, 2.02] vs 1.28 [SD, 1.11] and 0.34 [SD, 0.69], p caries risk indicators were identified that were independently associated with a SiC positive outcome: gender(OR = 1.32 [95 % CI: 1.01-1.73]), earlier eruption of the first primary tooth(OR = 1.43 [95 % CI: 1.03-1.97]), and past caries experience in the primary dentition (OR = 1.62 [95 % CI:1.22-2.14]). These study findings provide reliable evidence that gender, earlier eruption of the first primary tooth, and past caries experience in the primary dentition should be considered to be dental caries risk indicators and may have an adverse effect on caries polarization in adolescence.

  9. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  10. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia, which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic. This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  11. Evolution of care indicators after an early discharge intervention in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-López, Isabel; González-Carrión, María Pilar; Rivas-Campos, Antonio; Lafuente-Lorca, Justa; Castillo-Vera, Josefa; de Casas, Carmen; Peña-Caballero, Manuela

    To evaluate the evolution of health outcomes in preterm infants included in an early discharge programme. Controlled, non-randomised trial with an intervention group and a control group children admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves of Granada were included in the study. The intervention group comprised preterm infants admitted to the neonatal unit clinically stable, whose family home was located within 20km. from the hospital. They were discharged two weeks before the established time and a skilled nurse in neonatal care monitored them at home. The control group comprised infants who could not be included in home monitoring due to the distance to the hospital criterion or because their families did not give their consent and who received the usual care until their discharge. The study variables were the outcome indicators of the Nursing Outcomes Classification. Differences were found in the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. The early discharge of preterm infants followed up at home by an expert nurse in neonatal care is a health service that achieves results in preparating parents for the care of their child, enabling them to learn about the health services, adapt to their new life, and establishbreastfeeding times. It constitutes safe intervention for children and is beneficial to parents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards data-driven decision-making for sustainable diets in Vietnam: Identifying priority indicators through stakeholder engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayton, H.; Beal, T.; Rubin, J.; Sanchez, A.; Heller, M.; Hoey, L.; Khoury, C. K.; Jones, A.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, food systems impact and are impacted by the sustainability of environmental, societal, political, and public health factors. At the center of these systems are human diets, which vary substantially by culture and region, and have significant influence on human health, community livelihoods, climate change, and natural resources. However, rapidly growing and highly diverse lower middle-income countries like Vietnam face challenges in gathering data and defining clear policy intervention points and approaches that will provide a net-positive systemic influence across sectors. A new collaboration, Entry points to Advance Transitions towards Sustainable diets (EATS), between the University of Michigan and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) aims to identify ways that existing data and insights into the policy process can be leveraged to inform decision-making on where and how to intervene to effectively shift multiple axes of food systems to enhance the sustainability of diets. As a first step towards developing a model that other policy communities could follow, researchers aggregated and characterized approximately 50 major existing datasets on food, agriculture, and nutrition in Vietnam. They also created a conceptual framework for evaluating the sustainability of diets and for characterizing existing datasets, including eight domains and over 200 unique, measurable indicators. Figure 1 summarizes these domains and their key relationships, which forms a foundation for identifying leverage points that can positively impact multiple aspects of sustainable diets. Researchers then engaged food system stakeholders through informal interviews, surveys, and collaborative workshops to prioritize indicators and identify additional relevant data sources. Stakeholders included national government, research, NGO, and private sector representatives from across the range of identified domains. The key indicators identified by stakeholders will

  13. Evaluation of indicators for the early selection of the height character in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant breeding programs attended by Biotechnology and using the induction of mutations becomes necessary to work with big populations of plants to guarantee bigger possibilities to be successful in the work. For what to have a selection system that allows to carry out the same one in acclimatization phase would allow to shorten the outlines of improvement and to diminish the population’s size notably to evaluate in field phase, what would bear to diminish the expenses in the whole process of studies clones them. With the aim of determining possible morphological indicators that could be used as markers for the selection of low bearing in the clones of the FHIA were studied in conditions of acclimatization different cultivars and banana mutants, being evaluated several morphological characters as: the height of the plant, number of leaves, long and wide of the penultimate emitted leaf, as well as the long of their petiole and the distance between two serial leaves. It was also evaluated the height of the plants under conditions in vitro when they were subcultivate in a culture medium with different concentration of AG3. The results indicate that inside the evaluated morphological characters, those that more early allowed to distinguish among plants of low bearing were: the long of the petiole and the height of the plants and that the moment of the selection should be to the 60 days. Not differences were observed between genotypes when they were subcultivate in the culture medium enriched with AG3. Key words: banana, early selection, low bearing, morphological markers, plantain

  14. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis.

  15. SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development

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    Rhys J.P. Skelton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of human cardiogenesis would benefit from a detailed cell lineage fate map akin to that established for the haematopoietic lineages. Here we sought to define cell lineage relationships based on the expression of NKX2-5 and the cell surface markers VCAM1, SIRPA and CD34 during human cardiovascular development. Expression of NKX2-5GFP was used to identify cardiac progenitors and cardiomyocytes generated during the differentiation of NKX2-5GFP/w human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Cardiovascular cell lineages sub-fractionated on the basis of SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 expression were assayed for differentiation potential and gene expression. The NKX2-5posCD34pos population gave rise to endothelial cells that rapidly lost NKX2-5 expression in culture. Conversely, NKX2-5 expression was maintained in myocardial committed cells, which progressed from being NKX2-5posSIRPApos to NKX2-5posSIRPAposVCAM1pos. Up-regulation of VCAM1 was accompanied by the expression of myofilament markers and reduced clonal capacity, implying a restriction of cell fate potential. Combinatorial expression of NKX2-5, SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 can be used to define discrete stages of cardiovascular cell lineage differentiation. These markers identify specific stages of cardiomyocyte and endothelial lineage commitment and, thus provide a scaffold for establishing a fate map of early human cardiogenesis.

  16. A study looking at the effectiveness of developmental screening in identifying learning disabilities in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, O; Nualláin, S O

    2001-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of children under six years of age referred to the Brothers of Charity Early Intervention Services in County Galway, a service that caters for children under 6 years with learning disabilities. The aim in doing this study was to assess the value of routine developmental screening in identifying children with learning difficulties. This study also investigates the patterns and sources of referral to the remedial services provided by the Brothers of Charity and highlights possible avoidable delays in referral. The results showed that many children were referred for remedial services late. The reasons for late referral included late identification of some children with problems, insufficient co-ordination of community-based services and a lack of awareness of the importance of early intervention in some cases. As some communication disorders such as autism, autistic spectrum disorders and specific language delay may not express themselves until the later part of the second year of life, the 18-24 month developmental assessment is of vital importance. However identification of these disorders can present difficulties and may call for additional training for professionals involved in the developmental screening of children in that age group. The interval between initial identification and referral for remedial care in many cases was more than twelve months. We propose that, in order to minimize this time, children requiring a more in-depth assessment should be assessed by a community-based multidisciplinary team, enabling integrated assessment by the different disciplines and thus speedier referral to remedial services.

  17. A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-02-01

    The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging identifies early perfusion abnormalities in diabetes and hypertension : Insights from a multicenter registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Tesche, Christian; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Pugliese, Francesca; Bamberg, Fabian; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: To identify patients with early signs of myocardial perfusion reduction, a reference base for perfusion measures is needed. Objective: To analyze perfusion parameters derived from dynamic computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

  19. Identifying models of delivery, care domains and quality indicators relevant to palliative day services: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Seán R; Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K

    2017-05-16

    With an ageing population and increasing numbers of people with life-limiting illness, there is a growing demand for palliative day services. There is a need to measure and demonstrate the quality of these services, but there is currently little agreement on which aspects of care should be used to do this. The aim of the scoping review will be to map the extent, range and nature of the evidence around models of delivery, care domains and existing quality indicators used to evaluate palliative day services. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) will be searched for evidence using consensus development methods; randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials; mixed methods; and prospective, longitudinal or retrospective case-control studies to develop or test quality indicators for evaluating palliative care within non-residential settings, including day hospices and community or primary care settings. At least two researchers will independently conduct all searches, study selection and data abstraction procedures. Meta-analyses and statistical methods of synthesis are not planned as part of the review. Results will be reported using numerical counts, including number of indicators in each care domain and by using qualitative approach to describe important indicator characteristics. A conceptual model will also be developed to summarise the impact of different aspects of quality in a palliative day service context. Methodological quality relating to indicator development will be assessed using the Appraisal of Indicators through Research and Evaluation (AIRE) tool. Overall strength of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Final decisions on quality assessment will be made via consensus between review authors. Identifying, developing and implementing evidence-based quality indicators is critical to the evaluation and

  20. Modified Principal Component Analysis for Identifying Key Environmental Indicators and Application to a Large-Scale Tidal Flat Reclamation

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    Kejian Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the key environmental indicators (KEIs from a large number of environmental variables is important for environmental management in tidal flat reclamation areas. In this study, a modified principal component analysis approach (MPCA has been developed for determining the KEIs. The MPCA accounts for the two important attributes of the environmental variables: pollution status and temporal variation, in addition to the commonly considered numerical divergence attribute. It also incorporates the distance correlation (dCor to replace the Pearson’s correlation to measure the nonlinear interrelationship between the variables. The proposed method was applied to the Tiaozini sand shoal, a large-scale tidal flat reclamation region in China. Five KEIs were identified as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, Cd, petroleum in the water column, Hg, and total organic carbon in the sediment. The identified KEIs were shown to respond well to the biodiversity of phytoplankton. This demonstrated that the identified KEIs adequately represent the environmental condition in the coastal marine system. Therefore, the MPCA is a practicable method for extracting effective indicators that have key roles in the coastal and marine environment.

  1. Remedial early numeracy education : Can children identified as having a language deficiency benefit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Luit, Johannes E H; Toll, Sylke W M

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing attention has been paid to the possibility of supporting early numeracy in at-risk kindergartners. Furthermore, it is assumed that language proficiency is an important prerequisite in early maths skills. Aims To examine whether remedial early numeracy education in kindergarten,

  2. Hematological and biochemical indicators for the early diagnosis of dengue viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.; Abbasi, A.; Sheikh, Q.H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the haematological and biochemical indicators for the early diagnosis of dengue viral infection. Patients presenting with a fever of less than 2 weeks duration, generalized morbiliform rash and bleeding manifestations were included. Clinical history was recorded and patients were placed on fluid and haematological support. Diagnosis was established by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for dengue virus or detection of dengue virus specific IgM and IgG. One hundred and four patients met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Sixty six patients had clinical and haematological features suggestive of grade I Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF); 34 patients had grade II DHF and 4 had grade III DHF out of whom 3 progressed to grade IV DHF. All the patients presented with fever followed by generalized morbiliform rash (81.73%), vomiting (79.8%), abdominal pain (65.38%), backache (62.5%), depression (60.6%) and mucosal bleeding manifestations (34.6%). Clinically, conjunctival infection was present in 93 patients (89.4%), hepatomegaly 59 (56.7%), lymphadenopathy in 17 (16.3%), splenomegaly in 13 (12.5%), pleural effusion in 11 (10.5%) and ascites in 8 (7.6%). Common laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia in 100% patients, leucopenia in 55 (52.8%), raised hematocrit in 52 (50%), and elevated aminotransferases, gamma GT in 100 (96%) patients. The overall mortality was 2.88%. In this series clinical history and examination supported by the triad of thrombocytopenia, raised hematocrit and elevated liver enzymes was sufficient for the early diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever without waiting for dengue serology. (author)

  3. Peak negative myocardial velocity gradient in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular diastolic function: comparison with transmitral flow velocity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Uematsu, M; Shimizu, H; Nakamura, K; Yamagishi, M; Miyatake, K

    1998-11-01

    We sought to assess the clinical significance of peak negative myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Peak systolic MVG has been shown useful for the quantitative assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities, but limited data exist regarding the diastolic MVG as an indicator of LV diastolic function. Peak negative MVG was obtained from M-mode tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in 43 subjects with or without impairment of systolic and diastolic performance: 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with normal systolic performance and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and was compared with standard Doppler transmitral flow velocity indices. In a subgroup of 30 patients, effects of preload increase on these indices were assessed by performing passive leg lifting. In an additional 11 patients with congestive heart failure at the initial examination, the measurements were repeated after 26+/-16 days of volume-reducing therapy. Peak negative MVG was significantly depressed both in HHD (-3.9+/-1.3/s, p indices failed to distinguish DCM from normal due to the pseudonormalization. Transmitral flow velocity indices were significantly altered (peak early/late diastolic filling velocity [E/A]=1.1+/-0.5 to 1.5+/-0.7, p indicator of LV diastolic function that is less affected by preload alterations than the transmitral flow velocity indices, and thereby could be used for the follow-up of patients with nonischemic LV dysfunction presenting congestive heart failure.

  4. Gene methylation profiles of normal mucosa, and benign and malignant colorectal tumors identify early onset markers

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    Vatn Morten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple epigenetic and genetic changes have been reported in colorectal tumors, but few of these have clinical impact. This study aims to pinpoint epigenetic markers that can discriminate between non-malignant and malignant tissue from the large bowel, i.e. markers with diagnostic potential. The methylation status of eleven genes (ADAMTS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, HOXA9, MAL, MGMT, MLH1, NR3C1, PTEN, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 was determined in 154 tissue samples including normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas of the colorectum. The gene-specific and widespread methylation status among the carcinomas was related to patient gender and age, and microsatellite instability status. Possible CIMP tumors were identified by comparing the methylation profile with microsatellite instability (MSI, BRAF-, KRAS-, and TP53 mutation status. Results The mean number of methylated genes per sample was 0.4 in normal colon mucosa from tumor-free individuals, 1.2 in mucosa from cancerous bowels, 2.2 in adenomas, and 3.9 in carcinomas. Widespread methylation was found in both adenomas and carcinomas. The promoters of ADAMTS1, MAL, and MGMT were frequently methylated in benign samples as well as in malignant tumors, independent of microsatellite instability. In contrast, normal mucosa samples taken from bowels without tumor were rarely methylated for the same genes. Hypermethylated CRABP1, MLH1, NR3C1, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 were shown to be identifiers of carcinomas with microsatellite instability. In agreement with the CIMP concept, MSI and mutated BRAF were associated with samples harboring hypermethylation of several target genes. Conclusion Methylated ADAMTS1, MGMT, and MAL are suitable as markers for early tumor detection.

  5. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  6. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

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    Le Cordeur, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12. According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this article is on the significant number of learners in the intermediate phase who experience reading problems and the generic causes of reading problems for learners in general. The intent is to alert teachers and parents to the characteristics of a struggling reader so that the problem can be identified and addressed early. Firstly, ways in which learning problems are manifested are described. Secondly, a discussion of various types of reading problems, of which four, namely poor reading comprehension, inadequate reading fluency, a lack of vocabulary and a negative attitude towards reading, are discussed in depth. Strategies for struggling readers are presented and recommendations are made. The conclusion is that learners who experience reading problems can learn to read successfully when given the necessary support.

  8. Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention

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    Kelly Patricia C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS. Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs, resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention.

  9. ABNORMAL MICROFAUNAL SHELLS AS EARLY WARNING INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES SURROUNDING BERAU DELTA, EAST KALIMANTAN

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    Kresna Tri Dewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 sediment samples from surrounding Berau Delta, East Kalimantan have been used for microfaunal study. It is found some abnormal shells of ostracoda, foraminifera and other forms with darkish shells (black, dark green and dark brown. These forms were analyzed using SEM-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX or EDS to know their chemical composition. The result shows that these abnormal forms composed of CaO, SiO2, C, FeO, Al2O3, K2O, and small amount of Na2O and Cl. They may derive from different sources: CaO and MgO from neutralized component during the environmental management to handle the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD. The other components may derive from coal ash during combustion process or other activities. From this result, the small amount (less than 5% of abnormal shells may be used as early warning indicator of environmental changes in the study area.

  10. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Berbee, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant–fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and zygomycota II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya. PMID:25977457

  11. Effect of a Grain Extract on Certain Digestive Physiological Indicators in Early Weaned Rabbits

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    Melinda Kovács

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a non-medicated diet with or without a grain extract feed additive (benzoquinones as main active ingredients on the growth of rabbits and certain physiological indicators of the digestive tract was examined. One-day-old rabbits of average birth weight were distributed into litters of eight, and these litters were randomly divided into three groups (21-22 litters/group. The control group (Group C received a basal diet. The diet fed to rabbits of Group IM, was supplemented with a feed additive containing natural basic ingredients (Immunovet-HBM, 1 kg/t; the diet fed to Group M was medicated (tiamulin, oxytetracycline and diclazuril. Three days prior to kindling and up to weaning at 21 days of age of the pups, the does were fed one of the three diets ad libitum. Young rabbits were allowed to consume the same diets beside their mother’s milk before weaning. Significant (p p p < 0.05 higher in the C and IM group than in M rabbits. The proportion of butyric acid was lower than that of propionic acid even on the 42nd day in Group M. From the results of this study it is clear that the early weaning of rabbits can be accomplished by the use of a non-medicated diet without any decrease in weight gain. In our study the grain extract feed additive exerted a beneficial effect by increasing the pancreatic enzyme activity and maintaining a better VFA ratio.

  12. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clennon, Julie A; Kamanga, Aniset; Musapa, Mulenga; Shiff, Clive; Glass, Gregory E

    2010-11-05

    Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal

  13. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  14. Indicators for early assessment of palliative care in lung cancer patients: a population study using linked health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maria; O'Brien, Katie M; Lucey, Michael; Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Hannigan, Ailish

    2018-02-26

    Analysing linked, routinely collected data may be useful to identify characteristics of patients with suspected lung cancer who could benefit from early assessment for palliative care. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients dying within 30 days of diagnosis (short term survivors) with those surviving more than 30 days. To identify indicators for early palliative care assessment we distinguished between characteristics available at diagnosis (age, gender, smoking status, marital status, comorbid disease, admission type, tumour stage and histology) from those available post diagnosis. A second aim was to examine the association between receiving any tumour-directed treatment, place of death and survival time. A retrospective observational population based study comparing lung cancer patients who died within 30 days of diagnosis (short term survivors) with those who survived longer using Chi-squared tests and logistic regression. Incident lung cancer (ICD-03:C34) patients diagnosed 2005-2012 inclusive who died before 01-01-2014 (n = 14,228) were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland linked to death certificate data and acute hospital episode data. One in five newly diagnosed lung cancer patients died within 30 days of diagnosis. After adjusting for stage and histology, death within 30 days was higher in patients who were aged 80 years or older (adjusted OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.05-3.96; p < 0.001), patients with emergency admissions at diagnosis (adjusted OR 2.96; 95%CI 2.61-3.37; p < 0.001) and patients with any comorbidities at diagnosis (adjusted OR 1.32 95%CI 1.15-1.52; p < 0.001). Overall, 75% of those who died within 30 days died in hospital compared to 43% of longer term survivors. We have shown a high proportion of lung cancer patients who die within 30 days of diagnosis are older, have comorbidities and are admitted through the emergency department. These characteristics

  15. Prevalence, and early childhood caries risk indicators in preschool children in suburban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus; Oshomoji, Olusegun V; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka

    2015-06-30

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is defined as the presence of caries lesion in an primary tooth in children below the age of 71 months. It is a significant public health problem with consequences for the growth and development of affected children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ECC risk indicators in a suburban population in Nigeria. The data of 497 children aged 6 months to 71 months who were recruited through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria was analysed for prevalence of ECC and risk indicators. Information on children's ages, sex, socioeconomic status, tooth brushing habits, sugary snacks consumption, use of fluoridated toothpaste, birth rank, infant-feeding practices, breastfeeding practices, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal knowledge of oral health was obtained. Children's oral hygiene and caries status was also determined. Risk factors associated with ECC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-three (6.6%) children had ECC. Four (0.8%) had severe ECC. The four risk indicators for ECC were the child's gender, mothers' knowledge of oral health, consumption of sugary snacks in between meals more than three times a day, and the child's oral hygiene status. Females (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.01- -0.01; p = 0.02), and children with mothers who had good knowledge of oral health (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11--0.008; p = 0.02) were less likely to have ECC. Children who consumed sugary snacks in between meals three times a day or more (PR: 0.05; CI: 0.003 - 0.01; P = 0.04) and children with fair oral hygiene (PR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.005-0.10; p = 0.03) were more likely to have ECC. The prevalence of ECC in the study population was low. Promoting good oral hygiene practices and enhancing mothers' knowledge of oral health may help reduce further, the risk for ECC in the study population.

  16. The Vallecas Project: a cohort to identify early markers and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eOlazarán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a major threat for the well-being of an increasingly aged world population. The physiopathological mechanisms of late-onset AD are multiple, possibly heterogeneous, and not well understood. Different combinations of variables from several domains (i.e., clinical, neuropsychological, structural, and biochemical markers may predict dementia conversion, according to distinct physiopathological pathways, in different groups of subjects. Methods. We launched the Vallecas Project (VP, a cohort study of non-demented people aged 70 to 85, to characterize the social, clinical, neuropsychological, structural, and biochemical underpinnings of AD inception. Given the exploratory nature of the VP, multidimensional and machine learning techniques will be applied, in addition to the traditional multivariate statistical methods. Results. A total of 1,169 subjects were recruited between October 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 74.4 years (SD 3.9, 63.5% of the subjects were women, and 17.9% of the subjects were carriers of at least one ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene. Cognitive diagnoses at inclusion were as follows: normal cognition 93.0% and mild cognitive impairment (MCI 7.0% (3.1% amnestic MCI, 0.1% non-amnestic MCI, 3.8% mixed MCI. Blood samples were obtained and stored for future determinations in 99.9% of the subjects and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study was conducted in 89.9% of the volunteers. The cohort is being followed up annually for four years after the baseline. Conclusion. We have established a valuable homogeneous single-center cohort which, by identifying groups of variables associated with high risk of MCI or dementia conversion, should help to clarify the early physiopathological mechanisms of AD and should provide avenues for prompt diagnosis and AD prevention.

  17. Mitochondrial NAD(PH in vivo: identifying natural indicators of oxidative phosphorylation in the 31P magnetic resonance spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eConley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural indicators provide intrinsic probes of metabolism, biogenesis and oxidative protection. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolites (NAD(P are one class of indicators that have roles as co-factors in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and anti-oxidant protection, as well as signaling in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. These many roles are made possible by the distinct redox states (NAD(P+ and NAD(PH, which are compartmentalized between cell and mitochondria. Here we provide evidence for detection of NAD(P+ and NAD(PH in separate mitochondrial and cell pools in vivo in human tissue by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS. These NAD(P pools are identified by chemical standards (NAD+, NADP+ and NADH and by physiological tests. A unique resonance reflecting mitochondrial NAD(PH is revealed by the changes elicited by elevation of mitochondrial oxidation. The decline of NAD(PH with oxidation is matched by a stoichiometric rise in the NAD(P+ peak. This unique resonance also provides a measure of the improvement in mitochondrial oxidation that parallels the greater phosphorylation found after exercise training in these elderly subjects. The implication is that the dynamics of the mitochondrial NAD(PH peak provides an intrinsic probe of the reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in elderly muscle. Thus non-invasive detection of NAD(P+ and NAD(PH in cell vs. mitochondria yield natural indicators of redox compartmentalization and sensitive intrinsic probes of the improvement of mitochondrial function with an intervention in human tissues in vivo. These natural indicators hold the promise of providing mechanistic insight into metabolism and mitochondrial function in vivo in a range of tissues in health, disease and with treatment.

  18. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge C; Fokam, Joseph; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Tsomo, Zephirin; Dion, Grace Ngute; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Mpoudi, Eitel N; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat Nfetam, Jean B

    2012-01-01

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  19. Body Mass Index Is Better than Other Anthropometric Indices for Identifying Dyslipidemia in Chinese Children with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanna; Shao, Zixian; Jing, Jin; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yajun; Li, Xiuhong; Yang, Wenhan; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are used in screening and predicting obesity in adults. However, the best identifier of metabolic complications in children with obesity remains unclear. This study evaluated lipid profile distribution and investigated the best anthropometric parameter in association with lipid disorders in children with obesity. A total of 2243 school children aged 7-17 years were enrolled in Guangzhou, China, in 2014. The anthropometric indices and lipid profiles were measured. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the US Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. The association between anthropometry (BMI, WC, and WHR) and lipid profile values was examined using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis. Information about demography, physical activity, and dietary intake was provided by the participant children and their parents. Children aged 10-14 and 15-17 years old generally had higher triglyceride values but lower median concentration of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with children aged 7-9 years old (all P children aged 10-14 years old. The combination of age groups, BMI, WC and WHR achieved 65.1% accuracy in determining dyslipidemic disorders. BMI correctly identified 77% of the total dyslipidemic disorders in obese children, which was higher than that by WHR (70.8%) (Pchildren differed between younger and older age groups, and the tendency of these lipid levels remarkably fluctuated during 10 to 14 years old. BMI had better practical utility in identifying dyslipidemia among school-aged children with obesity compared with other anthropometric measures.

  20. Assessing the Ability of Vegetation Indices to Identify Shallow Subsurface Water Flow Pathways from Hyperspectral Imagery Using Machine Learning: Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, J. M.; Doctor, K.

    2017-12-01

    A common application of the satellite and airborne acquired hyperspectral imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum is the assessment of vegetation. Various absorption features of plants related to both water and chlorophyll content can be used to measure the vigor and access to underlying water sources of the vegetation. The typical strategy is to form hand-crafted features from the hyperspectral data cube by selecting two wavelengths to form difference or ratio images in the pixel space. The new image attempts to provide greater contrast for some feature of the vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a widely used example formed from the ratio of differences and sums at two different wavelengths. There are dozens of these indices that are ostensibly formed using insights about the underlying physics of the spectral absorption with claims to efficacy in representing various properties of vegetation. In the language of machine learning these vegetation indices are features that can be used as a useful data representation within an algorithm. In this work we use a powerful approach from machine learning, probabilistic graphical models (PGM), to balance the competing needs of using existing hydrological classifications of terrain while finding statistically reliable features within hyperspectral data for identifying the generative process of the data. The algorithm in its simplest form is called a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier and can be constructed in a data-driven estimation procedure of the conditional probability distributions that form the PGM. The Naïve Bayes model assumes that all vegetation indices (VI) are independent of one another given the hydrological class label. We seek to test its validity in a pilot study of detecting subsurface water flow pathways from VI. A more sophisticated PGM will also be explored called a tree-augmented NB that accounts for the probabilistic dependence between VI features. This methodology provides a

  1. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  2. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  3. Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, M; Luan, J; Langenberg, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based sam......BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population......, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population....

  4. Early determination of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma radioresponse identifies high- and low-response tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Oki, Akinori; Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Onishi, Kayoko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Satoh, Toyomi; Tsunoda, Hajime; Hata, Masaharu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether early-assessed radioresponse of tumors corresponds with late-assessed radioresponse, which is associated with local disease control in radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This prospective study included 12 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated by RT with or without concurrent cisplatin. Tumor volume was estimated by scheduled magnetic resonance imaging before (preRT), 3 to 4 weeks after (early assessment), and 6 to 7 weeks after (late assessment) RT initiation. Radioresponse was assessed with tumor shrinkage curves based on these volumes. Radioresponse for each tumor was calculated as the slope (day -1 ) of the shrinkage curve by fitting to an exponential equation. Results: Early-assessed radioresponse ranged from 0.001 to 0.106 day -1 (median, 0.021 day -1 ) and late-assessed radioresponse from 0.009 to 0.091 day -1 (median, 0.021 day -1 ), with no significant difference between them (p = 0.1191). The early-assessed radioresponse correlated with the late-assessed radioresponse (R 2 = 0.714, p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Correspondence between early- and late-assessed radioresponse in a series of tumors showing a wide range of radioresponse was not particularly close overall. However, early assessment of radioresponsiveness did seem to be useful for characterizing those tumors with high or low radioresponsiveness

  5. Spot sputum samples are at least as good as early morning samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael E; Phillips, Patrick P J; Mendel, Carl M; Bongard, Emily; Bateson, Anna L C; Hunt, Robert; Murthy, Saraswathi; Singh, Kasha P; Brown, Michael; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Meredith, Sarah K; Lipman, Marc; McHugh, Timothy D; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2017-10-27

    The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment. Patients who were smear positive at screening were enrolled into the study. Paired sputum samples (one EMS and one spot) were collected at each trial visit pre- and post-treatment. Microscopy and culture on solid LJ and liquid MGIT media were performed on all samples; those missing corresponding paired results were excluded from the analyses. Data from 1115 pre- and 2995 post-treatment paired samples from 1931 patients enrolled in the REMoxTB study were analysed. Patients were recruited from South Africa (47%), East Africa (21%), India (20%), Asia (11%), and North America (1%); 70% were male, median age 31 years (IQR 24-41), 139 (7%) co-infected with HIV with a median CD4 cell count of 399 cells/μL (IQR 318-535). Pre-treatment spot samples had a higher yield of positive Ziehl-Neelsen smears (98% vs. 97%, P = 0.02) and LJ cultures (87% vs. 82%, P = 0.006) than EMS, but there was no difference for positivity by MGIT (93% vs. 95%, P = 0.18). Contaminated and false-positive MGIT were found more often with EMS rather than spot samples. Surprisingly, pre-treatment EMS had a higher smear grading and shorter time-to-positivity, by 1 day, than spot samples in MGIT culture (4.5 vs. 5.5 days, P spot samples in those with unfavourable outcomes, there were no differences in smear or culture results, and positive results were not detected earlier in Kaplan-Meier analyses in either EMS or spot samples. Our data do not support the hypothesis that EMS

  6. Alterations to Bone Mineral Composition as an Early Indication of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W.L.; Holmes, Crystal M.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot is a major risk factor for amputation, but there is a limited understanding of early-stage infection, impeding limb-preserving diagnoses. We hypothesized that bone composition measurements provide insight into the early pathophysiology of diabetic osteomyelitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Compositional analysis by Raman spectroscopy was performed on bone specimens from patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the foot requiring surgi...

  7. [Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikodijević, Angelina; Udovicić, Bozidar; Milić, Jasmina; Nikolić, Predrag

    2008-08-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I) in the period of mixed dentition. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1--the children with skeletal class III and group 2--the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and theupper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of the upper jaw body.

  8. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  9. Early phase drug discovery: cheminformatics and computational techniques in identifying lead series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Bryan C; Zhu, Lei; Decornez, Hélène; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2012-09-15

    Early drug discovery processes rely on hit finding procedures followed by extensive experimental confirmation in order to select high priority hit series which then undergo further scrutiny in hit-to-lead studies. The experimental cost and the risk associated with poor selection of lead series can be greatly reduced by the use of many different computational and cheminformatic techniques to sort and prioritize compounds. We describe the steps in typical hit identification and hit-to-lead programs and then describe how cheminformatic analysis assists this process. In particular, scaffold analysis, clustering and property calculations assist in the design of high-throughput screening libraries, the early analysis of hits and then organizing compounds into series for their progression from hits to leads. Additionally, these computational tools can be used in virtual screening to design hit-finding libraries and as procedures to help with early SAR exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying the factors that affect the job satisfaction of early career Notre Dame graduate physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopanos, Eleni; Edgar, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Objective Previous studies have highlighted the short career intentions and high attrition rates of physiotherapists from the profession. The aim of the present study was to examine the job satisfaction and attrition rates of early career physiotherapists graduating from one Western Australian university. Methods A self-administered online survey was conducted of 157 Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates (2006-2012), incorporating a job satisfaction rating scale. Results Results showed that lowered job satisfaction was related to working in the cardiorespiratory area of physiotherapy and working in multiple jobs since graduation. The majority of graduates did not predict a long-term career in physiotherapy, highlighting a lack of career progression and limited scope of practice as influential factors. Conclusions Job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists varies across different clinical areas of practice related to several factors, including challenge and flexibility. New roles in the profession, including extended scope roles, may impact on the future job satisfaction of physiotherapists. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these roles on workforce trends, including attrition rates. What is known about the topic? Physiotherapists predict careers of 10 years or less on entry into the profession. No previous studies have explored the individual factors influencing job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists across different clinical settings. What does this paper add? This study highlights specific factors influencing the job satisfaction of early career physiotherapists, including clinical area of practice. Physiotherapists working in the cardiorespiratory area were less satisfied, as were physiotherapists undertaking multiple positions since graduation. What are the implications for practitioners? This study informs employers and workforce planners on the factors affecting job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists. In addition

  11. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  12. A proteomic analysis identifies candidate early biomarkers to predict ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Yazhou; Wan, Jun; Luan, Ting; Cheng, Qing; Tan, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially life‑threatening, iatrogenic complication that occurs during assisted reproduction. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) significantly increases the risk of OHSS during controlled ovarian stimulation. Therefore, a more effective early prediction technique is required in PCOS patients. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum proteins indicates the potential diagnostic value for disease. In the present study, the authors revealed the differentially expressed proteins in OHSS patients with PCOS as new diagnostic biomarkers. The promising proteins obtained from liquid chromatography‑mass spectrometry were subjected to ELISA and western blotting assay for further confirmation. A total of 57 proteins were identified with significant difference, of which 29 proteins were upregulated and 28 proteins were downregulated in OHSS patients. Haptoglobin, fibrinogen and lipoprotein lipase were selected as candidate biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated all three proteins may have potential as biomarkers to discriminate OHSS in PCOS patients. Haptoglobin, fibrinogen and lipoprotein lipase have never been reported as a predictive marker of OHSS in PCOS patients, and their potential roles in OHSS occurrence deserve further studies. The proteomic results reported in the present study may gain deeper insights into the pathophysiology of OHSS.

  13. Landslide early warning system prototype with GIS analysis indicates by soil movement and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artha, Y.; Julian, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is developing and testing of landslide early warning system. The early warning system uses accelerometersas ground movement and tilt-sensing device and a water flow sensor. A microcentroller is used to process the input signal and activate the alarm. An LCD is used to display the acceleration in x,y and z axis. When the soil moved or shifted and rainfall reached 100 mm/day, the alarm rang and signal were sentto the monitoring center via a telemetry system.Data logging information and GIS spatial data can be monitored remotely as tables and graphics as well as in the form of geographical map with the help of web-GIS interface. The system were tested at Kampung Gerendong, Desa Putat Nutug, Kecamatan Ciseeng, Kabupaten Bogor. This area has 3.15 cumulative score, which mean vulnerable to landslide. The results show that the early warning system worked as planned.

  14. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  15. Identifying Early Links between Temperament, Short-Term and Working Memory in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Câmpan, Maria; Scutelnicu, Ioana; Benga, Oana

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate early interrelationships between temperament, short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM), while also relating them to incipient anxious traits in a sample of 4-7-year-olds. Preschoolers were evaluated using verbal and visuospatial STM and WM tasks, while parental reports were used to assess children's…

  16. SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    , from a clinical point of view the prediction of AD is the key question since it is in that moment when treatment is possible. The potential use of structural MRI as imaging biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for early detection has become generally accepted, especially the use of atrophy...

  17. Getting on the Same Page: Identifying Goals for Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Technology use among young children is increasingly a fact of life, and establishing a clear set of goals that are broadly accepted by stakeholders is critical to planning for the successful integration of technology into early childhood education (ECE). However, debates about the role of technology in ECE settings are ongoing, with some…

  18. Identifying Local Benefits of Early Childhood Development Programs Using Regional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…

  19. Remedial early numeracy education: can children identified as having a language deficiency benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luit, Johannes E H; Toll, Sylke W M

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention has been paid to the possibility of supporting early numeracy in at-risk kindergartners. Furthermore, it is assumed that language proficiency is an important prerequisite in early maths skills. To examine whether remedial early numeracy education in kindergarten, which has been proven to be effective in general, is also beneficial for children with a language deficiency. Based on intensive selection, four different conditions were included: two groups received remedial education, one consisting of children being language proficient (N = 86) and one of children with a language deficiency (N = 26), and two groups followed the regular curriculum, one consisting of children being language proficient (N = 51) and one of children with a language deficiency (N = 24). Remedial education was for 1.5 school years (90 sessions, 30 min per session, twice per week), following the programme 'The Road to Mathematics'. During this period, the children receiving remedial education did not attend the regular maths lessons in the classroom, which were offered for at least 1 h per week. Effects were assessed for early numeracy and mathematical skills (operationalized as basic calculation fluency) in kindergarten and first grade. Three analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed that, when accounting for achievement at pre-test, children with a language deficiency who received remedial numeracy education performed better on early numeracy skills in kindergarten and first grade than kindergartners with a language deficiency that followed the regular curriculum. Furthermore, they were able to catch up with their language proficient peers in early numeracy. However, children with a language deficiency who received remedial numeracy education did not differ from children who followed the regular curriculum on mathematical skills, suggesting that benefits for numeracy did not generalize to more advanced skills of addition and subtraction. Since, in general, it can be

  20. Evaluation of severity and indication for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishouku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1985-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 32 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the evaluation of severity and indication for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of computed tomography (CT) at the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades, severe, moderate, and mild, as determined by CT. It was concluded, therefore, that in the early stage CT was very useful as an indicator for emergency surgery and a helpful guide to early judgement. Emergency surgery was performed on seven of nine cases in which pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of abdominal CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of three patients without infection were relieved. The pancreatitic lesion of the cases with infection was severe as assessed via CT and the CT score was especially high. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be a seriouns aggravating factor. A. severe (CT score ≥ 6: surgical therapy). B. moderate (CT score = 4,5: medical therapy possible). C. mild (CT score ≤ 3: medical therapy). (author)

  1. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  2. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…

  3. California forests show early indications of both range shifts and local persistence under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josep M. Serra-Diaz; Janet Franklin; Whalen W. Dillon; Alexandra D. Syphard; Frank W. Davis; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2015-01-01

    Aim Forest regeneration data provide an early signal of the persistence and migration of tree species, so we investigated whether species shifts due to climate change exhibit a common signal of response or whether changes vary by species. Location California Floristic Province, United...

  4. Clay Mineralogy and Crystallinity as a Climatic Indicator: Evidence for Both Cold and Temperate Conditions on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, B.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Surface weathering on Earth is driven by precipitation (rain/snow melt). Here we summarize the influence of climate on minerals produced during surface weathering, based on terrestrial literature and our new laboratory analyses of weathering products from glacial analog sites. By comparison to minerals identified in likely surface environments on Mars, we evaluate the implications for early martian climate.

  5. Prognostic indicators associated with early mortality of wild raptors admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the prognostic indicators of wildlife casualties is critical in wildlife rehabilitation practice, to optimize the use of economical resources, and to protect animal welfare. Few studies have been conducted in this field. To identify the prognostic indicators associated with raptor mortality during the first week of hospitalization. Complete medical records of 1722 wild raptor cases admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre from 1995 to 2007 were used. Regression models were created to determine mortality-related factors for different variables (order, sex, body condition (BC), clinical signs, and available haematological and biochemical parameters). In the bivariate analysis, the presence of nervous (OR = 11.9, 95%CI:5.1-27.6) or musculoskeletal (OR = 12.1, 95%CI:5.8-25.3) signs, a poor BC (OR = 32.9, 95%CI:19-81.2), and low values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin or total solids (TS), were all associated with early mortality. After adjusting variables in the multivariate model, BC was excluded due to co-linearity with other variables, and alteration of the nervous system was the only significant risk factor (OR = 4.0; 95%CI:1.9-8.8). In species specific analysis, poor prognosis was related to neurological signs in Athene noctua, poor BC in Strix aluco, trauma in Acciptiter nisus and Tyto alba, low PCV in Buteo buteo and Falco tinnunculus and low TS in Falco tinnunculus. Raptors with a poor BC, low values of PCV and those presenting with neurological signs, had the highest risk of dying in the first days of admittance. Thus, either medical care or humane euthanasia for poor prognosis should be performed to address animal welfare.

  6. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Identifying Malignant Cells Within Neoplasias Histologically Classified as Benign

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lelievre, Sophie A

    2005-01-01

    Current diagnostic tools permit the classification of breast neoplasias into categories that represent different relative risks of developing cancer, but they do not indicate which particular lesion...

  7. Assessing the Ability of Vegetation Indices to Identify Shallow Subsurface Water Flow Pathways from Hyperspectral Imagery Using Machine Learning: Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, K.; Byers, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow underground water flow pathways expressed as slight depressions are common in the land surface. Under conditions of saturated overland flow, such as during heavy rain or snow melt, these areas of preferential flow might appear on the surface as very shallow flowing streams. When there is no water flowing in these ephemeral channels it can be difficult to identify them. It is especially difficult to discern the slight depressions above the subsurface water flow pathways (SWFP) when the area is covered by vegetation. Since the soil moisture content in these SWFP is often greater than the surrounding area, the vegetation growing on top of these channels shows different vigor and moisture content than the vegetation growing above the non-SWFP area. Vegetation indices (VI) are used in visible and near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imagery to enhance biophysical properties of vegetation, and so the brightness values between vegetation atop SWFP and the surrounding vegetation were highlighted. We performed supervised machine learning using ground-truth class labels to determine the conditional probability of a SWFP at a given pixel given either the spectral distribution or VI at that pixel. The training data estimates the probability distributions to a determined finite sampling accuracy for a binary Naïve Bayes classifier between SWFP and non-SWFP. The ground-truth data provides a test bed for understanding the ability to build SWFP classifiers using hyperspectral imagery. SWFP were distinguishable in the imagery within corn and grass fields and in areas with low-lying vegetation. However, the training data is limited to particular types of terrain and vegetation cover in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia and this would limit the resulting classifier. Further training data could extend its use to other environments.

  8. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  9. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  10. A new commelinid monocot seed fossil from the early Eocene previously identified as Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Kottner, Sören; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Ahmed, Farah; Knapp, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Fossils provide minimum age estimates for extant lineages. Here we critically evaluate Cantisolanum daturoides Reid & Chandler and two other early putative seed fossils of Solanaceae, an economically important plant family in the Asteridae. Three earliest seed fossil taxa of Solanaceae from the London Clay Formation (Cantisolanum daturoides) and the Poole and Branksome Sand Formations (Solanum arnense Chandler and Solanispermum reniforme Chandler) were studied using x-ray microcomputed tomography (MCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MCT scans of Cantisolanum daturoides revealed a high level of pyrite preservation at the cellular level. Cantisolanum daturoides can be clearly excluded from Solanaceae and has more affinities to the commelinid monocots based on a straight longitudinal axis, a prominent single layer of relatively thin-walled cells in the testa, and a clearly differentiated micropyle surrounded by radially elongated and inwardly curved testal cells. While the MCT scans show no internal preservation in Solanum arnense and Solanispermum reniforme, SEM images show the presence of several characteristics that allow the placement of these taxa at the stem node of Solanaceae. Cantisolanum daturoides is likely a member of commelinid monocots and not Solanaceae as previously suggested. The earliest fossil record of Solanaceae is revised to consist of fruit fossil with inflated calyces from the early Eocene of Patagonia (52 Ma) and fossilized seeds from the early to mid-Eocene of Europe (48-46 Ma). The new identity for Cantisolanum daturoides does not alter a late Cretaceous minimum age for commelinids. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  11. On Track for Success: The Use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems to Build a Grad Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Balfanz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, schools, districts, and states have become increasingly savvy with data collection and analysis to drive student outcomes. The development and use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems (EWS) are at the cutting edge of the data- driven, outcomes-focused, high-impact education movement. These systems can increase…

  12. Identifying MRI markers to evaluate early treatment-related changes post-laser ablation for cancer pain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    by correcting for intensity drift in order to examine tissue-specific response, and (3) quantification of MRI maps via texture and intensity features to evaluate changes in MR markers pre- and post-LITT. A total of 78 texture features comprising of non-steerable and steerable gradient and second order statistical features were extracted from pre- and post-LITT MP-MRI on a per-voxel basis. Quantitative, voxel-wise comparison of the changes in MRI texture features between pre-, and post-LITT MRI indicate that (a) steerable and non-steerable gradient texture features were highly sensitive as well as specific in predicting subtle micro-architectural changes within and around the ablation zone pre- and post-LITT, (b) FLAIR was identified as the most sensitive MRI protocol in identifying early treatment changes yielding a normalized percentage change of 360% within the ablation zone relative to its pre-LITT value, and (c) GRE was identified as the most sensitive MRI protocol in quantifying changes outside the ablation zone post-LITT. Our preliminary results thus indicate great potential for non-invasive computerized MRI features in determining localized micro-architectural focal treatment related changes post-LITT.

  13. Fine Motor Skills and Early Comprehension of the World: Two New School Readiness Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissmer, David; Grimm, Kevin J.; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Murrah, William M.; Steele, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Duncan et al. (2007) presented a new methodology for identifying kindergarten readiness factors and quantifying their importance by determining which of children's developing skills measured around kindergarten entrance would predict later reading and math achievement. This article extends Duncan et al.'s work to identify kindergarten readiness…

  14. Terrestrial Origin of Viviparity in Mesozoic Marine Reptiles Indicated by Early Triassic Embryonic Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exc...

  15. The importance of retesting the hearing screening as an indicator of the real early hearing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Daniela Polo Camargo da; Lopez,Priscila Suman; Ribeiro,Georgea Espíndola; Luna,Marcos Otávio de Mesquita; Lyra,João César; Montovani,Jair Cortez

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of hearing loss minimizes its impact on child development. We studied factors that influence the effectiveness of screening programs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between gender, weight at birth, gestational age, risk factors for hearing loss, venue for newborn hearing screening and "pass" and "fail" results in the retest.METHODS: Prospective cohort study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital. The screening was performed in 565 newborns thr...

  16. MEMBANGUN EARLY WARNING INDICATORS PERGERAKAN KURS DI INDONESIA: PENGEMBANGAN BUSINESS CYCLE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Devi Benazir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis in 1997/1998 that was signed by depreciation rupiah almost destroyed the pillars of the economy. This exchange rate shock possibly will happen in the future like that happened in August 2007. At the same time, rupiah falled to the lowest level Rp. 9.410 per dollar (the exchange rate use the last month in August 2007. The exchange rate of its daily until above Rp 9.500 per dollar (Sadewa, 2007. Therefore, it was needed indicator of theearly detection with build leading indicators the movement of the exchange rate in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is building leading indicators the movement of the exchangerate in Indonesia. It could give the capacity forecasting of the Indonesian economy of the movement direction in a manner the aggregate with the Business Cycle Analysis method andIts development. Empirical results showed that is received by four leading indicators and four coincident indicators. The real export, the real import, foreign currency deposit, and forexbanks demand deposits in foreign currency became the moving indicator preceded the exchange rate. Whereas, there are four indicators to coincident was foreign assets, interbank call money rate 1 day, the German share index (DAX, and the USA share index (Nasdaq. This condition indicated that the exchange rate rupiah really was affected by the external factor.

  17. Identifying economic hurdles to early adoption of preventative practices: The case of trunk diseases in California winegrape vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kaplan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers’ perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.

  18. Foliar morphometric indicators for early detection of water stress in Gmelina arborea Roxb. in agroforestry systems of Santafé de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Melo-Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf asymmetry was assessed in individuals of Gmelina arborea Roxb. growing under different soil water conditions in a dry forest agroforestry system (AFS, in Santafé de Antioquia. Leaf asymmetry was correlated with additional morphometric parameters, such as angle of insertion of the petiole in the leaf in mature individuals and the ratio of the number of teeth on the edge of the blade in juvenile leaves to propose new indicators of early stage stress. The models generated had R2 values of above 75 %, which support their use in identifying developmental instability as an early indicator of water stress. Similarly, leaf diversity was assessed between the two phenotypes of leaves (ML and JL, with conventional morphometric variables (length of the midrib, leaf perimeter, specific leaf area and dry matter, because they are characters related to leaf form and function. There were marked differences in form and behavior between the two types of leaf indicating a further source of instability evident from leaf ontogeny. The results of this work will allow the optimization of management strategies of G. arborea in the AFS as an early indicator of water stress.

  19. Identifying autism early: The Toddlers at Risk of Autism Clinic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tessa; Clifton, Deirdre; Papadopoulos, Con

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the Toddlers at Risk of Autism Clinic (TRAC), which utilises the Social Attention and Communication Study (SACS) and/or Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) play-based assessments to facilitate the early diagnosis of autism. A retrospective audit was conducted of all 42 children assessed over a 3-year period in the TRAC. A semi-structured interview and play-based assessment (SACS and ADEC) were used to aid experienced clinicians in diagnosing autism. Intervention was recommended, and families were routinely followed up. Analysis was conducted on the tools used, the outcomes of assessment, diagnosis and stability of diagnosis on follow-up. During this period, 35 boys and 7 girls were assessed, with a mean age of 25 months. The average waiting time for clinic was 11.6 weeks. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with autism; 90.5% of toddlers given an initial diagnosis retained that diagnosis at follow-up. Out of the 17 children who were not diagnosed with autism in the TRAC, one child was later diagnosed with autism. Experienced clinicians can use the SACS and/or ADEC to assist with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnosis of autism in toddlers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Near-infrared reflectance bull’s eye maculopathy as an early indication of hydroxychloroquine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong KL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keye L Wong,1 Scott E Pautler,2 David J Browning31Retina Associates of Sarasota, Sarasota, FL, USA; 2Retina Vitreous Associates of Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Charlotte Eye Ear Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USAImportance: In some patients, hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity may progress even following cessation of therapy. Any leverage the clinician may use to allow earlier detection may avert significant vision loss.Observation: We report three cases suggesting that bull’s eye maculopathy seen on near-infrared reflectance with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope could be an early, objective manifestation of hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity, and with progression of the disease this near-infrared “bull’s eye” change may disappear.Conclusion and relevance: Alerting clinicians to this observation may allow a larger case series to corroborate the hypothesis that bull’s eye maculopathy detected by near-infrared reflectance may represent an early sign of hydroxychloroquine toxicity.Keywords: confocal, scanning laser ophthalmoscope, multifocal ERG

  1. Using association rule mining to identify risk factors for early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančević, Vladimir; Tušek, Ivan; Tušek, Jasmina; Knežević, Marko; Elheshk, Salaheddin; Luković, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a potentially severe disease affecting children all over the world. The available findings are mostly based on a logistic regression model, but data mining, in particular association rule mining, could be used to extract more information from the same data set. ECC data was collected in a cross-sectional analytical study of the 10% sample of preschool children in the South Bačka area (Vojvodina, Serbia). Association rules were extracted from the data by association rule mining. Risk factors were extracted from the highly ranked association rules. Discovered dominant risk factors include male gender, frequent breastfeeding (with other risk factors), high birth order, language, and low body weight at birth. Low health awareness of parents was significantly associated to ECC only in male children. The discovered risk factors are mostly confirmed by the literature, which corroborates the value of the methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying Disruptive Technologies in Design: Horizon Scanning in the Early Stages of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Sidsel Katrine; Thuesen, Christian; Larsen, Laurids Rolighed

    context to anticipate disruption of construction. By means of a 3-step horizon scan, we identify 133 potentially disruptive technologies from across industries. We find that when preparing for disruption, design may benefit from the future-oriented and technology-focused features of horizon scanning....

  3. Assessment and comparison of two early warning indicator methods in the perspective of prevention of atypical accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Øien, Knut; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Some severe major accidents occurred in Europe in recent years (e.g. the Vapour Cloud Explosion at Buncefield in 2005), which were not foreseen by their site “Seveso-II” safety reports. Detailed analyses of such “atypical” scenarios demonstrated that they are the result of a number of failures at different technical and organizational levels. Thus, their prevention is a major challenge and must be coordinated through different kinds of approaches, among which improved early detection plays an important role. Proactive methodologies for the development of early warning indicators can unveil early deviations in the causal chain. Two examples are the Resilience-based Early Warning Indicator (REWI) method and the so-called “Dual Assurance” method. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible integration of early warning indicators in the hazard identification process. A Buncefield-like site was analysed to obtain indicators that were compared with the actual causes that led to the accident at Buncefield (and to similar accident scenarios). The results show that indicators from both methods could have prevented the accidents from happening. However, one main difference is related to the issue of hazard identification, which is fundamental for the prevention of atypical accident scenarios. The REWI method is not dependent on the outcome of the hazard identification process. Instead it provides complementarities to the first prevention approach (improved identification of atypical scenarios), demonstrating that a mutual activity would be an effective strategy in which human, organizational, cultural and technical factors are treated in an integrated manner. - Highlights: ► Early warning indicators were created through 2 methods for the Buncefield oil depot. ► A general capacity to cover causes of atypical events was demonstrated. ► The Dual Assurance method showed to mainly cover operability failures. ► The REWI method showed to promote acts

  4. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  5. Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl J. Houtman; Peter Kitin; Jon C. D. Houtman; Kenneth E. Hammel; Christopher G. Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of wood blocks by brown and white rot fungi rapidly resulted in detectable wood oxidation, as shown by a reduced phloroglucinol response, a loss of autofluorescence, and acridine orange (AO) staining. This last approach is shown to provide a novel method for identifying wood oxidation. When lignin was mildly oxidized, the association between AO and lignin...

  6. A gene expression profile indicative of early stage HER2 targeted therapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Fiona; Madden, Stephen F; Clynes, Martin; Crown, John; Doolan, Padraig; Aherne, Sinéad T; O'Connor, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Efficacious application of HER2-targetting agents requires the identification of novel predictive biomarkers. Lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of HER2 and EGFR growth factor receptors. A panel of breast cancer cell lines was treated with these agents, trastuzumab, gefitinib and cytotoxic therapies and the expression pattern of a specific panel of genes using RT-PCR was investigated as a potential marker of early drug response to HER2-targeting therapies. Treatment of HER2 TKI-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cell lines with lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib induced an increase in the expression of RB1CC1, ERBB3, FOXO3a and NR3C1. The response directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity. This expression pattern switched from up-regulated to down-regulated in the HER2 expressing, HER2-TKI insensitive cell line MDAMB453. Expression of the CCND1 gene demonstrated an inversely proportional response to drug exposure. A similar expression pattern was observed following the treatment with both neratinib and afatinib. These patterns were retained following exposure to traztuzumab and lapatinib plus capecitabine. In contrast, gefitinib, dasatinib and epirubicin treatment resulted in a completely different expression pattern change. In these HER2-expressing cell line models, lapatinib, neratinib, afatinib and trastuzumab treatment generated a characteristic and specific gene expression response, proportionate to the sensitivity of the cell lines to the HER2 inhibitor.Characterisation of the induced changes in expression levels of these genes may therefore give a valuable, very early predictor of the likely extent and specificity of tumour HER2 inhibitor response in patients, potentially guiding more specific use of these agents.

  7. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  8. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  9. Development of a screening tool for detecting undernutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Dixon, R A; Earland, J

    1999-11-01

    Undernutrition and the consumption of poor diets are prevalent among elderly people in developing countries. Recognising the importance of the early identification of individuals at high nutritional risk, this study aimed to develop a simple tool for screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 11 randomly selected villages among the 62 in Mersing District, Malaysia. Undernutrition was assessed using body mass index, plasma albumin and haemoglobin on 285 subjects. Dietary inadequacy (a count of nutrients falling below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances) was examined for 337 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of undernutrition and dietary inadequacy from social and health factors, and to derive appropriate indices based on these predictions. The multivariate predictors of undernutrition were 'no joint disease', 'smoker', 'no hypertension', 'depended on others for economic resource', 'respiratory disease', 'perceived weight loss' and 'chewing difficulty', with a joint sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 84%. The equivalent predictors of dietary inadequacy were 'unable to take public transport', 'loss of appetite', 'chewing difficulty', 'no regular fruit intake' and 'regularly taking less than three meals per day', with a joint sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 47%. These predictions, with minor modification to simplify operational use, led to the production of a simple screening tool. The tool can be used by public health professionals or community workers or leaders as a simple and rapid instrument to screen individual at high risk of undernutrition and/or dietary inadequacy.

  10. Identifying high-functioning dyslexics: is self-report of early reading problems enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-07-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.

  11. Clustering of transcriptional profiles identifies changes to insulin signaling as an early event in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Harriet M; Soto, Ileana; Graham, Leah C; Carter, Gregory W; Howell, Gareth R

    2013-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease affects more than 35 million people worldwide but there is no known cure. Age is the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease but it is not clear how age-related changes impact the disease. Here, we used a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease to identify age-specific changes that occur prior to and at the onset of traditional Alzheimer-related phenotypes including amyloid plaque formation. To identify these early events we used transcriptional profiling of mouse brains combined with computational approaches including singular value decomposition and hierarchical clustering. Our study identifies three key events in early stages of Alzheimer's disease. First, the most important drivers of Alzheimer's disease onset in these mice are age-specific changes. These include perturbations of the ribosome and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Second, the earliest detectable disease-specific changes occur to genes commonly associated with the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis. These include the down-regulation of genes relating to metabolism, depression and appetite. Finally, insulin signaling, in particular the down-regulation of the insulin receptor substrate 4 (Irs4) gene, may be an important event in the transition from age-related changes to Alzheimer's disease specific-changes. A combination of transcriptional profiling combined with computational analyses has uncovered novel features relevant to Alzheimer's disease in a widely used mouse model and offers avenues for further exploration into early stages of AD.

  12. Application of τc*Pd for identifying damaging earthquakes for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. L.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) is an effective approach to mitigate earthquake damage. In this study, we used the seismic record by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net), because it has dense station coverage and co-located borehole strong-motion seismometers along with the free-surface strong-motion seismometers. We used inland earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) from 5.0 to 7.3 between 1998 and 2012. We choose 135 events and 10950 strong ground accelerograms recorded by the 696 strong ground accelerographs. Both the free-surface and the borehole data are used to calculate τc and Pd, respectively. The results show that τc*Pd has a good correlation with PGV and is a robust parameter for assessing the potential of damaging earthquake. We propose the value of τc*Pd determined from seconds after the arrival of P wave could be a threshold for the on-site type of EEW.

  13. Economics of Early Warning Scores for identifying clinical deterioration-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A; Cronin, J; Whelan, R; Drummond, F J; Savage, E; Hegarty, J

    2018-02-01

    In 2013, a National Early Warning System (EWS) was implemented in Ireland. Whilst evidence exists to support the clinical effectiveness of EWS in the acute health care setting, there is a paucity of information on their cost and cost effectiveness. The objective of this systematic literature review was to critically evaluate the economic literature on the use of EWS in adult patients in acute health care settings for the timely detection of physiological deterioration. A systematic literature review was conducted to accumulate the economic evidence on the use of EWS in adult patients in acute health care settings. The search yielded one health technology assessment, two budget impact analyses and two cost descriptions. Three of the studies were Irish, and considered the national EWS system. A Dutch study reported financial consequences of a single parameter EWS, as part of a rapid response system, in a surgical ward. The fifth study examined an advanced triage system in a medical emergency admission unit in Wales. The economic evidence on the use of EWS amongst adult patients in acute health care settings for the timely detection of physiological deterioration is limited. Further research is required to investigate the cost effectiveness of EWS, and the appropriateness of using standard methods to do so. The recent implementation of a national EWS in Ireland offers a unique opportunity to bridge this gap in the literature to examine the costs and cost effectiveness of a nationally implemented EWS system.

  14. Just the Right Mix: Identifying Potential Dropouts in Montgomery County Public Schools Using an Early Warning Indicators Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Each school year, roughly a thousand students drop out of Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). However, unlike other large, urban school districts where students who drop out skip school and are suspended often (Balfanz & Byrnes, 2010), students who drop out of MCPS are present in school; they just are not doing well…

  15. Recovery of the cardiac frequency to the minute post effort as early indicator of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez M, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the recovery cardiac frequency like ischemia indicator, due to the immediate reactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the post-effort. It is obtained as conclusion that a slow descent of the cardiac frequency to the first minute of the post-effort is a predictor ischemia index when correlating it with the risk evaluated by cardiac SPECT with a high specificity; being this a marker of simple calculating in the daily practice. (Author)

  16. Identifying Disruptive Technologies in Design: Horizon Scanning in the Early Stages of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Sidsel Katrine; Thuesen, Christian; Larsen, Laurids Rolighed

    Technology development is accelerating, driving disruption. Design is seen as key differentiator in creating innovative offerings but few design methods consider future technologies explicitly. In this article, we explore how a foresight method, namely horizon scanning, may be applied in a design...... context to anticipate disruption of construction. By means of a 3-step horizon scan, we identify 133 potentially disruptive technologies from across industries. We find that when preparing for disruption, design may benefit from the future-oriented and technology-focused features of horizon scanning....

  17. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Indicators of Early Immune Stimulation: A Childhood Leukemia International Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G.; Ashton, Lesley J.; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y.; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980–2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2–14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL. PMID:25731888

  18. Diversification rates indicate an early role of adaptive radiations at the origin of modern echinoid fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boivin

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are fascinating phenomena corresponding to a dramatic diversification of taxa and a burst of cladogenesis over short periods of time. Most evolutionary radiations have long been regarded as adaptive but this has seldom been demonstrated with large-scale comparative datasets including fossil data. Originating in the Early Jurassic, irregular echinoids are emblematic of the spectacular diversification of mobile marine faunas during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution. They diversified as they colonized various habitats, and now constitute the main component of echinoid fauna in modern seas. The evolutionary radiation of irregular echinoids has long been considered as adaptive but this hypothesis has never been tested. In the present work we analyze the evolution of echinoid species richness and morphological disparity over 37 million years based on an extensive fossil dataset. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional diversifications in certain clades of irregular echinoids were exceptionally high compared to other clades and that they were associated with the evolution of new modes of life and so can be defined as adaptive radiations. The role played by ecological opportunities in the diversification of these clades was critical, with the evolution of the infaunal mode of life promoting the adaptive radiation of irregular echinoids.

  19. Early elevation of soluble CD14 may help identify trauma patients at high risk for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E H; Gordon, L; Goode, E; Davis, E; Polk, H C

    2001-05-01

    Elevated levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) have been implicated in both gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis, and it has been associated with high mortality in trauma patients who become infected. Eleven healthy volunteers and 25 adult trauma patients with multiple injuries and a mean Injury Severity Score of 32 participated. Whole blood was obtained at intervals. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify membrane CD14 (mCD14), by flow cytometry and plasma levels of sCD14 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis of variance and Student's T test with Mann-Whitney posttest were used to determine significance at p < 0.05. On posttrauma day 1, sCD14 was significantly different in the plasma of infected patients compared with normal controls (7.16 +/- 1.87 microg/mL vs. 4.4 +/- 0.92 microg/mL, p < 0.01), but not significantly different from noninfected patients. The percentage of monocytes expressing mCD14 in trauma patients did not differentiate them from normal controls; however, mCD14 receptor density did demonstrate significance in septic trauma patients (n = 15) versus normal controls on posttrauma day 3 (p = 0.0065). On the basis of our data, mCD14 did not differentiate infected and noninfected trauma patients, although trauma in general reduced mCD14 and elevated sCD14. Interestingly, 100% of patients who exceeded plasma levels of 8 microg/mL of sCD14 on day 1 after injury developed infections. Therefore, early high expressers of sCD14 may be at higher risk for infectious complications after trauma.

  20. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  1. TSH-receptor-autoantibody-titers in untreated toxic diffuse goitres - an early indicator of relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1984-01-01

    TSH-receptor-auto antibodies were determined in follow-up of 30 patients with relapse of toxic diffuse goitres, i.e. patients with Graves' disease and toxic disseminated autonomy, and in 13 patients with spontaneous remission after antithyroid drug therapy by use of a commercially available TSH-radioreceptorassay (TRAK-assay). All the patients with very high receptor-autoantibody-titers in untreated thyrotoxicosis (F > 20%) had one or more periods of hyperthyroidism or a very severe course of disease. None of these patients showed a spontaneous remission of disease. They all could be identified as Graves' patients. Patients with TRAK-titers 3% [de

  2. Pulse oximeter perfusion index as an early indicator of sympathectomy after epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Y; Weiniger, C F; Meroz, Y; Kurz, V; Bdolah-Abram, T; Babchenko, A; Nitzan, M; Davidson, E M

    2009-09-01

    The pulse oximeter perfusion index (PI) has been used to indicate sympathectomy-induced vasodilatation. We hypothesized that pulse oximeter PI provides an earlier and clearer indication of sympathectomy following epidural anesthesia than skin temperature and arterial pressure. Forty patients received lumbar epidural catheters. Patients were randomized to receive either 10 ml 0.5% bupivacaine or 10 ml 0.25% bupivacaine. PI in the toe, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and toe temperature were all assessed at baseline and at 5, 10 and 20 min following epidural anesthesia. The effect of epidural anesthesia over time was assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Additionally, we defined clinically evident sympathectomy criteria (a 100% increase in the PI, a 15% decrease in MAP and a 1 degrees C increase in toe temperature). The numbers of patients demonstrating these changes for each test were compared using the McNemar test for each time point. Twenty-nine subjects had photoplethysmography signals that met a priori signal quality criteria for analysis. By 20 min, PI increased by 326%, compared with a 10% decrease and a 3% increase in MAP and toe temperature, respectively. For PI 15/29, 26/29 and 29/29 of the subjects met the sympathectomy criteria at 5, 10 and 20 min, respectively, compared with 4/29, 6/29 and 18/29 for MAP changes and 3/29, 8/29 and 14/29 for toe temperature changes. PI was an earlier, clearer and more sensitive indicator of the development of epidural-induced sympathectomy than either skin temperature or MAP.

  3. High-throughput sequencing of the T cell receptor β gene identifies aggressive early-stage mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masson, Adele; O'Malley, John T; Elco, Christopher P; Garcia, Sarah S; Divito, Sherrie J; Lowry, Elizabeth L; Tawa, Marianne; Fisher, David C; Devlin, Phillip M; Teague, Jessica E; Leboeuf, Nicole R; Kirsch, Ilan R; Robins, Harlan; Clark, Rachael A; Kupper, Thomas S

    2018-05-09

    Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a malignancy of skin-tropic memory T cells. Most MF cases present as early stage (stage I A/B, limited to the skin), and these patients typically have a chronic, indolent clinical course. However, a small subset of early-stage cases develop progressive and fatal disease. Because outcomes can be so different, early identification of this high-risk population is an urgent unmet clinical need. We evaluated the use of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing of the T cell receptor β gene ( TCRB ) in lesional skin biopsies to predict progression and survival in a discovery cohort of 208 patients with CTCL (177 with MF) from a 15-year longitudinal observational clinical study. We compared these data to the results in an independent validation cohort of 101 CTCL patients (87 with MF). The tumor clone frequency (TCF) in lesional skin, measured by high-throughput sequencing of the TCRB gene, was an independent prognostic factor of both progression-free and overall survival in patients with CTCL and MF in particular. In early-stage patients, a TCF of >25% in the skin was a stronger predictor of progression than any other established prognostic factor (stage IB versus IA, presence of plaques, high blood lactate dehydrogenase concentration, large-cell transformation, or age). The TCF therefore may accurately predict disease progression in early-stage MF. Early identification of patients at high risk for progression could help identify candidates who may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation before their disease becomes treatment-refractory. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Cross sectional study of performance indicators for English Primary Care Trusts: testing construct validity and identifying explanatory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of Primary Care Trusts in England is assessed and published using a number of different performance indicators. Our study has two broad purposes. Firstly, to find out whether pairs of indicators that purport to measure similar aspects of quality are correlated (as would be expected if they are both valid measures of the same construct. Secondly, we wanted to find out whether broad (global indicators correlated with any particular features of Primary Care Trusts, such as expenditure per capita. Methods Cross sectional quantitative analysis using data from six 2004/05 PCT performance indicators for 303 English Primary Care Trusts from four sources in the public domain: Star Rating, aggregated Quality and Outcomes Framework scores, Dr Foster mortality index, Dr Foster equity index (heart by-pass and hip replacements, NHS Litigation Authority Risk Management standards and Patient Satisfaction scores from the Star Ratings. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the effect of Primary Care Trust characteristics on performance. Results Star Rating and Quality and Outcomes Framework total, both summary measures of global quality, were not correlated with each other (F = 0.66, p = 0.57. There were however positive correlations between Quality and Outcomes Framework total and patient satisfaction (r = 0.61, p Conclusion Performance assessment in healthcare remains on the Government's agenda, with new core and developmental standards set to replace the Star Ratings in 2006. Yet the results of this analysis provide little evidence that the current indicators have sufficient construct validity to measure the underlying concept of quality, except when the specific area of screening is considered.

  5. Bridging the gap: academic and practitioner perspectives to identify early career competencies needed in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Richard M; O'Connor, Stephen J; Fine, David J

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare organizations, health management professional associations, and educational institutions have begun to examine carefully what it means to be a fully competent healthcare executive. As a result, an upsurge in interest in healthcare management competencies has been observed recently. The present study uses two critically important groups of informants as participants: health management practitioners and faculty. Using the nominal group process, health administrators identified critical environmental issues perceived to have an impact on healthcare executives today. These issues were employed in a card-sort assessment and a survey was administered to a nationwide sample of health administrators. These data were used to create a map and five clusters of the environmental landscape of healthcare management. These clusters of environmental issues provided a framework for having groups of administrators and faculty members generate and rank perceived behavioral competencies relative to each cluster. Implications for healthcare management practice, education, and research are discussed.

  6. Early Indicators of Treatment Success After Percutaneous Radiofrequency of Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ewan Mark; Lees, W. R.; Gillams, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the imaging of patients after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung metastases performed at our institution to assess the usefulness of ground glass opacification (GGO) margin for the prediction of complete tumor ablation. From January 2004 to March 2007, patients were identified where there was a postprocedure thin collimation scan to allow multiplanar reformatting, either immediately or at 24 h and at least 6 months of imaging follow-up. Thirty-six tumors in 22 patients were identified. The scans were assessed for the presence and width of GGO margin, and minimal and maximal dimensions were measured. A second reviewer, blinded to the outcome of the postprocedure assessment, reviewed the follow-up imaging for recurrence. The recurrence group had larger tumors (p = 0.045) and smaller mean minimal GGO margin width (p = 0.0001). Multivariate binary regression analysis confirmed that the minimal GGO margin was significantly (p 5 mm is the minimal margion required to ensure complete tumor ablation.

  7. Identification of early indicators of altered metabolism in normal development using a rodent model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Daniel Prabakaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as a model to link this with later adult disease. Because embryonic size variation also occurs under normal growth and differentiation, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important. The birth weight of rat pups vary according to the uterine horn positions. Using birth weight as a marker, we compared two groups of rat pups – lower birth weight (LBW, 5th to 25th percentile and average birth weight (ABW, 50th to 75th percentile – using morphological, biochemical and molecular biology, and genetic techniques. Our results show that insulin metabolism, Pi3k/Akt and Pparγ signaling and the genes regulating growth and metabolism are significantly different in these groups. Methylation at the promoter of the InsII (Ins2 gene and DNA methyltransferase 1 in LBW pups are both increased. Additionally, the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which includes Hdac1, Rb (Rb1 and E2f1, was also upregulated in LBW pups. We conclude that the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which regulates the restriction point of the cell cycle, retards the rate at which cells traverse the G1 or G0 phase of the cell cycle in LBW pups, thereby slowing down growth. This regulatory mechanism mediated by Dnmt1 might contribute to the production of small-size pups and altered physiology and pathology in adult life.

  8. Loneliness Literacy Scale: Development and Evaluation of an Early Indicator for Loneliness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigh-de Vlaming, Rianne; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Bos-Oude Groeniger, Inge; Hooft van Huysduynen, Eveline J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Van't Veer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the Loneliness Literacy Scale for the assessment of short-term outcomes of a loneliness prevention programme among Dutch elderly persons. Scale development was based on evidence from literature and experiences from local stakeholders and representatives of the target group. The scale was pre-tested among 303 elderly persons aged 65 years and over. Principal component analysis and internal consistency analysis were used to affirm the scale structure, reduce the number of items and assess the reliability of the constructs. Linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the literacy constructs and loneliness. The four constructs "motivation", "self-efficacy", "perceived social support" and "subjective norm" derived from principal component analysis captured 56 % of the original variance. Cronbach's coefficient α was above 0.7 for each construct. The constructs "self-efficacy" and "perceived social support" were positively and "subjective norm" was negatively associated with loneliness. To our knowledge this is the first study developing a short-term indicator for loneliness prevention. The indicator contributes to the need of evaluating public health interventions more close to the intervention activities.

  9. Clinical Laboratory Values as Early Indicators of Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisler, Ronald B; Yu, Chenggang; Donofrio, Michael J; Warren, Travis K; Wells, Jay B; Stuthman, Kelly S; Garza, Nicole L; Vantongeren, Sean A; Donnelly, Ginger C; Kane, Christopher D; Kortepeter, Mark G; Bavari, Sina; Cardile, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa during 2013-2016 demonstrated the need to improve Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnostics and standards of care. This retrospective study compared laboratory values and clinical features of 3 nonhuman primate models of lethal EVD to assess associations with improved survival time. In addition, the study identified laboratory values useful as predictors of survival, surrogates for EBOV viral loads, and triggers for initiation of therapeutic interventions in these nonhuman primate models. Furthermore, the data support that, in nonhuman primates, the Makona strain of EBOV may be less virulent than the Kikwit strain of EBOV. The applicability of these findings as potential diagnostic and management tools for EVD in humans warrants further investigation.

  10. Identifying early pathways of risk and resilience: The codevelopment of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and the role of harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Hyde, Luke W; Monk, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Psychological disorders co-occur often in children, but little has been done to document the types of conjoint pathways internalizing and externalizing symptoms may take from the crucial early period of toddlerhood or how harsh parenting may overlap with early symptom codevelopment. To examine symptom codevelopment trajectories, we identified latent classes of individuals based on internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ages 3-9 and found three symptom codevelopment classes: normative symptoms (low), severe-decreasing symptoms (initially high but rapidly declining), and severe symptoms (high) trajectories. Next, joint models examined how parenting trajectories overlapped with internalizing and externalizing symptom trajectories. These trajectory classes demonstrated that, normatively, harsh parenting increased after toddlerhood, but the severe symptoms class was characterized by a higher level and a steeper increase in harsh parenting and the severe-decreasing class by high, stable harsh parenting. In addition, a transactional model examined the bidirectional relationships among internalizing and externalizing symptoms and harsh parenting because they may cascade over time in this early period. Harsh parenting uniquely contributed to externalizing symptoms, controlling for internalizing symptoms, but not vice versa. In addition, internalizing symptoms appeared to be a mechanism by which externalizing symptoms increase. Results highlight the importance of accounting for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms from an early age to understand risk for developing psychopathology and the role harsh parenting plays in influencing these trajectories.

  11. Identifying and Embedding Common Indicators of Compromise in Virtual Machines for Lab-Based Incident Response Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    as an ever more popular method of exploiting hosts. Because the Internet is used for things like ecommerce , trading, voting, government, services...HTTP hypertext transfer protocol IE Internet Explorer IMAP Internet message access protocol IOC indicators of compromise IP Internet protocol MD5...notification of detection. These questions not only deal with how an incident is detected, but with the detection system itself. Things like whether

  12. Early menopause and other gynecologic risk indicators for chronic fatigue syndrome in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Roumiana S.; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine whether gynecologic conditions are associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods This study includes a subset of 157 women from a population-based case-control study in Georgia, United States, conducted in 2004-2009. Gynecologic history was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs and ORs adjusted for body mass index and other covariates, where relevant, were estimated for gynecologic conditions between 84 CFS cases and 73 healthy controls. Results Cases and controls were of similar age. Women with CFS reported significantly more gynecologic conditions and surgical operations than controls: menopause status (61.9% vs 37.0%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.21-4.66), earlier mean age at menopause onset (37.6 vs 48.6 y; adjusted OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), excessive menstrual bleeding (73.8% vs 42.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.70), bleeding between periods (48.8% vs 23.3%; adjusted OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.60-6.86), endometriosis (29.8% vs 12.3%; adjusted OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.53-8.84), use of noncontraceptive hormonal preparations (57.1% vs 26.0%; adjusted OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.36-6.38), nonmenstrual pelvic pain (26.2% vs 2.7%; adjusted OR, 11.98; 95% CI, 2.57-55.81), and gynecologic surgical operation (65.5% vs 31.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.67), especially hysterectomy (54.8% vs 19.2%; adjusted OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.46-7.17). Hysterectomy and oophorectomy occurred at a significantly younger mean age in the CFS group than in controls and occurred before CFS onset in 71% of women with records of date of surgical operation and date of CFS onset. Conclusions Menstrual abnormalities, endometriosis, pelvic pain, hysterectomy, and early/surgical menopause are all associated with CFS. Clinicians should be aware of the association between common gynecologic problems and CFS in women. Further work is warranted to determine whether these conditions contribute to the development and

  13. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann J. Ligocki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available * These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS. In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients.

  14. Proxy indicators for identifying iron deficiency among anemic vegetarians in an area prevalent for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongprachum, Kasama; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Manpeun, Suwanna; Schlep, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion of iron deficiency (ID) anemia (IDA) among vegans in northeast Thailand and to explore whether mathematical formulas derived from red blood cell (RBC) indices are applicable for IDA screening in the study population. Blood samples from 234 individuals (age 6-45 years) living in a vegan community were taken. Complete blood cell count, serum ferritin, hemoglobin profiles and DNA analysis for α-thalassemia were determined. Anemia was defined using the WHO criteria adjusted for age and sex. Serum ferritin thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies was 56.4% (95% CI = 49.8-62.9%). Of the anemic participants, 45.4% had ID. Based on the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, 4 formulas were applicable for predicting ID among anemic individuals (highest sensitivity of 86.4%). The proposed formulas might be used as proxy indicators for the identification of ID among anemic children and adult vegans if more sophisticated laboratory determinations are not available due to limited financial resources. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds

  16. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiugong, E-mail: xiugong.gao@fda.hhs.gov; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  17. Expanding indications for valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction: early and midterm results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valo, Johanna; Jokinen, Janne J; Kaarne, Markku; Ihlberg, Leo

    2013-02-01

    Valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction (VSRR) is an accepted method to treat patients with aortic root dilation. The role of the VSRR is less well defined for patients with bicuspid aortic valve, severe aortic valve insufficiency, congenital heart defects, and type A aortic dissection. We studied the clinical outcome of patients who underwent VSRR for expanded indications. Seventy-eight patients underwent VSRR between the 2005 and 2012. Seventy-two patients (92%) underwent reimplantation and 6 patients (8%) were operated on with the remodeling technique. The mean age was 51 ± 12 years (range 24 to 73). For 71 patients (91%), the operation was elective, and for 7 (9%; all with type A aortic dissection), on an emergency basis. Preoperatively, the degree of aortic insufficiency was graded as 2+ or greater for 27 patients (35%). Connective tissue disorder (Marfan or Loeys-Dietz), bicuspid aortic valve, or congenital heart disease was present in 15 (19%), 15 (19%), and 7 patients (9%), respectively. Concomitant aortic valve leaflet repair was performed for 39 patients (50%). The mean follow-up time was 2.4 ± 1.7 years (range, 0.1 to 7.0). Thirty-day mortality was zero. The rate of postoperative complications was low: stroke 3%, renal failure 3%, prosthesis infection 1%, and low cardiac output syndrome 1%. Survival was 100% at 1 year and 97% at 5 years. Freedom from recurrent aortic valve insufficiency (≥2+) during the follow-up was 94%. The midterm results of VSRR in terms of survival, freedom from recurrent aortic valve insufficiency, and the need for reoperation are excellent, even for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying the principal driving factors of water ecosystem dependence and the corresponding indicator species in a pilot City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Shao, N. F.; Yang, S. T.; Xiang, H.; Lou, H. Z.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, C. B.; Yu, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The world's aquatic ecosystems yield numerous vital services, which are essential to human existence but have deteriorated seriously in recent years. By studying the mechanisms of interaction between ecosystems and habitat processes, the constraining factors can be identified, and this knowledge can be used to improve the success rate of ecological restoration initiatives. At present, there is insufficient data on the link between hydrological, water quality factors and the changes in the structure of aquatic communities to allow any meaningful study of driving factors of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the typical monitoring stations were selected by fuzzy clustering analysis based on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water ecology in Jinan City, the first pilot city for the construction of civilized aquatic ecosystems in China. The dominant species identification model was used to identify the dominant species of the aquatic community. The driving effect of hydrological and water quality factors on dominant species was analyzed by Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Then, the principal factors of aquatic ecosystem dependence were selected. The results showed that there were 10 typical monitoring stations out of 59 monitoring sites, which were representative of aquatic ecosystems, 9 dominant fish species, and 20 dominant invertebrate species. The selection of factors for aquatic ecosystem dependence in Jinan were highly influenced by its regional conditions. Chemical environmental parameters influence the temporal and spatial variation of invertebrate much more than that of fish in Jinan City. However, the methodologies coupling typical monitoring stations selection, dominant species determination and driving factors identification were certified to be a cost-effective way, which can provide in-deep theoretical and technical directions for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems elsewhere.

  19. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Initiatives on early detection and intervention to proactively identify health and social problems in older people: experiences from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Baan, Caroline A; van den Berg, Matthijs; de Bruin, Simone R

    2015-10-30

    Over the last years, several initiatives on early detection and intervention have been put in place to proactively identify health and social problems in (frail) older people. An overview of the initiatives currently available in the Netherlands is lacking, and it is unknown whether they meet the preferences and needs of older people. Therefore, the objectives of this study were threefold: 1. To identify initiatives on early detection and intervention for older people in the Netherlands and compare their characteristics; 2. To explore the experiences of professionals with these initiatives; and 3. To explore to what extent existing initiatives meet the preferences and needs of older people. We performed a qualitative descriptive study in which we conducted semi-structured interviews with seventeen experts in preventive elderly care and three group interviews with volunteer elderly advisors. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. We identified eight categories of initiatives based on the setting (e.g. general practitioner practice, hospital, municipality) in which they were offered. Initiatives differed in their aims and target groups. The utilization of peers to identify problems and risks, as was done by some initiatives, was seen as a strength. Difficulties were experienced with identifying the target group that would benefit from proactive delivery of care and support most, and with addressing prevalent issues among older people (e.g. psychosocial issues, self-reliance issues). Although there is a broad array of initiatives available, there is a discrepancy between supply and demand. Current initiatives insufficiently address needs of (frail) older people. More insight is needed in "what should be done by whom, for which target group and at what moment", in order to improve current practice in preventive elderly care.

  1. Identifying Forest Impacted by Development in the Commonwealth of Virginia through the Use of Landsat and Known Change Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. House

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from 1326 different Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper images in finding low density development within the Commonwealth of Virginia’s forests. Individual NDVI images were stacked by year for the years 1995–2011 and the yearly maximum for each pixel was extracted, resulting in a 17-year image stack of all yearly maxima (a 98.7% data reduction. Using location data from housing starts and well permits, known previously forested housing starts were isolated from all other forest disturbance types. Samples from development disturbances and other forest disturbances, as well as from undisturbed forest, were used to derive vegetation index thresholds enabling separation of disturbed forest from undisturbed forest. Disturbances, once identified, could be separated into Development Disturbances and Non-Development Disturbances using a classification tree and only two variables from the Disturbance Detection and Diagnostics (D3 algorithm: the maximum NDVI in the available recovery period and the slope between the NDVI value at the time of the disturbance and the maximum NDVI in the available recovery period. Low density development disturbances of previous forest land cover had an F-measure, combining precision and recall into a single class-specific accuracy (β = 1, of 0.663. We compared our results to the NLCD 2001–2011 land cover changes from any forest (classes 41, 42, 43, and 90 to any developed (classes 21, 22, 23, and 24, resulting in an F-measure of 0.00 for the same validation points. Landsat time series stacks thus show promise for identifying even the small changes associated with low density development that have been historically overlooked/underestimated by prior mapping efforts. However, further research is needed to ensure that (1 the approach will work in other forest biomes and (2 enabling detection of these

  2. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kochanek

    Full Text Available Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1, in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses.Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum. Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype.Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications.

  3. Transthoracic ultrasonic tissue indices identify patients with severe left anterior descending artery stenosis. Correlation with fractional flow reserve. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kowalski, Mirosław; Rybicka, Justyna; Lech, Agnieszka; Tyczyński, Paweł; Witkowski, Adam; Hoffman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical application of ultrasonic tissue indices, with a focus on systolic strain (SS) and systolic strain rate (SSR) parameters derived from transthoracic echocardiography, in the assessment of left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis. The data of 30 patients with significant LAD stenosis were analysed. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography to obtain systolic myocardial velocity (Sm), longitudinal SS, and SSR from basal, mid, and apical segments of anterior and inferior walls in two-chamber apical view. Severity of LAD obstruction was measured by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) during coronary catheterisation. Systolic velocities, strain, and strain rate measured in basal, middle, and apical segments of the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall were lower when compared to those obtained from the corresponding, i.e. unaffected, inferior LV wall. There was a significant correlation between FFR and the value of SS, SSR characterising the apical LV segment of the anterior wall (r = -0.583, p = 0.01; r = -0.598, p = 0.01, respectively). Moreover, we found significant correlation between FFR and Sm in the mid-segment of the LV anterior wall (r = 0.611, p = 0.009). We conclude that SS and SSR obtained from the apical segment of the anterior LV wall may be related to the severity of LAD stenosis.

  4. Elevated osteopontin and thrombospondin expression identifies malignant human breast carcinoma but is not indicative of metastatic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Urquidi, Virginia; Rivard, Amber; Goodison, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Our previous characterization of a human breast tumor metastasis model identified several candidate metastasis genes. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) correlated with the metastatic phenotype, whereas thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TYRP-1) correlated with the nonmetastatic phenotype of independent MDA-MB-435 cell lines implanted orthotopically into athymic mice. The aim of the present study was to examine the cellular distribution of these molecules in human breast tissue and to determine whether the relative expression level of these three genes is associated with human breast tumor metastasis. Sixty-eight fresh, frozen specimens including 31 primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 22 nodal metastases, 10 fibroadenomas, and five normal breast tissues were evaluated for OPN expression, TSP-1 expression and TYRP-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to monitor the cellular distribution and to qualitatively assess expression. Quantitative analysis was achieved by enrichment of breast epithelial cells using laser-capture microdissection and subsequent real-time, quantitative PCR. The epithelial components of the breast tissue were the source of OPN and TSP-1 expression, whereas TYRP-1 was present in both the epithelial and stromal components. Both OPN and TSP-1 expression were significantly higher in malignant epithelial sources over normal and benign epithelial sources, but no difference in expression levels was evident between primary tumors with or without metastases, nor between primary and metastatic carcinomas. Elevated expression of OPN and TSP-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The multiplex analysis of these molecules may enhance our ability to diagnose and/or prognosticate human breast malignancy

  5. Age-related differences during simple working memory decisions: ERP indices of early recognition and compensation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tays, William J; Dywan, Jane; Capuana, Lesley J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2011-06-01

    Imaging data has identified frontal cortical activation in older adults during simple recognition tasks that relates positively with performance and could, therefore, be considered compensatory. However, in a previous electrophysiological study involving a Sternberg task with proactive interference manipulations, we observed a frontal positive scalp potential between 400 and 500 ms that was unique to older adults and predictive of poorer performance. These results led us to ask whether unique frontal activation in older adults serves a compensatory role only during relatively simple tasks when stimulus familiarity provides an unambiguous basis for response selection. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis by having younger and older adults complete a verbal Sternberg task without interference manipulations. In younger adults, we observed an early posterior negativity (90-120 ms) that predicted performance accuracy. Older adults failed to show this early negativity but did produce the expected frontal positivity. However, the frontal positivity was again associated with poorer performance. These data support the view that younger adults are able to bias early target discrimination to benefit response selection whereas older adults rely on later controlled processes that are not always effective in buffering against normative age-related decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted next generation sequencing identifies functionally deleterious germline mutations in novel genes in early-onset/familial prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering that mutations in known prostate cancer (PrCa predisposition genes, including those responsible for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and Lynch syndromes, explain less than 5% of early-onset/familial PrCa, we have sequenced 94 genes associated with cancer predisposition using next generation sequencing (NGS in a series of 121 PrCa patients. We found monoallelic truncating/functionally deleterious mutations in seven genes, including ATM and CHEK2, which have previously been associated with PrCa predisposition, and five new candidate PrCa associated genes involved in cancer predisposing recessive disorders, namely RAD51C, FANCD2, FANCI, CEP57 and RECQL4. Furthermore, using in silico pathogenicity prediction of missense variants among 18 genes associated with breast/ovarian cancer and/or Lynch syndrome, followed by KASP genotyping in 710 healthy controls, we identified "likely pathogenic" missense variants in ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and TP53. In conclusion, this study has identified putative PrCa predisposing germline mutations in 14.9% of early-onset/familial PrCa patients. Further data will be necessary to confirm the genetic heterogeneity of inherited PrCa predisposition hinted in this study.

  7. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Om hvordan læringshistorie-metoden blev modificeret til at blive målrettet skriftsprogstilegnelse (EASE-projektet), og hvordan såkaldte skriftsprogstilegnelses-indikatorer er potentielt indsnævrende for den pædagogiske praksis....

  8. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  9. Improvement in Creatinine Clearance after Open Heart Surgery in Infants as an Early Indicator of Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Amit; Dagan, Ovadia

    2016-12-01

    Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function. To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI. We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery. Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery. In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.

  10. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Walk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One apparent consequence of aging appears to be loss of some aspects of cognitive control. This loss is measurable as early as mid-adulthood. Since, like many aspects of cognition, there is wide variance among individuals, it is possible that behavior, such as one’s diet, could drive some of these differences. For instance, past data on older humans and non-human primates have suggested that dietary carotenoids could slow cognitive decline. In this study, we tested how early such protection might manifest by examining a sample (n = 60 of 25–45 year olds. Carotenoid status was assessed by directly measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD which has shown to be highly correlated with the primary carotenoid in brain, lutein. Cognitive control was measured using event-related potentials during the performance of cognitive control tasks designed to tap into different aspects of attentional (i.e., selective attention, attentional inhibition, and response inhibition control. Our results showed that, across participants, MPOD was related to both age and the P3 component of participants’ neuroelectric profile (P3 amplitude for attentional, but not response, inhibition. Although younger adults exhibited larger P3 amplitudes than their older adult counterparts, older subjects with higher MPOD levels displayed P3 indices similar to their younger adult counterparts in amplitude. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses showed that age was no longer a significant predictor of P3 amplitude when MPOD was included as a predictor in the model, suggesting that MPOD may partially contribute to the relationship between age and P3 amplitude. In addition, age and MPOD were shown to have independent associations with intraindividual variability of attentional control, such that younger individuals and individuals with higher MPOD showed less intraindividual variability. These results show a relationship between retinal carotenoids and neuroelectric

  11. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Middle and High School Age Groupings (Grades 7-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  12. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Baseline HbA1c to Identify High-Risk Gestational Diabetes: Utility in Early vs Standard Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Arianne N; Ross, Glynis P; Hyett, Jon; Molyneaux, Lynda; Tan, Kris; Constantino, Maria; Harding, Anna Jane; Wong, Jencia

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) necessitates risk stratification directing limited antenatal resources to those at greatest risk. Recent evidence demonstrates that an early pregnancy glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥5.9% (41 mmol/mol) predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. To determine the optimal HbA1c threshold for adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM in a treated multiethnic cohort and whether this differs in women diagnosed HbA1c (single-laboratory) measurement at the time of GDM diagnosis. Maternal clinical and pregnancy outcome data were collected prospectively. The association between baseline HbA1c and adverse pregnancy outcomes in early vs standard GDM. HbA1c was measured at a median of 17.6 ± 3.3 weeks' gestation in early GDM (n = 844) and 29.4 ± 2.6 weeks' gestation in standard GDM (n = 2254). In standard GDM, HbA1c >5.9% (41 mmol/mol) was associated with the greatest risk of large-for-gestational-age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.7 [1.5-4.9]), macrosomia (3.5 [1.4-8.6]), cesarean section (3.6 [2.1-6.2]), and hypertensive disorders (2.6 [1.1-5.8]). In early GDM, similar HbA1c associations were seen; however, lower HbA1c correlated with the greatest risk of small-for-gestational-age (P trend = 0.004) and prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia. Baseline HbA1c >5.9% (41 mmol/mol) identifies an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age, macrosomia, cesarean section, and hypertensive disorders in standard GDM. Although similar associations are seen in early GDM, higher HbA1c levels do not adequately capture risk-limiting utility as a triage tool in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  14. Biomarkers, imaging and disease activity indices in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early (SPACE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lorenzin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA and correlations between them and disease activity parameters and imaging indexes. Patients with low back pain (LBP (≥3 months, ≤2 years, onset ≤45 years participating in the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early SPACE study underwent a physical examination, questionnaires, laboratory tests, X-rays and MRI of the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJ. An expert rheumatologist formulated axSpA diagnosis in accordance with Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS criteria. Disease activity and physical functioning were assessed using imaging, clinical and serological indices. Spine and SIJ MRI and X-rays were scored independently by 2 readers using the SPARCC, mSASSS and NY-criteria. Patients were classified as: subjects with signs of radiographic sacroiliitis (r-axSpA, subjects with signs of sacroiliitis on SIJ-MRI but not on X-rays (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ+ or subjects with no signs of sacroiliitis on MRI/X-rays but with >2 SpA features and signs of bone oedema on MRI spine (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ-/undifferentiated SpA. Significant differences were found in the prevalence of radiographic sacroiliitis, active sacroiliitis on MRI and SPARCC SIJ scores. Biomarker levels were not significantly increased in any of the patient groups. The correlations between IL-17 and IL-23 and other indices were not significant; correlations were found between IL-22 and BASFI, BASG1, HAQ, VAS pain, between mSASSS and MMP3, and between the latter and hsCRP. Although not significantly higher in any of the three groups, IL-22, MMP3 and hsCRP values were correlated with some disease activity indexes and with mSASSS. Large observational studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. Cluster analysis of indicators of liver functional and preoperative low branched-chain amino acid tyrosine ration indicate a high risk of early recurrence in analysis of 165 hepatocellular carcinoma patients after initial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Mizuguchi, Toru; Kawamoto, Masaki; Meguro, Makoto; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Hirata, Koichi

    2011-08-01

    Cluster analysis is used for dividing many prognostic indicators, including liver function, tumor progression, and operative variables, into specific clusters. The albumin (ALB), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and branched chain amino-acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) may represent the severity of liver disease and function of the hepatic reserve. We developed the ALB-BTR and HGF-BTR classifications depending on each level to find specific unique subgroups. Our aim was to identify specific subgroups destined for favorable and poor prognoses after initial hepatectomy. Between 2002 and 2008, 165 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Liver function indicators, including BTR, tumor-related factors, and operative variables, were evaluated by cluster analysis with Ward's criterion. The ALB-BTR classification was divided into 4 groups depending on ALB (cutoff value, 4.0 g/dL) and BTR (cutoff value, 6.0). The HGF-BTR classification was also divided into 4 groups depending on HGF (cutoff value, 0.35 ng/mL) and BTR (cutoff value, 6.0). The prognoses of the subgroups were compared by the log-rank test. Cluster analysis divided multiple indicators into 5 different clusters. In each cluster, we further analyzed subgroups using the ALB-BTR and HGF-BTR classification. Mean recurrence-free survival times in ALB-GI (19.1 ± 2.4 months) and HGF-GIII (29.4 ± 3.8 months) were less than their mean overall survival times. Cluster analysis is useful to find similar and different indicators. Even though liver function was well preserved, low BTR could identify early recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after resection. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  17. Early warning indicators for river nutrient and sediment loads in tropical seagrass beds: a benchmark from a near-pristine archipelago in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwijk, M M; van der Welle, M E W; Lucassen, E C H E T; Vonk, J A; Christianen, M J A; Kiswara, W; al Hakim, I Inayat; Arifin, A; Bouma, T J; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M

    2011-07-01

    In remote, tropical areas human influences increase, potentially threatening pristine seagrass systems. We aim (i) to provide a bench-mark for a near-pristine seagrass system in an archipelago in East Kalimantan, by quantifying a large spectrum of abiotic and biotic properties in seagrass meadows and (ii) to identify early warning indicators for river sediment and nutrient loading, by comparing the seagrass meadow properties over a gradient with varying river influence. Abiotic properties of water column, pore water and sediment were less suitable indicators for increased sediment and nutrient loading than seagrass properties. Seagrass meadows strongly responded to higher sediment and nutrient loads and proximity to the coast by decreasing seagrass cover, standing stock, number of seagrass species, changing species composition and shifts in tissue contents. Our study confirms that nutrient loads are more important than water nutrient concentrations. We identify seagrass system variables that are suitable indicators for sediment and nutrient loading, also in rapid survey scenarios with once-only measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identificación de territorios críticos en salud materna mediante indicadores Using indicators to identify regions with critical maternal health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paz Ballivián

    2002-07-01

    Health and Social Welfare of Bolivia brought together a group of experts who, using available information, developed a method that made it possible to identify critical maternal and neonatal health sections of the country and to create a map of the health situation and of the existing health-services capacity in the 112 provinces of Bolivia. The objective of this piece is to describe the method that those experts created and applied. Methods. Two indices were created, one for the health situation and the other for the existing health-services capacity. The steps followed in this process were: 1 identifying the variables included in each index, 2 weighting the variables in each index, 3 creating a mathematical formula for each index, 4 preparing a list with the data from each province for the chosen variables and with the percentage for each province for each index, obtained by using the respective formula, 5 setting three continuous-data categories for each index, and 6 defining the taxonomy that was possible by combining the results of the two indices. Results. Applying this approach, a national map of the maternal health situation and of the existing capacity in each of the 112 Bolivian provinces was developed. This made it possible to choose a small number of provinces where the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare could work with other institutions to carry out joint interventions. The 9 selected provinces have a total of 26 municipalities, which include 17 health districts and which have 29% of the population of the country, 33% of the maternal deaths, and an estimated 35% of the early neonatal deaths. Conclusions. Using available information, this method generated a map of the overall maternal health situation in the 112 provinces of Bolivia and made it possible to identify critical geographical areas for health interventions.

  19. RADAR study: protocol for an observational cohort study to identify early warning signals on the pathways to alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Tim; Swift, Wendy; Mewton, Louise; Kypri, Kypros; Lynskey, Michael T; Butterworth, Peter; Tibbetts, Joel; McCraw, Stacey; Upton, Emily

    2017-08-21

    Harmful alcohol consumption, particularly alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a worldwide health priority, contributing substantially to global morbidity and mortality. The peak age of onset of AUD is 18-24, thus a deeper understanding of the young adult experience is vital if we are to identify modifiable risk factors and intervene early in the developmental course of this disabling disorder. Critical unanswered questions include: How soon after drinking initiation do AUD symptoms begin to emerge? Which symptoms come first? Do the symptoms unfold in a predictable pattern? In what ways do the emerging symptoms interact with individual, peer, family and environmental risk factors to impact on the transition to disorder? The proposed RADAR study will examine the prospective development of AUD symptoms over the young adulthood (18-24) years. We will capitalise on an existing cohort of 1911 community-based adolescents who were recruited at age 13 and have completed a baseline and five annual follow-up assessments as part of an observational cohort study. We will interview these adolescents every 6 months between the ages of 19 and 23 to derive monthly histories of both alcohol use and AUD symptomatology, along with a comprehensive battery of risk and protective factor scales hypothesised to predict the emergence and course of AUD. The results of this study will inform the natural history of AUD and will be used to identify specific targets for prevention and early intervention of AUD. Ethical approval has already been granted for the study (UNSW HREC 10144). We will disseminate the results of the study through published manuscripts, conferences and seminar presentations. Data used in published manuscripts will be made available through a suitable online repository (eg, Dryad-datadryad.org). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  20. Identifying Early Childhood Personality Dimensions Using the California Child Q-Set and Prospective Associations With Behavioral and Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Schalet, Benjamin D; Hicks, Brian M; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    The present study used an empirical, "bottom-up" approach to delineate the structure of the California Child Q-Set (CCQ), a comprehensive set of personality descriptors, in a sample of 373 preschool-aged children. This approach yielded two broad trait dimensions, Adaptive Socialization (emotional stability, compliance, intelligence) and Anxious Inhibition (emotional/behavioral introversion). Results demonstrate the value of using empirical derivation to investigate the structure of personality in young children, speak to the importance of early-evident personality traits for adaptive development, and are consistent with a growing body of evidence indicating that personality structure in young children is similar, but not identical to, that in adults, suggesting a model of broad personality dimensions in childhood that evolve into narrower traits in adulthood.

  1. Redox history of the Three Gorges region during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian as indicated by the Fe isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sawaki

    2018-01-01

    To circumvent this deficiency, we drilled a fossiliferous Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary succession in the Three Gorges region, South China. We analyzed the iron isotope ratios (δ56/54Fe of pyrite grains in the drill cores using laser ablation multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate large variations in δ56/54Fe, from −1.6 to 1.6‰, and positive iron isotope ratios are observed in many successions. The presence of positive δ56/54Fe in pyrite indicates that the ferrous iron in the seawater was partially oxidized, suggesting that seawater at Three Gorges was ferruginous during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. However, aggregated pyrite grains in organic carbon-rich black shales at Member 4 of the Doushantuo Formation and the base of the Shuijingtuo Formation yield near-zero δ56/54Fe values; this suggests that the ocean was transiently dominated by sulfidic conditions during these periods. Notably negative δ56/54Fe values, lower than −1‰, can be interpreted as a signature of DIR. The DIR also might contribute in part to the re-mineralization of organic matter during the largest negative carbon isotope anomaly in the Ediacaran.

  2. Does digital mammography suppose an advance in early diagnosis? Trends in performance indicators 6 years after digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Maria; Domingo, Laia; Macià, Francesc; Comas, Mercè; Burón, Andrea; Castells, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    To provide a complete evaluation of the long-term impact of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on the improvement of early diagnosis in a population-based screening program. We included 82,961 screen-film mammograms (SFM) and 79,031 FFDM from women aged 50-69 screened biennially from 1995-2010 in Spain and followed-up to 2012. The first screening round of the program was excluded. Rates of cancer detection, interval cancer, tumoral characteristics and other quality indicators were compared between SFM and FFDM periods using the Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. Detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) significantly increased with FFDM (0.05 % vs 0.09 %; p = 0.010), along with the proportion of small invasive cancers (Digitalization has supposed an improvement in early diagnosis because DCIS and small invasive cancers increased without a change in detection rate. Moreover, false-positive reduction without an increase in the interval cancer rate was confirmed.

  3. Exome Sequencing Identified a Recessive RDH12 Mutation in a Family with Severe Early-Onset Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is the most important hereditary retinal disease caused by progressive degeneration of the photoreceptor cells. This study is to identify gene mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP in a Chinese family using next-generation sequencing technology. A Chinese family with 7 members including two individuals affected with severe early-onset RP was studied. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Exome sequencing was performed on a single RP patient (the proband of this family and direct Sanger sequencing on other family members and normal controls was followed to confirm the causal mutations. A homozygous mutation c.437Tidentified as being related to the phenotype of this arRP family. This homozygous mutation was detected in the two affected patients, but not present in other family members and 600 normal controls. Another three normal members in the family were found to carry this heterozygous missense mutation. Our results emphasize the importance of c.437T

  4. Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social Attention and Communication Study at 12, 18 and 24 months of age, so that these could be used to identify children with autism spectrum disorders with greater accuracy. The percentage of 'yes/no' responses for each behavioural marker was compared between children with autistic disorder (n = 39), autism spectrum disorder (n = 50) and developmental and/or language delay (n = 20) from 12 to 24 months, with a logistic regression also conducted at 24 months. Across all ages, the recurring key markers of both autistic disorder and autism spectrum disorder were deficits in eye contact and pointing, and from 18 months, deficits in showing became an important marker. In combination, these behaviours, along with pretend play, were found to be the best group of predictors for a best estimate diagnostic classification of autistic disorder/autism spectrum disorder at 24 months. It is argued that the identified markers should be monitored repeatedly during the second year of life by community health-care professionals.

  5. Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.; Shimizu, K.; Morikawa, M.; Shimono, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) in group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion

  6. HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World Health Organization global report from 50 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diane E; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Ravasi, Giovanni; McMahon, James H; Saadani, Ahmed; Kelley, Karen F

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

  7. Comparison of PET metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated by polychemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisonobe, Jacques-Antoine; Necib, Hatem; Buvat, Irene [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay Cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo A.; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    To compare the performance of eight metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. Forty patients with advanced mCRC underwent two FDG PET/CT scans, at baseline and on day 14 after chemotherapy initiation. For each lesion, eight metabolic indices were calculated: four standardized uptake values (SUV) without correction for the partial volume effect (PVE), two SUV with correction for PVE, a metabolic volume (MV) and a total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The relative change in each index between the two scans was calculated for each lesion. Lesions were also classified as responding and nonresponding lesions using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) 1.0 measured by contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and 6-8 weeks after starting therapy. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to compare the various indices. Based on the RECIST classification, ROC analyses were used to determine how accurately the indices predicted lesion response to therapy later seen with RECIST. RECIST showed 27 responding and 74 nonresponding lesions. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the four SUV indices uncorrected for PVE could not be used interchangeably, nor could the two SUV corrected for PVE. The areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were not significantly different between the SUV indices not corrected for PVE. The mean SUV change in a lesion better predicted lesion response without than with PVE correction. The AUC was significantly higher for SUV uncorrected for PVE than for the MV, but change in MV provided some information regarding the lesion response to therapy (AUC >0.5). In these mCRC patients, all SUV uncorrected for PVE accurately predicted the tumour response on day 14 after starting therapy as assessed 4 to 6 weeks later (i.e. 6 to 8 weeks after therapy initiation) using the RECIST criteria. Neither correcting SUV for PVE nor measuring TLG improved the assessment of tumour

  8. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sex-dependent associations of genetic variants identified by GWAS with indices of adiposity and obesity risk in a Chinese children population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Shen, Yue; Reilly, Kathleen Heather; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are associated with body mass index (BMI)/obesity. This study aimed to examine the identified associations among a population of Chinese children. Five SNPs (SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479) were genotyped for a group of Chinese children (N = 2849, age range 6-18 years). A total of 1230 obese cases and 1619 controls with normal weight were identified based on the Chinese age- and sex-specific BMI references. Of five studied variants, only two (SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102) were nominally associated with indices of adiposity and obesity risk in girls and only SEC16B rs10913469 in children at puberty (p indicated that the genetic risk score (GRS) was associated with BMI, waist circumference and risk of obesity (defined by BMI) in girls, even after FDR adjustment for multiple testing. However, there was no statistical association of GRS with indices of adiposity and risk of obesity in children at puberty after multiple comparison correction. This study confirmed the synthetic effect of SNPs on the indices of adiposity and risk of obesity in Chinese girls, but failed to replicate the effect of five separate variants. We also did not found cumulative effect of SNPs in children at puberty. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regional variation in identified cancer care needs of early-career oncologists in China, India, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, H Kim; Fawzy, Maria R; Aziz, Zeba; Nair, Reena; Pramesh, C S; Parmar, Vani; Parikh, Purvish M; Jamal, Rozmin; Irumnaz, Azizunissa; Ren, Jun; Stockler, Martin R; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality is increasing in the developing world. Inequities between low-, middle-, and high-income countries affect disease burden and the infrastructure needs in response to cancer. We surveyed early-career oncologists attending workshops in clinical research in three countries with emerging economies about their perception of the evolving cancer burden. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was distributed at clinical trial concept development workshops held in Beijing, Lahore, Karachi, and Mumbai at major hospitals to acquire information regarding home-country health conditions and needs. A total of 100 respondents participated in the workshops held at major hospitals in the region (India = 29, China = 25, Pakistan = 42, and other = 4). Expected consensus on many issues (e.g., emergence of cancer as a significant health issue) was balanced with significant variation in priorities, opportunities, and challenges. Chinese respondents prioritized improvements in cancer-specific care and palliative care, Indian respondents favored improved cancer detection and advancing research in cancer care, and Pakistani respondents prioritized awareness of cancer and improvements in disease detection and cancer care research. For all, the most frequently cited opportunity was help in improving professional cancer education and training. Predominantly early-career oncologists attending clinical research workshops (in China, India, and Pakistan) identified needs for increasing clinical cancer research, professional education, and public awareness of cancer. Decision makers supporting efforts to reduce the burden of cancer worldwide will need to factor the specific needs and aspirations of health care providers in their country in prioritizing health policies and budgets. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Perspectives of a Panel of Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Early literacy skills serve as the foundation for the development of subsequent reading skills and strategies. Increasingly, educators are administering early literacy assessments to identify young students who are at risk for reading failure and providing them with additional evidence based interventions. The most widely used assessments for…

  12. Identifying indications for percutaneous (PTC) vs. endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)- guided "rendezvous" procedure in biliary obstruction and incomplete endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J G; Finkelmeier, F; Friedrich-Rust, M; Kronenberger, B; Trojan, J; Zeuzem, S; Sarrazin, C

    2014-10-01

    The variety of rendezvous (RV) procedures has recently been extended by EUS- and PTCD-guided procedures as a complementary means to conventional ERCP. We have identified indication criteria and the potential of biliary PTCD-guided vs. EUS-guided RV. Consecutive patients with bile duct obstruction who underwent RV were included. In all, ERCP alone was unable to achieve treatment success. Indication, technical success, and outcome in PTCD- vs. EUS-guided RV were retrospectively compared to identify criteria that indicate preference of RV technique. Site of obstruction, clinical scenario (stenosis with abscess vs. no abscess) and reason for previous failure of ERC were evaluated. In 32 patients, three different indications for RV procedures were identified: First, a one-step access to assist in failed ERCP (type 1, intra-ductal RV); second, temporary drainage for prolonged treatment of complex biliary disease (type 2, intra-ductal RV), and drainage of cholangio-abscess with re-establishing bile outflow (type 3, intra-abscess RV). Indication of PTCD- vs. EUS-guided rendezvous was competitive in type 1, but exclusive in favor of PTCD in types 2 and 3. The site of biliary obstruction indicated the anatomic location of RV procedures. This classification may help to define inclusion criteria for prospective studies on biliary RV procedures. Choice of therapeutic strategy depends on the anatomic location of the biliary obstruction and the type of the biliary lesion. PTCD-guided RV might improve outcome in cholangio-abscess. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Non-Specific Root Transport of Nutrient Gives Access to an Early Nutritional Indicator: The Case of Sulfate and Molybdate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Maillard

    Full Text Available Under sulfur (S deficiency, crosstalk between nutrients induced accumulation of other nutrients, particularly molybdenum (Mo. This disturbed balanced between S and Mo could provide a way to detect S deficiency and therefore avoid losses in yield and seed quality in cultivated species. Under hydroponic conditions, S deprivation was applied to Brassica napus to determine the precise kinetics of S and Mo uptake and whether sulfate transporters were involved in Mo uptake. Leaf contents of S and Mo were also quantified in a field-grown S deficient oilseed rape crop with different S and N fertilization applications to evaluate the [Mo]:[S] ratio, as an indicator of S nutrition. To test genericity of this indicator, the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also assessed with other cultivated species under different controlled conditions. During S deprivation, Mo uptake was strongly increased in B. napus. This accumulation was not a result of the induction of the molybdate transporters, Mot1 and Asy, but could be a direct consequence of Sultr1.1 and Sultr1.2 inductions. However, analysis of single mutants of these transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that other sulfate deficiency responsive transporters may be involved. Under field conditions, Mo content was also increased in leaves by a reduction in S fertilization. The [Mo]:[S] ratio significantly discriminated between the plots with different rates of S fertilization. Threshold values were estimated for the hierarchical clustering of commercial crops according to S status. The use of the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also reliable to detect S deficiency for other cultivated species under controlled conditions. The analysis of the leaf [Mo]:[S] ratio seems to be a practical indicator to detect early S deficiency under field conditions and thus improve S fertilization management.

  14. Using machine learning to identify air pollution exposure profiles associated with early cognitive skills among U.S. children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stingone, Jeanette A.; Pandey, Om P.; Claudio, Luz; Pandey, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months. In the first-stage, 100 regression trees were learned to identify ambient air pollutant exposure profiles most closely associated with scores on a standardized mathematics test administered to children in kindergarten. In the second-stage, the exposure profiles frequently predicting lower math scores were included within linear regression models and adjusted for confounders in order to estimate the magnitude of their effect on math scores. This approach was applied to the full population, and then to the populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas. Our first-stage results in the full population suggested children with low trichloroethylene exposure had significantly lower math scores. This association was not observed for children living in urban communities, suggesting that confounding related to urbanicity needs to be considered within the first-stage. When restricting our analysis to populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas, high isophorone levels were found to predict lower math scores. Within adjusted regression models of children in highly-populated urban areas, the estimated effect of higher isophorone exposure on math scores was −1.19 points (95% CI −1.94, −0.44). Similar results were observed for the overall population of urban children. This data-driven, two-stage approach can be

  15. Discovering metabolic indices for early detection of squash (Cucurbita maxima) storage quality using GC-MS-based metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, K; Kimura, Y; Sugiyama, K; Kami, D; Nakamura, T; Oka, N

    2016-04-01

    Squash (Cucubita maxima) cultivars with good storage qualities are needed for breeding to improve poor crop supply during winter in Japan. We measured changes in squash constituents during different storage periods to identify compounds that were suitable to be used as indices of storage quality. Principal components analysis of compounds at 1-5 months after harvest showed that PC1 scores were lower for cultivars with a higher rather than lower SQ (storage quality) ranks. Partial least-squares regression analysis was performed using the peak areas of all compounds identified from the 15 cultivars at 1 month after harvest as explanation variables and SQ as the target variable. Variable influence on projection scores and rank correlation coefficients were higher for arabinose and xylose, which showed less temporal change during the storage period; hence, they were considered to be suitable indicators for storage evaluation. These data will be useful for future studies aiming to improve storage quality of squash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intervention on early-onset conduct problems as indicated prevention for substance use: A seven-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.

  17. Accelerating early anti-tuberculosis drug discovery by creating mycobacterial indicator strains that predict mode of action

    KAUST Repository

    Boot, Maikel

    2018-04-13

    Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. The resulting dataset comprises the first overview of transcriptional stress responses of mycobacteria to different antibiotics. We show that antibiotics can be distinguished based on their specific transcriptional stress fingerprint. Notably, this fingerprint was more distinctive in M. marinum. We decided to use this to our advantage and continue with this model organism. A selection of diverse antibiotic stress genes was used to construct stress reporters. In total, three functional reporters were constructed to respond to DNA damage, cell wall damage and ribosomal inhibition. Subsequently, these reporter strains were used to screen a small anti-TB compound library to predict the mode of action. In doing so, we could identify the putative mode of action for three novel compounds, which confirms our approach.

  18. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  19. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  20. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidder, Bridgette N.; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G.; Olson, Adric D.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. - Highlights: • We exposed a freshwater snail to relevant concentrations of pyraclostrobin. • We monitored energetic and life history endpoints. • Pyraclostrobin affected feeding, hatching success and egg macronutrient content. • Energetic-based endpoints may provide valuable insight to toxic effects. - The fungicide pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations effects a range of life history and energetic endpoints in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

  1. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidder, Bridgette N; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Olson, Adric D; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early BCR-ABL1 Transcript Decline after 1 Month of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy as an Indicator for Treatment Response in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Missiry

    Full Text Available In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, early treatment prediction is important to identify patients with inferior overall outcomes. We examined the feasibility of using reductions in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI treatment to predict therapy response. Fifty-two first-line TKI-treated CML patients were included (imatinib n = 26, dasatinib n = 21, nilotinib n = 5, and BCR-ABL1 transcript levels were measured at diagnosis (dg and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. The fold change of the BCR-ABL1 transcripts at 1 month compared to initial BCR-ABL1 transcript levels was used to indicate early therapy response. In our cohort, 21% of patients had no decrease in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month and were classified as poor responders. Surprisingly, these patients had lower BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at dg compared to responders (31% vs. 48%, p = 0.0083. Poor responders also significantly more often had enlarged spleen (55% vs. 15%; p<0.01 and a higher percentage of Ph+ CD34+CD38- cells in the bone marrow (91% vs. 75%, p<0.05. The major molecular response rates were inferior in the poor responders (at 12m 18% vs. 64%, p<0.01; 18m 27% vs. 75%, p<0.01; 24m 55% vs. 87%, p<0.01. In conclusion, early treatment response analysis defines a biologically distinct patient subgroup with inferior long-term outcomes.

  3. Distinct high resolution genome profiles of early onset and late onset colorectal cancer integrated with gene expression data identify candidate susceptibility loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merok Marianne A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates suggest that up to 30% of colorectal cancers (CRC may develop due to an increased genetic risk. The mean age at diagnosis for CRC is about 70 years. Time of disease onset 20 years younger than the mean age is assumed to be indicative of genetic susceptibility. We have compared high resolution tumor genome copy number variation (CNV (Roche NimbleGen, 385 000 oligo CGH array in microsatellite stable (MSS tumors from two age groups, including 23 young at onset patients without known hereditary syndromes and with a median age of 44 years (range: 28-53 and 17 elderly patients with median age 79 years (range: 69-87. Our aim was to identify differences in the tumor genomes between these groups and pinpoint potential susceptibility loci. Integration analysis of CNV and genome wide mRNA expression data, available for the same tumors, was performed to identify a restricted candidate gene list. Results The total fraction of the genome with aberrant copy number, the overall genomic profile and the TP53 mutation spectrum were similar between the two age groups. However, both the number of chromosomal aberrations and the number of breakpoints differed significantly between the groups. Gains of 2q35, 10q21.3-22.1, 10q22.3 and 19q13.2-13.31 and losses from 1p31.3, 1q21.1, 2q21.2, 4p16.1-q28.3, 10p11.1 and 19p12, positions that in total contain more than 500 genes, were found significantly more often in the early onset group as compared to the late onset group. Integration analysis revealed a covariation of DNA copy number at these sites and mRNA expression for 107 of the genes. Seven of these genes, CLC, EIF4E, LTBP4, PLA2G12A, PPAT, RG9MTD2, and ZNF574, had significantly different mRNA expression comparing median expression levels across the transcriptome between the two groups. Conclusions Ten genomic loci, containing more than 500 protein coding genes, are identified as more often altered in tumors from early onset versus late

  4. Integrative analysis of deep sequencing data identifies estrogen receptor early response genes and links ATAD3B to poor survival in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Ovaska

    Full Text Available Identification of responsive genes to an extra-cellular cue enables characterization of pathophysiologically crucial biological processes. Deep sequencing technologies provide a powerful means to identify responsive genes, which creates a need for computational methods able to analyze dynamic and multi-level deep sequencing data. To answer this need we introduce here a data-driven algorithm, SPINLONG, which is designed to search for genes that match the user-defined hypotheses or models. SPINLONG is applicable to various experimental setups measuring several molecular markers in parallel. To demonstrate the SPINLONG approach, we analyzed ChIP-seq data reporting PolII, estrogen receptor α (ERα, H3K4me3 and H2A.Z occupancy at five time points in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line after estradiol stimulus. We obtained 777 ERa early responsive genes and compared the biological functions of the genes having ERα binding within 20 kb of the transcription start site (TSS to genes without such binding site. Our results show that the non-genomic action of ERα via the MAPK pathway, instead of direct ERa binding, may be responsible for early cell responses to ERα activation. Our results also indicate that the ERα responsive genes triggered by the genomic pathway are transcribed faster than those without ERα binding sites. The survival analysis of the 777 ERα responsive genes with 150 primary breast cancer tumors and in two independent validation cohorts indicated the ATAD3B gene, which does not have ERα binding site within 20 kb of its TSS, to be significantly associated with poor patient survival.

  5. T cell receptor sequencing of early-stage breast cancer tumors identifies altered clonal structure of the T cell repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, John F; Wheeler, Amanda J; Chan, Natalie H; Hanft, Violet R; Dirbas, Frederick M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Quake, Stephen R

    2017-11-28

    Tumor-infiltrating T cells play an important role in many cancers, and can improve prognosis and yield therapeutic targets. We characterized T cells infiltrating both breast cancer tumors and the surrounding normal breast tissue to identify T cells specific to each, as well as their abundance in peripheral blood. Using immune profiling of the T cell beta-chain repertoire in 16 patients with early-stage breast cancer, we show that the clonal structure of the tumor is significantly different from adjacent breast tissue, with the tumor containing ∼2.5-fold greater density of T cells and higher clonality compared with normal breast. The clonal structure of T cells in blood and normal breast is more similar than between blood and tumor, and could be used to distinguish tumor from normal breast tissue in 14 of 16 patients. Many T cell sequences overlap between tissue and blood from the same patient, including ∼50% of T cells between tumor and normal breast. Both tumor and normal breast contain high-abundance "enriched" sequences that are absent or of low abundance in the other tissue. Many of these T cells are either not detected or detected with very low frequency in the blood, suggesting the existence of separate compartments of T cells in both tumor and normal breast. Enriched T cell sequences are typically unique to each patient, but a subset is shared between many different patients. We show that many of these are commonly generated sequences, and thus unlikely to play an important role in the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Using machine learning to identify air pollution exposure profiles associated with early cognitive skills among U.S. children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Pandey, Om P; Claudio, Luz; Pandey, Gaurav

    2017-11-01

    Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months. In the first-stage, 100 regression trees were learned to identify ambient air pollutant exposure profiles most closely associated with scores on a standardized mathematics test administered to children in kindergarten. In the second-stage, the exposure profiles frequently predicting lower math scores were included within linear regression models and adjusted for confounders in order to estimate the magnitude of their effect on math scores. This approach was applied to the full population, and then to the populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas. Our first-stage results in the full population suggested children with low trichloroethylene exposure had significantly lower math scores. This association was not observed for children living in urban communities, suggesting that confounding related to urbanicity needs to be considered within the first-stage. When restricting our analysis to populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas, high isophorone levels were found to predict lower math scores. Within adjusted regression models of children in highly-populated urban areas, the estimated effect of higher isophorone exposure on math scores was -1.19 points (95% CI -1.94, -0.44). Similar results were observed for the overall population of urban children. This data-driven, two-stage approach can be applied to other

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hem D

    2017-10-25

    data, are indispensable to glean into the cancer genome and proteome and these approaches have generated multidimensional universal studies of genes and proteins (OMICS) data which has the potential to facilitate precision medicine. However, due to slow progress in computational technologies, the translation of big omics data into their clinical aspects have been slow. In this review, attempts have been made to describe the role of high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies in identifying a panel of biomarkers which could be used for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem D. Shukla

    2017-10-01

    , and pharmacogenomics data, are indispensable to glean into the cancer genome and proteome and these approaches have generated multidimensional universal studies of genes and proteins (OMICS data which has the potential to facilitate precision medicine. However, due to slow progress in computational technologies, the translation of big omics data into their clinical aspects have been slow. In this review, attempts have been made to describe the role of high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies in identifying a panel of biomarkers which could be used for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

  9. Reliability of coded data to identify earliest indications of cognitive decline, cognitive evaluation and Alzheimer's disease diagnosis: a pilot study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Desai, Urvi; Kirson, Noam Y; Wen, Jody; Meiselbach, Mark K; Reed, Catherine C; Belger, Mark; Lenox-Smith, Alan; Martinez, Carlos; Rasmussen, Jill

    2018-03-22

    Evaluate the reliability of using diagnosis codes and prescription data to identify the timing of symptomatic onset, cognitive assessment and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among patients diagnosed with AD. This was a retrospective cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The study cohort consisted of a random sample of 50 patients with first AD diagnosis in 2010-2013. Additionally, patients were required to have a valid text-field code and a hospital episode or a referral in the 3 years before the first AD diagnosis. The earliest indications of cognitive impairment, cognitive assessment and AD diagnosis were identified using two approaches: (1) using an algorithm based on diagnostic codes and prescription drug information and (2) using information compiled from manual review of both text-based and coded data. The reliability of the code-based algorithm for identifying the earliest dates of the three measures described earlier was evaluated relative to the comprehensive second approach. Additionally, common cognitive assessments (with and without results) were described for both approaches. The two approaches identified the same first dates of cognitive symptoms in 33 (66%) of the 50 patients, first cognitive assessment in 29 (58%) patients and first AD diagnosis in 43 (86%) patients. Allowing for the dates from the two approaches to be within 30 days, the code-based algorithm's success rates increased to 74%, 70% and 94%, respectively. Mini-Mental State Examination was the most commonly observed cognitive assessment in both approaches; however, of the 53 tests performed, only 19 results were observed in the coded data. The code-based algorithm shows promise for identifying the first AD diagnosis. However, the reliability of using coded data to identify earliest indications of cognitive impairment and cognitive assessments is questionable. Additionally, CPRD is not a recommended data source to identify results of cognitive

  10. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Diest, Paul J van; Brandt, Burkhard; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p < 0.01) and a significantly increased disease free period (p = 0.01) independent from nodal status and tumour size. In primary node negative T1/T2 SCC of the oral floor, absence of HIF-1α expression specified a subgroup of high-risk patients (p < 0.05). HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy

  11. Profiling inflammatory biomarkers in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) postpartum: Potential early indicators of bovine clinical endometritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, Mounir; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Kaidi, Rachid; Meade, Kieran G; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2017-11-01

    Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM. PMN were consistently high in CVM from 7 to 21 DPP, but were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis 21 DPP compared with healthy cows. In contrast, there were more epithelial cells in healthy cows 21 DPP than in clinical endometritis animals. Total protein levels decreased significantly in CVM from healthy cows between days 7 and 21 postpartum. All inflammatory biomarkers except C5b, remained high in cows with clinical endometritis from 7 to 21 DPP, indicating sustained and chronic endometrial inflammation. IL1, IL-6, IL-8 and Hp levels were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis compared to healthy cows 21 DPP. Interestingly IL-1β levels were raised in CVM from clinical endometritis but not in healthy cows 7 DPP suggesting that early measurement of IL-1β levels might provide a useful predictive marker of clinical endometritis. In contrast, SAA and C5b levels were increased in healthy cows 21 DPP, compared to cows with clinical endometritis suggesting that these acute phase proteins might have an anti-inflammatory role. Our results show that CVM is convenient for profiling disease-associated changes in key inflammatory molecules postpartum and reaffirms that sustained inflammation is a key feature of clinical endometritis in the dairy cow. Copyright

  12. Performance of HbA1c as an early diagnostic indicator of type 1 diabetes in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Boulware, David; Beam, Craig A; Rodriguez, Henry; Legault, Laurent; Hyytinen, Mila; Rewers, Marian J; Schatz, Desmond A; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HbA(1c) as an alternative criterion for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 1 diabetes (T1D) in high-risk subjects TrialNet Natural History (TrialNet) studies and had an HbA(1c) within 90 days of an OGTT with a 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) measure were included. An OGTT of 140-199 mg/dL defined IGT, and an OGTT with 2-hPG ≥200 mg/dL or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL defined diabetes. HbA(1c) ≥5.7% defined IGT, and HbA(1c) ≥ 6.5% defined diabetes. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of HbA(1c) compared with OGTT. There were 587 subjects from DPT-1, 884 from TrialNet, 91 from TEDDY, and 420 from TRIGR. As an indicator for IGT, HbA(1c) sensitivity was very low across the studies (8-42%), and specificity was variable (64-95%). With HbA(1c) ≥6.5% threshold used for T1D diagnosis, the sensitivity was very low and specificity was high (sensitivity and specificity: DPT-1 24 and 98%, TrialNet 28 and 99%, TEDDY 34 and 98%, and TRIGR 33 and 99%, respectively). The positive predictive value of HbA(1c) ≥6.5% for the development of T1D was variable (50-94%) across the four studies. HbA(1c) ≥6.5% is a specific but not sensitive early indicator for T1D in high-risk subjects <21 years of age diagnosed by OGTT or asymptomatic hyperglycemia. Redefining the HbA(1c) threshold is recommended if used as an alternative criterion in diagnosing T1D.

  13. Proteomics mapping of cord blood identifies haptoglobin "switch-on" pattern as biomarker of early-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T; Nayeri, Unzila A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Pettker, Christian M; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2011-01-01

    Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1(st)-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of "antenatal IAI exposure" as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2(nd)-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the selection of newborns for prompt and targeted treatment at birth.

  14. Proteomics Mapping of Cord Blood Identifies Haptoglobin “Switch-On” Pattern as Biomarker of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Pettker, Christian M.; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W.; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1st-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of “antenatal IAI exposure” as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2nd-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions/Significance Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the

  15. Identifying early pathways of risk and resilience: The co-development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and the role of harsh parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Hyde, Luke W.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological disorders co-occur often in children, but little has been done to document the types of conjoint pathways internalizing and externalizing symptoms may take from the crucial early period of toddlerhood or how harsh parenting may overlap with early symptom co-development. To examine symptom co-development trajectories, we identified latent classes of individuals based on internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ages 3–9 and found three symptom co-development classes: normat...

  16. Inappropriate pharmacological treatment in older adults affected by cardiovascular disease and other chronic comorbidities: a systematic literature review to identify potentially inappropriate prescription indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucenteforte E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ersilia Lucenteforte,1 Niccolò Lombardi,1,* Davide Liborio Vetrano,2,* Domenico La Carpia,2,* Zuzana Mitrova,3 Ursula Kirchmayer,3 Giovanni Corrao,4 Francesco Lapi,5 Alessandro Mugelli,1 Alfredo Vannacci1 On behalf of the Italian Group for Appropriate Drug prescription in the Elderly (I-GrADE 1Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Geriatrics Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology, ASL 1 Rome, Italy; 4Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 5Epidemiology Unit, ARS Toscana, Florence, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Avoiding medications in which the risks outweigh the benefits in the elderly patient is a challenge for physicians, and different criteria to identify inappropriate prescription (IP exist to aid prescribers. Definition of IP indicators in the Italian geriatric population affected by cardiovascular disease and chronic comorbidities could be extremely useful for prescribers and could offer advantages from a public health perspective. The purpose of the present study was to identify IP indicators by means of a systematic literature review coupled with consensus criteria. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases was conducted, with the search structured around four themes and combining each with the Boolean operator “and”. The first regarded “prescriptions”, the second “adverse events”, the third “cardiovascular conditions”, and the last was planned to identify studies on “older people”. Two investigators independently reviewed titles, abstracts, full texts, and selected articles addressing IP in the elderly affected by cardiovascular condition using the following inclusion criteria: studies on people aged ≥65 years; studies on patients with no restriction on age but with data on subjects

  17. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry...... and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...... with expression of the neuroectodermal markers beta-tubulin 3, Pax6 and nestin. A widespread expression of MAGE-A was also observed in neurons of the early developing central nervous system and peripheral nerves. G antigen (GAGE) expression was present in the early ectoderm of embryos, including cells...

  18. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2009-04-01

    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or

  19. The corpus-predominant gastritis index can be an early and reversible marker to identify the gastric cancer risk of Helicobacter pylori-infected nonulcer dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chang, Wei-Lun; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-08-01

    Corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI) is an early histological marker to identify Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer relatives at risk of cancer. This study validated whether CGI is more prevalent in H. pylori-infected nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) subjects than in duodenal ulcer (DU) controls and whether it is reversible after H. pylori eradication or is correlated with noninvasive biomarkers. In this longitudinal cohort study, 573 H. pylori-infected subjects were enrolled, including 349 NUD and 224 DU. Gastric specimens were provided to assess CGI, spasmolyic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia assessment (OLGIM). Serum pepsinogen I and II levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CGI subjected were followed up at least 1 year after H. pylori eradication. NUD subjects had higher prevalence rates of CGI (47.0% vs 29.9%, Pgastritis and intestinal metaplasia. NUD subjects with CGI had higher risk of SPEM (OR 2.86, P<.001) and lower serum pepsinogen I/II ratios (P<.001) than those without CGI. Serum pepsinogen I/II ratios <9 could predict CGI modestly (AUROC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.74). CGI was regressed after eradication (P<.001). CGI was more prevalent in H. pylori-infected NUD subjects than in controls, was correlated with SPEM, and may serve as a marker earlier than OLGIM to indicate risk of gastric cancer. Moreover, CGI could be regressed after eradication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Systemic analysis of different colorectal cancer cell lines and TCGA datasets identified IGF-1R/EGFR-PPAR-CASPASE axis as important indicator for radiotherapy sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Zhe; Gao, Wei; Jiang, Qixin; Yu, Jiangming; Fu, Chuangang

    2017-09-05

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is proved to contribute the development of many types of cancers. But, little is known about its roles in radio-resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we demonstrated that low IGF-1R expression value was associated with the better radiotherapy sensitivity of CRC. Besides, through Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the elevated expression value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed in CRC cell lines (HT29, RKO) with high radio-sensitivity compared with those with low sensitivity (SW480, LOVO). The irradiation induced apoptosis rates of wild type and EGFR agonist (EGF) or IGF-1R inhibitor (NVP-ADW742) treated HT29 and SW480 cells were quantified by flow cytometry. As a result, the apoptosis rate of EGF and NVP-ADW742 treated HT29 cells was significantly higher than that of those wild type ones, which indicated that high EGFR and low IGF-1R expression level in CRC was associated with the high sensitivity to radiotherapy. We next conducted systemic bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide expression profiles of CRC samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential expression analysis between IGF-1R and EGFR abnormal CRC samples, i.e. CRC samples with higher IGF-1R and lower EGFR expression levels based on their median expression values, and the rest of CRC samples identified potential genes contribute to radiotherapy sensitivity. Functional enrichment of analysis of those differential expression genes (DEGs) in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) indicated PPAR signaling pathway as an important pathway for the radio-resistance of CRC. Our study identified the potential biomarkers for the rational selection of radiotherapy for CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  2. Early Markers of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Infants and Toddlers Prospectively Identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social…

  3. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarannum Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  4. Identifying and prioritizing indicators and effective solutions to optimization the use of wood in construction classical furniture by using AHP (Case study of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the indicators and provide effective solutions to optimize the use of wood in construction classical furniture using the analytic hierarchy process (case study in Qom. For this purpose, studies and results of other researchers and interviews with experts, the factors affecting the optimization of wood consumption were divided into 4 main categories and 23 sub-indicators. The importance of the sub after getting feedback furniture producers were determined by AHP. The results show that the original surface design and human resources are of great importance. In addition, among 23 sub-effective optimization of the use of wood in construction classical furniture, ergonomics, style, skill training and inlaid in classical furniture industry in order to weight the value of 0/247, 0/181, 0/124 and 0/087 are of paramount importance and the method of use of force specialist solutions were a priority.

  5. Why and how to measure stock market fluctuations? The early history of stock market indices, with special reference to the French case

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Cyrille Hautcoeur

    2006-01-01

    Stock market indices are today a vital and daily tool for both economists and actors in the financial world. The multiplication and the very importance given to these indices raise the question of their accuracy and of the reliability of the methods that are used to construct them. We begin an investigation on these questions by studying the early history of these indices. We show that stock market indices appeared in the daily press in the United States at the end of the 19th century; that a...

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment are indicative of biotic interactions during early invasion of a montane meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Rice; C.B. Halpern; J.A. Antos; J.A. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Tree invasions of grasslands are occurring globally, with profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function. We explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of tree invasion of a montane meadow in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, where meadow loss is a conservation concern. We examine the early stages of invasion, where extrinsic and intrinsic processes can be clearly...

  7. Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

  8. Combinatorial binding in human and mouse embryonic stem cells identifies conserved enhancers active in early embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Göke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to cis-regulatory sequences such as promoters and enhancers. In embryonic stem (ES cells, binding of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG is essential to maintain the capacity of the cells to differentiate into any cell type of the developing embryo. It is known that transcription factors interact to regulate gene expression. In this study we show that combinatorial binding is strongly associated with co-localization of the transcriptional co-activator Mediator, H3K27ac and increased expression of nearby genes in embryonic stem cells. We observe that the same loci bound by Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 in ES cells frequently drive expression in early embryonic development. Comparison of mouse and human ES cells shows that less than 5% of individual binding events for OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG are shared between species. In contrast, about 15% of combinatorial binding events and even between 53% and 63% of combinatorial binding events at enhancers active in early development are conserved. Our analysis suggests that the combination of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG binding is critical for transcription in ES cells and likely plays an important role for embryogenesis by binding at conserved early developmental enhancers. Our data suggests that the fast evolutionary rewiring of regulatory networks mainly affects individual binding events, whereas "gene regulatory hotspots" which are bound by multiple factors and active in multiple tissues throughout early development are under stronger evolutionary constraints.

  9. Monitoring early hydration of reinforced concrete structures using structural parameters identified by piezo sensors via electromechanical impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakokula, Visalakshi; Bhalla, Suresh; Gupta, Ashok

    2018-01-01

    Concrete is the most widely used material in civil engineering construction. Its life begins when the hydration process is activated after mixing the cement granulates with water. In this paper, a non-dimensional hydration parameter, obtained from piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) patches bonded to rebars embedded inside concrete, is employed to monitor the early age hydration of concrete. The non-dimensional hydration parameter is derived from the equivalent stiffness determined from the piezo-impedance transducers using the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique. The focus of the study is to monitor the hydration process of cementitious materials commencing from the early hours and continue till 28 days using single non-dimensional parameter. The experimental results show that the proposed piezo-based non-dimensional hydration parameter is very effective in monitoring the early age hydration, as it has been derived from the refined structural impedance parameters, obtained by eliminating the PZT contribution, and using both the real and imaginary components of the admittance signature.

  10. Weighted cumulative exposure models helped identify an association between early knee-pain consultations and future knee OA diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Peat, George; Bedson, John; Edwards, John J; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2016-08-01

    To establish the association between prior knee-pain consultations and early diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) by weighted cumulative exposure (WCE) models. Data were from an electronic health care record (EHR) database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive). WCE functions for modeling the cumulative effect of time-varying knee-pain consultations weighted by recency were derived as a predictive tool in a population-based case-control sample and validated in a prospective cohort sample. Two WCE functions ([i] weighting of the importance of past consultations determined a priori; [ii] flexible spline-based estimation) were comprehensively compared with two simpler models ([iii] time since most recent consultation; total number of past consultations) on model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration both in derivation and validation phases. People with the most recent and most frequent knee-pain consultations were more likely to have high WCE scores that were associated with increased risk of knee OA diagnosis both in derivation and validation phases. Better model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration were observed for flexible spline-based WCE models. WCE functions can be used to model prediagnostic symptoms within routine EHR data and provide novel low-cost predictive tools contributing to early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Semitic languages identifies an Early Bronze Age origin of Semitic in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Andrew; Ehret, Christopher; Assefa, Shiferaw; Mulligan, Connie J

    2009-08-07

    The evolution of languages provides a unique opportunity to study human population history. The origin of Semitic and the nature of dispersals by Semitic-speaking populations are of great importance to our understanding of the ancient history of the Middle East and Horn of Africa. Semitic populations are associated with the oldest written languages and urban civilizations in the region, which gave rise to some of the world's first major religious and literary traditions. In this study, we employ Bayesian computational phylogenetic techniques recently developed in evolutionary biology to analyse Semitic lexical data by modelling language evolution and explicitly testing alternative hypotheses of Semitic history. We implement a relaxed linguistic clock to date language divergences and use epigraphic evidence for the sampling dates of extinct Semitic languages to calibrate the rate of language evolution. Our statistical tests of alternative Semitic histories support an initial divergence of Akkadian from ancestral Semitic over competing hypotheses (e.g. an African origin of Semitic). We estimate an Early Bronze Age origin for Semitic approximately 5750 years ago in the Levant, and further propose that contemporary Ethiosemitic languages of Africa reflect a single introduction of early Ethiosemitic from southern Arabia approximately 2800 years ago.

  12. Changes in cerebral blood flow and psychometric indicators in veterans with early forms of chronic brain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko Т.М.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to study the cerebral blood flow and psychometric characteristics in veterans of Afghanistan with early forms of chronic brain ischemia. Material and Methods. The study included 74 veterans of the Afghan war aged from 45 to 55 years: group 1, 28 people with NPNKM; Group 2-28 patients with circulatory encephalopathy stage 1; group 3-18 healthy persons. Doppler examination of cerebral vessels was carried out on the unit «Smart-lite». Reactive and personal anxiety of patients was assessed using the scale of Spielberger, evaluation of the quality of life through the test SAN. Determining the level of neuroticism and psychoticism was conducted by the scale of neuroticism and psy-choticism. Results: The study of cerebral blood flow in the Afghan war veterans showed signs of insolvency of carotid and carotid-basilar anastomoses, hypoperfusion phenomenon with the depletion of autoregulation, violation of the outflow of venous blood at the level of the microvasculature, accompanied by cerebral arteries spasm. More than 40% of patients with early forms of chronic brain ischemia had high personal anxiety, low levels of well-being and activity, with maximum expression of dyscirculatory hypoxia. Conclusion. Readaptation of veterans of Afghanistan is accompanied by the changes in psychometric performance and the formation of the earliest forms of brain chronic ischemia associated with inadequate hemodynamics providing increased functional activity of the brain and the inefficiency of compensatory-adaptive reactions.

  13. Identifying early dehydration risk with home-based sensors during radiation treatment: a feasibility study on patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan K; Shinn, Eileen H; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Baru, Chaitanya; Krueger, Ingolf H; Farcas, Emilia; Rios, Philip; Garden, Adam S; Beadle, Beth M; Lin, Kai; Yan, Yan; Martch, Stephanie L; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Systems that enable remote monitoring of patients' symptoms and other health-related outcomes may optimize cancer care outside of the clinic setting. CYCORE (CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch) is a software-based prototype for a user-friendly cyberinfrastructure supporting the comprehensive collection and analyses of data from multiple domains using a suite of home-based and mobile sensors. This study evaluated the feasibility of using CYCORE to address early at-home identification of dehydration risk in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Head and neck cancer patients used home-based sensors to capture weight, blood pressure, pulse, and patient-reported outcomes for two 5-day periods during radiation therapy. Data were sent to the radiation oncologist of each head and neck cancer patient, who viewed them online via a Web-based interface. Feasibility outcomes included study completion rate, acceptability and perceived usefulness of the intervention, and adherence to the monitoring protocol. We also evaluated whether sensor data could identify dehydration-related events. Fifty patients consented to participate, and 48 (96%) completed the study. More than 90% of patients rated their ease, self-efficacy, and satisfaction regarding use of the sensor suite as extremely favorable, with minimal concerns expressed regarding data privacy issues. Patients highly valued the ability to have immediate access to objective, self-monitoring data related to personal risk for dehydration. Clinician assessments indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the ease of using the CYCORE system and the resulting ability to monitor their patients remotely. Implementing CYCORE in a clinical oncology care setting is feasible and highly acceptable to both patients and providers.

  14. Identifying Domains of Ideas to Influence Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs in Globalisation: A Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuo, Pei-Wen; Tan, Liang See; Yang, Chien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    In the age of globalisation, it has been understood that teachers' beliefs revolve between old--new and local--foreign ideas of teaching and learning. The purpose of this study is to identify the domains of the various ideas that influence teachers' beliefs in globalisation, compare them to the strengths of influence, and explore the meanings of…

  15. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12% suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI] × (TG /1.03 × (1.31/ HDL for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI] × (TG/0.81 × (1.52/HDL for females. LAPI = (WC-65 × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58 × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001. VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72 and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70 in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001. However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females.

  16. [The importance of an early accompanying evaluation of new care forms for the development of indicators for quality assurance in outpatient psychiatric integrated care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, A; Glaeske, G

    2015-05-01

    Aim of this contribution is to illustrate the imp-ortance of an early accompanying evaluation of new care forms for the development of indicators. The illustration uses the experience of the accompanying evaluation of the integrated care model for optimisation of outpatient psychiatric care. For the integrated care model we could develop potential indicators by using medical-psychiatric and insured-related routine data, but all potential indicators need further development to enable reliable statements about achieved quality targets. It is shown that the development of indicators in the outpatient psychiatric integrated care is affected by many different factors such as vague target agreements in the contract and missing contractual agreements for the data. As a result it is illustrated that in this project the evaluation was introduced after implementation of this new form of care and the already established contract and the data management impeded the development of indicators. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  18. Early alterations in extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor β gene expression in mouse lung indicative of late radiation fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, J.N.; Johnston, C.J.; Baggs, R.; Rubin, P.

    1994-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The expression of late radiation injury can be found immediately after irradiation by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance. To determine if extracellular matrix mRNA and transforming growth factor beta abundance was affected acutely after irradiation, the authors measured mRNA levels of collagen I (CI), collagen III (CIII), collagen IV (CIV), fibronectin (FN), and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 ) in mouse lungs on day 1 and day 14 after graded doses of radiation. C57BL/6 female mice were irradiated with a single dose to the thorax of 5 or 12.5 Gy. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabelled cDNA probes for CI, CIII, CIV, FN, TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 and a control probe encoding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to GAPDH. Changes in the expression of CI, CIII, CIV, FN and TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 were observed as early as 1 day after exposure. Through 14 days, changes in mRNA up to 5-fold were seen for any one dose. Dose related changes as high as 10-fold were also evident. The CI:CIII ratio increased gradually for the 5 Gy dose at 14 days postirradiation while the CI:CII ratio for the 12.5 Gy dose decreased by approximately 4-fold as compared to the control. These studies suggest that alterations in expression of extracellular matrix and TGFβ mRNA occur very early after radiation injury even at low doses and may play a role in the development of chronic fibrosis. 37 refs., 6 figs

  19. Proteomics Mapping of Cord Blood Identifies Haptoglobin ?Switch-On? Pattern as Biomarker of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Pettker, Christian M.; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W.; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A prote...

  20. Early prosthetic aortic valve infection identified with the use of positron emission tomography in a patient with lead endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Sana; Tlili, Ghoufrane; Sohal, Manav; Bordenave, Laurence; Bordachar, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) scanning has recently been proposed as a diagnostic tool for lead endocarditis (LE). FDG PET/CT might be also useful to localize associated septic emboli in patients with LE. We report an interesting case of a LE patient with a prosthetic aortic valve in whom a trans-esophageal echocardiogram did not show associated aortic endocarditis. FDG PET/CT revealed prosthetic aortic valve infection. A second TEE performed 2 weeks after identified aortic vegetation. A longer duration of antimicrobial therapy with serial follow-up echocardiography was initiated. There was also increased uptake in the sigmoid colon, corresponding to focal polyps resected during a colonoscopy. FDG PET/CT scanning seems to be highly sensitive for prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis diagnosis. This promising diagnostic tool may be beneficial in LE patients, by identifying septic emboli and potential sites of pathogen entry.

  1. Early data from project engage: a program to identify and transition medically hospitalized patients into addictions treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pecoraro, Anna; Horton, Terry; Ewen, Edward; Becher, Julie; Wright, Patricia A; Silverman, Basha; McGraw, Patty; Woody, George E

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with untreated substance use disorders (SUDs) are at risk for frequent emergency department visits and repeated hospitalizations. Project Engage, a US pilot program at Wilmington Hospital in Delaware, was conducted to facilitate entry of these patients to SUD treatment after discharge. Patients identified as having hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption based on results of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Primary Care (AUDIT-PC), administered to all patients...

  2. Clinical assessment of the early myocardial Tc-99m-PYP uptake as an indicator of successful recanalization in the acutely infarcted vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yuzuki, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Yukio; Kurose, Takesi; Matsunaga, Kazuhiko; Simono, Yukio

    1986-01-01

    A noninvasive useful method is required to early ascertain the effect of intracoronary thrombolysis (ICT) currently performed for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study, Tc-99m-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy was performed early (2.8 - 9.3 hr) after the onset of symptoms in 34 patients undergoing ICT. Of 27 patients in whom favorable recanalization was obtained, 24 had positive early scintigrams. In the other 7 patients in whom ICT was unsuccessful, scintigrams were negative. In 3 of them, favorable collateral circulation was seen. The findings were compared with those within 16 hr after the onset for the peak levels of creatine kinase (CK) and MB-CK. Early PYP scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 89 %, specificity of 100 %, and predictive accuracy of 91 % in assessing the recanalization in the infarcted vessels. The corresponding figiures were 70 %, 86 %, and 74 % for CK levels; and 70 %, 71 %, and 71 % for MB-CK levels. The results indicate that PYP scintigraphy may be a useful aid in the diagnosis of recanalization. The mechanism for PYP uptake on early scintigrams may be explained by the passage of excessive Ca ion into the ischemic myocardial cells through the rapid recanalization, resulting in accelerated cell death (reperfusion necrosis). (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Clinical assessment of the early myocardial Tc-99m-PYP uptake as an indicator of successful recanalization in the acutely infarcted vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yuzuki, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Yukio; Kurose, Takesi; Matsunaga, Kazuhiko; Simono, Yukio

    1986-11-01

    A noninvasive useful method is required to early ascertain the effect of intracoronary thrombolysis (ICT) currently performed for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study, Tc-99m-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy was performed early (2.8 - 9.3 hr) after the onset of symptoms in 34 patients undergoing ICT. Of 27 patients in whom favorable recanalization was obtained, 24 had positive early scintigrams. In the other 7 patients in whom ICT was unsuccessful, scintigrams were negative. In 3 of them, favorable collateral circulation was seen. The findings were compared with those within 16 hr after the onset for the peak levels of creatine kinase (CK) and MB-CK. Early PYP scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 89 %, specificity of 100 %, and predictive accuracy of 91 % in assessing the recanalization in the infarcted vessels. The corresponding figiures were 70 %, 86 %, and 74 % for CK levels; and 70 %, 71 %, and 71 % for MB-CK levels. The results indicate that PYP scintigraphy may be a useful aid in the diagnosis of recanalization. The mechanism for PYP uptake on early scintigrams may be explained by the passage of excessive Ca ion into the ischemic myocardial cells through the rapid recanalization, resulting in accelerated cell death (reperfusion necrosis). (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Ultrasonography and radiography to identify early post traumatic myosistis ossificans in an 18-year-old male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, Alicia M; Reckelhoff, Kenneth; Kaeser, Martha; Kettner, Norman W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with post traumatic myositis ossificans (PTMO) of the anterior thigh following blunt trauma and discuss the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and imaging findings. An 18-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with a chief complaint of left knee pain and reduced range of motion after an impact injury to his left anterior thigh during hurdling 6 weeks earlier. Immediately after the injury, he presented to the emergency department where radiography of the left knee was negative and he was diagnosed with a muscle sprain. Follow-up radiography and ultrasonography of the left knee in a chiropractic radiology department revealed ossification consistent with PTMO within his vastus intermedius. The patient underwent a course of rehabilitation for 2 months including ice, class IV cold laser and vibration applied to his anterior thigh, and myofascial release of his quadriceps musculature with targeted and progressive rehabilitative exercises. His left knee pain resolved within 2 weeks of care. He resumed sports participation (American football) pain-free, while wearing protective padding over the affected thigh, 1 month after presentation, which was approximately 2 1/2 months following his injury. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography may have the capability to detect early phases of PTMO approximately 2 weeks prior to radiographic evidence and to monitor progression throughout its course.

  5. CXCL13 predicts disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis and could be an indicator of the therapeutic 'window of opportunity'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Schelde, Karen Kræmmer; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2014-01-01

    placebo (DMARD) (n¿=¿37) or methotrexate plus adalimumab (DMARD¿+¿ADA) (n¿=¿39). Treatment outcome was evaluated after 1 and 2 years. CXCL13 plasma levels in healthy volunteers (n¿=¿38) were also examined.ResultsBaseline CXCL13 plasma levels were increased in early rheumatoid arthritis patients...... in comparison with healthy volunteers. Also, plasma CXCL13 correlated positively with disease activity parameters; swollen joint count 28 (rho¿=¿0.34) and 40 (rho¿=¿0.39), visual analogue score (rho¿=¿0.38) and simplified disease activity index (rho¿=¿0.25) (all P¿... a significantly 2-fold more in the DMARD¿+¿ADA group than in the DMARD group. Baseline CXCL13 plasma levels in the DMARD group correlated inversely with disease activity parameters; disease activity score in 28 joints, four variables, C-reactive protein based (DAS28CRP) (rho¿=¿0.58, p¿

  6. Complementary standoff chemical imaging to map and identify artist materials in an early Italian Renaissance panel painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Conover, Damon M; Glinsman, Lisha Deming; Delaney, John K

    2014-12-08

    Two imaging modalities based on molecular and elemental spectroscopy were used to characterize a painting by Cosimo Tura. Visible-to-near-infrared (400-1680 nm) reflectance imaging spectroscopy (RIS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging spectroscopy were employed to identify pigments and determine their spatial distribution with higher confidence than from either technique alone. For example, Mary's red robe was modeled through the distribution of an insect-derived red lake (RIS map) and lead white (XRF lead map), rather than a layer of red lake on vermilion. The RIS image cube was also used to isolate the preparatory design by mapping the reflectance spectra associated with it. In conjunction with results from an earlier RIS study (1650-2500 nm) to map and identify the binding media, a more thorough understanding was gained of the materials and techniques used in the painting. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of dental erosion induced by different beverages and validity of equipment for identifying early dental erosion, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Rafey Ahmad; Khan, Shah Salman; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Hj; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Siddiqui, Saima

    2016-07-01

    To understand early dental erosion induced by different beverages and the equipment for its detection. The study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from June to September 2014, and comprised single-rooted, unpolished teeth divided into six groups. Electron micrographs and other baseline readings for further analyses were taken before and after the exposure to different beverages. The teeth were exposed to the beverages using a modified Nordini's artificial mouth model. The positioning of the teeth on the motorised stage of the equipment was standardised. Of the several beverages used, CocaCola had the lowest pH value of 2.53, while tap water had the highest pH of 5.4. Deionised distilled water, which was used as a reference, had a pH near to neutral /alkaline of 7.3. The fluoride content ranged between 9.38ppm in tea and 0.005ppm in orange juice. Teeth exposed to beverages with low pH and considerably high fluoride underwent slight remineralisation (roughness increase 8% from tea), while beverages with no fluoride content and low pH roughened the enamel surface (Coca Cola roughened upto 37%). Quantitative analyses of tooth erosion, micro-hardness, surface-roughness, and surface-height showed that all beverages exhibited positive erosive effect on the tooth enamel surface (pCocaCola was found to be the most erosive agent among both hot and cold beverages (37%), while coffee was more erosive among the hot beverages (29%).

  8. Proinflammatory Cytokines, Enolase and S-100 as Early Biochemical Indicators of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Following Perinatal Asphyxia in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Merin Sigala, Mario Ernesto; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam de Guadalupe; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Estimation of the neurological prognosis of infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia and signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is of great clinical importance; however, it remains difficult to satisfactorily assess these signs with current standard medical practices. Prognoses are typically based on data obtained from clinical examinations and neurological tests, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging, but their sensitivities and specificities are far from optimal, and they do not always reliably predict future neurological sequelae. In an attempt to improve prognostic estimates, neurological research envisaged various biochemical markers detectable in the umbilical cord blood of newborns (NB). Few studies examining these biochemical factors in the whole blood of newborns exist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the expression and concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and specific CNS enzymes (S-100 and enolase) in infants with perinatal asphyxia. These data were compared between the affected infants and controls and were related to the degree of HIE to determine their utilities as biochemical markers for early diagnosis and prognosis. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression and serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, enolase and S-100 were significantly increased in the children with asphyxia compared with the controls. The role of cytokines after hypoxic-ischemic insult has been determined in studies of transgenic mice that support the use of these molecules as candidate biomarkers. Similarly, S-100 and enolase are considered promising candidates because these markers have been correlated with tissue damage in different experimental models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Development of an algorithm for early clarification of isolation indication for acutely admitted patients with gastroenteritis (GE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Backer Mogensen, Christian; Chen, Ming

    in multi-bed rooms, with less strict isolation. As the causative agent to the GE is unknown on admission to hospital, the decision of isolation regime is based on the available information from the patient implying a risk of isolating too many or too few patients. The aim of the study is to identify......Isolation of contagious patients is expensive, requires more caregiver time and the level of care and observation is lower than for non-isolated patients. But isolation is necessary to protect other patients, hospital staff and relatives from contagion. Different isolation regimes are available...... depending on the causative agent. A community acquired GE is most often caused by Norovirus, while a hospital acquired GE by toxin producing Clostridium difficile. Patients infected with these two agents must be isolated in single-bed rooms, while patients with GE due to other pathogens can be isolated...

  10. Identifying early pathways of risk and resilience: The co-development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and the role of harsh parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Hyde, Luke W.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders co-occur often in children, but little has been done to document the types of conjoint pathways internalizing and externalizing symptoms may take from the crucial early period of toddlerhood or how harsh parenting may overlap with early symptom co-development. To examine symptom co-development trajectories, we identified latent classes of individuals based on internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ages 3–9 and found three symptom co-development classes: normative symptoms (low), severe-decreasing symptoms (initially high but rapidly declining) and severe symptoms (high) trajectories. Next, joint models examined how parenting trajectories overlapped with internalizing and externalizing symptom trajectories. These trajectory classes demonstrated that, normatively, harsh parenting increased after toddlerhood, but the severe symptoms class was characterized by a higher level and steeper increase in harsh parenting and the severe-decreasing class by high, stable harsh parenting. Additionally, a transactional model examined the bi-directional relationships among internalizing and externalizing symptoms and harsh parenting as they may cascade over time in this early period. Harsh parenting uniquely contributed to externalizing symptoms, controlling for internalizing symptoms, but not vice versa. Also, internalizing symptoms appeared to be a mechanism by which externalizing symptoms increase. Results highlight the importance accounting for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms from an early age to understand risk for developing psychopathology and the role harsh parenting plays in influencing these trajectories. PMID:26439075

  11. Early indication of noise-induced hearing loss from PMP use in adolescents: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Colon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs may indicate preclinical noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in adolescents from unsafe personal music player (PMP use. Aims: The objective, therefore, was to observe preclinical signs of NIHL in 9th grade adolescents with clinically normal hearing by comparing DPOAE signals between different levels of A-weighted equivalent PMP exposure. Settings and Design: Subjects were recruited from all secondary-level schools located in the city of Regensburg, Germany during two academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Subjects and Methods: A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs for a 40-hour work week (LAeq,40h were estimated from questionnaire responses on output and duration of PMP use of the previous week. Subjects were then categorized into four levels of exposure: 85 to <90, and ≥90 A-weighted Decibel [dB(A]. DPOAE signals were collected by trained audiological staff, applying a standard optimized protocol, at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University Hospital Regensburg. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean DPOAE signals were compared between levels by unpaired t test. Novel linear regression models adjusting for other leisure noise exposures and with outcome variables DPoutcome and 4 kilo Hertz (kHz DPOAEs estimated effects between levels. Results: A total of 1468 subjects (56% female, mostly aged 15 or 16 years were available for analysis. Comparison of DPOAE means by PMP exposure typically showed no greater than 1 dB difference between groups. In fact, comparisons between ≥90 dB(A and <80 dB(A presented the least differences in magnitude. Both DPoutcome and 4 kHz linear regression models presented a weak association with the 4-level PMP exposure variable. An expected dose-response to PMP exposure was not observed in any analyses. Conclusions: DPOAE signal strength alone cannot indicate preclinical NIHL in adolescents.

  12. Bacterial indicator occurrence and the use of an F+ specific RNA coliphage assay to identify fecal sources in Homosassa Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Stokes, Rodger; Rose, J.B.; Paul, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological water quality study of Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP) and surrounding areas was undertaken. Samples were collected in November of 1997 (seven sites) and again in November of 1998 (nine sites). Fecal bacterial concentrations (total and fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) were measured as relative indicators of fecal contamination. F+-specific coliphage genotyping was performed to determine the source of fecal contamination at the study sites. Bacterial levels were considerably higher at most sites in the 1997 sampling compared to the 1998 sampling, probably because of the greater rainfall that year. In November of 1997, 2 of the 7 sites were in violation of all indicator standards and guidance levels. In November of 1998, 1 of 9 sites was in violation of all indicator standard and guidance levels. The highest concentrations of all fecal indicators were found at a station downstream of the animal holding pens in HSSWP. The lowest levels of indicators were found at the Homosassa Main Spring vent. Levels of fecal indicators downstream of HSSWP (near the point of confluence with the river) were equivalent to those found in the Southeastern Fork and areas upstream of the park influences. F+ specific RNA coliphage analysis indicated that fecal contamination at all sites that tested positive was from animal sources (mammals and birds). These results suggest that animal (indigenous and those in HSSWP) and not human sources influenced microbial water quality in the area of Homosassa River covered by this study.

  13. Early T Cell Recognition of B Cells following Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Identifying Potential Targets for Prophylactic Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, has strong aetiologic links with several malignancies and has been implicated in certain autoimmune diseases. Efforts to develop a prophylactic vaccine to prevent or reduce EBV-associated disease have, to date, focused on the induction of neutralising antibody responses. However, such vaccines might be further improved by inducing T cell responses capable of recognising and killing recently-infected B cells. In that context, EBNA2, EBNA-LP and BHRF1 are the first viral antigens expressed during the initial stage of B cell growth transformation, yet have been poorly characterised as CD8+ T cell targets. Here we describe CD8+ T cell responses against each of these three "first wave" proteins, identifying target epitopes and HLA restricting alleles. While EBNA-LP and BHRF1 each contained one strong CD8 epitope, epitopes within EBNA2 induced immunodominant responses through several less common HLA class I alleles (e.g. B*3801 and B*5501, as well as subdominant responses through common class I alleles (e.g. B7 and C*0304. Importantly, such EBNA2-specific CD8+ T cells recognised B cells within the first day post-infection, prior to CD8+ T cells against well-characterised latent target antigens such as EBNA3B or LMP2, and effectively inhibited outgrowth of EBV-transformed B cell lines. We infer that "first wave" antigens of the growth-transforming infection, especially EBNA2, constitute potential CD8+ T cell immunogens for inclusion in prophylactic EBV vaccine design.

  14. Angiopoietin-2 Is an Early Indicator of Acute Pancreatic-Renal Syndrome in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Sporek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the first week of the disease, acute kidney injury (AKI is among the most common causes of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP. Recently, serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 has been associated with hyperdynamic state of the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between Ang-2 and the clinical AP severity during the first 72 hours of the disease, and organ disfunction, including AKI. Methods. Study included patients admitted to the surgery ward, diagnosed with AP. AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO guidelines and renal failure according to modified Marshall scoring system. Ang-2 was determined in serum with ELISA. Results. AP was classified as mild (MAP in 71% of patients, moderately severe (MSAP in 22%, and severe (SAP in 8%. During the first 72 hours of AP, 11 patients developed AKI and 6 developed renal failure. Ang-2 at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the onset of AP symptoms significantly predicted SAP and MSAP, as well as AKI and renal failure. Also, Ang-2 significantly correlated with acute phase proteins as well as with the indicators of renal disfunction. Conclusions. Serum Ang-2 may be a relevant predictor of AP severity, in particular of the development of AP-renal syndrome.

  15. Early data from Project Engage: a program to identify and transition medically hospitalized patients into addictions treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Anna; Horton, Terry; Ewen, Edward; Becher, Julie; Wright, Patricia A; Silverman, Basha; McGraw, Patty; Woody, George E

    2012-09-25

    Patients with untreated substance use disorders (SUDs) are at risk for frequent emergency department visits and repeated hospitalizations. Project Engage, a US pilot program at Wilmington Hospital in Delaware, was conducted to facilitate entry of these patients to SUD treatment after discharge. Patients identified as having hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption based on results of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Primary Care (AUDIT-PC), administered to all patients at admission, received bedside assessment with motivational interviewing and facilitated referral to treatment by a patient engagement specialist (PES). This program evaluation provides descriptive information on self-reported rates of SUD treatment initiation of all patients and health-care utilization and costs for a subset of patients. Program-level data on treatment entry after discharge were examined retrospectively. Insurance claims data for two small cohorts who entered treatment after discharge (2009, n = 18, and 2010, n = 25) were reviewed over a six-month period in 2009 (three months pre- and post-Project Engage), or over a 12-month period in 2010 (six months pre- and post-Project Engage). These data provided descriptive information on health-care utilization and costs. (Data on those who participated in Project Engage but did not enter treatment were unavailable). Between September 1, 2008, and December 30, 2010, 415 patients participated in Project Engage, and 180 (43%) were admitted for SUD treatment. For a small cohort who participated between June 1, 2009, and November 30, 2009 (n = 18), insurance claims demonstrated a 33% ($35,938) decrease in inpatient medical admissions, a 38% ($4,248) decrease in emergency department visits, a 42% ($1,579) increase in behavioral health/substance abuse (BH/SA) inpatient admissions, and a 33% ($847) increase in outpatient BH/SA admissions, for an overall decrease of $37,760. For a small cohort who participated between June 1

  16. Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) an early warning indicator species of global warming in the central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, Francesco; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Ligas, Alessandro; Sartor, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The effect of temperature increase on the stock of the deep-sea pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was analysed along the western coasts of Italy (North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea: Geographical Sub-Area 9). This crustacean is currently one of the most important commercial species of the trawl fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea. Landings of the species in the North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea have grown consistently during the last years following a rapid increase in the stock size. Since the deep-sea pink shrimp stock is exploited on the same fishing ground of other heavily overexploited stocks in a full mixed and poorly selective fishery, its condition seems to be largely independent of the current fishing exploitation pattern suggesting a positive role of climate change on the dynamic of the stock. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) on density and distribution of P. longirostris by means of general additive models (GAMs). Two different models were developed for the whole stock and for the recruits (CL International bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean) survey density indices (n km- 2) covering the period 1995-2010. Predictors included were geographical coordinates, quarterly averaged minimum SST, sampling depth and year. Spawners density was included as predictor into the GAM for recruits. The best GAM for the whole stock explained 67.1% of the total deviance, showing a clear increase in density in concomitance with the expansion of the stock northward. We found a significant positive effect of the min SST of all seasons, as expected considering that P. longirostris spawn all year round, with the highest influence played by summer min SST, either in the same or previous year. The best model for recruits explained 64.9% of the total deviance. Recruitment increased linearly with the density of spawners showing a positive temporal trend and an expansion northward. The observed trend in recruitment appeared

  17. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  18. Nurses' 'worry' as predictor of deteriorating surgical ward patients: A prospective cohort study of the Dutch-Early-Nurse-Worry-Indicator-Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, G.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Zanten, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Schoonhoven, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses' 'worry' is used as a calling criterion in many Rapid Response Systems, however it is valued inconsistently. Furthermore, barriers to call the Rapid Response Team can cause delay in escalating care. The literature identifies nine indicators which trigger nurses to worry about a

  19. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.; Hua, J.; Bittner, M. L.; Ivanov, I.; Dougherty, a. E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach

  20. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recipient But Not Donor Adiponectin Polymorphisms Are Associated With Early Posttransplant Hepatic Steatosis in Patients Transplanted for Non-Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Binu V; Aiken, Taylor; Garber, Ari; Thomas, Dawn; Lopez, Rocio; Patil, Deepa; Konjeti, Venkata Rajesh; Fung, John J; McCollough, Arthur J; Askar, Medhat

    2018-06-01

    De novo steatosis after liver transplant is common and can occur in up to one-third of patients who are transplanted for liver disease other than for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic factors may influence posttransplant steatosis; in a posttransplant setting, donor or recipient genetic factors could also play roles. Genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene have been associated with metabolic syndrome in the pretransplant setting. We aimed to assess the association between donor and recipient adiponectin polymorphisms and early posttransplant hepatic steatosis identified on liver biopsies. Clinical data were collected for 302 liver transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies for hepatitis C. Of these, 111 patients had available biopsies and donor/recipient DNA. Patients with grade 1 steatosis or greater (35% of patients) were compared with patients without posttransplant steatosis with respect to clinical features and donor/recipient adiponectin polymorphism genotypes. Patients who developed posttransplant steatosis and those without steatosis were similar with respect to individual components of metabolic syndrome. The adiponectin polymorphisms rs1501299 G/G and rs17300539 G/G genotypes in recipients were associated with early posttransplant graft steatosis. We found no associations between graft steatosis and donor adiponectin polymorphisms. Genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene of recipients (but not donors) are associated with early de novo posttransplant hepatic steatosis, independent of components of metabolic syndrome.

  2. The U.S./Canadian GEO Bilateral Drought Indices and Definitions Study: Implications for the Canadian Drought Monitor and a Global Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwen, T.; Heim, R. R.; Howard, A.

    2011-12-01

    provide recommendations for a global drought early warning system, and implications of the Drought Indices and Definitions Study for improving both the Can-DM and a global drought early warning system.

  3. Sedimentologic and paleoclimatic reconstructions of carbonate factory evolution in the Alborz Basin (northern Iran) indicate a global response to Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Kulagina, Elena I.; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Boulvain, Frédéric; Da Silva, Anne-Christine

    2017-03-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Mobarak Formation records the development of a storm-sensitive pervasive carbonate factory on the southern Paleo-Tethyan passive margin following the opening of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean into the Alborz Basin along the northern margin of Gondwana. Its depositional facies encompass inner ramp peritidal environments, peloidal to crinoidal shoals, storm to fair-weather influenced mid-ramps, proximal to distal shell beds and low energy outer ramps. Sedimentological analyses and foraminiferal biostratigraphy reveal four events affecting carbonate platform evolution in the Alborz Basin during the Lower Carboniferous: (1) A transgression following global temperature rise in the Early Tournaisian (middle Hastarian) caused the formation of thick-bedded argillaceous limestones. This interval correlates with Early Tournaisian nodular to argillaceous limestones in the Moravia Basin (Lisen Formation, Czech Republic), the Dinant Basin (Pont d'Arcole Formation, Belgium), and at the Rhenish Slate Mountains (Lower Alum shale, Germany). (2) Late Hastarian-early Ivorian glaciations previously identified in Southern Gondwana but had not yet recognized in Northern Gondwana were recorded through a sequence boundary. (3) During the Late Tournaisian-Early Visean?, a differential block faulting regime along the basin's margin caused uplift of the westernmost parts of the Alborz Basin and resulted in subsidence in the eastern part of the central basin. This tectonically controlled shift in depositional regime caused vast sub-aerial exposure and brecciation preserved in the top of the Mobarak Formation in the western portion of the Central Alborz Basin. (4) Tectonic activity coinciding with a progressive, multiphase sea level drop caused indirectly by the Viséan and Serpukhovian glaciations phases ultimately led to the stagnation of the carbonate factory. Paleothermometry proxies, the presence of foraminiferal taxa with a northern Paleo-Tethyan affinity and evidence for

  4. Association between textural and morphological tumor indices on baseline PET-CT and early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in bulky malignant lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Tabaa, Yassine Al; Kafrouni, Marilyne; Cartron, Guillaume; Vauchot, Fabien; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether metabolic, textural, and morphological tumoral indices evaluated on baseline PET-CT were predictive of early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in a cohort of patients with bulky Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas. This retrospective study included 57 patients referred for initial PET-CT examination. In-house dedicated software was used to delineate tumor contours using a fixed 30% threshold of SUV max and then to compute tumoral metabolic parameters (SUV max, mean, peak, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, metabolic tumoral volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis, and area under the curve of the cumulative histogram), textural parameters (Moran's and Geary's indices, energy, entropy, contrast, correlation derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix, area under the curve of the power spectral density, auto-correlation distance, and granularity), and shape parameters (surface, asphericity, convexity, surfacic extension, and 2D and 3D fractal dimensions). Early metabolic response was assessed on interim PET-CT using the Deauville 5-point scale and patients were ranked according to the Lugano classification as complete or not complete metabolic responders. The impact of the segmentation method (alternate threshold at 41%) and image resolution (Gaussian postsmoothing of 3, 5, and 7 mm) was investigated. The association of the proposed parameters with early response was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Their added predictive value was explored using supervised classification by support vector machines (SVM). We evaluated in leave-one-out cross-validation three SVMs admitting as input features (a) MTV, (b) MTV + histological type, and (c) MTV + histology + relevant texture/shape indices. Features associated with complete metabolic response were low MTV (P = 0.01), low TLG (P = 0.003), high power spectral density AUC (P = 0.007), high surfacic extension (P = 0.006), low 2D fractal dimension (P

  5. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  6. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  7. Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Carson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the rapid development during the early years (0-4 years, an understanding of the health implications of physical activity is needed. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured physical activity and health indicators in the early years. Methods Electronic databases were originally searched in April, 2016. Included studies needed to be peer-reviewed, written in English or French, and meet a priori study criteria. The population was apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 59.99 months/4.99 years. The intervention/exposure was objectively and subjectively measured physical activity. The comparator was various volumes, durations, frequencies, patterns, types, and intensities of physical activity. The outcomes were health indicators ranked as critical (adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, fitness and important (bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, and risks/harm. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE framework was used to assess the quality of evidence for each health indicator by each study design. Results Ninety-six studies representing 71,291 unique participants from 36 countries were included. Physical activity interventions were consistently (>60% of studies associated with improved motor and cognitive development, and psychosocial and cardiometabolic health. Across observational studies, physical activity was consistently associated with favourable motor development, fitness, and bone and skeletal health. For intensity, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity were not consistently associated with any health indicators, whereas moderate- to vigorous-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total physical activity were consistently favourably associated with multiple health indicators. Across study designs, consistent favourable associations with

  8. A vulnerability driven approach to identify adverse climate and land use change combinations for critical hydrologic indicator thresholds: Application to a watershed in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Wagener, T.; Crane, R.; Mann, M. E.; Ning, L.

    2014-04-01

    Large uncertainties in streamflow projections derived from downscaled climate projections of precipitation and temperature can render such simulations of limited value for decision making in the context of water resources management. New approaches are being sought to provide decision makers with robust information in the face of such large uncertainties. We present an alternative approach that starts with the stakeholder's definition of vulnerable ranges for relevant hydrologic indicators. Then the modeled system is analyzed to assess under what conditions these thresholds are exceeded. The space of possible climates and land use combinations for a watershed is explored to isolate subspaces that lead to vulnerability, while considering model parameter uncertainty in the analysis. We implement this concept using classification and regression trees (CART) that separate the input space of climate and land use change into those combinations that lead to vulnerability and those that do not. We test our method in a Pennsylvania watershed for nine ecological and water resources related streamflow indicators for which an increase in temperature between 3°C and 6°C and change in precipitation between -17% and 19% is projected. Our approach provides several new insights, for example, we show that even small decreases in precipitation (˜5%) combined with temperature increases greater than 2.5°C can push the mean annual runoff into a slightly vulnerable regime. Using this impact and stakeholder driven strategy, we explore the decision-relevant space more fully and provide information to the decision maker even if climate change projections are ambiguous.

  9. Comparative Performance of Ground vs. Aerially Assessed RGB and Multispectral Indices for Early-Growth Evaluation of Maize Performance under Phosphorus Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gracia-Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility is one of the factors most limiting agricultural production, with phosphorus deficiency being among the main factors, particularly in developing countries. To deal with such environmental constraints, remote sensing measurements can be used to rapidly assess crop performance and to phenotype a large number of plots in a rapid and cost-effective way. We evaluated the performance of a set of remote sensing indices derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB images and multispectral (visible and infrared data as phenotypic traits and crop monitoring tools for early assessment of maize performance under phosphorus fertilization. Thus, a set of 26 maize hybrids grown under field conditions in Zimbabwe was assayed under contrasting phosphorus fertilization conditions. Remote sensing measurements were conducted in seedlings at two different levels: at the ground and from an aerial platform. Within a particular phosphorus level, some of the RGB indices strongly correlated with grain yield. In general, RGB indices assessed at both ground and aerial levels correlated in a comparable way with grain yield except for indices a* and u*, which correlated better when assessed at the aerial level than at ground level and Greener Area (GGA which had the opposite correlation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI evaluated at ground level with an active sensor also correlated better with grain yield than the NDVI derived from the multispectral camera mounted in the aerial platform. Other multispectral indices like the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI performed very similarly to NDVI assessed at the aerial level but overall, they correlated in a weaker manner with grain yield than the best RGB indices. This study clearly illustrates the advantage of RGB-derived indices over the more costly and time-consuming multispectral indices. Moreover, the indices best correlated with GY were in general those best correlated with leaf phosphorous content

  10. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  11. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  12. Meta-analysis indicates that the European GWAS-identified risk SNP rs1344706 within ZNF804A is not associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Recent genetic association studies have implicated several candidate susceptibility variants for schizophrenia among general populations. Rs1344706, an intronic SNP within ZNF804A, was identified as one of the most compelling candidate risk SNPs for schizophrenia in Europeans through genome-wide association studies (GWASs and replications as well as large-scale meta-analyses. However, in Han Chinese, the results for rs1344706 are inconsistent, and whether rs1344706 is an authentic risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese is inconclusive. Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis of rs1344706 with schizophrenia in Chinese population by combining all available case-control samples (N = 12, including a total of 8,982 cases and 12,342 controls. The results of our meta-analysis were not able to confirm an association of rs1344706 A-allele with schizophrenia (p = 0.10, odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 0.99-1.13. Such absence of association was further confirmed by the non-superiority test (p = 0.0003, suggesting that rs1344706 is not a risk SNP for schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Detailed examinations of individual samples revealed potential sampling bias in previous replication studies in Han Chinese. The absence of rs1344706 association in Han Chinese suggest a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia on this locus and also demonstrate the difficulties in replicating genome-wide association findings of schizophrenia across different ethnic populations.

  13. High soluble CD30, CD25 and IL-6 may identify patients with worse survival in CD30+ cutaneous lymphomas and early mycosis fungoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadin, Marshall E.; Pavlov, Igor; Delgado, Julio C.; Vonderheid, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Histopathology alone cannot predict outcome of patients with CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30CLPD) and early mycosis fungoides (MF). To test the hypothesis that serum cytokines/cytokine receptors provide prognostic information in these disorders, we measured soluble CD30 (sCD30), sCD25, and selected cytokines in cell cultures and sera of 116 patients with CD30CLPD and 96 patients with early MF followed up to 20 years. Significant positive correlation was found between sCD30 levels and sCD25, CD40L, IL-6, and IL-8, suggesting CD30+ neoplastic cells secrete these cytokines, but not Th2 cytokines. In vitro studies confirmed sCD30, sCD25, IL-6 and IL-8 are secreted by CD30CLPD-derived cell lines. CD30CLPD patients with above normal sCD30 and sCD25 had worse overall and disease-related survivals, but only sCD30 retained significance in Cox models that included advanced age. High sCD30 also identified patients with worse survival in early MF. Increased IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with poor disease-related survival in CD30CLPD patients, We conclude that: (1) neoplastic cells of some CD30CLPD patients do not resemble Th2 cells, (2) high serum sCD30, sCD25, IL-6, and perhaps IL-8 levels may provide prognostic information useful for patient management. PMID:22071475

  14. Utility of 99mTc-MAG3 perfusion indices in the evaluation of renal transplant function during early post-transplantation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the utility of 99m Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices for assessing renal graft function in early post-transplantation period. Our study included 80 renal transplant recipients (48 men and 32 women, mean age:40.3 years). Diagnosis was based on biopsy, laboratory data and clinical course. Renal scintigraphy (RS) was obtained using 100 MBq of 99m Tc-MAG3 from 11 days to 23 days of kidney transplantation. We measured 5 indices in whole-kidney (WK) and cortical (C) renograms; Hilson's perfusion index (PI), transplant perfusion index (TP) and transplant function index (TF) as perfusion parameter, and the time to peak activity (Tmax) and the ratio of renal counts at 20 min to that at 3 min (K20/3) as functional parameter. The diagnoses at the day of RS were normal graft (NG) in 44, acute rejection (AR) in 14, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 10, and Cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CsA) in 12. TP and TF were significantly decreased in AR, ATN and CsA, compared to those in NG. K20/3 of AR and ATN were significantly greater than that of NG. WK-Tmax of AR was significantly longer than than that of NG. K20.3 of AR and C-K20/3 of ATN were significantly prolonged relative to those of CsA. There were no statistically significant perfusion indices among complication groups. TP and TF reflecting microperfusion and initial tubular extraction are reliable in assessing graft function. However, it is required to correlate perfusion indices with functional indices and clinical course in differentiating from one another among complication groups

  15. Utility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices in the evaluation of renal transplant function during early post-transplantation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We have examined the utility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices for assessing renal graft function in early post-transplantation period. Our study included 80 renal transplant recipients (48 men and 32 women, mean age:40.3 years). Diagnosis was based on biopsy, laboratory data and clinical course. Renal scintigraphy (RS) was obtained using 100 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 from 11 days to 23 days of kidney transplantation. We measured 5 indices in whole-kidney (WK) and cortical (C) renograms; Hilson's perfusion index (PI), transplant perfusion index (TP) and transplant function index (TF) as perfusion parameter, and the time to peak activity (Tmax) and the ratio of renal counts at 20 min to that at 3 min (K20/3) as functional parameter. The diagnoses at the day of RS were normal graft (NG) in 44, acute rejection (AR) in 14, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 10, and Cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CsA) in 12. TP and TF were significantly decreased in AR, ATN and CsA, compared to those in NG. K20/3 of AR and ATN were significantly greater than that of NG. WK-Tmax of AR was significantly longer than than that of NG. K20.3 of AR and C-K20/3 of ATN were significantly prolonged relative to those of CsA. There were no statistically significant perfusion indices among complication groups. TP and TF reflecting microperfusion and initial tubular extraction are reliable in assessing graft function. However, it is required to correlate perfusion indices with functional indices and clinical course in differentiating from one another among complication groups.

  16. The response of early neural genes to FGF signaling or inhibition of BMP indicate the absence of a conserved neural induction module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Crystal D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.

  17. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  18. Identifying Barriers to Delivering the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early Exercise/Mobility Bundle to Minimize Adverse Outcomes for Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Deena Kelly; White, Matthew R; Ginier, Emily; Manojlovich, Milisa; Govindan, Sushant; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Sales, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    Improved outcomes are associated with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early exercise/mobility bundle (ABCDE); however, implementation issues are common. As yet, no study has integrated the barriers to ABCDE to provide an overview of reasons for less successful efforts. The purpose of this review was to identify and catalog the barriers to ABCDE delivery based on a widely used implementation framework, and to provide a resource to guide clinicians in overcoming barriers to implementation. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus for original research articles from January 1, 2007, to August 31, 2016, that identified barriers to ABCDE implementation for adult patients in the ICU. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies, extracted barriers, and conducted thematic content analysis of the barriers, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Discrepancies were discussed, and consensus was achieved. Our electronic search yielded 1,908 articles. After applying our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we included 49 studies. We conducted thematic content analysis of the 107 barriers and identified four classes of ABCDE barriers: (1) patient-related (ie, patient instability and safety concerns); (2) clinician-related (ie, lack of knowledge, staff safety concerns); (3) protocol-related (ie, unclear protocol criteria, cumbersome protocols to use); and, not previously identified in past reviews, (4) ICU contextual barriers (ie, interprofessional team care coordination). We provide the first, to our knowledge, systematic differential diagnosis of barriers to ABCDE delivery, moving beyond the conventional focus on patient-level factors. Our analysis offers a differential diagnosis checklist for clinicians planning ABCDE implementation to improve patient care and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  19. A model-based assessment of the cost–utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowsill, Tristan; Huxley, Nicola; Hoyle, Martin; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Coelho, Helen; Cooper, Chris; Frayling, Ian; Hyde, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Individuals with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian and other cancers. Lynch syndrome remains underdiagnosed in the UK. Reflex testing for Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients is proposed as a method to identify more families affected by Lynch syndrome and offer surveillance to reduce cancer risks, although cost-effectiveness is viewed as a barrier to implementation. The objective of this project was to estimate the cost–utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in individuals with early-onset colorectal cancer in the NHS. A decision analytic model was developed which simulated diagnostic and long-term outcomes over a lifetime horizon for colorectal cancer patients with and without Lynch syndrome and for relatives of those patients. Nine diagnostic strategies were modelled which included microsatellite instability (MSI) testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), BRAF mutation testing (methylation testing in a scenario analysis), diagnostic mutation testing and Amsterdam II criteria. Biennial colonoscopic surveillance was included for individuals diagnosed with Lynch syndrome and accepting surveillance. Prophylactic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (H-BSO) was similarly included for women diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. Costs from NHS and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated and discounted at 3.5% per annum. All strategies included for the identification of Lynch syndrome were cost-effective versus no testing. The strategy with the greatest net health benefit was MSI followed by BRAF followed by diagnostic genetic testing, costing £5,491 per QALY gained over no testing. The effect of prophylactic H-BSO on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is uncertain and could

  20. A model-based assessment of the cost-utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowsill, Tristan; Huxley, Nicola; Hoyle, Martin; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Coelho, Helen; Cooper, Chris; Frayling, Ian; Hyde, Chris

    2015-04-25

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Individuals with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian and other cancers. Lynch syndrome remains underdiagnosed in the UK. Reflex testing for Lynch syndrome in early-onset colorectal cancer patients is proposed as a method to identify more families affected by Lynch syndrome and offer surveillance to reduce cancer risks, although cost-effectiveness is viewed as a barrier to implementation. The objective of this project was to estimate the cost-utility of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in individuals with early-onset colorectal cancer in the NHS. A decision analytic model was developed which simulated diagnostic and long-term outcomes over a lifetime horizon for colorectal cancer patients with and without Lynch syndrome and for relatives of those patients. Nine diagnostic strategies were modelled which included microsatellite instability (MSI) testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), BRAF mutation testing (methylation testing in a scenario analysis), diagnostic mutation testing and Amsterdam II criteria. Biennial colonoscopic surveillance was included for individuals diagnosed with Lynch syndrome and accepting surveillance. Prophylactic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (H-BSO) was similarly included for women diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. Costs from NHS and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated and discounted at 3.5% per annum. All strategies included for the identification of Lynch syndrome were cost-effective versus no testing. The strategy with the greatest net health benefit was MSI followed by BRAF followed by diagnostic genetic testing, costing £5,491 per QALY gained over no testing. The effect of prophylactic H-BSO on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is uncertain and could outweigh

  1. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Penda, Calixte Ida; Amadou, Salmon; Kob, David Same; Billong, Edson-Joan; Colizzi, Vittorio; Ndjolo, Alexis; Bisseck, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kani; Elat, Jean-Bosco Nfetam

    2016-11-15

    Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites) of Cameroon, within the "reporting period" of October 2013-November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%), fair (85-75%), poor (sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  2. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Autoantibodies are Potential Early Indicators of Cardiac Dysfunction and Patient Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas L; Kuster, Diederik W D; Gonzalez, Beverly; Balasubramanian, Neelam; Nair, Nandini; Day, Sharlene; Calvino, Jenna E; Tan, Yanli; Liebetrau, Christoph; Troidl, Christian; Hamm, Christian W; Güçlü, Ahmet; McDonough, Barbara; Marian, Ali J; van der Velden, Jolanda; Seidman, Christine E; Huggins, Gordon S; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2017-04-01

    The degradation and release of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) upon cardiac damage may stimulate an inflammatory response and autoantibody (AAb) production. We determined whether the presence of cMyBP-C-AAbs associated with adverse cardiac function in CVD patients. Importantly, cMyBP-C-AAbs were significantly detected in ACS patient sera upon arrival to the emergency department, particularly in STEMI patients. Patients positive for cMyBP-C-AAbs had a reduced LVEF and elevated levels of clinical biomarkers of MI. We conclude that cMyBP-C-AAbs may serve as early predictive indicators of deteriorating cardiac function and patient outcome in ACS patients prior to the infarction.

  3. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Autoantibodies Are Potential Early Indicators of Cardiac Dysfunction and Patient Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lynch, IVPhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The degradation and release of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C upon cardiac damage may stimulate an inflammatory response and autoantibody (AAb production. We determined whether the presence of cMyBP-C-AAbs associated with adverse cardiac function in cardiovascular disease patients. Importantly, cMyBP-C-AAbs were significantly detected in acute coronary syndrome patient sera upon arrival to the emergency department, particularly in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Patients positive for cMyBP-C-AAbs had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and elevated levels of clinical biomarkers of myocardial infarction. We conclude that cMyBP-C-AAbs may serve as early predictive indicators of deteriorating cardiac function and patient outcome in acute coronary syndrome patients prior to the infarction. Key Words: acute myocardial infarction, autoantibodies, cardiac myosin binding protein-c, cardiomyopathy

  4. Clinical efficacy and prognostic indicators for lower limb pedalling exercise early after stroke: Study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myint Phyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that repetitive, skilled, functional movement is beneficial in driving functional reorganisation of the brain early after stroke. This study will investigate a whether pedalling an upright, static exercise cycle, to provide such beneficial activity, will enhance recovery and b which stroke survivors might be able to participate in pedalling. Methods/Design Participants (n = 24 will be up to 30 days since stroke onset, with unilateral weakness and unable to walk without assistance. This study will use a modified exercise bicycle fitted with a UniCam crank. All participants will give informed consent, then undergo baseline measurements, and then attempt to pedal. Those able to pedal will be entered into a single-centre, observer-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT. All participants will receive routine rehabilitation. The experimental group will, in addition, pedal daily for up to ten minutes, for up to ten working days. Prognostic indicators, measured at baseline, will be: site of stroke lesion, trunk control, ability to ambulate, and severity of lower limb paresis. The primary outcome for the RCT is ability to voluntarily contract paretic lower limb muscle, measured by the Motricity Index. Secondary outcomes include ability to ambulate and timing of onset and offset of activity in antagonist muscle groups during pedalling, measured by EMG. Discussion This protocol is for a trial of a novel therapy intervention. Findings will establish whether there is sufficient evidence of benefit to justify proceeding with further research into clinical efficacy of upright pedalling exercise early after stroke. Information on potential prognostic indicators will suggest which stroke survivors could benefit from the intervention. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN45392701

  5. Organic Aerosols in the Presence of CO{sub 2} in the Early Earth and Exoplanets: UV–Vis Refractive Indices of Oxidized Tholins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie; Vettier, Ludovic [LATMOS, Université Versailles St Quentin, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 11 blvd d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Broch, Laurent [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Metz (France); Fleury, Benjamin, E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@latmos.ipsl.fr [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In this experimental study we investigate the role of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on the optical properties of organic photochemical aerosols. To this end, we add CO{sub 2} to a N{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} gas mixture used in a plasma typically used for Titan studies. We produce organic thin films (tholins) in plasmas where the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is increased from 0 to 4. We measure these films via spectrometric ellipsometry and apply a Tauc–Lorentz model, used for optically transparent materials, to obtain the thickness of the thin film, its optical band gap, and the refractive indices in the UV–visible (270–600 nm). All samples present a significant absorption band in the UV. According to the Tauc–Lorentz model, as the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is quadrupled, the position of the UV band is shifted from ∼177 nm to 264 nm while its strength is quadrupled. Consequently, we infer that oxidized organic aerosols absorb more efficiently at longer UV wavelengths than reduced aerosols. Our laboratory wavelength-tabulated UV–vis refractive indices provide new constraints to atmospheric models of the early Earth and Earth-like exoplanets including photochemical hazes formed under increasingly oxidizing conditions.

  6. Preliminary report on the development of some indices of relative nutritive value (RNV) of cereal and legume samples, applicable in the early generations of selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.K.; Niemann, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid screening methods for biuret nitrogen determination and fluorometric lysine estimation are described. While the biuret method has been found to be suitable for early generation screening for peptide nitrogen determination, fluorescence estimation of dansylated grain meal could be taken as a good index of available lysine in cereal and legume samples. The necessity of rapid and inexpensive tests for the determination of Relative Nutritive Value (RNV) in the advance generations of screening, is discussed. Preliminary data available on two such tests, utilizing protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W. and flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval, indicated promise. Both techniques were tried on different cereal and legume samples. The relative lethality of beetle larvae and their nitrogen retention were taken as indices of RNV in legumes. Larval Nitrogen Retention Index (LNRI) of cereal samples was found to be dependent both on nitrogen content and on protein quality. It was concluded that both these organisms need to be further investigated for their potential as test animals for RNV determination in the advance segregating populations. (author)

  7. An assessment of the relationship between the World Health Organization HIV drug resistance early warning indicators and HIV drug resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, M; Harrigan, P R; Sereda, P; Montaner, Jsg; Lima, V D

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) measure antiretroviral therapy (ART)-site factors associated with HIVDR prevention, without HIVDR laboratory testing. We assessed the relationship between EWIs and HIVDR acquisition using data from British Columbia, Canada. Eligible patients were ART-naïve, were ≥ 19 years old, had initiated ART between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, had ≥ 15 months of follow-up, and were without transmitted HIVDR. Patients were followed for acquired HIVDR until 31 March 2014, the last contact date, or death. We built logistic regression models to assess the associations and predictive ability of individual indicators and of the EWI Score (the number of indicators for which a patient did not meet the criteria) on HIVDR acquisition (to any class of HIVDR, lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs)]). All explored EWIs were associated with at least one class of HIVDR, with the exception of 'ART prescribing practices'. We observed a dose-response relationship between acquiring HIVDR to any antiretroviral class and an increasing EWI score in our predictive logistic regression model. The area under the curve was 0.848 (excellent discrimination). The adjusted odds ratios for acquiring any class of HIVDR for an EWI score of 1, 2 and ≥ 3 versus 0 were 2.30 [95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.21-4.38], 3.35 (95% CI: 1.86-6.03) and 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.61), respectively. Several EWIs were associated with and predictive of HIVDR, supporting the WHO EWIs as a component of the HIVDR prevention method in settings where HIVDR testing is not routinely or widely available. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  8. Extensive proteomic screening identifies the obesity-related NYGGF4 protein as a novel LRP1-interactor, showing reduced expression in early Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taddei Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD but its signalling has not been fully evaluated. There is good evidence that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 is involved in protein-protein interactions, important in the cell biology of LRP1. Results We carried out three yeast two-hybrid screens to identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1. The screens included both conventional screens as well as a novel, split-ubiquitin-based screen in which an LRP1 construct was expressed and screened as a transmembrane protein. The split-ubiquitin screen was validated in a screen using full-length amyloid protein precursor (APP, which successfully identified FE65 and FE65L2, as well as novel interactors (Rab3a, Napg, and ubiquitin b. Using both a conventional screen as well as the split-ubiquitin screen, we identified NYGGF4 as a novel LRP1 interactor. The interaction between LRP1 and NYGGF4 was validated using two-hybrid assays, coprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated a specific interaction of NYGGF4 with an NPXY motif that required an intact tyrosine residue. Interestingly, while we confirmed that other LRP1 interactors we identified, including JIP1B and EB-1, were also able to bind to APP, NYGGF4 was unique in that it showed specific binding with LRP1. Expression of NYGGF4 decreased significantly in patients with AD as compared to age-matched controls, and showed decreasing expression with AD disease progression. Examination of Nyggf4 expression in mice with different alleles of the human APOE4 gene showed significant differences in Nyggf4 expression. Conclusions These results implicate NYGGF4 as a novel and specific interactor of LRP1. Decreased expression of LRP1 and NYGGF4 over disease, evident with the presence of even moderate numbers of neuritic plaques, suggests that LRP1-NYGGF4 is a system altered

  9. Food frequency questionnaire as an indicator of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early pregnancy, according to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, J; Vaz, J S; Moreira, J D; Pinto, T J P; Soares-Mota, M; Kac, G

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be indicative of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early pregnancy and if correlations are affected by body mass index (BMI). The present study comprised a prospective cohort conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample was composed of 248 women, aged 20-40 years, between 6 and the 13 weeks of gestation. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Fatty acid serum compositions were determined in fasting serum samples, employing a high-throughput robotic direct methylation coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. Spearman's correlation (r(s)) was used to assess the relationship between fatty acid intake and corresponding serum composition. Women were classified according to BMI (kg m(-2) ) as underweight/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 139) or excessive weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 109). In the total sample, dietary report was significantly correlated with the serum composition of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; r(s) = 0.232, P < 0.001), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6; r(s) = 0.271, P < 0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3; r(s) = 0.263, P < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3; r(s) = 0.209, P = 0.001). When analyses were stratified by BMI, significant correlations between FFQ and serum composition among underweight/normal weight women were observed for total PUFA (r(s) = 0.323, P < 0.001), LA (r(s) = 0.322, P < 0.001), EPA (r(s) = 0.352, P < 0.001) and DHA (r(s) = 0.176, P = 0.039). Among women of excessive weight, significant correlations were observed only for alpha linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3; r(s) = 0.199, P = 0.040) and DHA (r(s) = 0.236, P = 0.014). FFQ in early pregnancy may be used as a possible indicator of serum concentrations of fatty acids. Higher correlations were observed among underweight/normal weight women. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Ricinosomes provide an early indicator of suspensor and endosperm cells destined to die during late seed development in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S

    2013-11-01

    In mature quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds, the lasting endosperm forms a micropylar cone covering the radicle. The suspensor cells lie within the centre of the cone. During the final stage of seed development, the cells of the lasting endosperm accumulate protein and lipids while the rest are crushed and disintegrated. Both the suspensor and endosperm die progressively from the innermost layers surrounding the embryo and extending towards the nucellar tissue. Ricinosomes are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that accumulate both the pro-form and the mature form of cysteine endopeptidase (Cys-EP), first identified in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm during germination. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of ricinosomes and programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in suspensor and endosperm cells predestined to die during quinoa seed development. A structural study using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed. To detect the presence of Cys-EP, both western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays were carried out using anti-R. communis Cys-EP antibody. A TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation. Except for the one or two cell layers that constitute the lasting endosperm in the mature seed, ricinosomes were found in suspensor and endosperm cells. These cells were also the site of morphological abnormalities, including misshapen and fragmented nuclei, vesiculation of the cytosol, vacuole collapse and cell wall disorganization. It is proposed that, in suspensor and endosperm cells, the early detection of Cys-EP in ricinosomes predicts the occurrence of PCD during late seed development.

  11. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  12. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  13. Evaluation of the feasibility and performance of early warning scores to identify patients at risk of adverse outcomes in a low-middle income country setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Abi; De Silva, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu; De Silva, Nirodha; Sujeewa, Jayasingha A; Rathnayake, R M Dhanapala; Sigera, P Chathurani; Athapattu, Priyantha Lakmini; Mahipala, Palitha G; Rashan, Aasiyah; Munasinghe, Sithum Bandara; Jayasinghe, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri; Dondorp, Arjen M; Haniffa, Rashan

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study describes the availability of core parameters for Early Warning Scores (EWS), evaluates the ability of selected EWS to identify patients at risk of death or other adverse outcome and describes the burden of triggering that front-line staff would experience if implemented. Design Longitudinal observational cohort study. Setting District General Hospital Monaragala. Participants All adult (age >17 years) admitted patients. Main outcome measures Existing physiological parameters, adverse outcomes and survival status at hospital discharge were extracted daily from existing paper records for all patients over an 8-month period. Statistical analysis Discrimination for selected aggregate weighted track and trigger systems (AWTTS) was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Performance of EWS are further evaluated at time points during admission and across diagnostic groups. The burden of trigger to correctly identify patients who died was evaluated using positive predictive value (PPV). Results Of the 16 386 patients included, 502 (3.06%) had one or more adverse outcomes (cardiac arrests, unplanned intensive care unit admissions and transfers). Availability of physiological parameters on admission ranged from 90.97% (95% CI 90.52% to 91.40%) for heart rate to 23.94% (95% CI 23.29% to 24.60%) for oxygen saturation. Ability to discriminate death on admission was less than 0.81 (AUROC) for all selected EWS. Performance of the best performing of the EWS varied depending on admission diagnosis, and was diminished at 24 hours prior to event. PPV was low (10.44%). Conclusion There is limited observation reporting in this setting. Indiscriminate application of EWS to all patients admitted to wards in this setting may result in an unnecessary burden of monitoring and may detract from clinician care of sicker patients. Physiological parameters in combination with diagnosis may have a place when applied on admission to

  14. The dynamics of germination and morphometrics properties of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold saplings in terms of early indicators of tolerance toward the drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early indicators of tolerance toward drought, have been an object of research and scientific papers for many years. It starts with the hypothesis that seedlings produced from seeds that were collected from population of extremely different site conditions, on the level of open pollinated families, will have different results concerning drought tolerance. By tracking the dynamics of germination and morphological parameters of saplings, we are researching the interdependence of these parameters with the survival and growth of two-year-old seedlings in conditions where there is a lack of water. Austrian Pine seeds were collected from forty trees, distributed over five provenances on the Balkan Peninsula. Within each provenance a group is assigned to an extremely harsh and dry habitat, while also another group is assigned to prosperous (the most productive habitat. The analysis of the twenty-one-day-old seedlings (saplings is performed in the laboratory, while the tolerance test of the two-year-old seedlings is performed in the field. Seedlings that are exposed to conditions in which there is lack of water, have the coefficient of water formation evaluation 22.59 times bigger than sandy-clay soil with fraction of sand bigger than 60 percent. The results show significant and positive correlation between some parameters of saplings and the dynamics of growth (high increments of the seedlings in drought, but no correlation with the survival of the seedlings.

  15. Shaping long-term primate development: Telomere length trajectory as an indicator of early maternal maltreatment and predictor of future physiologic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Howell, Brittany R; Jones, Christopher; Esteves, Kyle; Morin, Elyse; Schlesinger, Reid; Meyer, Jerrold S; Baker, Kate; Sanchez, Mar M

    2017-12-01

    The molecular, neurobiological, and physical health impacts of child maltreatment are well established, yet mechanistic pathways remain inadequately defined. Telomere length (TL) decline is an emerging molecular indicator of stress exposure with definitive links to negative health outcomes in maltreated individuals. The multiple confounders endemic to human maltreatment research impede the identification of causal pathways. This study leverages a unique randomized, cross-foster, study design in a naturalistic translational nonhuman primate model of infant maltreatment. At birth, newborn macaques were randomly assigned to either a maltreating or a competent control mother, balancing for sex, biological mother parenting history, and social rank. Offspring TL was measured longitudinally across the first 6 months of life (infancy) from peripheral blood. Hair cortisol accumulation was also determined at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. TL decline was greater in animals randomized to maltreatment, but also interacted with biological mother group. Shorter TL at 6 months was associated with higher mean cortisol levels through 18 months (juvenile period) when controlling for relevant covariates. These results suggest that even under the equivalent social, nutritional, and environmental conditions feasible in naturalistic translational nonhuman primate models, early adverse caregiving results in lasting molecular scars that foreshadow elevated health risk and physiologic dysregulation.

  16. Cutaneous Mitochondrial PO2, but Not Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Is an Early Indicator of the Physiologic Limit of Hemodilution in the Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römers, Luuk H L; Bakker, Charlotte; Dollée, Nathalie; Hoeks, Sanne E; Lima, Alexandre; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Johannes, Tanja; Stolker, Robert J; Mik, Egbert G

    2016-07-01

    Hemodilution is a consequence of fluid replacement during blood loss and is limited by the individual ability to compensate for decreasing hemoglobin level. We tested the ability of a novel noninvasive method for measuring cutaneous mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) to detect this threshold early. Anesthetized and ventilated pigs were hemodynamically monitored and randomized into a hemodilution (n = 12) or a time control (TC) group (n = 14). MitoPO2 measurements were done by oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX after preparation of the skin with 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid cream. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured with near infrared spectroscopy on the thoracic wall. After baseline measurements, progressive normovolemic hemodilution was performed in the hemodilution group in equal steps (500 ml blood replaced by 500 ml Voluven; Fresenius Kabi AG, Germany). Consecutive measurements were performed after 20-min stabilization periods and repeated 8 times or until the animal died. The TC animals remained stable with regard to hemodynamics and mitoPO2. In the hemodilution group, mitoPO2 became hemoglobin-dependent after reaching a threshold of 2.6 ± 0.2 g/dl. During hemodilution, hemoglobin and mitoPO2 decreased (7.9 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ± 0.2 g/dl; 23.6 ± 2 to 9.9 ± 0.8 mmHg), but StO2 did not. Notably, mitoPO2 dropped quite abruptly (about 39%) at the individual threshold. We observed that this decrease in mitoPO2 occurred at least one hemodilution step before changes in other conventional parameters. Cutaneous mitoPO2 decreased typically one hemodilution step before occurrence of significant alterations in systemic oxygen consumption and lactate levels. This makes mitoPO2 a potential early indicator of the physiologic limit of hemodilution and possibly a physiologic trigger for blood transfusion.

  17. Re-assess Vector Indices Threshold as an Early Warning Tool for Predicting Dengue Epidemic in a Dengue Non-endemic Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Shue Chang

    Full Text Available Despite dengue dynamics being driven by complex interactions between human hosts, mosquito vectors and viruses that are influenced by climate factors, an operational model that will enable health authorities to anticipate the outbreak risk in a dengue non-endemic area has not been developed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the temporal relationship between meteorological variables, entomological surveillance indices and confirmed dengue cases; and to establish the threshold for entomological surveillance indices including three mosquito larval indices [Breteau (BI, Container (CI and House indices (HI] and one adult index (AI as an early warning tool for dengue epidemic.Epidemiological, entomological and meteorological data were analyzed from 2005 to 2012 in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The successive waves of dengue outbreaks with different magnitudes were recorded in Kaohsiung City, and involved a dominant serotype during each epidemic. The annual indigenous dengue cases usually started from May to June and reached a peak in October to November. Vector data from 2005-2012 showed that the peak of the adult mosquito population was followed by a peak in the corresponding dengue activity with a lag period of 1-2 months. Therefore, we focused the analysis on the data from May to December and the high risk district, where the inspection of the immature and mature mosquitoes was carried out on a weekly basis and about 97.9% dengue cases occurred. The two-stage model was utilized here to estimate the risk and time-lag effect of annual dengue outbreaks in Taiwan. First, Poisson regression was used to select the optimal subset of variables and time-lags for predicting the number of dengue cases, and the final results of the multivariate analysis were selected based on the smallest AIC value. Next, each vector index models with selected variables were subjected to multiple logistic regression models to examine the accuracy of predicting the

  18. Proteome analysis identifies the Dpr protein of Streptococcus mutans as an important factor in the presence of early streptococcal colonizers of tooth surfaces.

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    Akihiro Yoshida

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci are primary colonizers of tooth surfaces and Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of dental caries in humans. A number of proteins are involved in the formation of monospecies biofilms by S. mutans. This study analyzed the protein expression profiles of S. mutans biofilms formed in the presence or absence of S. gordonii, a pioneer colonizer of the tooth surface, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE. After identifying S. mutans proteins by Mass spectrometric analysis, their expression in the presence of S. gordonii was analyzed. S. mutans was inoculated with or without S. gordonii DL1. The two species were compartmentalized using 0.2-μl Anopore membranes. The biofilms on polystyrene plates were harvested, and the solubilized proteins were separated by 2-DE. When S. mutans biofilms were formed in the presence of S. gordonii, the peroxide resistance protein Dpr of the former showed 4.3-fold increased expression compared to biofilms that developed in the absence of the pioneer colonizer. In addition, we performed a competition assay using S. mutans antioxidant protein mutants together with S. gordonii and other initial colonizers. Growth of the dpr-knockout S. mutans mutant was significantly inhibited by S. gordonii, as well as by S. sanguinis. Furthermore, a cell viability assay revealed that the viability of the dpr-defective mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain when co-cultured with S. gordonii. Therefore, these results suggest that Dpr might be one of the essential proteins for S. mutans survival on teeth in the presence of early colonizing oral streptococci.

  19. Proteome Analysis Identifies the Dpr Protein of Streptococcus mutans as an Important Factor in the Presence of Early Streptococcal Colonizers of Tooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Niki, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yasunaga, Ai; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral streptococci are primary colonizers of tooth surfaces and Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of dental caries in humans. A number of proteins are involved in the formation of monospecies biofilms by S. mutans. This study analyzed the protein expression profiles of S. mutans biofilms formed in the presence or absence of S. gordonii, a pioneer colonizer of the tooth surface, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After identifying S. mutans proteins by Mass spectrometric analysis, their expression in the presence of S. gordonii was analyzed. S. mutans was inoculated with or without S. gordonii DL1. The two species were compartmentalized using 0.2-μl Anopore membranes. The biofilms on polystyrene plates were harvested, and the solubilized proteins were separated by 2-DE. When S. mutans biofilms were formed in the presence of S. gordonii, the peroxide resistance protein Dpr of the former showed 4.3-fold increased expression compared to biofilms that developed in the absence of the pioneer colonizer. In addition, we performed a competition assay using S. mutans antioxidant protein mutants together with S. gordonii and other initial colonizers. Growth of the dpr-knockout S. mutans mutant was significantly inhibited by S. gordonii, as well as by S. sanguinis. Furthermore, a cell viability assay revealed that the viability of the dpr-defective mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain when co-cultured with S. gordonii. Therefore, these results suggest that Dpr might be one of the essential proteins for S. mutans survival on teeth in the presence of early colonizing oral streptococci. PMID:25816242

  20. A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.; Frewer, L.J.; Cope, S.F.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Rowe, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the

  1. Declining trends in early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon from 2008-2010: lessons and challenges for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Serge C; Bissek, Anne C Z K; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Abessouguie, Ibile; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Tsomo, Zephirin; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Ngute, Grace D; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat, Jean B N

    2013-04-08

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and limited access to genotyping assays in low-resource settings (LRS) are inevitably accompanied by an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). The current study aims to evaluate early warning indicators (EWI) as an efficient strategy to limit the development and spread of preventable HIVDR in these settings, in order to sustain the performance of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout programmes. Surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 within 10 Cameroonian ART clinics, based on five HIVDR EWIs: (1) Good prescribing practices; (2) Patient lost to follow-up; (3) Patient retention on first line ART; (4) On-time drug pick-up; (5) Continuous drug supply. Analysis was performed as per the World Health Organisation (WHO) protocol. An overall decreasing performance of the national ART programme was observed from 2008 to 2010: EWI(1) (100% to 70%); EWI(2) (40% to 20%); EWI(3) (70% to 0%); EWI(4) (0% throughout); EWI(5) (90% to 40%). Thus, prescribing practices (EWI(1)) were in conformity with national guidelines, while patient adherence (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) and drug supply (EWI(5)) were lower overtime; with a heavy workload (median ratio ≈1/64 staff/patients) and community disengagement observed all over the study sites. In order to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in poor settings like Cameroon, continuous drug supply, community empowerment to support adherence, and probably a reduction in workload by task shifting, are the potential urgent measures to be undertaken. Such evidence-based interventions, rapidly generated and less costly, would be relevant in limiting the spread of preventable HIVDR and in sustaining the performance of ART programmes in LRS.

  2. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  3. DNA methylation profiling of sorted cells from myelofibrosis patients reveals aberrant epigenetic regulation of immune pathways and identifies early MPN driver genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Myrtue; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Kristensen, Lasse Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to the heterogeneous group of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) together with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). It has been suggested that these neoplasms represent a biological continuum from early cancer stage (ET...

  4. Identifying functional network changing patterns in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis and patients with early illness schizophrenia: A group ICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis exhibit a psychosis-risk syndrome involving attenuated forms of the positive symptoms typical of schizophrenia (SZ, it remains unclear whether their resting-state brain intrinsic functional networks (INs show attenuated or qualitatively distinct patterns of functional dysconnectivity relative to SZ patients. Based on resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from 70 healthy controls (HCs, 53 CHR individuals (among which 41 subjects were antipsychotic medication-naive, and 58 early illness SZ (ESZ patients (among which 53 patients took antipsychotic medication within five years of illness onset, we estimated subject-specific INs using a novel group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA and investigated group differences in INs. We found that when compared to HCs, both CHR and ESZ groups showed significant differences, primarily in default mode, salience, auditory-related, visuospatial, sensory-motor, and parietal INs. Our findings suggest that widespread INs were diversely impacted. More than 25% of voxels in the identified significant discriminative regions (obtained using all 19 possible changing patterns excepting the no-difference pattern from six of the 15 interrogated INs exhibited monotonically decreasing Z-scores (in INs from the HC to CHR to ESZ, and the related regions included the left lingual gyrus of two vision-related networks, the right postcentral cortex of the visuospatial network, the left thalamus region of the salience network, the left calcarine region of the fronto-occipital network and fronto-parieto-occipital network. Compared to HCs and CHR individuals, ESZ patients showed both increasing and decreasing connectivity, mainly hypo-connectivity involving 15% of the altered voxels from four INs. The left supplementary motor area from the sensory-motor network and the right inferior occipital gyrus in the vision-related network showed a

  5. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Clotaire Billong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, especially in resource-limited settings (RLS. In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Methods Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites of Cameroon, within the “reporting period” of October 2013–November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%, fair (85–75%, poor (<75; and factors with p-value < 0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results Majority (74.4% of patients were in urban settings, and 50.9% were managed in reference treatment centres. Nationwide, retention on ART at 12 months was 60.4% (2023/3349; only six sites and one region achieved acceptable performances. Retention performance varied in reference treatment centres (54.2% vs. management units (66.8%, p < 0.0001; male (57.1% vs. women (62.0%, p = 0.007; and with WHO clinical stage I (63.3% vs. other stages (55.6%, p = 0.007; but neither for age (adults [60.3%] vs. children [58.8%], p = 0.730 nor for immune status (CD4351–500 [65.9%] vs. other CD4-staging [59.86%], p = 0.077. Conclusions Poor retention in care, within 12 months of ART initiation, urges active search for lost-to-follow-up targeting preferentially male and symptomatic patients, especially within reference ART clinics. Such sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  6. Assessment of the World Health Organization's HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Main and Decentralized Outreach Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Namibia.

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    Nicholus Mutenda

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO early warning indicators (EWIs of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR.In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites: On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression. Comparisons were made between main and outreach sites and between 2014 and 2012 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in a matched analysis.The national estimates were: On-time pill pick-up 81.9% (95% CI 81.1-82.8 for adults and 82.4% (81.3-83.4 for pediatrics, Retention in care 79% retained on ART after 12 months for adults and 82% for pediatrics, Pharmacy stock-outs 94% of months without a stock-out for adults and 88% for pediatrics, and Dispensing practices 0.01% (0.001-0.056 dispensed mono- or dual-therapy for adults and 0.01% (0.001-0.069 for pediatrics. Viral load suppression was significantly affected by low rates of Viral load completion. Main sites had higher On-time pill pick-up than outreach sites for adults (p<0.001 and pediatrics (p<0.001, and no difference between main and outreach sites for Retention in care for adults (p = 0.761 or pediatrics (p = 0.214. From 2012 to 2014 in adult sites, On-time pill pick-up (p = 0.001, Retention in care (p<0.001, and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.002 worsened. In pediatric sites, On-time pill pick-up (p<0.001 and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.012 worsened.Results of EWIs monitoring in Namibia provide evidence about ART programmatic functioning and contextualize results from national surveys of HIVDR. These results are worrisome as they show a decline in program performance over time. The national ART program is taking steps to minimize the emergence of HIVDR by strengthening adherence and retention of patients on ART

  7. Spatiotemporal proteomic analyses during pancreas cancer progression identifies serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) as a novel candidate biomarker for early stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Justin E; Zhang, Yuzheng; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Solan, Joell L; Lampe, Paul D; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2014-12-01

    Pancreas cancer, or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is the deadliest of solid tumors, with a five-year survival rate of pancreas cancer. Mouse models that accurately recapitulate the human condition allow disease tracking from inception to invasion and can therefore be useful for studying early disease stages in which surgical resection is possible. Using a highly faithful mouse model of pancreas cancer in conjunction with a high-density antibody microarray containing ∼2500 antibodies, we interrogated the pancreatic tissue proteome at preinvasive and invasive stages of disease. The goal was to discover early stage tissue markers of pancreas cancer and follow them through histologically defined stages of disease using cohorts of mice lacking overt clinical signs and symptoms and those with end-stage metastatic disease, respectively. A panel of seven up-regulated proteins distinguishing pancreas cancer from normal pancreas was validated, and their levels were assessed in tissues collected at preinvasive, early invasive, and moribund stages of disease. Six of the seven markers also differentiated pancreas cancer from an experimental model of chronic pancreatitis. The levels of serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) increased between preinvasive and invasive stages, suggesting its potential as a tissue biomarker, and perhaps its involvement in progression from precursor pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry of STK4 at different stages of disease revealed a dynamic expression pattern further implicating it in early tumorigenic events. Immunohistochemistry of a panel of human pancreas cancers confirmed that STK4 levels were increased in tumor epithelia relative to normal tissue. Overall, this integrated approach yielded several tissue markers that could serve as signatures of disease stage, including early (resectable), and therefore clinically meaningful, stages. © 2014 by The American Society for

  8. How Does Access to Early Childhood Services Affect the Participation of Women in the Labour Market? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2018

    2018-01-01

    While the benefits of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to better learning are now widely acknowledged, a widespread and accessible provision for these services also helps support gender equality in the workforce. In particular, the availability, intensity, reliability and affordability of ECEC play an important role in engaging…

  9. The stressful (and not so stressful) nature of language brokering: identifying when brokering functions as a cultural stressor for Latino immigrant children in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Lazarevic, Vanja

    2014-12-01

    Language brokering remains prevalent among immigrant families, but it is widely assumed that brokering functions as a cultural stressor, resulting in adverse health outcomes for immigrant youth. Few studies, however, have tested this assumption, particularly while using longitudinal data and capturing multiple dimensions of brokering. Thus, this study examined how depressive symptoms and family-based acculturation stress mediated the relationships between various aspects of brokering (i.e., frequency of brokering, positive and negative feelings about brokering, brokering norms, and brokering efficacy) and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and other risky behaviors. Using longitudinal survey data from 234 Latino early adolescents in 6th-8th grades (M age  = 12.4 years; Females = 46.2 %), brokering for parents indirectly affected alcohol and marijuana use through family-based acculturation stress; however, these significant indirect effects became non-significant when taking into account negative brokering feelings and brokering as a burden on one's time. Feeling positively or efficacious about brokering or having pro-brokering norms did not directly predict any adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes. Moderation analyses, however, revealed that brokering for parents did not seem to function as a stressor when Latino early adolescents were high in brokering efficacy (e.g., feeling confident in one's ability to broker) or descriptive brokering norms (e.g., perceiving one's peers as brokering often). By contrast, when Latino early adolescents perceived brokering as a burden, brokering for parents functioned as a stressor, placing Latino early adolescents at risk for family-based acculturation stress, and in turn, alcohol and marijuana use. Such findings point to the complexity of brokering.

  10. microRNA expression profiling on individual breast cancer patients identifies novel panel of circulating microRNA for early detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Ali, Arwa M.; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification and mana......Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification...... and management choices. Herein we developed a novel approach which relies on the isolation of circulating microRNAs through an enrichment step using speed-vacuum concentration which resulted in 5-fold increase in microRNA abundance. Global miRNA microarray expression profiling performed on individual samples...... of 46 BC and 14 controls. The expression of those microRNAs was overall higher in patients with stage I, II, and III, compared to stage IV, with potential utilization for early detection. The expression of this microRNA panel was slightly higher in the HER2 and TN compared to patients with luminal...

  11. 'What's up, (R)DoC?'--can identifying core dimensions of early functioning help us understand, and then reduce, developmental risk for mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2014-08-01

    In the U.S. the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the main funder of mental health research in the world, has recently changed its funding model to promote a radically new perspective for mental health science. This bold, and for some controversial, initiative, termed the Research Diagnostic Criteria (or RDoC for short), intends to shift the focus of research, and eventually clinical practice, away from existing diagnostic categories, as recently updated in the DSM-5, towards 'new ways of classifying psychopathology based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures.' This reorientation from discrete categorical disorder manifestations to underlying cross-cutting dimensions of individual functioning has generated considerable debate across the community of mental health researchers and clinicians (with strong views voiced both pro and con). Given its pivotal role in defining the research agenda globally, there is little doubt that this US science funding initiative will also have ramifications for researchers and clinicians worldwide. In this Editorial we focus specifically on the translational potential of the dimensional RDoC approach, properly extended to developmental models of early risk, in terms of its value as a potential driver of early intervention/prevention models; in the current issue of the JCPP this is exemplified by a number of papers thata address the mapping of underlying dimensions of core functioning to disorder risk, providing evidence for their potential predictive power as early markers of later disorder processes. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Sex differences in the prediction of the effectiveness of paroxetine for patients with major depressive disorder identified using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for early response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Norio, Yasui-Furukori; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cutoff values for the early response of patients with major depressive disorder to paroxetine and their sex differences by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict the effectiveness of paroxetine. In total, 120 patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled and treated with 10-40 mg/day paroxetine for 6 weeks; 89 patients completed the protocol. A clinical evaluation using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was performed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. In male subjects, the cutoff values for MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 20.9%, 34.9%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 83.3% and 80.0%, 83.3% and 80.0%, and 100% and 90%, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.908, 0.821, and 0.979, respectively. In female subjects, the cutoff values for the MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 21.4%, 35.7%, and 32.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 71.4% and 84.6%, 73.8% and 76.9%, and 90.5% and 76.9%, respectively. The AUCs were 0.781, 0.735, and 0.904, respectively. Early improvement with paroxetine may predict the long-term response. The accuracy of the prediction for the response is higher in male subjects.

  13. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, Part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Zhang, Kexiong; Liu, Wei-Han Bobby; Waxman, David J.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-11-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death with unique morphological and biochemical features, is dysregulated in cancer and is activated by many cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Noninvasive assays for apoptosis in cell cultures can aid in screening of new anticancer agents. We have previously demonstrated that elastic scattering spectroscopy can monitor apoptosis in cell cultures. In this report we present data on monitoring the detailed time-course of scattering changes in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and PC-3 prostate cancer cells treated with staurosporine to induce apoptosis. Changes in the backscattering spectrum are detectable within 10 min, and continue to progress up to 48 h after staurosporine treatment, with the magnitude and kinetics of scattering changes dependent on inducer concentration. Similar responses were observed in CHO cells treated with several other apoptosis-inducing protocols. Early and late scattering changes were observed under conditions shown to induce apoptosis via caspase activity assay and were absent under conditions where apoptosis was not induced. Finally, blocking caspase activity and downstream apoptotic morphology changes prevented late scattering changes. These observations demonstrate that early and late changes in wavelength-dependent backscattering correlate with the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures and that the late changes are specific to apoptosis.

  14. Novel ZBTB24 Mutation Associated with Immunodeficiency, Centromere Instability, and Facial Anomalies Type-2 Syndrome Identified in a Patient with Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Máire A; Dawany, Noor; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Devoto, Marcella; Kelsen, Judith R

    2017-12-01

    Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diagnosed in children ≤5 years old, can be the initial presentation of some primary immunodeficiencies. In this study, we describe a 17-month-old boy with recurrent infections, growth failure, facial anomalies, and inflammatory bowel disease. Immune evaluation, whole-exome sequencing, karyotyping, and methylation array were performed to evaluate the child's constellation of symptoms and examination findings. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the child was homozygous for a novel variant in ZBTB24, the gene associated with immunodeficiency, centromere instability, and facial anomalies type-2 syndrome. This describes the first case of inflammatory bowel disease associated with immunodeficiency, centromere instability, and facial anomalies type-2 syndrome in a child with a novel disease-causing mutation in ZBTB24 found on whole-exome sequencing.

  15. Gene expression profiling identifies FYN as an important molecule in tamoxifen resistance and a predictor of early recurrence in patients treated with endocrine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; (Hansen) Vever, Henriette; Lænkholm, A-V

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer, we performed gene array analyses and identified 366 genes with altered expression in four unique tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) cell lines vs the parental tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cell line. Most of these genes were...

  16. Large-scale phenotyping of an accurate genetic mouse model of JNCL identifies novel early pathology outside the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Staropoli

    Full Text Available Cln3(Δex7/8 mice harbor the most common genetic defect causing juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL, an autosomal recessive disease involving seizures, visual, motor and cognitive decline, and premature death. Here, to more thoroughly investigate the manifestations of the common JNCL mutation, we performed a broad phenotyping study of Cln3(Δex7/8 mice. Homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice, congenic on a C57BL/6N background, displayed subtle deficits in sensory and motor tasks at 10-14 weeks of age. Homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice also displayed electroretinographic changes reflecting cone function deficits past 5 months of age and a progressive decline of retinal post-receptoral function. Metabolic analysis revealed increases in rectal body temperature and minimum oxygen consumption in 12-13 week old homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice, which were also seen to a lesser extent in heterozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice. Heart weight was slightly increased at 20 weeks of age, but no significant differences were observed in cardiac function in young adults. In a comprehensive blood analysis at 15-16 weeks of age, serum ferritin concentrations, mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells (MCV, and reticulocyte counts were reproducibly increased in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice, and male homozygotes had a relative T-cell deficiency, suggesting alterations in hematopoiesis. Finally, consistent with findings in JNCL patients, vacuolated peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 neonates, and to a greater extent in older animals. Early onset, severe vacuolation in clear cells of the epididymis of male homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice was also observed. These data highlight additional organ systems in which to study CLN3 function, and early phenotypes have been established in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice that merit further study for JNCL biomarker development.

  17. Temporal Profile of Microtubule-Associated Protein 2: A Novel Indicator of Diffuse Brain Injury Severity and Early Mortality after Brain Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda; Robicsek, Steven A; Brophy, Gretchen M; Wang, Kevin K W; Hannay, H Julia; Heaton, Shelley; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Gabrielli, Andrea; Hayes, Ronald L; Robertson, Claudia S

    2018-01-01

    This study compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) from adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with uninjured controls over 10 days, and examined the relationship between MAP-2 concentrations and acute clinical and radiologic measures of injury severity along with mortality at 2 weeks and over 6 months. This prospective study, conducted at two Level 1 trauma centers, enrolled adults with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) requiring a ventriculostomy, as well as controls. Ventricular CSF was sampled from each patient at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h following TBI and analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for MAP-2 (ng/mL). Injury severity was assessed by the GCS score, Marshall Classification on computed tomography (CT), Rotterdam CT score, and mortality. There were 151 patients enrolled-130 TBI and 21 control patients. MAP-2 was detectable within 6 h of injury and was significantly elevated compared with controls (p < 0.001) at each time-point. MAP-2 was highest within 72 h of injury and decreased gradually over 10 days. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for deciphering TBI versus controls at the earliest time-point CSF was obtained was 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.99) and for the maximal 24-h level was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-1.00). The area under the curve for initial MAP-2 levels predicting 2-week mortality was 0.80 at 6 h, 0.81 at 12 h, 0.75 at 18 h, 0.75 at 24 h, and 0.80 at 48 h. Those with Diffuse Injury III-IV had much higher initial (p = 0.033) and maximal (p = 0.003) MAP-2 levels than those with Diffuse Injury I-II. There was a graded increase in the overall levels and peaks of MAP-2 as the degree of diffuse injury increased within the first 120 h post-injury. These data suggest that early levels of MAP-2 reflect severity of diffuse brain injury and predict 2-week mortality in TBI patients. These

  18. Deep sequencing analysis of the transcriptomes of peanut aerial and subterranean young pods identifies candidate genes related to early embryo abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Wei; Azam, Sarwar; Li, Heying; Zhu, Fanghe; Li, Haifen; Hong, Yanbin; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Erhua; Wu, Hong; Yu, Shanlin; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Zhong, Ni; Wen, Shijie; Li, Xingyu; Knapp, Steve J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liang, Xuanqiang

    2013-01-01

    The failure of peg penetration into the soil leads to seed abortion in peanut. Knowledge of genes involved in these processes is comparatively deficient. Here, we used RNA-seq to gain insights into transcriptomes of aerial and subterranean pods. More than 2 million transcript reads with an average length of 396 bp were generated from one aerial (AP) and two subterranean (SP1 and SP2) pod libraries using pyrosequencing technology. After assembly, sets of 49 632, 49 952 and 50 494 from a total of 74 974 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) were identified in AP, SP1 and SP2, respectively. A clear linear relationship in the gene expression level was observed between these data sets. In brief, 2194 differentially expressed TACs with a 99.0% true-positive rate were identified, among which 859 and 1068 TACs were up-regulated in aerial and subterranean pods, respectively. Functional analysis showed that putative function based on similarity with proteins catalogued in UniProt and gene ontology term classification could be determined for 59 342 (79.2%) and 42 955 (57.3%) TACs, respectively. A total of 2968 TACs were mapped to 174 KEGG pathways, of which 168 were shared by aerial and subterranean transcriptomes. TACs involved in photosynthesis were significantly up-regulated and enriched in the aerial pod. In addition, two senescence-associated genes were identified as significantly up-regulated in the aerial pod, which potentially contribute to embryo abortion in aerial pods, and in turn, to cessation of swelling. The data set generated in this study provides evidence for some functional genes as robust candidates underlying aerial and subterranean pod development and contributes to an elucidation of the evolutionary implications resulting from fruit development under light and dark conditions. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Autofluorescence imaging can identify preinvasive or clinically occult lesions in fallopian tube epithelium: a promising step towards screening and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, J N; El Hallani, S; Lam, S F; Kalloger, S E; Luk, M; Huntsman, D G; MacAulay, C; Gilks, C B; Miller, D M; Lane, P M

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging systems are robust, portable, relatively inexpensive, and have proven utility in detecting precancerous lesions in the lung, esophagus, colon, oral cavity and cervix. We describe the use of light-induced endogenous fluorescence (autofluorescence) in identifying preinvasive and occult carcinomas in ex vivo samples of human fallopian tube (FT) epithelium. Women undergoing surgery for an i) ovarian mass, ii) a history suggestive of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer, or iii) known serous ovarian cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were approached for informed consent. Immediately following surgery, FT's were photographed in reflectance and fluorescence at high resolution. Images included: (1) white-light reflectance of luminal/epithelial surface; (2) narrow-band green reflectance (570 nm) (3) green autofluorescence (405/436 nm excitation); and (4) blue autofluorescence (405 nm excitation). Areas revealing a loss of natural tissue fluorescence or marked increase in tissue microvasculature were recorded and compared to final histopathologic diagnosis (SEE-FIM protocol). Fifty-six cases involving one or both fallopian tubes underwent reflectance and fluorescence visualization. Nine cases were excluded, either secondary to non-ovarian primary pathology (7) or excessive trauma (2) rendering tissue interpretation impossible. Of the 47 cases remaining, there were 11 high grade serous (HGS) and 9 non-serous ovarian carcinomas undergoing primary debulking surgery, 5 serous carcinomas having received NAC, 8 benign ovarian tumors, and 14 women undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO). Methodology was feasible, efficient, and reproducible. TIC or carcinoma was identified in 7/11 HGS, 3/5 NAC, and 1/14 RRBSO. Optical images were reviewed to determine test positive or negative based on standardized criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the entire

  20. Satellite Soil Moisture and Water Storage Observations Identify Early and Late Season Water Supply Influencing Plant Growth in the Missouri Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    We employ an array of continuously overlapping global satellite sensor observations including combined surface soil moisture (SM) estimates from SMAP, AMSR-E and AMSR-2, GRACE terrestrial water storage (TWS), and satellite precipitation measurements, to characterize seasonal timing and inter-annual variations of the regional water supply pattern and its associated influence on vegetation growth estimates from MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), AMSR-E/2 vegetation optical depth (VOD) and GOME-2 solar-induced florescence (SIF). Satellite SM is used as a proxy of plant-available water supply sensitive to relatively rapid changes in surface condition, GRACE TWS measures seasonal and inter-annual variations in regional water storage, while precipitation measurements represent the direct water input to the analyzed ecosystem. In the Missouri watershed, we find surface SM variations are the dominant factor controlling vegetation growth following the peak of the growing season. Water supply to growth responds to both direct precipitation inputs and groundwater storage carry-over from prior seasons (winter and spring), depending on land cover distribution and regional climatic condition. For the natural grassland in the more arid central and northwest watershed areas, an early season anomaly in precipitation or surface temperature can have a lagged impact on summer vegetation growth by affecting the surface SM and the underlying TWS supplies. For the croplands in the more humid eastern portions of the watershed, the correspondence between surface SM and plant growth weakens. The combination of these complementary remote-sensing observations provides an effective means for evaluating regional variations in the timing and availability of water supply influencing vegetation growth.

  1. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  2. Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-14

    We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.

  3. The dating and interpretation of Chusang indicates permanent human occupation of the interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Aldenderfer, Mark; Wang, Zhijun; Hoffmann, Dirk; Dahl, Jenny; Degering, Detlev; Haas, Randy; Schlütz, Frank; Gliganic, Luke; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    central plateau. We suggest that migration onto the plateau during the early Holocene was enabled by the wetter regional climate at that time. These findings challenge (i) current models of the occupation of the Tibetan Plateau and (ii) the original dating of Chusang that - based on OSL multi-grain dating - suggests and an age for the imprints of ca. 20 ka. 1. Aldenderfer, M. (2011): Peopling the Tibetan plateau: Insights from archaeology. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12, 141-147. 2. Chen, F. H. et al. (2015): Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P. Science 347, 248-250. 3. Meyer, M.C. et al. (2017): Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. Science 355, 64-67. 4. Lu, D. et al. (2016): Ancestral Origins and Genetic History of Tibetan Highlanders. The American Journal of Human Genetics 99, 580-594. 5. Xiang, K. et al. (2013): Identification of a Tibetan-specific mutation in the hypoxic gene EGLN1 and its contribution to high-altitude adaptation. Molecular biology and evolution 30, 1889-1898.

  4. Early indication for a reduced burden of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children following the introduction of routine vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasche, Stefan; Takahashi, Kensuke; Vu, Dinh Thiem; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Thi Hien-Anh; Le, HuuTho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Dang, Duc Anh; Edmond, Karen; Ariyoshi, Koya; Mulholland, E Kim; Edmunds, W John; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2014-12-05

    Despite the global success of Hib vaccination in reducing disease and mortality, uncertainty about the disease burden and the potential impact of Hib vaccination in Southeast Asia has delayed the introduction of vaccination in some countries in the region. Hib vaccination was introduced throughout Vietnam in July 2010 without catch-up. In an observational, population based surveillance study we estimated the impact of routine Hib vaccination on all cause radiologically confirmed childhood pneumonia in Nha Trang, Vietnam. In 2007 active hospital based surveillance was established in Khanh Hoa General Hospital, the only hospital in Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa province. Nasopharyngeal samples and chest radiographs are taken routinely from all children diagnosed with acute respiratory illness on admission. For admissions between 02/2007 and 03/2012 chest radiographs were interpreted for the presence of WHO primary endpoint pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed by PCR for the presence of Influenza A or B, RSV and rhinovirus. We employed Poisson regression to estimate the impact of Hib vaccination on radiologically confirmed pneumonia (RCP) while statistically accounting for potential differences in viral circulation in the post vaccination era which could have biased the estimate. Of 3151 cases admitted during the study period, 166 had RCP and major viruses were detected in 1601. The adjusted annual incidence of RCP in children younger than 5 years declined by 39% (12-58%) after introduction of Hib vaccination. This decline was most pronounced in children less than 2 years old, adjusted IRR: 0.52 (0.33-0.81), and no significant impact was observed in the 2-4 years old who were not eligible for vaccination, adjusted IRR: 0.96 (0.52-1.72). We present early evidence that the burden of Hib associated RCP in Nha Trang before vaccination was substantial and that shortly after introduction to the routine childhood immunisation scheme vaccination has substantially reduced

  5. Fragmentation patterns in the diatom genus Rouxia and their potential for identifying latent depositional hiatuses in the early Pliocene diatomite of the ANDRILL AND-1B core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfirst, M. A.; Scherer, R. P.; Winter, D.; Sjunneskog, C.; Warnock, J.; Kuhn, G.; Niessen, F.; Helling, D.; Magens, D.

    2009-04-01

    Diatom genera have traditionally been split into two primary groupings based upon the symmetry of the siliceous frustule. Diatoms symmetric about a point are classified as centrics, while those symmetric about a line are classified as pennates. This fundamental difference in shape has consequences for preservation in ice proximal settings, where an overriding ice sheet can create shearing in the upper meters of the sediment column. This leads to preferential breakage in pennate forms, and results in a higher ratio of undamaged centric to pennate frustules (Scherer et al., 2004). Similarly, an ice sheet grounded over highly porous diatomite results in significant diatom fragmentation resulting from normal load compaction. The diatom genus Rouxia is a pennate form with a relatively wide raphe, making it particularly susceptible to breakage during ice advance and retreat, and offering the opportunity to evaluate ice advance stages in sedimentary units where glacial erosion may have removed upper depositional units. In the ANDRILL AND-1B core, a long interval of nearly pure diatomite was recovered from 382.98-459.24 mbsf. Construction of an age model during this interval has relied primarily on age ranges provided by presence or absence of key diatom species. However, questions still remain as to the continuity of deposition. In this study, samples were collected at an average of 50-cm spacing for the length of the long diatom unit as well as for 20 meters of the silica-rich diamictite unit directly overlaying the diatomite. Fragments of specimens from the genus Rouxia were counted and classified into categories based on the size of the fragment in relation to total frustule length. These data were then used to develop a quantitative index, which was examined for changes in fragmentation through time. Preliminary data are presented that indicate increased fragmentation at the top of the section under study, which we interpret to indicate evidence for increased glacial

  6. Country-Level Macroeconomic Indicators Predict Early Post-Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Survival in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A CIBMTR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim A; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Badawy, Sherif; Beitinjaneh, Amer; George, Biju; Buchbinder, David; Cerny, Jan; Dedeken, Laurence; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Freytes, Cesar O; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Gergis, Usama; Almaguer, David Gomez; Gupta, Ashish; Hale, Gregory; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Adekola, Kehinde; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila; Knight, Jennifer; Kumar, Lalit; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Law, Jason; Lazarus, Hillard M; LeMaistre, Charles; Olsson, Richard F; Pulsipher, Michael A; Savani, Bipin N; Schultz, Kirk R; Saad, Ayman A; Seftel, Matthew; Seo, Sachiko; Shea, Thomas C; Steinberg, Amir; Sullivan, Keith; Szwajcer, David; Wirk, Baldeep; Yared, Jean; Yong, Agnes; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Khera, Nandita; Bonfim, Carmem; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2018-03-19

    For patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) offers a potential cure. Life-threatening complications can arise from alloHCT that require the application of sophisticated health care delivery. The impact of country-level economic conditions on post-transplantation outcomes is not known. Our objective was to assess whether these variables were associated with outcomes for patients transplanted for ALL. Using data from the Center for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, we included 11,261 patients who received a first alloHCT for ALL from 303 centers across 38 countries between the years of 2005 and 2013. Cox regression models were constructed using the following macroeconomic indicators as main effects: Gross national income per capita, health expenditure per capita, and Human Development Index (HDI). The outcome was overall survival at 100 days following transplantation. In each model, transplants performed within lower resourced environments were associated with inferior overall survival. In the model with the HDI as the main effect, transplants performed in the lowest HDI quartile (n = 697) were associated with increased hazard for mortality (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 3.57; P macroeconomic indices were associated with lower survival at 100 days after alloHCT for ALL. The reasons for this disparity require further investigation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changing palaeoenvironments and tetrapod populations in the Daptocephalus Assemblage Zone (Karoo Basin, South Africa) indicate early onset of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti, Pia A.; Smith, Roger M. H.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2018-02-01

    Important palaeoenvironmental differences are identified during deposition of the latest Permian Daptocephalus Assemblage Zone (DaAZ) of the South African Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergoup), which is also divided into a Lower and Upper subzone. A lacustrine floodplain facies association showing evidence for higher water tables and subaqueous conditions on the floodplains is present in Lower DaAZ. The change to well-drained floodplain facies association in the Upper DaAZ is coincident with a faunal turnover as evidenced by the last appearance of the dicynodont Dicynodon lacerticeps, the therocephalian Theriognathus microps, the cynodont Procynosuchus delaharpeae, and first appearance of the dicynodont Lystrosaurus maccaigi within the Ripplemead member. Considering the well documented 3-phased extinction of Karoo tetrapods during the Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction (PTME), the facies transition between the Lower and Upper DaAZ represents earlier than previously documented palaeoenvironmental changes associated with the onset of this major global biotic crisis.

  8. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H

    2016-01-01

    to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with...... Set. METHODS: Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares...

  9. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sami

    .The results suggested that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  10. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  11. De novo RNA sequencing transcriptome of Rhododendron obtusum identified the early heat response genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linchuan Fang

    Full Text Available Rhododendron spp. is an important ornamental species that is widely cultivated for landscape worldwide. Heat stress is a major obstacle for its cultivation in south China. Previous studies on rhododendron principally focused on its physiological and biochemical processes, which are involved in a series of stress tolerance. However, molecular or genetic properties of rhododendron's response to heat stress are still poorly understood. The phenotype and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of four rhododendron cultivars were compared under normal or heat stress conditions, and a cultivar with highest heat tolerance, "Yanzhimi" (R. obtusum was selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 325,429,240 high quality reads were obtained and assembled into 395,561 transcripts and 92,463 unigenes. Functional annotation showed that 38,724 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes in at least one of the proteins or nucleotide databases used in this study. These 38,724 unigenes were categorized into 51 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification and were blasted to 24 known cluster of orthologous groups. A total of 973 identified unigenes belonged to 57 transcription factor families, including the stress-related HSF, DREB, ZNF, and NAC genes. Photosynthesis was significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and the changed expression pattern was illustrated. The key pathways and signaling components that contribute to heat tolerance in rhododendron were revealed. These results provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for heat-tolerance breeding.

  12. De novo RNA sequencing transcriptome of Rhododendron obtusum identified the early heat response genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Dong, Yanfang; Xu, Dongyun; Mao, Jing; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Rhododendron spp. is an important ornamental species that is widely cultivated for landscape worldwide. Heat stress is a major obstacle for its cultivation in south China. Previous studies on rhododendron principally focused on its physiological and biochemical processes, which are involved in a series of stress tolerance. However, molecular or genetic properties of rhododendron’s response to heat stress are still poorly understood. The phenotype and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of four rhododendron cultivars were compared under normal or heat stress conditions, and a cultivar with highest heat tolerance, “Yanzhimi” (R. obtusum) was selected for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 325,429,240 high quality reads were obtained and assembled into 395,561 transcripts and 92,463 unigenes. Functional annotation showed that 38,724 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes in at least one of the proteins or nucleotide databases used in this study. These 38,724 unigenes were categorized into 51 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification and were blasted to 24 known cluster of orthologous groups. A total of 973 identified unigenes belonged to 57 transcription factor families, including the stress-related HSF, DREB, ZNF, and NAC genes. Photosynthesis was significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and the changed expression pattern was illustrated. The key pathways and signaling components that contribute to heat tolerance in rhododendron were revealed. These results provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for heat-tolerance breeding. PMID:29059200

  13. Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Wolfgang; Fu, Yunjiao; Ilger, Jan-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The well defined composition of the Comanche rock's carbonate (Magnesite0.62Siderite0.25Calcite0.11Rhodochrosite0.02) and its host rock's composition, dominated by Mg-rich olivine, enable us to reproduce the atmospheric CO2partial pressure that may have triggered the formation of these carbonates. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions (including CO2partial pressure) may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops (Gusev Crater) and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving (1) ultramafic rocks (ca. 32 wt% olivine; Fo0.72Fa0.28), (2) pure water, and (3) CO2partial pressures of ca. 0.5 to 2.0 bar at water-to-rock ratios of ca. 500 molH2O mol-1rock and ca. 5°C (278 K). Our modeled carbonate composition (Magnesite0.64Siderite0.28Calcite0.08) matches the measured composition of carbonates preserved in the Comanche rocks. Considerably different carbonate compositions are achieved at (1) higher temperature (85°C), (2) water-to-rock ratios considerably higher and lower than 500 mol mol-1 and (3) CO2partial pressures differing from 1.0 bar in the model set up. The Comanche rocks, hosting the carbonate, may have been subjected to long-lasting (>104 to 105 years) aqueous alteration processes triggered by atmospheric CO2partial pressures of ca. 1.0 bar at low temperature. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock column, which is characterized by newly formed Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution carbonate, and phyllosilicate-rich alteration assemblages within deeper (unexposed) units.

  14. Identifying Clinical Factors Which Predict for Early Failure Patterns Following Resection for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Patients Who Received Adjuvant Chemotherapy Without Chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Steve; Salloum, Joseph; Grieco, Carmine; Wuthrick, Evan; Diaz, Dayssy A; Barney, Christian; Manilchuk, Andrei; Schmidt, Carl; Dillhoff, Mary; Pawlik, Timothy M; Williams, Terence M

    2018-05-04

    The role of radiation therapy (RT) in resected pancreatic cancer (PC) remains incompletely defined. We sought to determine clinical variables which predict for local-regional recurrence (LRR) to help select patients for adjuvant RT. We identified 73 patients with PC who underwent resection and adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy alone. We performed detailed radiologic analysis of first patterns of failure. LRR was defined as recurrence of PC within standard postoperative radiation volumes. Univariate analyses (UVA) were conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analyses (MVA) utilized the Cox proportional hazard ratio model. Factors significant on UVA were used for MVA. At median follow-up of 20 months, rates of local-regional recurrence only (LRRO) were 24.7%, LRR as a component of any failure 68.5%, metastatic recurrence (MR) as a component of any failure 65.8%, and overall disease recurrence (OR) 90.5%. On UVA, elevated postoperative CA 19-9 (>90 U/mL), pathologic lymph node positive (pLN+) disease, and higher tumor grade were associated with increased LRR, MR, and OR. On MVA, elevated postoperative CA 19-9 and pLN+ were associated with increased MR and OR. In addition, positive resection margin was associated with increased LRRO on both UVA and MVA. About 25% of patients with PC treated without adjuvant RT develop LRRO as initial failure. The only independent predictor of LRRO was positive margin, while elevated postoperative CA 19-9 and pLN+ were associated with predicting MR and overall survival. These data may help determine which patients benefit from intensification of local therapy with radiation.

  15. Analysis of colorectal cancers in British Bangladeshi identifies early onset, frequent mucinous histotype and a high prevalence of RBFOX1 deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Neel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the British Bangladeshi population (BAN is low compared to British Caucasians (CAU. Genetic background may influence mutations and disease features. Methods We characterized the clinicopathological features of BAN CRCs and interrogated their genomes using mutation profiling and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays and compared findings to CAU CRCs. Results Age of onset of BAN CRC was significantly lower than for CAU patients (p=3.0 x 10-5 and this difference was not due to Lynch syndrome or the polyposis syndromes. KRAS mutations in BAN microsatellite stable (MSS CRCs were comparatively rare (5.4% compared to CAU MSS CRCs (25%; p=0.04, which correlates with the high percentage of mucinous histotype observed (31% in the BAN samples. No BRAF mutations was seen in our BAN MSS CRCs (CAU CRCs, 12%; p=0.08. Array data revealed similar patterns of gains (chromosome 7 and 8q, losses (8p, 17p and 18q and LOH (4q, 17p and 18q in BAN and CAU CRCs. A small deletion on chromosome 16p13.2 involving the alternative splicing factor RBFOX1 only was found in significantly more BAN (50% than CAU CRCs (15% cases (p=0.04. Focal deletions targeting the 5’ end of the gene were also identified. Novel RBFOX1 mutations were found in CRC cell lines and tumours; mRNA and protein expression was reduced in tumours. Conclusions KRAS mutations were rare in BAN MSS CRC and a mucinous histotype common. Loss of RBFOX1 may explain the anomalous splicing activity associated with CRC.

  16. Gingival enlargement as an early diagnostic indicator in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia: A rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triveni M Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for Hodgkin′s lymphoma (HL has resulted in excellent survival rates but is associated with increased risks of secondary therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML. Gingival enlargement associated with bleeding and ulceration is the most common rapidly appearing oral manifestations of leukemic involvement. An 8 months pregnant patient reported with generalized gingival enlargement, with localized cyanotic and necrotic papillary areas. Co-relating the hematological report with the oral lesions and her past medical history of HL, a diagnosis of t-AML secondary to treatment for HL was made by the oncologist. As oral lesions are one of the initial manifestations of acute leukemia, they may serve as a significant diagnostic indicator for the dental surgeons and their important role in diagnosing and treating such cases. Furthermore, this case report highlights the serious complication of t-AML subsequent to HL treatment and the important role that a general and oral health care professional may play in diagnosing and treating such cases.

  17. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  19. Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Bashir M

    2011-07-29

    Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg\\/ml). Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass\\/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS) approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg\\/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i) human cell line specific stress-response, ii) SiO2NP size and iii) concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell\\/tissue investigations based on the combined

  20. Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml. Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2 were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i human cell line specific stress-response, ii SiO2NP size and iii concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell/tissue investigations based on the

  1. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. Treatment feasibility and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Wygoda, Andrzej; Hutnik, Marcin; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Wydmanski, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland); Maciejewski, Adam; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgon, Janusz [Dept. of Surgery, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland); Orlef, Andrzej [Dept. of Physics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 2003 and 2006, 16 patients with early-stage cancer of mobile tongue (n = 10 [63%]) or floor of the mouth (n = 6 [37%]) treated at Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Poland, were evaluated for IORT boost with the INTRABEAM {sup registered} System (Carl Zeiss Surgical GmbH; IORT-PRS) because of the high risk of local recurrence due to positive margins on frozen pathologic section. After tumor resection, the applicator was positioned in the tumor bed. The applicator's diameter (range: 1.5-5 cm) was selected to encompass high-risk area of tumor recurrence. The dose (5 Gy, 7 Gy, or 7.5 Gy) was applied according to tumor volume and bone proximity. External-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was provided to the tumor bed in all patients (50 Gy) and to the nodal area, when needed. Toxicity and local tumor control were assessed. Results: Median follow-up was 36 months. IORT did not increase acute mucosal reaction. Local tumor control was found in all cases. Early mucosal reaction did not exceed 3 according to the RTOG scale and healed in median time of 35 days after completion of EBRT. No late adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: This preliminary report has demonstrated the feasibility of IORT-PRS for patients with early oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. This method may be considered an alternative boost technique, although additional studies are needed to establish long-term results in a larger group of patients. (orig.)

  2. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  3. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  4. Identifying PEV early adopters and their needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed drivers and incentives for the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) as well as the potential impacts on electric utility customers. For many drivers, the adoption of EVs will result in fuel cost savings of $1200 per year. Approximately 73 per cent of Canada's population is concentrated in urban areas. Ninety-five per cent of car trips are less than 30 km in distance. Canada's federal and provincial governments support the adoption of EVs. British Columbia (BC) currently has the most attractive combination of low electricity prices and high fuel costs in North America. Provincial sales tax rebates of up to $2000 are available for EV adopters, while carbon taxes are now being applied to fossil fuel users. New homes in Vancouver are required to provide dedicated charging circuits for EVs. The use of EVs will create new demands for customer service from fuel retailers, developers, fleets and consumer services. BC is expected to have one of the highest EV adoption rates in North America. Unconstrained EV charging is expected to impact the electricity grid by 2015. tabs., figs.

  5. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  7. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  8. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  9. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  10. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  11. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  12. External validation of the fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product indices, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to identify hepatic steatosis in healthy controls and obese, insulin-resistant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Weickert, Martin O; Lythgoe, Daniel; Sprung, Victoria S; Dobson, Rebecca; Shoajee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, Margot; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Jones, Helen; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-11-01

    Simple clinical algorithms including the fatty liver index (FLI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) have been developed as surrogate markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), constructed using (semi-quantitative) ultrasonography. This study aimed to validate FLI and LAP as measures of hepatic steatosis, as determined quantitatively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Data were collected from 168 patients with NAFLD and 168 controls who had undergone clinical, biochemical and anthropometric assessment. Values of FLI and LAP were determined and assessed both as predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis (liver fat>5.5%) and of actual liver fat content, as measured by 1H-MRS. The discriminative ability of FLI and LAP was estimated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). As FLI can also be interpreted as a predictive probability of hepatic steatosis, we assessed how well calibrated it was in our cohort. Linear regression with prediction intervals was used to assess the ability of FLI and LAP to predict liver fat content. Further validation was provided in 54 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FLI, LAP and alanine transferase discriminated between patients with and without steatosis with an AUROC of 0.79 (IQR=0.74, 0.84), 0.78 (IQR=0.72, 0.83) and 0.83 (IQR=0.79, 0.88) respectively although could not quantitatively predict liver fat. Additionally, the algorithms accurately matched the observed percentages of patients with hepatic steatosis in our cohort. FLI and LAP may be used to identify patients with hepatic steatosis clinically or for research purposes but could not predict liver fat content. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Assessment of Correlation Between Early and Late Efficacy Endpoints to Identify Potential Surrogacy Relationships in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: a Literature-Based Meta-analysis of 108 Phase II and Phase III Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Lu, Dan; Chu, Yu-Waye; Chai, Akiko; Green, Michelle; Zhang, Nancy; Jin, Jin Yan

    2017-05-01

    Correlations between early and late efficacy endpoints were assessed to identify potential surrogate endpoints for overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) with clinical trial-level data in three non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). One hundred and eight phase II-III trials (129 trial arms) in DLBCL, FL, and MCL were identified and included in the database. Correlations between efficacy endpoints were analyzed using weighted linear regression and Pearson's coefficient of determination (R 2 ). In newly diagnosed DLBCL, 6-month PFS was strongly correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.96). Six-month PFS was strongly correlated with 3-year PFS (R 2  = 0.89, 95% CI 0.62-0.96) in FL and was moderately correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.69, 95% CI 0.40-0.91) in MCL trials. Linear regression determined that a 10% increase in 6-month PFS would yield a 13% ± 1.2% increase in 2-year OS in DLBCL, a 23% ± 1.1% increase in 3-year PFS in FL, or a 6.7% ± 1.0% increase in 2-year OS in MCL. Both 6-month PFS and complete response (CR) rate were moderately correlated with median PFS in FL trials with R 2  = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.98) and R 2  = 0.69 (95% CI 0.22-0.89), respectively. Six-month PFS is a potential surrogate endpoint for 2-year OS in newly diagnosed DLBCL and MCL and for 3-year PFS in FL. Both 6-month PFS and CR rate are potential surrogate endpoints for median PFS in FL patients. Confirmation and validation of these correlations may facilitate early interpretation of NHL trials.

  14. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  15. Two New Loci for Body-Weight Regulation Identified in a Joint Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Early-Onset Extreme Obesity in French and German Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, André; Dina, Christian; Hinney, Anke; Vatin, Vincent; Scherag, Susann; Vogel, Carla I. G.; Müller, Timo D.; Grallert, Harald; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Balkau, Beverley; Heude, Barbara; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Weill, Jacques; Delplanque, Jérôme; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Kovacs, Peter; Rayner, Nigel W.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.; Schäfer, Helmut; Jarick, Ivonne; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Reinehr, Thomas; Heinrich, Joachim; Rzehak, Peter; Berdel, Dietrich; Borte, Michael; Biebermann, Heike; Krude, Heiko; Rosskopf, Dieter; Rimmbach, Christian; Rief, Winfried; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin; Schürmann, Annette; Schulz, Nadja; Nöthen, Markus M.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Boes, Tanja; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; Hebebrand, Johannes; Meyre, David

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions) generalized to (i) the population level and (ii) to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step). Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85×10−8 in the DISCOVERY step) and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene) and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84×10−7), the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at ∼1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between

  16. Two new Loci for body-weight regulation identified in a joint analysis of genome-wide association studies for early-onset extreme obesity in French and german study groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Scherag

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions generalized to (i the population level and (ii to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step. Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85x10(-8 in the DISCOVERY step and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84x10(-7, the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at approximately 1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial

  17. Identifying indicators of behavior change: insights from wildfire education programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Shruti Agrawal; Pamela J. Jakes; Linda E. Kruger; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria Sturtevant

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community change. Agency-sponsored...

  18. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  19. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cortat Simonetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  20. Identifying Indicators of Behavior Change: Insights from Wildfire Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Agrawal, Shruti; Jakes, Pamela J.; Kruger, Linda E.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Sturtevant, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community…

  1. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  2. Indicators of Indiscipline. Phase 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, S

    1991-01-01

    .... Phase 2 research was conducted to determine which of the indicators identified by the phase 1 study could successfully identify soldiers who cause accidents due to indiscipline and to field test...

  3. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  4. Dual role of CD44 isoforms in ampullary adenocarcinoma: CD44s predicts poor prognosis in early cancer and CD44ν is an indicator for recurrence in advanced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Lin; Chao, Ying-Jui; Yang, Ta-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chang, Kung-Chao; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2015-01-01

    Although postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapies prevent recurrence for some patients with ampullary cancer, the recurrence rate is as high as 29 % in patients with stage I cancer. In an effort to identify predictors of recurrence in patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma, we investigated the clinical value of assessing standard and variant forms of CD44. Immunohistochemistry staining and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect standard and variant forms of CD44 in samples of ampullary adenocarcinoma. The cDNA microarray analysis comparing tumors with or without pancreatic invasion was undertaken and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The standard CD44 (CD44s) isoform was detected in 76 of 98 patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma, and the negative or weak expression of CD44s was correlated with pancreatic invasion, lymphovascular invasion, advanced stage and bone metastasis. Moderate to dense expression of CD44s was correlated with shorter overall survival in patients with localized cancer (T1 or T2 disease, P = 0.0268). The patients with advanced cancer (T3 or T4 disease) and moderate or dense CD44s expression had a trend toward better survival. Alternative splicing of CD44 was confirmed using RT-PCR, which revealed that the CD44ν3-10 isoform was only expressed in patients with cancer recurrence. Fold change of CD44ν6-10 was also increased. In addition, networks containing CD44, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, activated protein 1 (AP1)‚ and CTNNB1 were constructed after comparing microarray data from patients with and without pancreatic invasion. Whereas CD44s functions as tumor-promoting oncoprotein in early localized ampullary adenocarcinoma, CD44 variants are expressed in advanced cancer and patients with

  5. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  6. Effects of nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and indices of intestinal growth and vascularity in primiparous ewes at parturition and during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of tr...

  7. Early Childhood Assessments of Community Pediatric Professionals Predict Autism Spectrum and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    For clinically referred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) several early indicators have been described. However, knowledge is lacking on early markers of less severe variants of ASD and ADHD from the general population. The aim of the present study is to identify early indicators of high risk groups for ASD and ADHD problems based on routine data from community pediatric services between infancy and age four. Data are from 1,816 pa...

  8. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  9. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  10. Heart rate index: an indicator of left ventricular ejection fraction. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction and variables assessed by exercise test in patients studied early after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1992-01-01

    The present study compares the variables assessed by standard exercise test with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measured by multigated radionuclide angiocardiography (MUGA) in 77 patients early after myocardial infarction. The exercise test and MUGA were performed within two weeks...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  11. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  12. Tlys, a newly identified Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 transcript expressed in the lysogenic state, encodes a DNA-binding protein interacting at the promoters of the early genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusco, Salvatore; She, Qunxin; Bartolucci, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    -binding motif. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that the recombinant F55, purified from Escherichia coli, is indeed a putative transcription factor able to recognize site specifically target sequences in the promoters of the early induced T5, T6, and Tind transcripts, as well as of its own promoter. Binding...... the growth of the lysogenic host. The correponding gene f55 lies between two transcriptional units (T6 and Tind) that are upregulated upon UV irradiation. The open reading frame f55 encodes a 6.3-kDa protein which shows sequence identity with negative regulators that fold into the ribbon-helix-helix DNA....... Taking together the transcriptional analysis data and the biochemical evidences, we surmise that the protein F55 is involved in the regulation of the lysogenic state of SSV1....

  13. Identifying Functional Neighborhoods within the Cell Nucleus: Proximity Analysis of Early S-Phase Replicating Chromatin Domains to Sites of Transcription, RNA Polymerase II, HP1γ, Matrin 3 and SAF-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyavantham, Kishore S; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Barbeitos, Marcos; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Xu, Jinhui; Fackelmayer, Frank O; Berezney, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Higher order chromatin organization in concert with epigenetic regulation is a key process that determines gene expression at the global level. The organization of dynamic chromatin domains and their associated protein factors is intertwined with nuclear function to create higher levels of functional zones within the cell nucleus. As a step towards elucidating the organization and dynamics of these functional zones, we have investigated the spatial proximities among a constellation of functionally related sites that are found within euchromatic regions of the cell nucleus including: HP1γ, nascent transcript sites (TS), active DNA replicating sites in early S phase (PCNA) and RNA polymerase II sites. We report close associations among these different sites with proximity values specific for each combination. Analysis of matrin 3 and SAF-A sites demonstrates that these nuclear matrix proteins are highly proximal with the functionally related sites as well as to each other and display closely aligned and overlapping regions following application of the minimal spanning tree (MST) algorithm to visualize higher order network-like patterns. Our findings suggest that multiple factors within the nuclear microenvironment collectively form higher order combinatorial arrays of function. We propose a model for the organization of these functional neighborhoods which takes into account the proximity values of the individual sites and their spatial organization within the nuclear architecture. PMID:18618731

  14. Fetal Echocardiography and Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Atahan Güven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart diseases are encountered in 0.8% of live births and are among the most frequently diagnosed malformations. At least half of these anomalies end up with death or require surgical interventions and are responsible for 30% of the perinatal mortality. Fetal echocardiography is the sum of knowledge, skill and orientation rather than knowing the embryologic details of the fetal heart. The purpose of fetal echocardiography is to document the presence of normal fetal cardiac anatomy and rhythm in high risk group and to define the anomaly and arrhythmia if present. A certain sequence should be followed during the evaluation of fetal heart. Sequential segmental analysis (SSA and basic definition terminology made it possible to determine a lot of complex cardiac anomalies during prenatal period. By the end of 1970’s, Shinebourne started using sequential segmental analysis for fetal cardiac evaluation and today, prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is possible without any confusion. In this manner, whole fetal heart can be evaluated as the relation of three segments (atria, ventricles and the great arteries with each other, irrelevant of complexity of a possible cardiac anomaly. Presence of increased nuchal thickness during early gestation and abnormal four-chamber-view during ultrasonography by the obstetrician presents a clear indication for fetal echocardiography,however, one should keep in mind that 80-90% of the babies born with a congenital heart disease do not have a familial or maternal risk factor. In addition, it should be remembered that expectant mothers with diabetes mellitus pose an indication for fetal echocardiography.

  15. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates of two diuranates and research on an early urinary indicator of renal failure in humans and animals poisoned with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rongier, E.; Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the solubility of industrial calcined diuranate in various in vitro systems and to test the sensitivity of biological parameters in detecting renal alterations after intoxication in animals and in human subjects. The dissolution rates in in vitro static and dynamic tests are consistent for each solution for both types of test. The in vivo results are comparable to the in vitro results obtained with Gamble solution for both compounds. The excretion kinetics observed are compared with the values calculated from ICRP standards. Urinary GGT excretion measurements are found to be a satisfactory indicator of uranium-induced kidney alterations. GGT excretion increases for injected doses exceeding 50 μg.kg -1 . Initial results in human subjects suggest that following accidental exposure to uranium, GGT is a more sensitive indicator of kidney damage than glycosuria. (author)

  16. Recovery of the cardiac frequency to the minute post effort as early indicator of myocardial ischemia; Recuperacion de la frecuencia cardiaca al minuto postesfuerzo como indicador temprano de isquemia miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, L [Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the recovery cardiac frequency like ischemia indicator, due to the immediate reactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the post-effort. It is obtained as conclusion that a slow descent of the cardiac frequency to the first minute of the post-effort is a predictor ischemia index when correlating it with the risk evaluated by cardiac SPECT with a high specificity; being this a marker of simple calculating in the daily practice. (Author)

  17. Indicators of a Flowless Construction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bonke, Sten

    2012-01-01

    to the questionnaire. Processing of data and information from questionnaires has been carried out using different statistical and analytical methods. Focus has been on the number and graduation of seriousness of defects, on type of tender and organization of the construction process, on the type of client...... construction processes characterized by few or no defects compared to those with many serious defects. The planning of budgetary conditions, time schedules, and an early and continuous defects control proved to have the most significant influence on the final results related to defects in the building......This paper is reviewing an ongoing research project which has two central aims. Firstly, to identify and analyse indicators of central importance to a successful construction process in the perspective of handing-over flawless buildings to clients. Secondly, from this knowledge, to deduce methods...

  18. Early Predictors of ASD in Young Children Using a Nationally Representative Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Laurie M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Laxman, Daniel J.; McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) occurs between 3 and 4 years of age, but increasing evidence indicates that intervention begun earlier may improve outcomes. Using secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, the current study identifies early predictors prior to the diagnosis of…

  19. 78 FR 48863 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of the Early Warning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... processes and student outcomes. The project responds to a need expressed by members of the REL Midwest's Ohio Dropout Prevention Alliance for clear information about the efficacy of early warning systems. Despite the strong foundational research on the use of early indicators to identify students who are at...

  20. Indicators of collapse in systems undergoing unsustainable growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Luca; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Unsustainable growth is typical of systems that rely on a finite pool of non-renewable resources that are tapped until they are depleted. The decrease in resource availability eventually leads these systems to a decline. Here we investigate the dynamics of systems that exhibit unsustainable growth and are prone to a collapse to an alternative ("degraded") state. For these systems the possible imminent occurrence of a collapse is difficult to avert because they keep growing as they approach the transition point. It is therefore important to identify some early warning signs that can be used to predict whether the system is approaching a critical and likely irreversible transition to an undesired and degraded state. This study evaluates whether existing theories of precursors of phase transitions based on the critical slowing down phenomenon are applicable as leading indicators of state shift in unsustainable growth dynamics. It is found that such indicators fail to serve as reliable early warning signs of the system's collapse.

  1. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  2. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  3. Aplicação da análise fatorial para identificação dos principais indicadores de desempenho econômico-financeiro em instituições financeiras bancárias = Application of factor analysis to identify the main indicators of economic and financial performance in banking financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Alves e Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, por meio da análise fatorial, os indicadores econômico-financeiros mais relevantes para a avaliação do desempenho das instituições financeiras bancárias. São englobadas 118 instituições financeiras bancárias com atividades no Brasil, ao longo dos anos de 2011 a 2014. Realiza-se um estudo quantitativo e descritivo. Para a análise dos dados, utiliza-se a técnica estatística de análise fatorial. No processo de aplicação da técnica, verificou-se a adequação geral do modelo e de cada uma das variáveis, de forma a identificar os principais indicadores que deverão compor as avaliações de instituições bancárias. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir de um conjunto inicial de 17 indicadores, utilizados para analisar o desempenho econômico-financeiro de tais instituições. Seguindo os critérios das técnicas de análise fatorial, foram selecionados os indicadores que explicam o máximo de variância a partir do menor número possível de variáveis. Os resultados mostram que os indicadores mais relevantes para a avaliação do desempenho dessas instituições são: Retorno sobre o Investimento Total, Margem Líquida, Retorno sobre o Patrimônio Líquido, Relação Capital/Depositantes, Índice Empréstimos/Depósitos, Liquidez Imediata, Encaixe Voluntário e Índice de Sensibilidade de Juros. Esses 8 indicadores podem, ainda, ser substituídos por 3 fatores, os quais explicam aproximadamente 89,23% da variância total dos dados. Os fatores "Rentabilidade e Lucratividade", "Capital e Liquidez" e "Encaixe e Sensibilidade aos Juros" permitem classificar e comparar o desempenho das instituições financeiras bancárias. This study aims at identifying the most relevant economic and financial indicators for evaluating the performance of banking financial institutions by using the factor analysis. A total of 118 banking financial institutions with activities in Brazil over the years 2011 to

  4. Allograft Pancreatectomy: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S; Powelson, J A; Taber, T E; Goble, M L; Mangus, R S; Fridell, J A

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the indications, surgical techniques, and outcomes of allograft pancreatectomy based on a single center experience. Between 2003 and 2013, 47 patients developed pancreas allograft failure, excluding mortality with a functioning pancreas allograft. Early graft loss (within 14 days) occurred in 16, and late graft loss in 31. All patients with early graft loss eventually required allograft pancreatectomy. Nineteen of 31 patients (61%) with late graft loss underwent allograft pancreatectomy. The main indication for early allograft pancreatectomy included vascular thrombosis with or without severe pancreatitis, whereas one recipient required urgent allograft pancreatectomy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to an arterioenteric fistula. In cases of late allograft pancreatectomy, graft failure with clinical symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, pain, and nausea were the main indications (13/19 [68%]), simultaneous retransplantation without clinical symptoms in 3 (16%), and vascu