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Sample records for identify culturally critical

  1. Identifying Critical Cross-Cultural School Psychology Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Margaret R.; Lopez, Emilia C.

    2002-01-01

    Study sought to identify critical cross-cultural competencies for school psychologists. To identify the competencies, an extensive literature search about cross-cultural school psychology competencies was conducted, as well as a questionnaire to ask expert panelists. The 102 competencies identified cover 14 major domains of professional activities…

  2. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  3. Post-Industrial Cultural Criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2015-01-01

    hierarchies within journalism. The article maps which Danish websites conduct arts and culture reviews, asks what features these websites have that facilitate public discourse, and measures the actual discussion on the websites. While academic diagnoses of the state of the online public sphere have generally......Integrating perspectives from research into cultural and post-industrial journalism, this article presents a pilot study of websites with reviews of arts and culture conducted by amateurs. Such websites constitute a popular space for cultural criticism, and one that challenges traditional...... reviewers have highly specialized knowledge of culture and, on that basis, argues that the emergence of this type of critic might represent a qualitative strengthening of cultural criticism....

  4. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

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    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns

  5. Critical-Cultural Studies in Research and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Les; McNamara, John; Ryan, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Outlines two paradigms in critical-cultural analysis that seek to identify and explain the meaning of phenomena that make a culture, focusing on their relevance to research and teaching in journalism and mass communication. Identifies key issues and implications for mass communication research and teaching. Suggests ways educators can apply…

  6. Critical Consideration on TV Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    Since TV culture has been the mainstream,TV,as an important cultural media,have spread its influence widely and rapidly so as to alter people’s ideology and life style.The emergency of TV has brought about convenience and happiness and created popularity,but due to its vulgarity,it has inevitably become one of piece of the mainstream culture and a means of social control.

  7. Critical Thinking as Cultural-Historical Practice.

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    Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…

  8. Identifying organizational cultures that promote patient safety.

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    Singer, Sara J; Falwell, Alyson; Gaba, David M; Meterko, Mark; Rosen, Amy; Hartmann, Christine W; Baker, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Safety climate refers to shared perceptions of what an organization is like with regard to safety, whereas safety culture refers to employees' fundamental ideology and orientation and explains why safety is pursued in the manner exhibited within a particular organization. Although research has sought to identify opportunities for improving safety outcomes by studying patterns of variation in safety climate, few empirical studies have examined the impact of organizational characteristics such as culture on hospital safety climate. This study explored how aspects of general organizational culture relate to hospital patient safety climate. In a stratified sample of 92 U.S. hospitals, we sampled 100% of senior managers and physicians and 10% of other hospital workers. The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations and the Zammuto and Krakower organizational culture surveys measured safety climate and group, entrepreneurial, hierarchical, and production orientation of hospitals' culture, respectively. We administered safety climate surveys to 18,361 personnel and organizational culture surveys to a 5,894 random subsample between March 2004 and May 2005. Secondary data came from the 2004 American Hospital Association Annual Hospital Survey and Dun & Bradstreet. Hierarchical linear regressions assessed relationships between organizational culture and safety climate measures. Aspects of general organizational culture were strongly related to safety climate. A higher level of group culture correlated with a higher level of safety climate, but more hierarchical culture was associated with lower safety climate. Aspects of organizational culture accounted for more than threefold improvement in measures of model fit compared with models with controls alone. A mix of culture types, emphasizing group culture, seemed optimal for safety climate. Safety climate and organizational culture are positively related. Results support strategies that promote group orientation and

  9. BRAVO identifies critical success factors for logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokke, C.J.T.M.; Donselaar, van K.H.; Allessie, M.

    1997-01-01

    Good operational performance depends on knowing which operational factors are critical to success. Bravo, a research project involving 150 transport and distribution companies in The Netherlands, has developed a tool now being adopted nationally by all companies in the sector to find opportunities

  10. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  11. Identifying critical thinking indicators and critical thinker attributes in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Chang; Clark, Mary Jo; Tan, Jung-Ying

    2013-09-01

    Critical thinking is an essential skill in the nursing process. Although several studies have evaluated the critical thinking skills of nurses, there is limited information related to the indicators of critical thinking or evaluation of critical thinking in the context of the nursing process. This study investigated the potential indicators of critical thinking and the attributes of critical thinkers in clinical nursing practice. Knowledge of these indicators can aid the development of tools to assess nursing students' critical thinking skills. The study was conducted between September 2009 and August 2010. In phase 1, a literature review and four focus groups were conducted to identify the indicators of critical thinking in the context of nursing and the attributes of critical thinkers. In phase 2, 30 nursing professionals participated in a modified Delphi research survey to establish consensus and the appropriateness of each indicator and attribute identified in phase 1. We identified 37 indicators of critical thinking and 10 attributes of critical thinkers. The indicators were categorized into five subscales within the context of the nursing process toreflect nursing clinical practice: assessment, 16 indicators of ability to apply professional knowledge and skills to analyze and interpret patient problems; diagnosis, five indicators of ability to propose preliminary suppositions; planning, five indicators of ability to develop problem-solving strategies; implementation, five indicators of ability to implement planning; and evaluation, six indicators of ability to self-assess and reflect. The study operationalized critical thinking into a practical indicator suitable for nursing contexts in which critical thinking is required for clinical problem solving. Identified indicators and attributes can assist clinical instructors to evaluate student critical thought skills and development-related teaching strategies.

  12. Concerns about cultural neurosciences: a critical analysis.

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    Martínez Mateo, Marina; Cabanis, Maurice; Cruz de Echeverría Loebell, Nicole; Krach, Sören

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, neuroscientists began to study cultural phenomena by using functional MRI. Since then the number of publications in this field, termed cultural neuroscience (CN), has tremendously increased. In these studies, particular concepts of culture are implied, but rarely explicitly discussed. We argue that it is necessary to make these concepts a topic of debate in order to unravel the foundations of CN. From 40 fMRI studies we extracted two strands of reasoning: models investigating universal mechanisms for the formation of cultural groups and habits and, models assessing differences in characteristics among cultural groups. Both strands simplify culture as an inflexible set of traits and specificities. We question this rigid understanding of culture and highlight its hidden evaluative nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Critical Thinking: Cultural Challenges and Strategies in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Among the challenges faced by educators in promoting critical thinking is that of cultural compatibility. Using Singapore as an illustrative case study, this paper explores the cultural challenges and recommended strategies for the teaching of critical thinking in schools. The research for this study is based on a theoretical framework that…

  14. Meet the Press: Cultural Criticism for the 1990s.

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    Torgovnick, Marianna

    1991-01-01

    Notes that issues in academia are inadequately represented in journalism. Urges academics who write about culture to write for the broad audience of the college educated. Maintains that, to do so, cultural critics must use appropriate language and tone and reconsider whether academic journals are really the only outlet for their work. (SR)

  15. Othering: Towards a Critical Cultural Awareness in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada Linares, Sthephanny

    2016-01-01

    Due to the need of decentering language learners' conceptions and practices of "othering" against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus,…

  16. Simple Model for Identifying Critical Regions in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kim; Manani, Kishan A.; Peters, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common abnormal heart rhythm and the single biggest cause of stroke. Ablation, destroying regions of the atria, is applied largely empirically and can be curative but with a disappointing clinical success rate. We design a simple model of activation wave front propagation on an anisotropic structure mimicking the branching network of heart muscle cells. This integration of phenomenological dynamics and pertinent structure shows how AF emerges spontaneously when the transverse cell-to-cell coupling decreases, as occurs with age, beyond a threshold value. We identify critical regions responsible for the initiation and maintenance of AF, the ablation of which terminates AF. The simplicity of the model allows us to calculate analytically the risk of arrhythmia and express the threshold value of transversal cell-to-cell coupling as a function of the model parameters. This threshold value decreases with increasing refractory period by reducing the number of critical regions which can initiate and sustain microreentrant circuits. These biologically testable predictions might inform ablation therapies and arrhythmic risk assessment.

  17. Dialectical Method and the Critical Political Economy of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Nixon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the quality that defines critical political economy is its critical method. Definitions of the critical political economy of culture are considered and shown to focus on specific theoretical concerns while not fully addressing the fundamental issue of method. Method is here discussed in terms of the way human reason is used to produce knowledge. A critical method for Marx is a historical materialist dialectical method, thus this paper argues for a deeper consideration of the Marxist dialectical method in relation to critical political-economic theorizing. Sources for methodological consideration from Marx to 20th-century Western Marxists are outlined. The potential contribution of the Marxist dialectical method in the continued development of the critical political economy of culture is demonstrated by showing the possibility of developing a complementary critical political economy of consciousness. Smythe’s theorizing of audiences as workers is considered as a useful starting point, and its potential development through incorporation of the work of other critical scholars of media and culture is outlined.

  18. Critical Cultural Awareness: Contributions to a Globalizing Psychology

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    Christopher, John Chambers; Wendt, Dennis C.; Marecek, Jeanne; Goodman, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The number of psychologists whose work crosses cultural boundaries is increasing. Without a critical awareness of their own cultural grounding, they risk imposing the assumptions, concepts, practices, and values of U.S.-centered psychology on societies where they do not fit, as a brief example from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami shows. Hermeneutic thinkers offer theoretical resources for gaining cultural awareness. Culture, in the hermeneutic view, is the constellation of meanings that constitutes a way of life. Such cultural meanings – especially in the form of folk psychologies and moral visions – inevitably shape every psychology, including U.S. psychology. The insights of hermeneutics, as well as its conceptual resources and research approaches, open the way for psychological knowledge and practice that are more culturally situated. PMID:24841336

  19. The use of arithmetic average method in identifying critical success criteria for Homestay Programmes

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    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Malaysian Homestay is very unique. It is classified as Community Based Tourism (CBT). Homestay Programme which is a community events where a tourist stays together with a host family for a period of time and enjoying cultural exchange besides having new experiences. Homestay programme has booming the tourism industry since there is over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia. However, only few Homestay Programme enjoying the benefits of success Homestay Programme. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Homestay Programme in Malaysia. An Arithmetic Average method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  20. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  1. Identifying Critical Thinking Styles to Enhance Volunteer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Keegan D.; Terry, Bryan; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Diversity in learning options can increase efficacy of volunteer development systems. The University of Florida Critical Thinking Inventory (UFCTI) is designed to explicate an individual's critical thinking style based upon a continuum from Seeking Information to Engagement. Static and interpretive materials are best used with individuals of a…

  2. Changing the Culture of Academic Medicine: Critical Mass or Critical Actors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbill, Sharon L.; Cardinali, Gina; Morahan, Page S.; Chang, Shine; Magrane, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: By 2006, women constituted 34% of academic medical faculty, reaching a critical mass. Theoretically, with critical mass, culture and policy supportive of gender equity should be evident. We explore whether having a critical mass of women transforms institutional culture and organizational change. Methods: Career development program participants were interviewed to elucidate their experiences in academic health centers (AHCs). Focus group discussions were held with institutional leaders to explore their perceptions about contemporary challenges related to gender and leadership. Content analysis of both data sources revealed points of convergence. Findings were interpreted using the theory of critical mass. Results: Two nested domains emerged: the individual domain included the rewards and personal satisfaction of meaningful work, personal agency, tensions between cultural expectations of family and academic roles, and women's efforts to work for gender equity. The institutional domain depicted the sociocultural environment of AHCs that shaped women's experience, both personally and professionally, lack of institutional strategies to engage women in organizational initiatives, and the influence of one leader on women's ascent to leadership. Conclusions: The predominant evidence from this research demonstrates that the institutional barriers and sociocultural environment continue to be formidable obstacles confronting women, stalling the transformational effects expected from achieving a critical mass of women faculty. We conclude that the promise of critical mass as a turning point for women should be abandoned in favor of “critical actor” leaders, both women and men, who individually and collectively have the commitment and power to create gender-equitable cultures in AHCs. PMID:28092473

  3. Changing the Culture of Academic Medicine: Critical Mass or Critical Actors?

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    Helitzer, Deborah L; Newbill, Sharon L; Cardinali, Gina; Morahan, Page S; Chang, Shine; Magrane, Diane

    2017-05-01

    By 2006, women constituted 34% of academic medical faculty, reaching a critical mass. Theoretically, with critical mass, culture and policy supportive of gender equity should be evident. We explore whether having a critical mass of women transforms institutional culture and organizational change. Career development program participants were interviewed to elucidate their experiences in academic health centers (AHCs). Focus group discussions were held with institutional leaders to explore their perceptions about contemporary challenges related to gender and leadership. Content analysis of both data sources revealed points of convergence. Findings were interpreted using the theory of critical mass. Two nested domains emerged: the individual domain included the rewards and personal satisfaction of meaningful work, personal agency, tensions between cultural expectations of family and academic roles, and women's efforts to work for gender equity. The institutional domain depicted the sociocultural environment of AHCs that shaped women's experience, both personally and professionally, lack of institutional strategies to engage women in organizational initiatives, and the influence of one leader on women's ascent to leadership. The predominant evidence from this research demonstrates that the institutional barriers and sociocultural environment continue to be formidable obstacles confronting women, stalling the transformational effects expected from achieving a critical mass of women faculty. We conclude that the promise of critical mass as a turning point for women should be abandoned in favor of "critical actor" leaders, both women and men, who individually and collectively have the commitment and power to create gender-equitable cultures in AHCs.

  4. Identifying influential individuals on intensive care units: using cluster analysis to explore culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Clark, Lindsey; Cheng, Tianyi; Franklin, Ella; Fernandez, Nicole; Ratwani, Raj; Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify attribute patterns of influential individuals in intensive care units using unsupervised cluster analysis. Despite the acknowledgement that culture of an organisation is critical to improving patient safety, specific methods to shift culture have not been explicitly identified. A social network analysis survey was conducted and an unsupervised cluster analysis was used. A total of 100 surveys were gathered. Unsupervised cluster analysis was used to group individuals with similar dimensions highlighting three general genres of influencers: well-rounded, knowledge and relational. Culture is created locally by individual influencers. Cluster analysis is an effective way to identify common characteristics among members of an intensive care unit team that are noted as highly influential by their peers. To change culture, identifying and then integrating the influencers in intervention development and dissemination may create more sustainable and effective culture change. Additional studies are ongoing to test the effectiveness of utilising these influencers to disseminate patient safety interventions. This study offers an approach that can be helpful in both identifying and understanding influential team members and may be an important aspect of developing methods to change organisational culture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Othering: Towards a Critical Cultural Awareness in the Language Classroom

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    Sthephanny Moncada Linares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of decentering language learners’ conceptions and practices of “othering” against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus, this paper seeks to summarize the literature on the notion of othering and its pedagogical possibilities to promote critical cultural awareness raising in the language classroom. It initially presents some theoretical contributions on the concepts of the “Other” and the “Self” and its dialectical relation, and later, it proposes four pedagogical tools that could enable learners to achieve the already mentioned objective.

  6. Culture or No Culture? A Latino Critical Research Analysis of Latino Persistence Research

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    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Morrison, Jeaná

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature on Latino persistence does not take into account these students' distinct cultural backgrounds. Most researchers of Latino persistence use the self-designation "Latino" as a proxy variable representing Latino culture. A Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit) lens is applied to the persistence literature to demonstrate the…

  7. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

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    Cai, Wenbo; Gibbs, David; Zhang, Lang; Ferrier, Graham; Cai, Yongli

    2017-04-15

    Rapid urbanization has altered many ecosystems, causing a decline in many ecosystem services, generating serious ecological crisis. To cope with these challenges, we presented a comprehensive framework comprising five core steps for identifying and managing hotspots of critical ecosystem services in a rapid urbanizing region. This framework was applied in the case study of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Region. The study showed that there was large spatial heterogeneity in the hotspots of ecosystem services in the region, hotspots of supporting services and regulating services aggregately distributing in the southwest mountainous areas while hotspots of provisioning services mainly in the northeast plain, and hotspots of cultural services widespread in the waterbodies and southwest mountainous areas. The regionalization of the critical ecosystem services was made through the hotspot analysis. This study provided valuable information for environmental planning and management in a rapid urbanizing region and helped improve China's ecological redlines policy at regional scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protecting Critical Infrastructure by Identifying Pathways of Exposure to Risk

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    Philip O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our critical infrastructure is managed and controlled by computers and the information networks that connect them. Cyber-terrorists and other malicious actors understand the economic and social impact that a successful attack on these systems could have. While it is imperative that we defend against such attacks, it is equally imperative that we realize how best to react to them. This article presents the strongest-path method of analyzing all potential pathways of exposure to risk – no matter how indirect or circuitous they may be – in a network model of infrastructure and operations. The method makes direct use of expert knowledge about entities and dependency relationships without the need for any simulation or any other models. By using path analysis in a directed graph model of critical infrastructure, planners can model and assess the effects of a potential attack and develop resilient responses.

  9. Constructing critical bioethics by deconstructing culture/nature dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to respond to some of the recent criticisms directed toward bioethics by offering a contribution to a "critical bioethics". Here this concept is principally defined in terms of the three features of interdisciplinarity, self-reflexivity and the avoidance of uncritical complicity. In a partial reclamation of the ideas of V.R. Potter, it is argued that a critical bioethics requires a meaningful challenge to culture/nature dualism, expressed in bioethics as the distinction between medical ethics and ecological ethics. Such a contesting of the "bio" in bioethics arrests its ethical bracketing of environmental and animal ethics. Taken together, the triadic definition of a critical bioethics offered here provides a potential framework with which to fend off critiques of commercial capture or of being "too close to science" commonly directed toward bioethics.

  10. Critical reflections on managing cultural diversity in workplaces in Slovenia

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    Sara Brezigar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on managing cultural diversity at workplaces in Slovenia. The author critically reflects on some aspects of research and studies that have been carried out both on discrimination as well as managing diversity in Slovenia between 2007 and 2013, and finds the cause of the inability of organisations to adopt policies on managing diversity in the lack of competences and skills associated with cultural sensibility. The author maintains that whereas workplaces are bound to become more and more diverse, the predominant approach towards diversity in workplaces in Slovenia tends to either dismiss (cultural diversity as inconsequential or treat it as a nuisance that needs to be dealt with, thus failing to grasp the advantages which such diversity could bring.

  11. A Critical Analysis of Anesthesiology Podcasts: Identifying Determinants of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devin; Alam, Fahad; Matava, Clyde

    2016-08-17

    Audio and video podcasts have gained popularity in recent years. Increasingly, podcasts are being used in the field of medicine as a tool to disseminate information. This format has multiple advantages including highly accessible creation tools, low distribution costs, and portability for the user. However, despite its ongoing use in medical education, there are no data describing factors associated with the success or quality of podcasts. The goal of the study was to assess the landscape of anesthesia podcasts in Canada and develop a methodology for evaluating the quality of the podcast. To achieve our objective, we identified the scope of podcasts in anesthesia specifically, constructed an algorithmic model for measuring success, and identified factors linked to both successful podcasts and a peer-review process. Independent reviewers performed a systematic search of anesthesia-related podcasts on iTunes Canada. Data and metrics recorded for each podcast included podcast's authorship, number posted, podcast series duration, target audience, topics, and social media presence. Descriptive statistics summarized mined data, and univariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with podcast success and a peer-review process. Twenty-two podcasts related to anesthesia were included in the final analysis. Less than a third (6/22=27%) were still active. The median longevity of the podcasts' series was just 13 months (interquartile range: 1-39 months). Anesthesiologists were the target audience for 77% of podcast series with clinical topics being most commonly addressed. We defined a novel algorithm for measuring success: Podcast Success Index. Factors associated with a high Podcast Success Index included podcasts targeting fellows (Spearman R=0.434; P=.04), inclusion of professional topics (Spearman R=0.456-0.603; P=.01-.03), and the use of Twitter as a means of social media (Spearman R=0.453;P=.03). In addition, more than two-thirds (16/22=73%) of podcasts

  12. Understanding Cultural Relativism: A critical Appraisal of the Theory

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    Yohannes Eshetu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to reveal the cons and pros of ethical relativism, especially conventionalism. This article is written with the intention of showing some of the practical upshots of conventionalism without totally denying some of its virtues in a world where diversity of cultures and customs is apparent. The article inquires the question: Is ethical relativism tenable? The review article relies on reviewing secondary sources. What I am arguing in this article is that despite the attraction of ethical relativism as an intellectual weapon to fight against ethnocentrism and cultural intolerance, the view still goes against the idea of intercultural comparison, criticism and moral argumentation, so that it would have serious disastrous implication on practice, especially on the universal character of human rights and shutters all together any sort of moral progress and reform. The article concludes that we can set forth certain objective moral codes, discovered through rational intercultural dialogue and discussion which could be applied regardless of cultural specificities upon which cultural inter-comparison, discussion and moral argumentation is possible.

  13. Cultural heritage evaluation: a reappraisal of some critical concepts involved

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    Mihaela IACOB

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to build a synoptic picture of the facets of the economic category called “value”, with practicality in the tangible cultural heritage field, from the point of view of a traditionally economists-specific approach: concern for the financial sustainability of any decision. Moreover, the methods from the economics literature regarding the valences of the “cultural value” concept prove the obsoleteness of the common opinion according to which the economic approach is primarily interested in financial metrics. In as much as the ultimate goal of the scientific process is to identify the most effective cultural heritage preservation and evaluation methods, the study also reflects the public-private interference in this area.

  14. A Lexical Approach to Identifying Dimensions of Organizational Culture

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    Chapman, Derek S.; Reeves, Paige; Chapin, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive measure of organizational culture was developed using a lexical approach, a method typically employed within the study of personality. 1761 adjectives were narrowed down and factor analyzed, which resulted in the identification of a nine factor solution to organizational culture, including the dimensions of: Innovative, Dominant, Pace, Friendly, Prestigious, Trendy, Corporate Social Responsibility, Traditional, and Diverse. Comprised of 135 adjectives most frequently used in describing organizational culture by current employees of several hundred organizations, the Lexical Organizational Culture Scale (LOCS) was found to predict employee commitment, job satisfaction, job search behaviors, and subjective fit better than earlier scales of organizational culture. PMID:29922200

  15. The Acceptance of Critical-Cultural Scholarship in Mass Communication Education.

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    Switzer, Les; Ryan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Notes that critical-cultural studies have had little impact on journalism and mass communication education for a number of reasons. Surveys 100 journalism and mass communication programs. Examines how critical-cultural faculty interact with the university community. Finds that scholars, as a whole, were open to critical-cultural perspectives.…

  16. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  17. Teaching Culture and Identifying Language Interference Errors through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argynbayev, Arman; Kabylbekova, Dana; Yaylaci, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    This study reflects intermediate level learners' opinion about employing films in the EFL classroom for teaching culture and avoiding negative language transfer. A total of 63 participants, aged 21-23, took part in the experiment in the Faculty of Philology at Suleyman Demirel University in Almaty, Kazakhstan. During the experiment the subjects…

  18. Identifying and managing cross-cultural differences in the classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many learning institutions are now designed to cater to the needs of students and staff from different cultures. The United States International University (USIU) in. Kenya is no different. It provides learning opportunities to learners from different nations and regions of the world. When these learners and other staff come into ...

  19. Identifying Dynamic Environments for Cross-Cultural Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    conducted to determine if there were any additional competencies relevant for intercultural interactions that were missing from the initial framework and...1), 101-120. Haskins, C. (2010). A practical approach to cultural insight. Military Review, 79-87. Jansenns, M. (1995). Intercultural

  20. Critical Pedagogy 2.0: Researching the Visual Culture of Marketing with Teenage Coresearchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampaglia, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This article charts the progression of my critical teaching practice as it examines how the emancipatory critical pedagogy of the visual culture of marketing used in my master's thesis study evolved into the critical-democratic pedagogy of the visual culture of marketing used in my dissertation study. It explores how my use of these two distinct…

  1. Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

  2. Culture, demographics, and critical care issues: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Germán R

    2003-10-01

    The population dynamic and the immigration trends in the United States continue to challenge health care professionals who each day must serve an increasingly diverse population. Today's physicians must not only have a solid background in medical sciences but they must also have knowledge of how culture, race, and ethnicity impact how patients view and accept traditional Western practices. Whether doctors and patients are close in the "context spectrum" will often determine their ability to communicate beyond the spoken language. According to a report of the American Medical Association, by the year 2000, out of a total 812,770 physicians, only 2.5% were Black, 3.5% Hispanic, and 8.9% Asian. Only a fraction of a percent was American Native/Alaskan Native. Therefore, the majority of the physicians are Caucasian, and it could be assumed that they would likely be accustomed to high-context communication styles. The gross of the demographic changes and population increases in the United States during the past 10 years can be attributed to immigration from regions of the world where low-context communication styles are prevalent. Such differences between physicians and patients can create difficult, tense situations in an already charged atmosphere as can be that of a critical care unit.

  3. Examination of heterogeneous societies: Identifying subpopulations by contrasting cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    , the infinite relational model (IRM) is a new and disruptive type of unsupervised clustering approach that has been developed recently by cognitive psychologists and computer scientists. In this article, an extended version of the IRM coined the multinominal IRM—or mIRM in short—is applied to a cross......-cultural analysis of survey data available from the World Value Survey organization. Specifically, the present work analyzes response patterns of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) representing Schwartz’s 10 basic values of Japanese and Swedes. The applied model exposes heterogeneous structures of the two...

  4. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  5. Identifying and training adaptive cross-cultural management skills: The crucial role of cultural metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mor (Shira); M.W. Morris (Michael); J. Joh (Johann)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFor managers, intercultural effectiveness requires forging close working relationships with people from different cultural backgrounds (Black, Mendenhall, and Oddou, 1991). Recent research with executives has found that higher cultural metacognition is associated with affective closeness

  6. Failure mode effects and criticality analysis: innovative risk assessment to identify critical areas for improvement in emergency department sepsis resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emilie S; O'Connor, Lanty M; Nannicelli, Anna P; Barker, Lisa T; Khare, Rahul K; Seivert, Nicholas P; Holl, Jane L; Vozenilek, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sepsis is an increasing problem in the practice of emergency medicine as the prevalence is increasing and optimal care to reduce mortality requires significant resources and time. Evidence-based septic shock resuscitation strategies exist, and rely on appropriate recognition and diagnosis, but variation in adherence to the recommendations and therefore outcomes remains. Our objective was to perform a multi-institutional prospective risk-assessment, using failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA), to identify high-risk failures in ED sepsis resuscitation. We conducted a FMECA, which prospectively identifies critical areas for improvement in systems and processes of care, across three diverse hospitals. A multidisciplinary group of participants described the process of emergency department (ED) sepsis resuscitation to then create a comprehensive map and table listing all process steps and identified process failures. High-risk failures in sepsis resuscitation from each of the institutions were compiled to identify common high-risk failures. Common high-risk failures included limited availability of equipment to place the central venous catheter and conduct invasive monitoring, and cognitive overload leading to errors in decision-making. Additionally, we identified great variability in care processes across institutions. Several common high-risk failures in sepsis care exist: a disparity in resources available across hospitals, a lack of adherence to the invasive components of care, and cognitive barriers that affect expert clinicians' decision-making capabilities. Future work may concentrate on dissemination of non-invasive alternatives and overcoming cognitive barriers in diagnosis and knowledge translation.

  7. Safety issues in cultural heritage management and critical infrastructures management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is the fourth of its kind in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering , containing studies and applications of geophysical methodologies and sensing technologies for the knowledge, conservation and security of products of human activity ranging from civil infrastructures to built and cultural heritage. The first discussed the application of novel instrumentation, surface and airborne remote sensing techniques, as well as data processing oriented to both detection and characterization of archaeological buried remains and conservation of cultural heritage (Eppelbaum et al 2010). The second stressed the importance of an integrated and multiscale approach for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage, from SAR to GPR to imaging based diagnostic techniques (Masini and Soldovieri 2011). The third enlarged the field of analysis to civil engineering structures and infrastructures, providing an overview of the effectiveness and the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome through the integration of different methods and technologies and/or the use of robust and novel data processing techniques (Masini et al 2012). As a whole, the special issue put in evidence the factors that affect the choice of diagnostic strategy, such as the material, the spatial characteristics of the objects or sites, the value of the objects to be investigated (cultural or not), the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment). In order to complete the overview of the application fields of sensing technologies this issue has been dedicated to monitoring of cultural heritage and critical infrastructures to address safety and security issues. Particular attention has been paid to the data processing methods of different sensing techniques, from infrared thermography through GPR to SAR. Cascini et al (2013) present the effectiveness of a

  8. An analysis of narratives to identify critical thinking contexts in psychiatric clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Mi Suk

    2010-02-01

    The development of students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary nursing educators. Nursing educators should know about what kind of contents or situations need critical thinking. The research was undertaken to identify the critical thinking contexts that nursing students confront in psychiatric clinical practices. Students were asked to document their everyday experience. The narratives were analysed and interpreted from the philosophical notion of hermeneutics. Four themes emerged as critical thinking contexts: anxiety, conflict, hyper-awareness, dilemmas. Writing narratives appear to provide opportunities for reflection in addition to facilitating critical thinking and communicative skills in students. Also, for the instructor, students' clinical narratives could provide insight to understand how students are thinking and to share student's personal difficulties.

  9. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon

    2010-11-01

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  10. Cross-Cultural Equivalency of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskifoglu, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…

  11. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  12. The literary critical discourse analysis as a useful tool for cultural learning in an L2 classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Asín-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The L2 teaching is an area very prone to the influences of different ideologies from other cultures. Due to this, the present article will be focused on the useful application of critical discourse analysis (CDA in L2 teaching to identify, interpret and understand such cultural elements, specifically, through the critical analysis of literary discourse. The scientific methods to be employed will be analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction in the processing and systematization of the information that leads to interpretations and generalizations of the main theoretical concepts this article deals with; and the theoretical premises CDA hinges on.

  13. Cultural Value and Inequality: A Critical Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, K; O'Brien, D

    2015-01-01

    Inequality has become essential to understanding contemporary British society and is at the forefront of media, political and practice discussions of the future of the arts in the UK. Whilst there is a wealth of work on traditional areas of inequality, such as those associated with income or gender, the relationship between culture, specifically cultural value, and inequality is comparatively under-researched. The literature review considers inequality and cultural value from two points of vi...

  14. Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.

  15. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of cultural competence of critical care nurses in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of cultural competence of critical care nurses in ... Nurses are primary caregivers and have a key role in providing care in a culturally ... relating to culture, gender or sexual orientation. ... concerning the population they work with, and although a ... lead to conflict, increased levels of anxiety, and stress among nurses,.

  17. Clustering analysis of water distribution systems: identifying critical components and community impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, K; Farmani, R; Fu, G; Astaraie-Imani, M; Ward, S; Butler, D

    2014-01-01

    Large water distribution systems (WDSs) are networks with both topological and behavioural complexity. Thereby, it is usually difficult to identify the key features of the properties of the system, and subsequently all the critical components within the system for a given purpose of design or control. One way is, however, to more explicitly visualize the network structure and interactions between components by dividing a WDS into a number of clusters (subsystems). Accordingly, this paper introduces a clustering strategy that decomposes WDSs into clusters with stronger internal connections than external connections. The detected cluster layout is very similar to the community structure of the served urban area. As WDSs may expand along with urban development in a community-by-community manner, the correspondingly formed distribution clusters may reveal some crucial configurations of WDSs. For verification, the method is applied to identify all the critical links during firefighting for the vulnerability analysis of a real-world WDS. Moreover, both the most critical pipes and clusters are addressed, given the consequences of pipe failure. Compared with the enumeration method, the method used in this study identifies the same group of the most critical components, and provides similar criticality prioritizations of them in a more computationally efficient time.

  18. Cultural Shifts: Putting Critical Information Literacy into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the example of foreign languages to explore the integration of critical information literacy into the curriculum of various disciplines. By closely examining the practices and values inherent in the foreign language information environment, the paper suggests that a critical vision of information literacy provides the most…

  19. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to

  20. Simulation platform developed to study and identify critical cases in a future smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Zong, Yi; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    simulation and planning tools, with a particular objective on the challenges faced by the introduction of Smart Grid technologies. Another important issue of the paper is to identify critical load cases, as well as the voltage variations with the highest potential, able to implement the grid model...

  1. Identifying critical issues in recreation planning and management: improving the management-research partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Schomaker; David W. Lime

    1988-01-01

    The "nominal group" process is a proven technique to systematically arrive at a consensus about critical information needs in recreation planning and management. Using this process, 41 managers who attended a 1983 conference on river management identified 114 specific information needs grouped under 11 general questions. Clearly, some concerns of...

  2. Organisational Issues for E-Learning: Critical Success Factors as Identified by HE Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project that identified organisational critical success factors (CSFs) for e-learning implementation in higher education (HE). These CSFs can be used as a theoretical foundation upon which to base decision-making and strategic thinking about e-learning. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  3. Social Network Culture Needs the Lens of Critical Trust Research

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer , Natasha; Marsh , Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Full Papers; International audience; Trust is essential to the success of the social networks that are aggregating and applying masses of information about us. In this position paper, we argue that a critical approach to exploring trust and social networks is required; this entails genuinely working in the interests of users and acknowledging the power relations and wider social context of this form of technology that is impacting more and more of our everyday life. Without a critical...

  4. Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: a review and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L

    2009-02-01

    Increasing the cultural competence of physicians is one means of responding to demographic changes in the USA, as well as reducing health disparities. However, in spite of the development and implementation of cultural competence training programs, little is known about the ways cultural competence manifests itself in medical encounters. This paper will present a model of culturally competent communication that offers a framework of studying cultural competence 'in action.' First, we describe four critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter--communication repertoire, situational awareness, adaptability, and knowledge about core cultural issues. We present a model of culturally competent physician communication that integrates existing frameworks for cultural competence in patient care with models of effective patient-centered communication. The culturally competent communication model includes five communication skills that are depicted as elements of a set in which acquisition of more skills corresponds to increasing complexity and culturally competent communication. The culturally competent communication model utilizes each of the four critical elements to fully develop each skill and apply increasingly sophisticated, contextually appropriate communication behaviors to engage with culturally different patients in complex interactions. It is designed to foster maximum physician sensitivity to cultural variation in patients as the foundation of physician-communication competence in interacting with patients.

  5. Criticism of cinema from the concept of Cultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Antonechen Colombo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the film as a work of art, but also as a cultural and appropriate merchandise for Cultural Industry, and its role as an essential factor of aesthetic, perceptual and cognitive changes, based on the theories of Theodor Adorno. The methodology considers the position of this philosopher in relation to cinema, from its advent, analyzing its characteristics, its elements, the effects of the spectators, the role of industry in the evolution of cinema and its relation to the ideology of the culture industry, the changes that the cinema brought to the theories of art and society. It also states that the article is the product of an ongoing research, so your introductory content.

  6. The demand to progress: critical nostalgia in LGBTQ cultural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szegheo Lang, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that, while representations of tragic lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) histories are disseminated widely, positive aspects of the past must be largely pushed out of the cultural imaginary to support a vision of the present in which sexual rights and freedoms have been achieved. It proposes that this view relies on a linear progress narrative wherein the experiences of LGBTQ people are held as consistently improving over time. In considering the construction of cultural memory through popular media and art, it claims a nostalgic turn to the past as a useful political tool for dismantling the pacifying aspects of the present.

  7. Critical frameworks for graphic design: graphic design and visual culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dauppe, Michele-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers an approach to the study of graphic design which addresses the expanding nature of graphic design in the 21st century and the purposeful application of theory to the subject of graphic design. In recent years graphic design has expanded its domain from the world of print culture (e.g. books, posters) into what is sometimes called screen culture. Everything from a mobile phone to a display in an airport lounge to the A.T.M. carries graphic design. It has become ever more ub...

  8. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Duanying; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Sripusanapan, Acharaporn; Avant, Patricia Kay

    2017-06-01

    This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses. A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: awareness, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, with two subthemes for each, were identified. Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities. A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Cross-cultural training as critical factor of cultural intelligence in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsaga, Effrosyni

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses cultural awareness in the workplace. It is important for employees to be cultural aware because they may have to interact with people from other countries. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) examines individuals' abilities to interact with people with different cultural backgrounds.

  10. The Cultural Discontinuity Hypothesis: A Critical Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Timothy W., II

    2013-01-01

    Researchers that study cultural and psychological influences on learning and development have proposed that differences between the socialized practices of European Americans and those of particular racial and ethnic minority youth are, to some degree, potentially responsible for persistent Racial and ethnic minority youth underachievement in…

  11. Theatre and social criticism in African literature: socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since literature is a creative work that mirrors society, Alachi in The Dilemma of Oko, observes aspects of the social, political, cultural and moral degeneration of contemporary society. He presents them in this play with thorough detachment and clinical dispassion. The play presents the image of a society, whose moral order ...

  12. Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning: A Critical Perspective. Critical Perspectives on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…

  13. A survey of cultural competence of critical care nurses in KwaZuluNatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer de Beer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nurses are primary caregivers and have a key role in providing care in a culturally diverse healthcare system, such as in South Africa (SA. Nurses need cultural competence in the management of patients within this cultural context. A healthcare system staffed by a culturally competent workforce can provide high-quality care to diverse population groups, contributing to the elimination of health disparities.Objective. To describe the self-rated levels of cultural competence of nurses working in critical care settings in a selected public hospital in SA.Methods. A quantitative descriptive survey was conducted with nurses from eight critical care units in a selected public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, using the Inventory to Access the Process of Cultural Competency - Revised (IAPCC-R cultural competence questionnaire. Results. The overall cultural competence score for the respondents was 70.2 (standard deviation 7.2 out of a possible 100, with 77 (74% of the respondents scoring in the awareness range, 26 (25% in the competent range, and only 1 in the proficient range. Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds scored significantly higher in cultural competence than English-speaking nurses.Conclusion. In addressing the many faces of cultural diversity, healthcare professionals must realise that these faces share a common vision: to obtain quality healthcare services that are culturally responsive and culturally relevant to the specific cultural group.

  14. Identifying the Critical Links in Road Transportation Networks: Centrality-based approach utilizing structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Supriya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Surface transportation road networks share structural properties similar to other complex networks (e.g., social networks, information networks, biological networks, and so on). This research investigates the structural properties of road networks for any possible correlation with the traffic characteristics such as link flows those determined independently. Additionally, we define a criticality index for the links of the road network that identifies the relative importance in the network. We tested our hypotheses with two sample road networks. Results show that, correlation exists between the link flows and centrality measures of a link of the road (dual graph approach is followed) and the criticality index is found to be effective for one test network to identify the vulnerable nodes.

  15. Identify and Classify Critical Success Factor of Agile Software Development Methodology Using Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Tasneem Abd El Hameed; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholief

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the right method, right personnel and right practices, and applying them adequately, determine the success of software development. In this paper, a qualitative study is carried out among the critical factors of success from previous studies. The factors of success match with their relative principles to illustrate the most valuable factor for agile approach success, this paper also prove that the twelve principles poorly identified for few factors resulting from qualitative and qua...

  16. Cultural safety and the challenges of translating critically oriented knowledge in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen; Smye, Victoria; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Lynam, M Judith; Wong, Sabrina

    2009-07-01

    Cultural safety is a relatively new concept that has emerged in the New Zealand nursing context and is being taken up in various ways in Canadian health care discourses. Our research team has been exploring the relevance of cultural safety in the Canadian context, most recently in relation to a knowledge-translation study conducted with nurses practising in a large tertiary hospital. We were drawn to using cultural safety because we conceptualized it as being compatible with critical theoretical perspectives that foster a focus on power imbalances and inequitable social relationships in health care; the interrelated problems of culturalism and racialization; and a commitment to social justice as central to the social mandate of nursing. Engaging in this knowledge-translation study has provided new perspectives on the complexities, ambiguities and tensions that need to be considered when using the concept of cultural safety to draw attention to racialization, culturalism, and health and health care inequities. The philosophic analysis discussed in this paper represents an epistemological grounding for the concept of cultural safety that links directly to particular moral ends with social justice implications. Although cultural safety is a concept that we have firmly positioned within the paradigm of critical inquiry, ambiguities associated with the notions of 'culture', 'safety', and 'cultural safety' need to be anticipated and addressed if they are to be effectively used to draw attention to critical social justice issues in practice settings. Using cultural safety in practice settings to draw attention to and prompt critical reflection on politicized knowledge, therefore, brings an added layer of complexity. To address these complexities, we propose that what may be required to effectively use cultural safety in the knowledge-translation process is a 'social justice curriculum for practice' that would foster a philosophical stance of critical inquiry at both the

  17. Television and Popular Culture: Reflections on British and Australian Critical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the development of British and Australian television criticism from the mid-seventies. Suggests a conscious study of the characteristics of television as a cultural agent and as a text within a sociocultural context. (MS)

  18. Understanding Cultural Relativism: A critical Appraisal of the Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes Eshetu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to reveal the cons and pros of ethical relativism, especially conventionalism. This article is written with the intention of showing some of the practical upshots of conventionalism without totally denying some of its virtues in a world where diversity of cultures and customs is apparent. The article inquires the question: Is ethical relativism tenable? The review article relies on reviewing secondary sources. What I am arguing in this article is that despite...

  19. A method for isolating identifying and culturing of rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Su Shibiao; Nie Jihua; Li Bingyan; Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method for isolating identifying and culturing the rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells. Methods: The rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells were isolated by digestion with pronase and brushing with cell brush, identified using confocul and cultured in entire F12 media with no serum. Results: With this method, cells in high purity and high viability could be obtained, and about 10 6 cells per rat. The cells grow well in entire F12 media with no serum. Conclusion: The method is useful for isolating rate trachea-bronchia epithelial cells and the entire F12 media with no serum is effective for culturing. (authors)

  20. A quantitative metric to identify critical elements within seafood supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagányi, Éva E; van Putten, Ingrid; Thébaud, Olivier; Hobday, Alistair J; Innes, James; Lim-Camacho, Lilly; Norman-López, Ana; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Farmery, Anna; Fleming, Aysha; Frusher, Stewart; Green, Bridget; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Pecl, Gretta; Pascoe, Sean; Schrobback, Peggy; Thomas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical.

  1. A Quantitative Metric to Identify Critical Elements within Seafood Supply Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagányi, Éva E.; van Putten, Ingrid; Thébaud, Olivier; Hobday, Alistair J.; Innes, James; Lim-Camacho, Lilly; Norman-López, Ana; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Farmery, Anna; Fleming, Aysha; Frusher, Stewart; Green, Bridget; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Pecl, Gretta; Pascoe, Sean; Schrobback, Peggy; Thomas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical. PMID:24633147

  2. A quantitative metric to identify critical elements within seafood supply networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva E Plagányi

    Full Text Available A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical.

  3. Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering…

  4. Cultural Literacy Based Critical Reading Teaching Material with Active Reader Strategy for Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaianti, Vismaia S.; Damaianti, Lira Fessia; Mulyati, Yeti

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a study aimed at producing a set of cultural literacy-oriented critical reading teaching material. This material is developed as a countermeasure to the increasingly thin sensitivity of society, especially the students toward noble values of religion, custom, and culture. With this material student get a…

  5. The Relationship between Teachers' Views about Cultural Values and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya; Ozciftci, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Known as basic elements directing individuals' lives, cultural values are hidden cultural elements that influence all evaluations and perceptions. Values, in that sense, are elements individuals are aware of and provide the answer to the "what should I do?" feeling (Schein, 1992). Critical pedagogy is a project based…

  6. NASA flight controllers - Meeting cultural and leadership challenges on the critical path to mission success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L., Jr.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2006-01-01

    As part of its preparation for missions to the Moon and Mars, NASA has identified high priority critical path roadmap (CPR) questions, two of which focus on the performance of mission control personnel. NASA flight controllers have always worked in an incredibly demanding setting, but the International Space Station poses even more challenges than prior missions. We surveyed 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers about the management and cultural challenges they face and the most effective strategies for addressing them. There was substantial consensus among participants on some issues, such as the importance of building a personal relationship with Russian colleagues. Responses from junior and senior controllers differed in some areas, such as training. We frame the results in terms of two CPR questions. We aim to use our results to improve flight controller training.

  7. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    2013-01-01

    . This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis...... potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different...

  8. A novel strategy to identify the critical conditions for growth-induced instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javili, A; Steinmann, P; Kuhl, E

    2014-01-01

    Geometric instabilities in living structures can be critical for healthy biological function, and abnormal buckling, folding, or wrinkling patterns are often important indicators of disease. Mathematical models typically attribute these instabilities to differential growth, and characterize them using the concept of fictitious configurations. This kinematic approach toward growth-induced instabilities is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the total deformation gradient into a reversible elastic part and an irreversible growth part. While this generic concept is generally accepted and well established today, the critical conditions for the formation of growth-induced instabilities remain elusive and poorly understood. Here we propose a novel strategy for the stability analysis of growing structures motivated by the idea of replacing growth by prestress. Conceptually speaking, we kinematically map the stress-free grown configuration onto a prestressed initial configuration. This allows us to adopt a classical infinitesimal stability analysis to identify critical material parameter ranges beyond which growth-induced instabilities may occur. We illustrate the proposed concept by a series of numerical examples using the finite element method. Understanding the critical conditions for growth-induced instabilities may have immediate applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, asthma, obstructive sleep apnoea, and brain development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organizational culture: the critical link between strategy and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, K W; Fralicx, R D; Spreier, S W

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is undertaking a massive reorganization to transform itself into a more efficient, patient-focused healthcare system. It has developed a new strategy and structure. But if it is to achieve the rapid, sustainable transformation needed to succeed in today's environment, it must also change its culture. The rigid, functionally focused, command-and-control culture that has long been a hallmark of VA must be replaced by one that values speed, flexibility, and the processes for delivering high-quality, cost-effective patient care. Such a change will not come easily. In addition to the normal hurdles, several barriers are unique to VA. They include ingrained bureaucratic traditions and behaviors, constraints imposed by the federal government, close scrutiny by powerful service organizations, and a Civil Service employee base that makes the hiring, promoting, and removing of employees a slow, unwieldy, and procedurally complex exercise. In a climate that does not encourage change, successful transformation must be well orchestrated. To drive the change, the leadership must be mobilized as a team, new work processes must be developed, and a full range of human resource processes must be established.

  10. The 'Bollywoodization' of Popular Indian Visual Culture: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keval Joseph Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The roots of popular visual culture of contemporary India can be traced to the  mythological films which D. G. Phalke provided audiences during the decades of the ‘silent’ era (1912-1934.  The ‘talkies era of the 1930s ushered in the ‘singing’ /musical genre which together with Phalke’s visual style, remains the hallmark of Bollywood cinema. The history of Indian cinema is replete with films made in other genres and styles (e.g. social realism, satires, comedies, fantasy, horror, stunt in the numerous languages of the country; however, it’s the popular Hindi cinema (now generally termed ‘Bollywood’ that has dominated national Indian cinema and its audiovisual culture and hegemonized the entire film industry as well as other popular technology-based art forms including the press, radio, television,  music, advertising, the worldwide web,  the social media, and telecommunications media. The form and substance of these modern art forms, while adapting to the demands of the new media technologies, continued to be rooted in the visual arts and practices of folk and classical traditions of earlier times.

  11. msiDBN: A Method of Identifying Critical Proteins in Dynamic PPI Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of protein-protein interactions (PPIs reveals the recondite principles of biological processes inside a cell. Shown in a wealth of study, just a small group of proteins, rather than the majority, play more essential roles at crucial points of biological processes. This present work focuses on identifying these critical proteins exhibiting dramatic structural changes in dynamic PPI networks. First, a comprehensive way of modeling the dynamic PPIs is presented which simultaneously analyzes the activity of proteins and assembles the dynamic coregulation correlation between proteins at each time point. Second, a novel method is proposed, named msiDBN, which models a common representation of multiple PPI networks using a deep belief network framework and analyzes the reconstruction errors and the variabilities across the time courses in the biological process. Experiments were implemented on data of yeast cell cycles. We evaluated our network construction method by comparing the functional representations of the derived networks with two other traditional construction methods. The ranking results of critical proteins in msiDBN were compared with the results from the baseline methods. The results of comparison showed that msiDBN had better reconstruction rate and identified more proteins of critical value to yeast cell cycle process.

  12. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  13. Critical Leadership Pedagogy: Engaging Power, Identity, and Culture in Leadership Education for College Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Vijay; Furr, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the application of critical pedagogy to leadership education allows for issues of identity, power, and culture to shape the process of leadership learning. Examples from the authors' work with various populations of students of color are used to illustrate critical leadership pedagogy.

  14. The Construction of Cultural Values and Beliefs in Chinese Language Textbooks: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discourses of cultural values and beliefs constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying story grammar analysis in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the article critically investigates how the discourses are constructed and what ideological…

  15. Creativity In Amateur Multimedia: Popular Culture, Critical Theory, And Hci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Bardzell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed the emergence and aesthetic maturation of amateur multimedia on an unprecedented scale, from video podcasts to machinima, and Flash animations to user-created metaverses. Today, especially in academic circles, this pop culture phenomenon is little recognized and even less understood. This paper explores creativity in amateur multimedia using three theorizations of creativity—those of HCI, postructuralism, and technological determinism. These theorizations frame a semiotic analysis of numerous commonly used multimedia authoring platforms, which demonstrates a deep convergence of multimedia authoring tool strategies that collectively project a conceptualization and practice of digital creativity. This conceptualization of digital creativity in authoring tools is then compared with hundreds of amateur-created artifacts. These analyses reveal relationships among emerging amateur multimedia aesthetics, common software authoring tools, and the three theorizations of creativity discussed.

  16. Pathway cross-talk network analysis identifies critical pathways in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Quan-Hong; Chen, Deng-Hong; Meng, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Pathway cross-talk analysis might contribute to the inference of the driving forces in bacterial sepsis and facilitate a better understanding of underlying pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis. This study aimed to explore the critical pathways associated with the progression of neonatal sepsis by the pathway cross-talk analysis. By integrating neonatal transcriptome data with known pathway data and protein-protein interaction data, we systematically uncovered the disease pathway cross-talks and constructed a disease pathway cross-talk network for neonatal sepsis. Then, attract method was employed to explore the dysregulated pathways associated with neonatal sepsis. To determine the critical pathways in neonatal sepsis, rank product (RP) algorithm, centrality analysis and impact factor (IF) were introduced sequentially, which synthetically considered the differential expression of genes and pathways, pathways cross-talks and pathway parameters in the network. The dysregulated pathways with the highest IF values as well as RPpathways in neonatal sepsis. By integrating three kinds of data, only 6919 common genes were included to perform the pathway cross-talk analysis. By statistic analysis, a total of 1249 significant pathway cross-talks were selected to construct the pathway cross-talk network. Moreover, 47 dys-regulated pathways were identified via attract method, 20 pathways were identified under RPpathways with the highest IF were also screened from the pathway cross-talk network. Among them, we selected 8 common pathways, i.e. critical pathways. In this study, we systematically tracked 8 critical pathways involved in neonatal sepsis by integrating attract method and pathway cross-talk network. These pathways might be responsible for the host response in infection, and of great value for advancing diagnosis and therapy of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2017

  17. (De)colonizing culture in community psychology: reflections from critical social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Cruz, Mariolga; Sonn, Christopher C

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception, community psychology has been interested in cultural matters relating to issues of diversity and marginalization. However, the field has tended to understand culture as static social markers or as the background for understanding group differences. In this article the authors contend that culture is inseparable from who we are and what we do as social beings. Moreover, culture is continually shaped by socio-historical and political processes intertwined within the globalized history of power. The authors propose a decolonizing standpoint grounded in critical social science to disrupt understandings of cultural matters that marginalize others. This standpoint would move the field toward deeper critical thinking, reflexivity and emancipatory action. The authors present their work to illustrate how they integrate a decolonizing standpoint to community psychology research and teaching. They conclude that community psychology must aim towards intercultural work engaging its political nature from a place of ontological/epistemological/methodological parity.

  18. After the Disciplines: The Emergence of Cultural Studies. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of essays contains responses to a request to examine the emergence and formation of "cultural studies" within the university and the implications of cultural studies for an economics of "disciplinarity." The majority of the contributors are from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Following an introduction…

  19. Life support decision making in critical care: Identifying and appraising the qualitative research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mita; Cook, Deborah; DeJean, Deirdre

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and appraise qualitative research evidence on the experience of making life-support decisions in critical care. In six databases and supplementary sources, we sought original research published from January 1990 through June 2008 reporting qualitative empirical studies of the experience of life-support decision making in critical care settings. Fifty-three journal articles and monographs were included. Of these, 25 reported prospective studies and 28 reported retrospective studies. We abstracted methodologic characteristics relevant to the basic critical appraisal of qualitative research (prospective data collection, ethics approval, purposive sampling, iterative data collection and analysis, and any method to corroborate findings). Qualitative research traditions represented include grounded theory (n = 15, 28%), ethnography or naturalistic methods (n = 15, 28%), phenomenology (n = 9, 17%), and other or unspecified approaches (n = 14, 26%). All 53 documents describe the research setting; 97% indicate purposive sampling of participants. Studies vary in their capture of multidisciplinary clinician and family perspectives. Thirty-one (58%) report research ethics board review. Only 49% report iterative data collection and analysis, and eight documents (15%) describe an analytically driven stopping point for data collection. Thirty-two documents (60%) indicated a method for corroborating findings. Qualitative evidence often appears outside of clinical journals, with most research from the United States. Prospective, observation-based studies follow life-support decision making directly. These involve a variety of participants and yield important insights into interactions, communication, and dynamics. Retrospective, interview-based studies lack this direct engagement, but focus on the recollections of fewer types of participants (particularly patients and physicians), and typically address specific issues (communication and

  20. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture among registered nurses working in adult critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellino, Donna; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and patient safety culture among staff level Registered Nurses (RNs) within adult critical care units (ACCU). There is literature to support the value of RNs' structurally empowered work environments and emerging literature towards patient safety culture; the link between empowerment and patient safety culture is being discovered. A sample of 257 RNs, working within adult critical care of a tertiary hospital in the United States, was surveyed. Instruments included a background data sheet, the Conditions of Workplace Effectiveness and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture were significantly correlated. As structural empowerment increased so did the RNs' perception of patient safety culture. To foster patient safety culture, nurse leaders should consider providing structurally empowering work environments for RNs. This study contributes to the body of knowledge linking structural empowerment and patient safety culture. Results link structurally empowered RNs and increased patient safety culture, essential elements in delivering efficient, competent, quality care. They inform nursing management of key factors in the nurses' environment that promote safe patient care environments. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Structural identifiability of systems biology models: a critical comparison of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Teodora Chis

    Full Text Available Analysing the properties of a biological system through in silico experimentation requires a satisfactory mathematical representation of the system including accurate values of the model parameters. Fortunately, modern experimental techniques allow obtaining time-series data of appropriate quality which may then be used to estimate unknown parameters. However, in many cases, a subset of those parameters may not be uniquely estimated, independently of the experimental data available or the numerical techniques used for estimation. This lack of identifiability is related to the structure of the model, i.e. the system dynamics plus the observation function. Despite the interest in knowing a priori whether there is any chance of uniquely estimating all model unknown parameters, the structural identifiability analysis for general non-linear dynamic models is still an open question. There is no method amenable to every model, thus at some point we have to face the selection of one of the possibilities. This work presents a critical comparison of the currently available techniques. To this end, we perform the structural identifiability analysis of a collection of biological models. The results reveal that the generating series approach, in combination with identifiability tableaus, offers the most advantageous compromise among range of applicability, computational complexity and information provided.

  2. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-10-11

    competence of medical students and physicians identified gaps in knowledge and culturally competent behaviour. Such data can be used to guide improvement efforts to the diversity content of educational curricula. Based on this study, improvements should focus on increasing knowledge and improving diversity-sensitive consultation behaviour and less on reflection skills. The weak association between overall self-perceived cultural competence and assessed knowledge, reflection ability and consultation behaviour supports the hypothesis that measures of sell-perceived competence are insufficient to assess actual cultural competence.

  3. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  4. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  5. Improving socially constructed cross-cultural communication in aged care homes: A critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    Cultural diversity between residents and staff is significant in aged care homes in many developed nations in the context of international migration. This diversity can be a challenge to achieving effective cross-cultural communication. The aim of this study was to critically examine how staff and residents initiated effective cross-cultural communication and social cohesion that enabled positive changes to occur. A critical hermeneutic analysis underpinned by Giddens' Structuration Theory was applied to the study. Data were collected by interviews with residents or their family and by focus groups with staff in four aged care homes in Australia. Findings reveal that residents and staff are capable of restructuring communication via a partnership approach. They can also work in collaboration to develop communication resources. When staff demonstrate cultural humility, they empower residents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds to engage in effective communication. Findings also suggest that workforce interventions are required to improve residents' experiences in cross-cultural care. This study challenges aged care homes to establish policies, criteria and procedures in cross-cultural communication. There is also the challenge to provide ongoing education and training for staff to improve their cross-cultural communication capabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. USE OF PORTABLE GAMMA SPECTROMETERS FOR IDENTIFYING PERSONS EXPOSED IN A NUCLEAR CRITICALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G. [Y-12 National Security Complex; Gose, B. T. [Y-12 National Security Complex; Bogard, James S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    At Y-12 triage-style assessments are used to identify persons potentially exposed to high doses from criticality accident radiations using portable instruments by assessing the presence of activated sodium atoms in a person's blood. Historically, simple hand-held Geiger-Mueller (G-M) probes were used for these purposes although it was recognized that, since these instruments contain no information on incident photon energy, it was impossible to differentiate between photons emitted by contamination on the potentially exposed worker from activation of sodium in the person s blood. This works examines the use of a portable gamma spectrometer for assessing blood sodium activation. Irradiations of a representative phantom were performed using two neutron source configurations (unmoderated and polyethylene-moderated 252Cf) and measurements were made using the spectrometer and a G-M detector following irradiation. Detection limits in terms of personnel neutron dose are given for two neutron fields representing metaland solution criticality spectra. Both Geiger-Mueller and spectrometer results indicate a low minimum detectable neutron dose indicating that both instrument are useful as an emergency response instrument. The spectrometer has the added benefit of discriminating between surface contamination and blood sodium activation.

  7. USE OF PORTABLE GAMMA SPECTROMETERS FOR IDENTIFYING PERSONS EXPOSED IN A NUCLEAR CRITICALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veinot, K.G.; Gose, B.T.; Bogard, James S.

    2009-01-01

    At Y-12 triage-style assessments are used to identify persons potentially exposed to high doses from criticality accident radiations using portable instruments by assessing the presence of activated sodium atoms in a person's blood. Historically, simple hand-held Geiger-Mueller (G-M) probes were used for these purposes although it was recognized that, since these instruments contain no information on incident photon energy, it was impossible to differentiate between photons emitted by contamination on the potentially exposed worker from activation of sodium in the persons blood. This works examines the use of a portable gamma spectrometer for assessing blood sodium activation. Irradiations of a representative phantom were performed using two neutron source configurations (unmoderated and polyethylene-moderated 252Cf) and measurements were made using the spectrometer and a G-M detector following irradiation. Detection limits in terms of personnel neutron dose are given for two neutron fields representing metal and solution criticality spectra. Both Geiger-Mueller and spectrometer results indicate a low minimum detectable neutron dose indicating that both instrument are useful as an emergency response instrument. The spectrometer has the added benefit of discriminating between surface contamination and blood sodium activation.

  8. Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Abilities in Critically Identifying and Evaluating the Quality of Online Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Maggie; Redmond, Anne; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Both the Internet and social media have become important tools that patients and health professionals, including health professional students, use to obtain information and support their decision-making surrounding health care. Students in the health sciences require increased competence to select, appraise, and use online sources to adequately educate and support patients and advocate for patient needs and best practices. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if second year nursing students have the ability to critically identify and evaluate the quality of online health information through comparisons between student and expert assessments of selected online health information postings using an adapted Trust in Online Health Information scale. Interviews with experts provided understanding of how experts applied the selected criteria and what experts recommend for implementing nursing informatics literacy in curriculums. The difference between student and expert assessments of the quality of the online information is on average close to 40%. Themes from the interviews highlighted several possible factors that may influence informatics competency levels in students, specifically regarding the critical appraisal of the quality of online health information.

  9. Identifying Critical Factors in the Eco-Efficiency of Remanufacturing Based on the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, or the evaluation of the economic and environmental performance in remanufacturing, while little effort has been devoted to investigating the critical factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Considering the current development of the remanufacturing industry in China, this paper proposes a set of factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing and then utilizes a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method to establish relation matrixes reflecting the interdependent relationships among these factors. Finally, the contributions of each factor to eco-efficiency and mutual influence values among them are obtained, and critical factors in eco-efficiency of remanufacturing are identified. The results of the present work can provide theoretical supports for the government to make appropriate policies to improve the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing.

  10. Stakeholder Engagement to Identify Priorities for Improving the Quality and Value of Critical Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Stelfox

    Full Text Available Large amounts of scientific evidence are generated, but not implemented into patient care (the 'knowledge-to-care' gap. We identified and prioritized knowledge-to-care gaps in critical care as opportunities to improve the quality and value of healthcare.We used a multi-method community-based participatory research approach to engage a Network of all adult (n = 14 and pediatric (n = 2 medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs in a fully integrated geographically defined healthcare system serving 4 million residents. Participants included Network oversight committee members (n = 38 and frontline providers (n = 1,790. Network committee members used a modified RAND/University of California Appropriateness Methodology, to serially propose, rate (validated 9 point scale and revise potential knowledge-to-care gaps as priorities for improvement. The priorities were sent to frontline providers for evaluation. Results were relayed back to all frontline providers for feedback.Initially, 68 knowledge-to-care gaps were proposed, rated and revised by the committee (n = 32 participants over 3 rounds of review and resulted in 13 proposed priorities for improvement. Then, 1,103 providers (62% response rate evaluated the priorities, and rated 9 as 'necessary' (median score 7-9. Several factors were associated with rating priorities as necessary in multivariable logistic regression, related to the provider (experience, teaching status of ICU and topic (strength of supporting evidence, potential to benefit the patient, potential to improve patient/family experience, potential to decrease costs.A community-based participatory research approach engaged a diverse group of stakeholders to identify 9 priorities for improving the quality and value of critical care. The approach was time and cost efficient and could serve as a model to prioritize areas for research quality improvement across other settings.

  11. Stakeholder Engagement to Identify Priorities for Improving the Quality and Value of Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelfox, Henry T; Niven, Daniel J; Clement, Fiona M; Bagshaw, Sean M; Cook, Deborah J; McKenzie, Emily; Potestio, Melissa L; Doig, Christopher J; O'Neill, Barbara; Zygun, David

    2015-01-01

    Large amounts of scientific evidence are generated, but not implemented into patient care (the 'knowledge-to-care' gap). We identified and prioritized knowledge-to-care gaps in critical care as opportunities to improve the quality and value of healthcare. We used a multi-method community-based participatory research approach to engage a Network of all adult (n = 14) and pediatric (n = 2) medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in a fully integrated geographically defined healthcare system serving 4 million residents. Participants included Network oversight committee members (n = 38) and frontline providers (n = 1,790). Network committee members used a modified RAND/University of California Appropriateness Methodology, to serially propose, rate (validated 9 point scale) and revise potential knowledge-to-care gaps as priorities for improvement. The priorities were sent to frontline providers for evaluation. Results were relayed back to all frontline providers for feedback. Initially, 68 knowledge-to-care gaps were proposed, rated and revised by the committee (n = 32 participants) over 3 rounds of review and resulted in 13 proposed priorities for improvement. Then, 1,103 providers (62% response rate) evaluated the priorities, and rated 9 as 'necessary' (median score 7-9). Several factors were associated with rating priorities as necessary in multivariable logistic regression, related to the provider (experience, teaching status of ICU) and topic (strength of supporting evidence, potential to benefit the patient, potential to improve patient/family experience, potential to decrease costs). A community-based participatory research approach engaged a diverse group of stakeholders to identify 9 priorities for improving the quality and value of critical care. The approach was time and cost efficient and could serve as a model to prioritize areas for research quality improvement across other settings.

  12. Cross-species epigenetics identifies a critical role for VAV1 in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, J C; Kawauchi, D; Schwalbe, E C; Solecki, D J; Selby, M P; McKinnon, P J; Olson, J M; Hayden, J T; Grundy, R G; Ellison, D W; Williamson, D; Bailey, S; Roussel, M F; Clifford, S C

    2015-09-03

    The identification of key tumorigenic events in Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastomas (MBSHH) will be essential for the development of individualized therapies and improved outcomes. However, beyond confirmation of characteristic SHH pathway mutations, recent genome-wide sequencing studies have not revealed commonly mutated genes with widespread relevance as potential therapeutic targets. We therefore examined any role for epigenetic DNA methylation events in MBSHH using a cross-species approach to candidate identification, prioritization and validation. MBSHH-associated DNA methylation events were first identified in 216 subgrouped human medulloblastomas (50 MBSHH, 28 Wnt/Wingless, 44 Group 3 and 94 Group 4) and their conservation then assessed in tumors arising from four independent murine models of Shh medulloblastoma, alongside any role in tumorigenesis using functional assessments in mouse and human models. This strategy identified widespread regional CpG hypo-methylation of VAV1, leading to its elevated expression, as a conserved aberrant epigenetic event, which characterizes the majority of MBSHH tumors in both species, and is associated with a poor outcome in MBSHH patients. Moreover, direct modulation of VAV1 in mouse and human models revealed a critical role in tumor maintenance, and its abrogation markedly reduced medulloblastoma growth. Further, Vav1 activity regulated granule neuron precursor germinal zone exit and migration initiation in an ex vivo model of early postnatal cerebellar development. These findings establish VAV1 as a critical epigenetically regulated oncogene with a key role in MBSHH maintenance, and highlight its potential as a validated therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for the improved therapy of medulloblastoma.

  13. Identifying Culturally Competent Clinical Skills in Speech-Language Pathologists in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify specific clinical skills in speech-language pathologists (SLPs) that may constitute cultural competency, a term which currently lacks operational definition. Through qualitative interview methods, the following research questions were addressed: (1) What dominant themes, if any, can be found in SLPs'…

  14. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Keyak, Joyce; Li, Caixia; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We identified regions inside the proximal femur that are most strongly associated with hip fracture. Bone densitometry based on such fracture-critical regions showed improved power in discriminating fracture patients from controls. Introduction Hip fractures typically occur in lateral falls, with focal mechanical failure of the sub-volumes of tissue in which the applied stress exceeds the strength. In this study, we describe a new methodology to identify proximal femoral tissue elements with highest association with hip fracture. We hypothesize that bone mineral density (BMD) measured in such sub-volumes discriminates hip fracture risk better than BMD in standard anatomic regions such as the femoral neck and trochanter. Materials and Methods We employed inter-subject registration to transform hip QCT images of 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls into a voxel-based statistical atlas. Within voxels, we performed t-tests between the two groups to identify the regions which differed most. We then randomly divided the 75 scans into a training set and a test set. From the training set, we derived a fracture-driven region of interest (ROI) based on association with fracture. In the test set, we measured BMD in this ROI to determine fracture discrimination efficacy using ROC analysis. Additionally, we compared the BMD distribution differences between the 29 patients with neck fractures and the 8 patients with trochanteric fractures. Results By evaluating fracture discrimination power based on ROC analysis, the fracture-driven ROI had an AUC (area under curve) of 0.92, while anatomic ROIs (including the entire proximal femur, the femoral neck, trochanter and their cortical and trabecular compartments) had AUC values between 0.78 and 0.87. We also observed that the neck fracture patients had lower BMD (p=0.014) in a small region near the femoral neck and the femoral head, and patients with trochanteric fractures had lower BMD in trochanteric regions

  15. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  16. Critical differences between elective and emergency surgery: identifying domains for quality improvement in emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Alexandra B; Morris, Megan A; Lilley, Elizabeth J; Harlow, Alyssa F; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Havens, Joaquim M

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize providers' impressions of factors contributing to disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality in emergency general surgery to identify targets for care quality improvement. Emergency general surgery is characterized by a high-cost burden and disproportionate morbidity and mortality. Factors contributing to these observed disparities are not comprehensively understood and targets for quality improvement have not been formally developed. Using a grounded theory approach, emergency general surgery providers were recruited through purposive-criterion-based sampling to participate in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were asked to identify contributors to emergency general surgery outcomes, to define effective care for EGS patients, and to describe operating room team structure. Interviews were performed to thematic saturation. Transcripts were iteratively coded and analyzed within and across cases to identify emergent themes. Member checking was performed to establish credibility of the findings. A total of 40 participants from 5 academic hospitals participated in either individual interviews (n = 25 [9 anesthesia, 12 surgery, 4 nursing]) or focus groups (n = 2 [15 nursing]). Emergency general surgery was characterized by an exceptionally high level of variability, which can be subcategorized as patient-variability (acute physiology and comorbidities) and system-variability (operating room resources and workforce). Multidisciplinary communication is identified as a modifier to variability in emergency general surgery; however, nursing is often left out of early communication exchanges. Critical variability in emergency general surgery may impact outcomes. Patient-variability and system-variability, with focus on multidisciplinary communication, represent potential domains for quality improvement in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining safety culture and the nexus between safety goals and safety culture. 3. A Methodology for Identifying Deficiencies in Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, George; Weil, Rick

    2001-01-01

    At present, the drivers of performance problems at nuclear power plants (NPPs) are organizational in nature. Organizational deficiencies and other 'latent' conditions cause human errors, resulting in incidents that impact the performance of NPPs. Therefore, the human reliability community, regulators, and others concerned with NPP safety express the view that safety culture and organizational factors play an important role in plant safety. However, we have yet to identify one complete set of organizational factors, establish links between deficient safety culture and performance, or develop adequate tools to measure safety culture. This paper will contribute to the resolution of these issues. Safety culture is not a single factor but rather is a collection of several distinct factors. This paper asserts that in order to pro-actively manage safety culture at NPPs, leading indicators and appropriate measurements must be identified and developed. Central to this effort are the identification of the distinct factors comprising safety culture and the relationships between those factors and performance. We have identified several factors important to safety culture. We have developed a methodology that is a combination of traditional root-cause analysis and theories of human error, most notably Reason's theory of accident causation. In addition to this methodology's usefulness in identifying deficiencies in safety culture, it could also be used as a starting point to identify leading indicators of deteriorating safety performance. We have identified six organizational factors as being important: communication, formalization, goal prioritization, problem identification, roles and responsibilities, and technical knowledge. In addition, we have found that certain organizational factors, although pervasive throughout the organization, have a much greater influence on the successful outcome of particular tasks of work processes, rather than being equally important to all

  18. Identifying critical recruitment bottlenecks limiting seedling establishment in a degraded seagrass ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, John; Montoya, Leonardo R; Orth, Robert J; Dixon, Kingsley W; Kendrick, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    Identifying early life-stage transitions limiting seagrass recruitment could improve our ability to target demographic processes most responsive to management. Here we determine the magnitude of life-stage transitions along gradients in physical disturbance limiting seedling establishment for the marine angiosperm, Posidonia australis. Transition matrix models and sensitivity analyses were used to identify which transitions were critical for successful seedling establishment during the first year of seed recruitment and projection models were used to predict the most appropriate environments and seeding densities. Total survival probability of seedlings was low (0.001), however, transition probabilities between life-stages differed across the environmental gradients; seedling recruitment was affected by grazing and bioturbation prevailing during the first life-stage transition (1 month), and 4-6 months later during the third life-stage transition when establishing seedlings are physically removed by winter storms. Models projecting population growth from different starting seed densities showed that seeds could replace other more labour intensive and costly methods, such as transplanting adult shoots, if disturbances are moderated sufficiently and if large numbers of seed can be collected in sufficient quantity and delivered to restoration sites efficiently. These outcomes suggest that by improving management of early demographic processes, we could increase recruitment in restoration programs.

  19. A Journal of Critical Inquiry and Professional Learning: Telling Tales of Community Art, Aesthetics, and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Don H.; Parker, Ann

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors share some of their learning about art, aesthetics, and people's ways of living. They discuss why the renewal of professional learning is important and demonstrate how K-12 teachers can engage in this process by creating a journal of critical inquiry about their own local communities' art, aesthetics, and cultures.…

  20. Critical Pedagogy, Internationalisation, and a Third Space: Cultural Tensions Revealed in Students' Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Margaret Jane; Brooks, Catherine F.

    2017-01-01

    Set within the context of a global pursuit towards the internationalisation of higher education, this paper critically examines student discourse in a globally connected classroom between learners in the USA and Singapore. It makes salient some of the cultural assumptions and tensions that undergird students' discourse in collaborative…

  1. From Cultural Imperialists to Takeover Victims? Questions on Hollywood's Buyouts from the Critical Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnany, Emile G.; Wilkinson, Kenton T.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the history of the cultural imperialism debate. Reviews international questions raised concerning the role and influence of the still-popular Hollywood products. Examines changing ownership patterns in Hollywood (buyouts by major foreign interests). Notes important trends, and suggests areas for critical research. (SR)

  2. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2017-01-01

    on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB...... particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently......) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds...

  3. The social production of health: critical contributions from evolutionary, biological, and cultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betty Wolder; Browner, C H

    2005-08-01

    In 1946, the newly formed World Health Organization boldly sought to conceptualize "health" as wellbeing in the positive sense, "not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Yet nearly six decades later, researchers are still principally concerned with pathology and its characteristics and consequences. This special issue is the result of an effort to broaden the focus. Anthropologists working from evolutionary, biological and sociocultural perspectives and in diverse geographic regions were asked to examine meanings associated with health and/or to identify social conditions and practices that have contributed to positive physiological and psychological states in particular cultures, times, or across time. Most notable, perhaps, was discovering how difficult it is for Western social scientists to move beyond pathology-based thinking; most authors represented here regard health primarily as the absence of disease. Still, these papers articulate and address questions key to understanding health in and of itself, including: How is health conceptualized? What kinds of social conditions lead to health? And, how do social inequalities affect health? This introduction critically discusses previous work on the subject to contextualize the original research papers offered here.

  4. SEGMENTATION OF 3D MODELS FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – SOME CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gonizzi Barsanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage documentation and preservation has become a fundamental concern in this historical period. 3D modelling offers a perfect aid to record ancient buildings and artefacts and can be used as a valid starting point for restoration, conservation and structural analysis, which can be performed by using Finite Element Methods (FEA. The models derived from reality-based techniques, made up of the exterior surfaces of the objects captured at high resolution, are - for this reason - made of millions of polygons. Such meshes are not directly usable in structural analysis packages and need to be properly pre-processed in order to be transformed in volumetric meshes suitable for FEA. In addition, dealing with ancient objects, a proper segmentation of 3D volumetric models is needed to analyse the behaviour of the structure with the most suitable level of detail for the different sections of the structure under analysis. Segmentation of 3D models is still an open issue, especially when dealing with ancient, complicated and geometrically complex objects that imply the presence of anomalies and gaps, due to environmental agents such as earthquakes, pollution, wind and rain, or human factors. The aims of this paper is to critically analyse some of the different methodologies and algorithms available to segment a 3D point cloud or a mesh, identifying difficulties and problems by showing examples on different structures.

  5. Segmentation of 3d Models for Cultural Heritage Structural Analysis - Some Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Guidi, G.; De Luca, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural Heritage documentation and preservation has become a fundamental concern in this historical period. 3D modelling offers a perfect aid to record ancient buildings and artefacts and can be used as a valid starting point for restoration, conservation and structural analysis, which can be performed by using Finite Element Methods (FEA). The models derived from reality-based techniques, made up of the exterior surfaces of the objects captured at high resolution, are - for this reason - made of millions of polygons. Such meshes are not directly usable in structural analysis packages and need to be properly pre-processed in order to be transformed in volumetric meshes suitable for FEA. In addition, dealing with ancient objects, a proper segmentation of 3D volumetric models is needed to analyse the behaviour of the structure with the most suitable level of detail for the different sections of the structure under analysis. Segmentation of 3D models is still an open issue, especially when dealing with ancient, complicated and geometrically complex objects that imply the presence of anomalies and gaps, due to environmental agents such as earthquakes, pollution, wind and rain, or human factors. The aims of this paper is to critically analyse some of the different methodologies and algorithms available to segment a 3D point cloud or a mesh, identifying difficulties and problems by showing examples on different structures.

  6. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  7. Identifying yeast isolated from spoiled peach puree and assessment of its batch culture for invertase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vega FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of yeasts isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree using the API 20C AUX method and a commercial yeast as witness were studied. Subsequently, the yeast’s growth potential using two batch culture treatments were performed to evaluate number of colonies (N, reducing sugar concentration (RS, free-invertase (FI, and culture-invertase activity (CI. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for batch-culture (150 rpm at 30°C for 24 h, then they were stored at 4 °C for subsequent invertase extraction. The FI extract was obtained using NaHCO3 as autolysis agent, and CI activity was determined on the supernatant after batch-cultured centrifugation. The activity was followed by an increase in absorbance at 490 nm using the acid 3,5-DNS method with glucose standard. Of the four yeasts identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen for legal reasons. It showed logarithmic growth up to 18 h of fermentation with positive correlation CI activity and inverse with RS. FI showed greater activity by the end of the log phase and an inverse correlation with CI activity. Finally, it was concluded that treatment “A” is more effective than “B” to produce invertase (EC 3.2.1.26.

  8. Trophic transfer of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems: Identifying critical research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sarah Y; Lee, Cindy M; Weinstein, John E; van den Hurk, Peter; Klaine, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the process of trophic transfer of microplastics, it is important to consider various abiotic and biotic factors involved in their ingestion, egestion, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification. Toward this end, a review of the literature on microplastics has been conducted to identify factors influencing their uptake and absorption; their residence times in organisms and bioaccumulation; the physical effects of their aggregation in gastrointestinal tracts; and their potential to act as vectors for the transfer of other contaminants. Limited field evidence from higher trophic level organisms in a variety of habitats suggests that trophic transfer of microplastics may be a common phenomenon and occurs concurrently with direct ingestion. Critical research needs include standardizing methods of field characterization of microplastics, quantifying uptake and depuration rates in organisms at different trophic levels, quantifying the influence that microplastics have on the uptake and/or depuration of environmental contaminants among different trophic levels, and investigating the potential for biomagnification of microplastic-associated chemicals. More integrated approaches involving computational modeling are required to fully assess trophic transfer of microplastics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:505-509. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Competing endogenous RNA network analysis identifies critical genes among the different breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Xu, Juan; Li, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jinwen; Chen, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Wang, Zishan; Zhao, Xueying; Xu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yan

    2017-02-07

    Although competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been implicated in many solid tumors, their roles in breast cancer subtypes are not well understood. We therefore generated a ceRNA network for each subtype based on the significance of both, positive co-expression and the shared miRNAs, in the corresponding subtype miRNA dys-regulatory network, which was constructed based on negative regulations between differentially expressed miRNAs and targets. All four subtype ceRNA networks exhibited scale-free architecture and showed that the common ceRNAs were at the core of the networks. Furthermore, the common ceRNA hubs had greater connectivity than the subtype-specific hubs. Functional analysis of the common subtype ceRNA hubs highlighted factors involved in proliferation, MAPK signaling pathways and tube morphogenesis. Subtype-specific ceRNA hubs highlighted unique subtype-specific pathways, like the estrogen response and inflammatory pathways in the luminal subtypes or the factors involved in the coagulation process that participates in the basal-like subtype. Ultimately, we identified 29 critical subtype-specific ceRNA hubs that characterized the different breast cancer subtypes. Our study thus provides new insight into the common and specific subtype ceRNA interactions that define the different categories of breast cancer and enhances our understanding of the pathology underlying the different breast cancer subtypes, which can have prognostic and therapeutic implications in the future.

  10. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  11. Mycobacterium intracellulare Pleurisy Identified on Liquid Cultures of the Pleural Fluid and Pleural Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jong Gu; O, Sei Won; Lee, Ki Dong; Suk, Dong Keun; Jung, Tae Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Chon, Gyu Rak

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. We report a case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pleuritis with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a 69-year-old man presenting with dyspnea. Pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte dominant exudate. M. intracellulare was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and liquid cultures of pleural effusion and pleural biopsy. After combination therapy for M. intracellu...

  12. The relationship between organizational culture and family satisfaction in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodek, Peter M; Wong, Hubert; Heyland, Daren K; Cook, Deborah J; Rocker, Graeme M; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Dale, Craig; Fowler, Robert; Robinson, Sandra; Ayas, Najib T

    2012-05-01

    Family satisfaction with critical care is influenced by a variety of factors. We investigated the relationship between measures of organizational and safety culture, and family satisfaction in critical care. We further explored differences in this relationship depending on intensive care unit survival status and length of intensive care unit stay of the patient. Cross-sectional surveys. Twenty-three tertiary and community intensive care units within three provinces in Canada. One thousand two-hundred eighty-five respondents from 2374 intensive care unit clinical staff, and 880 respondents from 1381 family members of intensive care unit patients. None. Intensive care unit staff completed the Organization and Management of Intensive Care Units survey and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Family members completed the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24, a validated survey of family satisfaction. A priori, we analyzed adjusted relationships between each domain score from the culture surveys and either satisfaction with care or satisfaction with decision-making for each of four subgroups of family members according to patient descriptors: intensive care unit survivors who had length of intensive care unit stay 14 days, and intensive care unit nonsurvivors who had length of stay relationships between most domains of organizational and safety culture, and satisfaction with care or decision-making for family members of intensive care unit nonsurvivors who spent at least 14 days in the intensive care unit. For the other three groups, there were only a few weak relationships between domains of organizational and safety culture and family satisfaction. Our findings suggest that the effect of organizational culture on care delivery is most easily detectable by family members of the most seriously ill patients who interact frequently with intensive care unit staff, who are intensive care unit nonsurvivors, and who spend a longer time in the intensive

  13. Assessment of critical success factors of TQM culture in hospitality sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujar Pira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attemts to ilustrate how the managers and the staff of a 5 star hotel in Kosovo define quality. Furthermore, it explores the number of critical success factors related to TQM culture and how they are applied in the hotel operations. Different theories related to the quality in the field of service provision, more particular in hospitality or hotel sector and the introduction of the TQM culture in the same sector. A conceptual framework based on existing theories and literature is developed which is than confirms through the research findings and analysis. The findings suggest that most features associated with TQM, like critical success factors assessed throughout the research (leadership, customer focus, training, communication, teams and staff empowerment can produce an advantage for the 5 star hotel operations that will affect the quality of service. Furthermore, it confirms that some of the TQM aspects are applied and can be applied in 5 star hotel operations in Kosovo. The issue is whether these aspects are understood as TQM principles and whether their added value is embraced in the day-to-day running of the hotel. The outcomes imply that, indeed, the TQM culture is present in the The Hotel, a 5 star hotel in Kosovo. Some of the critical success factors are directly linked to TQM and some less and it also provides suggestions for improvement where needed, especially related to specific tools that are integral parts of the TQM culture.

  14. Safety culture and subcontractor network governance in a complex safety critical project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, Pia; Gotcheva, Nadezhda

    2015-01-01

    In safety critical industries many activities are currently carried out by subcontractor networks. Nevertheless, there are few studies where the core dimensions of resilience would have been studied in safety critical network activities. This paper claims that engineering resilience into a system is largely about steering the development of culture of the system towards better ability to anticipate, monitor, respond and learn. Thus, safety culture literature has relevance in resilience engineering field. This paper analyzes practical and theoretical challenges in applying the concept of safety culture in a complex, dynamic network of subcontractors involved in the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland, Olkiluoto 3. The concept of safety culture is in focus since it is widely used in nuclear industry and bridges the scientific and practical interests. This paper approaches subcontractor networks as complex systems. However, the management model of the Olkiluoto 3 project is to a large degree a traditional top-down hierarchy, which creates a mismatch between the management approach and the characteristics of the system to be managed. New insights were drawn from network governance studies. - Highlights: • We studied a relevant topical subject safety culture in nuclear new build project. • We integrated safety science challenges and network governance studies. • We produced practicable insights in managing safety of subcontractor networks

  15. Beyond Diversity as Usual: Expanding Critical Cultural Approaches to Marginalization in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secules, Stephen

    In general, what we think of as "diversity work" in undergraduate engineering education focuses in the following ways: more on the overlooked assets of minority groups than on the acts of overlooking, more on the experiences of marginalized groups than on the mechanisms of marginalization by dominant groups, more on supporting and increasing minority student retention than on critiquing and remediating the systems which lead minority students to leave engineering. This dissertation presents a series of arguments which push beyond a status quo understanding of diversity in engineering education. The first approach the dissertation takes up is to problematize educational facts around failure by interrogating their roots in interactions and cultural norms in an engineering classroom. In another argument, the dissertation places the engineering classroom cultural norms of competition, whiteness, and masculinity in a critical historical context of the discipline at large. Finally, I demonstrate how engaging students in a critique of marginalizing educational culture can be an important source of agency. In addition to applying and demonstrating the value of specific novel approaches in engineering education, the dissertation contributes to the research community by discussing the respective affordances between these and other possible scholarly approaches to culture and marginalization in education. I also suggest how a consideration of the taken-for-granted culture of engineering education can be an important tool for instructors seeking to gain insight into persistent educational problems. In addition, this dissertation makes implications for diversity support practice, envisioning new forms of support programming rooted in intersectionality and critical praxis.

  16. Identify of Granulicatella adiacens from blood cultures of a patient bearer of prosthetic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Gargiulo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case studied concerns a woman 81 years old, with a history of prosthetic valve and mitral insufficiency, admitted to internal medicine ward of NOCSAE hospital as a result of a recurrent fever. Due to the suspicion of endocarditis and with the aim to identify the presence of aerobic/anaerobic microorganisms, two set of blood cultures collected within 24 hours were sent to the Laboratory of microbiology. All the bottles were incubated into the Bact-Alert 3D System (bioMérieux. After an 19 hours incubation time, the samples were identified as positive by the automated system; consequently they cultured on a blood agar and selective media, according to our laboratory operational protocol. In the same time Gram stain of the cultural broth revealed the presence of Gram positive cocci arranged in chains different in length. Since there wasn’t an evident microbial growth on solid media after 24-48 hours of incubation, a new culture was carried out on blood and chocolate agar after the addition of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. After 24 hours of incubation it was possible appreciate the growth of tiny colonies around the S. aureus ones. These colonies were identified by Vitek2 and Api Rapid 32 Strep (bioMérieux as Granulicatella adiacens. The results were confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the groESL gene. MIC values obtained by the means of E-test (bioMérieux were: 0.016mg/L for penicillin, 0.125mg/L for cefotaxime, 1mg/L for both vancomicin and levofloxacin. Resistance was observed for cloramphenicol (MIC=16mg/L. The timely communication of these findings, supported by clinical data like the appearance of vegetation on mitral valve highlighted by trans-oesophageal echocardiography, allowed to establish an adequate antibiotic therapy, rapid resolution of fever and normalisation of inflammatory parameters.

  17. What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter ...

  18. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  19. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  20. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) in complex systems: cultural adaptation and safety impacts in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Mitchell, Shannon G; Vogt, Joachim; Schürmann, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In complex systems, such as hospitals or air traffic control operations, critical incidents (CIs) are unavoidable. These incidents can not only become critical for victims but also for professionals working at the "sharp end" who may have to deal with critical incident stress (CIS) reactions that may be severe and impede emotional, physical, cognitive and social functioning. These CIS reactions may occur not only under exceptional conditions but also during every-day work and become an important safety issue. In contrast to air traffic management (ATM) operations in Europe, which have readily adopted critical incident stress management (CISM), most hospitals have not yet implemented comprehensive peer support programs. This survey was conducted in 2010 at the only European general hospital setting which implemented CISM program since 2004. The aim of the article is to describe possible contribution of CISM in hospital settings framed from the perspective of organizational safety and individual health for healthcare professionals. Findings affirm that daily work related incidents also can become critical for healthcare professionals. Program efficiency appears to be influenced by the professional culture, as well as organizational structure and policies. Overall, findings demonstrate that the adaptation of the CISM program in general hospitals takes time but, once established, it may serve as a mechanism for changing professional culture, thereby permitting the framing of even small incidents or near misses as an opportunity to provide valuable feedback to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An All-Recombinant Protein-Based Culture System Specifically Identifies Hematopoietic Stem Cell Maintenance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Ieyasu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are considered one of the most promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of various blood disorders. However, due to difficulties in establishing stable maintenance and expansion of HSCs in vitro, their insufficient supply is a major constraint to transplantation studies. To solve these problems we have developed a fully defined, all-recombinant protein-based culture system. Through this system, we have identified hemopexin (HPX and interleukin-1α as responsible for HSC maintenance in vitro. Subsequent molecular analysis revealed that HPX reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels within cultured HSCs. Furthermore, bone marrow immunostaining and 3D immunohistochemistry revealed that HPX is expressed in non-myelinating Schwann cells, known HSC niche constituents. These results highlight the utility of this fully defined all-recombinant protein-based culture system for reproducible in vitro HSC culture and its potential to contribute to the identification of factors responsible for in vitro maintenance, expansion, and differentiation of stem cell populations.

  2. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper

  3. A CRITICAL NEEDS PLAN FOR GENERAL MOTORS: A CULTURAL PLURALISM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory W. Goussak; Jon K. Webber; Elliot M. Ser

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a critical needs plan for General Motors Corporation in the 21st century. General Motors (GM), once the most dominant manufacturer in the automotive industry, finds itself in financial crisis with a Chapter 11 bankruptcy and a necessary government infusion of capital. The foundation of this paper applies the Supportive Model as an effective strategy for creating a new corporate culture and focusing GM as a competitive manufacturer in the global automotiv...

  4. Running Joke: Criticism of Italian American Culture through Comedy in The Sopranos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gardaphe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Often read as tragic realism, The Sopranos has rarely been seen in the light of the comedy created in every episode.   While a number of television critics and commentators have compared the series to the tragedies of Shakespeare (Bushby, Macintyre, Varble, none have focused on the comic elements, which, as I will show, are descendants of Italian Commedia dell Arte and Shakespearean comedies.  The best way of seeing this is to focus on the character Paulie Walnuts, whom I see as an Italian American version of the zanni of the Commedia or the fool/clown of Shakespeare.  In this article, I present David Chase’s serial narrative as a comedy that serves not only to create laughter but also to criticize U.S. and especially Italian American culture through the character Paulie Walnuts.  Before I launch into this reading I want to present a few words on just how we might read the seriality of Chase’s narrative.  Through Paulie Walnuts, the writers of the show are able insert a running joke throughout the entire series that enables them to poke fun at traditional notions of Italian immigrant culture, and at the same time, show that those notions also serve as viable criticisms of U.S. capitalist culture.  Paulie, who is certainly more reactionary than revolutionary, reflects the many Italian Americans who assimilated quickly into American culture, in spite of holding on to traditions and superstitions of Italian folk culture.

  5. Exploring the concept of "caring cultures": A critical examination of the conceptual, methodological and validity issues with the "caring cultures" construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, Nicola; Taylor, Ruth; Walker, Susan

    2017-12-01

    To critically examine the conceptual, methodological and validity issues with the "caring cultures" construct. Post the Francis Report, "caring cultures" and alternative terminology such as "culture/s of care/caring/compassionate care" have gained prominence in the literature, especially within a UK policy context. However, in order to understand the value these "caring cultures" hold in terms of clinical practice, the concept itself first needs to be understood. A discussion and critical examination of the concept of "caring cultures" and associated terminology. Grey literature, database, library and reference list searches were conducted. It is implied that "caring cultures" influence patient care. However, evidence which verifies this assertion is limited. In this article, the concept of "caring cultures" is deconstructed and its validity explored. An alternative to "caring cultures" is proposed in terms of research, whereby the concept of culture is instead explored in detail, on a microsystem level, using appropriate methodology. The concept of "caring cultures", although attractive in terms of its apparent simplicity, is not considered the most useful nor appropriate phrases in terms of advancing research. Instead, research which examines the established concept of "culture" in relation to outcomes such as patient care, doing so with an appropriate methodology, is viewed as a more suitable alternative. Clarifying concepts and terminology relating to "caring cultures" is essential for research to progress and the impact of culture on clinical practice to be better understood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Critical thinking as culture: Teaching post-Soviet teachers in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.

  7. Mycobacterium intracellulare Pleurisy Identified on Liquid Cultures of the Pleural Fluid and Pleural Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Gu; O, Sei Won; Lee, Ki Dong; Suk, Dong Keun; Jung, Tae Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Chon, Gyu Rak

    2013-03-01

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. We report a case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pleuritis with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a 69-year-old man presenting with dyspnea. Pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte dominant exudate. M. intracellulare was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and liquid cultures of pleural effusion and pleural biopsy. After combination therapy for M. intracellulare pulmonary disease, the patient was clinically well at a 1-month follow-up.

  8. Exploring Cultural Differences in Critical Thinking: Is It about My Thinking Style or the Language I Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Fischer, Ronald; Ward, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking is deemed as an ideal in academic settings, but cultural differences in critical thinking performance between Asian and Western students have been reported in the international education literature. We examined explanations for the observed differences in critical thinking between Asian and New Zealand (NZ) European students, and…

  9. Combination of FTIR and SEM for Identifying Freshwater-Cultured Pearls from Different Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitkune, Somruedee; Monarumit, Natthapong; Boonmee, Chakkrich; Phlayrahan, Aumaparn; Promdee, Kittiphop; Won-in, Krit

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater-cultured pearl ( Chamberlainia hainesiana species) is an organic gemstone mainly composed of calcium carbonate mineral including calcite, aragonite and vaterite phases. Generally, the quality of freshwater-cultured pearl is based on its luster. The high luster pearl is full of the aragonite phase without vaterite phase. On the other hand, the low luster pearl consists of aragonite and vaterite phases. These data could be proved by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the results, the high luster pearl similarly shows the FTIR spectrum of aragonite phase, and also, it shows the hexagonal shape of aragonite for the SEM image. On the other hand, the FTIR spectrum of low luster pearl has been pointed to the mixture component among aragonite and vaterite phases, and based on the SEM image; the irregular form is also interpreted to the mixture of aragonite and vaterite phases. This research concludes that the quality of freshwater-cultured pearls can be identified by the combination data of FTIR spectra and SEM images. These techniques are suitable for applied gemology.

  10. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Bivalve aquaculture is commonly carried out in shallow water systems, which are susceptible to resuspension of benthic particulate matter by natural processes such as tidal currents, winds and wave action, as well as human activity. The resuspended material can alter the availability of food particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds. In addition, high background seston in the water column reduces the impact of resuspension on the available food for mussels. The simulation of different scenarios in terms of food availability suggested minimal effects of resuspension on mussel growth. Based on this finding and the fact that phytoplankton concentration, the main food source for mussels, is usually higher in the upper part of the water column, suspended culture in the top 3 m of the water column seems to be the optimal practice to produce mussels in Skive Fjord.

  11. The use of cultured epithelial autograft in the treatment of major burn injuries: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F M; Kolybaba, M L; Allen, P

    2006-06-01

    The need to achieve rapid wound closure in patients with massive burns and limited skin donor sites led to the investigation of in vitro cellular expansion of keratinocytes. The use of cultured epithelial autografts (CEA) was first reported in the treatment of major burns in 1981. Since that time, support for the use of CEA has varied, ranging from 'a useful agent' to having 'no demonstrable effect on the outcome of extensively burned patients'. This critical review of the literature examines issues associated with the use of CEA and the introduction of the technology into clinical practice. The factors potentially limiting the use of cultured CEA are the time necessary to culture CEA sheets, the reliability of 'take', vulnerability of grafts on the newly healed surface, long-term durability and the cost implications of such treatment. The available literature was located and critically evaluated using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Guidelines. In the identified literature, the level of evidence to support the use of CEA in major burn injures is limited and often restricted to case studies and case series with no Level 1 evidence currently available. The main question arising 'Does CEA have a role in the treatment of major burns?' has proven difficult to answer due to the wide variation in both the quality of study design and the findings. At best, the literature review has highlighted areas of concern that have hindered the successful use of CEA. Our review critically evaluates the use of CEA and explores the advances in techniques towards attempting to improve reliable clinical implementation of CEA. The need for higher level research into the use of CEA is emphasised by this review.

  12. A microcomputer-based model for identifying urban and suburban roadways with critical large truck accident rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of techniques for merging highway accident record and roadway inventory files and employing the combined data set to identify spots or sections on highway facilities in urban and suburban areas with unusually high large truck accident rates. A statistical technique, the rate/quality control method, is used to calculate a critical rate for each location of interest. This critical rate may then be compared to the location's actual accident rate to identify locations for further study. Model enhancements and modifications are described to enable the technique to be employed in the evaluation of routing alternatives for the transport of radioactive material

  13. What’s My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Marsh Commission. The GMU research program was developed with Congressional funding, the results of which have produced numerous research papers ...acknowledging that not all attacks or accidents can be prevented, turn to criticality as a crutch —pouring more and more resources into all

  14. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  15. Recent advances in cross-cultural measurement in psychiatric epidemiology: utilizing 'what matters most' to identify culture-specific aspects of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Thornicroft, Graham; Alvarado, Ruben; Vega, Eduardo; Link, Bruce George

    2014-04-01

    While stigma measurement across cultures has assumed growing importance in psychiatric epidemiology, it is unknown to what extent concepts arising from culture have been incorporated. We utilize a formulation of culture-as the everyday interactions that 'matter most' to individuals within a cultural group-to identify culturally-specific stigma dynamics relevant to measurement. A systematic literature review from January 1990 to September 2012 was conducted using PsycINFO, Medline and Google Scholar to identify articles studying: (i) mental health stigma-related concepts; (ii) ≥ 1 non-Western European cultural group. From 5292 abstracts, 196 empirical articles were located. The vast majority of studies (77%) utilized adaptations of existing Western-developed stigma measures to new cultural groups. Extremely few studies (2.0%) featured quantitative stigma measures derived within a non-Western European cultural group. A sizeable amount (16.8%) of studies employed qualitative methods to identify culture-specific stigma processes. The 'what matters most' perspective identified cultural ideals of the everyday activities that comprise 'personhood' of 'preserving lineage' among specific Asian groups, 'fighting hard to overcome problems and taking advantage of immigration opportunities' among specific Latino-American groups, and 'establishing trust among religious institutions due to institutional discrimination' among African-American groups. These essential cultural interactions shaped culture-specific stigma manifestations. Mixed method studies (3.6%) corroborated these qualitative results. Quantitatively-derived, culturally-specific stigma measures were lacking. Further, the vast majority of qualitative studies on stigma were conducted without using stigma-specific frameworks. We propose the 'what matters most' approach to address this key issue in future research.

  16. The past, present, and future of health development campaigns: reflexivity and the critical-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; de Souza, Rebecca

    2008-07-01

    In contemporary society, health issues have gained increasing urgency in both political and academic spheres. Looking back at the failure of the modernist development initiatives, there is the need to realize that we live in a time of increasing sociopolitical complexity. The present moment is perhaps best understood in terms of a complex tension and linkage between the past and present, global and local, modern and postmodern. The critical-cultural approach to health campaigns is an approach that, through the reflexive interrogation of modernist assumptions underlying health communication campaigns, attempts to foreground the tensions inherent in the practice of health campaigns. This essay discusses the manner in which the critical-cultural approach interrogates modernist assumptions and provides an alternative paradigm for approaching the theory and practice of health campaigns by suggesting the necessity for reflexivity. Specifically, we discuss how the perspective interrogates the role of the media in development, the significance of culture, the locus of health responsibility, the impact of structural conditions, and the politics of knowledge, providing examples of campaigns that illustrate this reflexivity.

  17. Education in a culture of violence: a critical pedagogy of place in wartime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.

    2010-06-01

    What is the role of education in wartime? To what extent should environmental and science educators directly address violent conflict and a culture of prolonged war? This article gestures with empathy toward all educators who are working in wartime. It posits that a critical pedagogy of place provides a theoretical framework that contextualizes all environmental work and all education in the context of cultural politics. I argue that a fundamental component of a critical, place-based inquiry must be acknowledging the contested history of colonization with respect to land (environment) and homeland (culture). I cannot think of a place on the planet where this history is as complex and contested than it is in Israel and Palestine. However, colonization and its legacy is a shared reality around the world, and acknowledging the context of colonization should not be limited to inquiry in places where the bombs are still smoldering and where the rubble has yet to be cleared. Acknowledging colonization may be especially appropriate in the US, where the historical record of militarized colonization remains hidden behind the myths of global "progress" for the world's remaining "superpower."

  18. Identifying groups of critical edges in a realistic electrical network by multi-objective genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Golea, L.R.; Rocco S, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the vulnerability of the Italian high-voltage (380 kV) electrical transmission network (HVIET) is carried out for the identification of the groups of links (or edges, or arcs) most critical considering the network structure and flow. Betweenness centrality and network connection efficiency variations are considered as measures of the importance of the network links. The search of the most critical ones is carried out within a multi-objective optimization problem aimed at the maximization of the importance of the groups and minimization of their dimension. The problem is solved using a genetic algorithm. The analysis is based only on information on the topology of the network and leads to the identification of the most important single component, couples of components, triplets and so forth. The comparison of the results obtained with those reported by previous analyses indicates that the proposed approach provides useful complementary information.

  19. Survey to identify depth of penetration of critical incident reporting systems in Austrian healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Eder, Harald; Leitgeb, Karina; Gorges, Roland; Jakse, Heidelinde; Raiger, Marianne; Türk, Silvia; Petschnig, Walter; Pregartner, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    Incident reporting systems or so-called critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) were first recommended for use in health care more than 15 years ago. The uses of these CIRS are highly variable among countries, ranging from being used to report critical incidents, falls, or sentinel events resulting in death. In Austria, CIRS have only been introduced to the health care sector relatively recently. The goal of this work, therefore, was to determine whether and specifically how CIRS are used in Austria. A working group from the Austrian Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ASQS) developed a survey on the topic of CIRS to collect information on penetration of CIRS in general and on how CIRS reports are used to increase patient safety. Three hundred seventy-one health care professionals from 274 health care facilities were contacted via e-mail. Seventy-eight respondents (21.0%) completed the online survey, thereof 66 from hospitals and 12 from other facilities (outpatient clinics, nursing homes). In all, 64.1% of the respondents indicated that CIRS were used in the entire health care facility; 20.6% had not yet introduced CIRS and 15.4% used CIRS only in particular areas. Most often, critical incidents without any harm to patients were reported (76.9%); however, some health care facilities also use their CIRS to report patient falls (16.7%), needle stick injuries (17.9%), technical problems (51.3%), or critical incidents involving health care professionals. CIRS are not yet extensively or homogeneously used in Austria. Inconsistencies exist with respect to which events are reported as well as how they are followed up and reported to health care professionals. Further recommendations for general use are needed to support the dissemination in Austrian health care environments.

  20. Identifying Hot Spots of Critical Forage Supply in Dryland Nomadic Pastoralist Areas: A Case Study for the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; van Wesenbeeck, C.F.A.; Georgis, Kidane; Beyene, Fekadu; Urbano, Ferdinando; Meroni, Michele; Leo, Olivier; Yimer, Merkebu; Abdullatif, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a methodology to identify hot spots of critical forage supply in nomadic pastoralist areas, using the Afar Region, Ethiopia, as a special case. It addresses two main problems. First, it makes a spatially explicit assessment of fodder supply and demand extracted from a data poor

  1. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  2. Heparin concentration is critical for cell culture with human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Kalz, Jana; Walenda, Gudrun; Lohmann, Michael; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Culture media for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are generally supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been proven to be a very effective alternative without the risk of xenogeneic infections or immune reactions. In contrast to fetal bovine serum, hPL comprises plasma, and anticoagulants-usually unfractionated heparin (UFH)-need to be added to prevent gel formation. Cultures of MSCs in hPL media with various concentrations of UFH and enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), were systematically compared with regard to proliferation, fibroblastoid colony-forming unit frequency, immunophenotype and in vitro differentiation. At least 0.61 IU/mL UFH or 0.024 mg/mL LMWH was necessary for reliable prevention of coagulation of hPL pools used in this study. Higher concentrations impaired cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner even without benzyl alcohol, which is commonly added to heparins as a bacteriostatic agent. Colony-forming unit frequency was also reduced at higher heparin concentrations, particularly with LMWH, whereas no significant effect was observed on cellular morphology or immunophenotype. High concentrations of heparins reduced the in vitro differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Heparin concentration is critical for culture of MSCs in hPL media; this is of particular relevance for cellular therapy where cell culture procedures need to be optimized and standardized. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intracellular recording, sensory field mapping, and culturing identified neurons in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlow, Josh; Majeed, Zana R; Nicholls, John G; Cooper, Robin L

    2013-11-04

    The freshwater leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is a versatile model organism that has been used to address scientific questions in the fields of neurophysiology, neuroethology, and developmental biology. The goal of this report is to consolidate experimental techniques from the leech system into a single article that will be of use to physiologists with expertise in other nervous system preparations, or to biology students with little or no electrophysiology experience. We demonstrate how to dissect the leech for recording intracellularly from identified neural circuits in the ganglion. Next we show how individual cells of known function can be removed from the ganglion to be cultured in a Petri dish, and how to record from those neurons in culture. Then we demonstrate how to prepare a patch of innervated skin to be used for mapping sensory or motor fields. These leech preparations are still widely used to address basic electrical properties of neural networks, behavior, synaptogenesis, and development. They are also an appropriate training module for neuroscience or physiology teaching laboratories.

  4. The Challenges of Participant Photography: A Critical Reflection on Methodology and Ethics in Two Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda; Nash, Meredith

    2017-05-01

    Photovoice and photo-elicitation are two common methods of participant photography used in health research. Although participatory photography has many benefits, this critical reflection provides fellow researchers with insights into the methodological and ethical challenges faced when using such methods. In this article, we critically reflect on two studies that used participatory photography in different cultural contexts. The first study used photo-elicitation to investigate mothers' experiences of infant settling in central Vietnam. The second study used photovoice to explore pregnant embodiment in Australia. Following a discussion of the literature and a detailed overview of the two studies, we examine the methodological challenges in using participant photography before, during and after each study. This is followed by a discussion of ethical concerns that arose in relation to the burden of participation, confidentiality, consent, and the photographing of families and children. To conclude, we highlight implications for using participatory photography in other settings.

  5. New literacies, Japanese youth, and global fast food culture: Exploring youth critical agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Iwase, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the critical agencies expressed by a group of Japanese youth asked to reflect on their understanding of fast food cultures in the context of a global consumer-media environment. New literacies and the concepts of the young cyberflâneur and the phoneur are used to define and map the youths’ agentic practices, while various qualitative research methods are employed to investigate how eight Japanese high school students understand the meaning and impact of McDonald’s in thei...

  6. Robert Beuka. American Icon: Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby in Critical and Cultural Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Tsimpouki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What new can another critical study on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby contribute to the already existing abundance of books concerning this national classic?  Yet, in this slim and elegant volume, Robert Beuka has managed to encompass not only the formal scholarship on Gatsby but also a complete and thorough survey of the impact of the novel into the world of popular culture. This parallel attempt throws light on the changing modes of interpretation that have affected our understandin...

  7. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne

    2017-01-01

    and supply factors together. The aim was to provide an overview of this highly interdisciplinary research, to describe how these linkages are being made and to identify which factors significantly influence dependent variables such as levels of use, activities or health and well-being benefits. Commonly used......Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... characteristics of the ecosystem. We conducted a review of publications dealing with demand or social factors such as user needs, preferences and values as well as spatially explicit supply or physical factors such as amount of green space, (bio)diversity, recreational infrastructure, etc. and linking demand...

  8. A students? survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper describes the outcomes of an assessment of knowledge, reflection ability and self-reported culturally competent consultation behaviour, the relation between these assessments and self-percei...

  9. Identifying the Critical Factors Affecting Safety Program Performance for Construction Projects within Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ahmed Memon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that the construction industry one of the most hazardous industries with its high rates of fatalities and injuries and high financial losses incurred through work related accident. To reduce or overcome the safety issues on construction sites, different safety programs are introduced by construction firms. A questionnaire survey study was conducted to highlight the influence of the Construction Safety Factors on safety program implementation. The input from the questionnaire survey was analyzed by using AIM (Average Index Method and rank correlation test was conducted between different groups of respondents to measure the association between different groups of respondent. The finding of this study highlighted that management support is the critical factor for implementing the safety program on projects. From statistical test, it is concluded that all respondent groups were strongly in the favor of management support factor as CSF (Critical Success Factor. The findings of this study were validated on selected case studies. Results of the case studies will help to know the effect of the factors on implementing safety programs during the execution stage.

  10. Identifying Critical Success Factors for TQM and Employee Performance in Malaysian Automotive Industry: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia Dedy, Aimie; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the community and the goals of the companies are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximizing the potential of all workers in a continuing drive for total quality improvement. TQM is very important to the company especially in automotive industry in order for them to survive in the competitive global market. The main objective of this study is to review a relationship between TQM and employee performance. Authors review updated literature on TQM study with two main targets: (a) evolution of TQM considering as a set of practice, (b) and its impacts to employee performance. Therefore, two research questions are proposed in order to review TQM constructs and employee performance measure: (a) Is the set of critical success factors associated with TQM valid as a whole? (b) What is the critical success factors should be considered to measure employee performance in automotive industry?

  11. Cultural Collision and Collusion: Reflections on Hip-Hop Culture, Values, and Schools. Educational Psychology: Critical Pedagogical Perspectives. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    "Cultural Collision and Collusion" addresses the complexity of problems that surround youth culture and school culture. By broadening the scholarly dialogue and examining and disseminating relevant research to practitioners, the book seeks to provide insight into youth culture and some manifestations of popular culture (e.g., hip-hop). In…

  12. On negotiating White science: a call for cultural relevance and critical reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford; Carlone, Heidi B.; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2011-12-01

    This article is a response to Randy Yerrick and Joseph Johnson's article "Negotiating White Science in Rural Black America: A Case for Navigating the Landscape of Teacher Knowledge Domains". They write about research conducted by Yerrick in which videos of his teaching practice as a White educator in a predominately Black rural classroom were examined. Their analysis is framed through Shulman's (1986) work on "domains of teacher knowledge" and Ladson-Billings' (1999) critical race theory (CRT). Although we appreciate a framework that attends to issues of power, such as CRT, we see a heavier emphasis on Shulman's work in their analysis. We argue that a culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework has the potential to provide a more nuanced analysis of what occurred in Yerrick's classroom from a critical lens. Thus we examine Yerrick and Johnson's work through the five main CRP components (as defined by Brown-Jeffy and Cooper 2011) and ultimately argue that science educators who want to promote equity in their classrooms should engage in continuous critical reflexivity, aid students in claiming voice, and encourage students to become not only producers of scientific knowledge but also users and critics of such knowledge.

  13. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure and adult glucose homeostasis: identifying critical windows of exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Liu

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical used as the building block for polycarbonate plastics. Epidemiological evidence has correlated BPA exposure with higher risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether there are critical windows of susceptibility to BPA exposure on the development of dysglycemia. This study was an attempt to investigate the critical windows and the long-term consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA on glucose homeostasis. Pregnant mice were given either vehicle or BPA (100 µg/kg/day at different time of perinatal stage: 1 on days 1-6 of pregnancy (P1-P6, preimplantation exposure; 2 from day 6 of pregnancy until postnatal day (PND 0 (P6-PND0, fetal exposure; 3 from lactation until weaning (PND0-PND21, neonatal exposure; and 4 from day 6 of gestation until weaning (P6-PND21, fetal and neonatal exposure. At 3, 6 and 8 months of age, offspring in each group were challenged with glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Then islet morphometry and β-cell function were measured. The glucose homeostasis was impaired in P6-PND0 mice from 3 to 6 months of age, and this continued to 8 months in males, but not females. While in PND0-PND21 and P6-PND21 BPA-treated groups, only the 3-month-old male offspring developed glucose intolerance. Moreover, at the age of 3 months, perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in the increase of β-cell mass mainly due to the coordinate changes in cell replication, neogenesis, and apoptosis. The alterations of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, rather than β-cell mass, were consistent with the development of glucose intolerance. Our findings suggest that BPA may contribute to metabolic disorders relevant to glucose homeostasis and the effects of BPA were dose, sex, and time-dependent. Fetal development stage may be the critical window of susceptibility to BPA exposure.

  14. An empirical study on identifying critical success factors on chaos management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaos management is one of the most necessary efforts on managing business units. Many organizations fail to cope with undesirable circumstances, which may happen without any prior notice and as a result, they may face with significant financial losses. In this paper, we present an empirical study to determine critical success factors, which could help handle any possible chaos in organizations. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a set of travel agencies located in Tehran, Iran. Chronbach alpha is calculated as 0.821, which is well above the minimum desirable level. In addition, we have also performed factor analysis, which yields a KMO value of 0.576 with the level of significance of 0.000. The results indicate that there are six important factors including effective management strategy, internal environmental factors, creative and innovative attitudes, external environmental factors and top level management thoughts.

  15. Identifying Critical Elements of Treatment: Examining the Use of Turn Taking in Autism Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Sarah R.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Schreibman, Laura; Kennedy, Joanna; Ross, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are comprised of components that identify therapist behavior necessary to implement the treatment with integrity. Some components are shared across approaches from diverse theoretical backgrounds. One component included in several interventions that has not been researched in isolation…

  16. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  17. Identifying the critical success factors in the coverage of low vision services using the classification analysis and regression tree methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Xie, Jing; Keeffe, Jill Elizabeth

    2011-04-25

    To identify the critical success factors (CSF) associated with coverage of low vision services. Data were collected from a survey distributed to Vision 2020 contacts, government, and non-government organizations (NGOs) in 195 countries. The Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) was used to identify the critical success factors of low vision service coverage. Independent variables were sourced from the survey: policies, epidemiology, provision of services, equipment and infrastructure, barriers to services, human resources, and monitoring and evaluation. Socioeconomic and demographic independent variables: health expenditure, population statistics, development status, and human resources in general, were sourced from the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, and the United Nations (UN). The findings identified that having >50% of children obtaining devices when prescribed (χ(2) = 44; P 3 rehabilitation workers per 10 million of population (χ(2) = 4.50; P = 0.034), higher percentage of population urbanized (χ(2) = 14.54; P = 0.002), a level of private investment (χ(2) = 14.55; P = 0.015), and being fully funded by government (χ(2) = 6.02; P = 0.014), are critical success factors associated with coverage of low vision services. This study identified the most important predictors for countries with better low vision coverage. The CART is a useful and suitable methodology in survey research and is a novel way to simplify a complex global public health issue in eye care.

  18. Identifying the critical physical demanding tasks of paramedic work: Towards the development of a physical employment standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Steven L; Sinden, Kathryn E; MacPhee, Renee S

    2017-11-01

    Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks. These outcomes are essential to inform the design and development of an evidence-based PES for the paramedic sector. Physical demands of paramedic work were documented and described using a direct observation-based task analysis technique. Five paramedic's were trained to document the physical demands of their work, then applied their training to observe more than 90 calls over the course of 20 full 12-h work shifts. Physical demands data were then listed in a survey, administered service-wide, where 155 frontline paramedics identified critically demanding tasks and rank-ordered physical demands from not physically demanding to very strongly demanding. Critically important and physically demanding tasks were identified such as: transferring a patient; loading or unloading a stretcher in to or out of the ambulance; performing CPR; and, raising and lowering a stretcher. It is important that a paramedic-based PES evaluate a candidate's physical capabilities to perform the critical and physically demanding tasks identified in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilizing the Critical Inclusive Praxis: The Voyage of Five Selected School Principals in Building Inclusive School Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiname, Ayodeji Tolulope

    2018-01-01

    This article integrates relevant literature with the lived experiences of five school principals regarding how they utilized different leadership styles to build an inclusive school culture. The conceptual framework--a Critical Inclusive Praxis, including culture, change, leadership, inclusion and challenge--provided a base for the literature and…

  20. LeaderBeing: Critical Reflections on Context, Character and Challenge in the Culture of Research and Its Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Edward F.; Caines, Vaughan V.

    2014-01-01

    Servant leadership is a critical concept for understanding the ongoing importance of research administration as a central profession of service within the culture of research itself. The leadership of research administrators is both a unique gift and a challenge to the research culture. To ensure the continued productivity of the research…

  1. A cross-study gene set enrichment analysis identifies critical pathways in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease. Gene expression profiling of endometriosis has been used in several studies, but few studies went further to classify subtypes of endometriosis based on expression patterns and to identify possible pathways involved in endometriosis. Some of the observed pathways are more inconsistent between the studies, and these candidate pathways presumably only represent a fraction of the pathways involved in endometriosis. Methods We applied a standardised microarray preprocessing and gene set enrichment analysis to six independent studies, and demonstrated increased concordance between these gene datasets. Results We find 16 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated pathways common in ovarian endometriosis data sets, 22 up-regulated and one down-regulated pathway common in peritoneal endometriosis data sets. Among them, 12 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated were found consistent between ovarian and peritoneal endometriosis. The main canonical pathways identified are related to immunological and inflammatory disease. Early secretory phase has the most over-represented pathways in the three uterine cycle phases. There are no overlapping significant pathways between the dataset from human endometrial endothelial cells and the datasets from ovarian endometriosis which used whole tissues. Conclusion The study of complex diseases through pathway analysis is able to highlight genes weakly connected to the phenotype which may be difficult to detect by using classical univariate statistics. By standardised microarray preprocessing and GSEA, we have increased the concordance in identifying many biological mechanisms involved in endometriosis. The identified gene pathways will shed light on the understanding of endometriosis and promote the development of novel therapies.

  2. Identifying housing that poisons: a critical step in eliminating childhood lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nimia L; Wong, Lee-Yang; MacRoy, Patrick M; Curtis, Gerald; Meyer, Pamela A; Evens, Anne; Brown, Mary Jean

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a method to identify and prioritize "high-risk" buildings in Chicago that could be targeted for childhood lead poisoning prevention activities. We defined "high-risk" buildings as those where multiple children younger than 6 years with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) had lived and where lead hazards were previously identified on environmental inspection. By linking 1997-2003 Chicago elevated blood lead surveillance, environmental inspection, and building footprint data, we found that 49,362 children younger than 6 years with elevated BLLs lived at 30,742 buildings. Of those, 67 were "high-risk" buildings and these were associated with 994 children with elevated BLLs. On average, 15 children with elevated BLLs had lived in each building (range: 10-53, median: 13). Almost two thirds (n = 43) of the high-risk buildings had two or more referrals for inspection to the same apartment or housing unit; of those, 40 percent (n = 17) failed to maintain lead-safe status after compliance. Linking blood lead surveillance, environmental inspection, and building footprint databases allowed us to identify individual high-risk buildings. This approach prioritizes lead hazard control efforts and may help health, housing, and environmental agencies in targeting limited resources to increase lead-safe housing for children.

  3. Identifying key soil cyanobacteria easy to isolate and culture for arid soil restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Beatriz; Ángeles Muñoz-Martín, M.; Chamizo, Sonia; Román, Raúl; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Drylands represent an important fraction of the Earth land's surface. Low cover of vascular plants characterizes these regions, and the large open areas among plants are often colonized by cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, algae, bryophytes, bacteria and fungi, known as biocrusts. Because these communities are on or within the soil surface, they contribute to improve physicochemical properties of the uppermost soil layers and have important effects on soil fertility and stability, so they could play an important role on soil restoration. Cyanobacteria appear to be a cross component of biocrusts and they have been demonstrated to enhance water availability, soil fertility (fixing atmospheric C and N), and soil aggregation (thanks to their filamentous morphology and the exopolysaccharides they excrete), and significantly reduce water and wind erosion. Besides, they are able to tolerate high temperatures and UV radiation. All these features convert cyanobacteria in pioneer organisms capable of colonizing degraded soils and may be crucial in facilitating the succession of more developed organisms such as vascular plants. Therefore, the use of native cyanobacteria, already adapted to site environmental conditions, could guarantee a successful restoration approach of degraded soils. However, previous to their application for soil restoration, the most representative species inhabiting these soils should be identified. The objective of this study was to identify (morphologically and genetically) and isolate representative native cyanobacteria species from arid soils in SE Spain, characterized for being easily isolated and cultured with the aim of using them to inoculate degraded arid soil. We selected two study areas in Almería, SE Spain, where biocrust cover most of the open spaces between plants: El Cautivo experimental site located in the Tabernas desert and a limestone quarry located at the southeastern edge of the Gádor massif. The first site is characterized by

  4. Identifying the critical factors of green supply chain management: Environmental benefits in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Ubaidullah; Ali, Yousaf; Petrillo, Antonella; De Felice, Fabio

    2018-05-30

    Pakistan is a developing country characterized by a growing industrialization, which is the major cause of environmental pollution in the country. To control the significant increase in pollution a green incentive has started, aiming to moderate the adverse effects of environmental pollution. Thus, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) plays an important role in influencing the total environment impact of any organizations. This study considers ten Pakistani industries that have implemented GSCM practices. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique (DEMATEL) is used to find influential factors in selecting GSCM criteria. The results show that organizational involvement is the most important dimension useful to implement GSCM practices. In addition, commitment from senior managers, ISO 14000 certification of suppliers and recycle of waste heat are considered significant factors. The paper also signifies the casual relationship among the dimensions and the factors in the form of diagraphs. The main management implication of the paper is to help decision makers to focus on the critical dimensions/factors in order to implement the GSCM practices more effectively in Pakistan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The I3I Model; Identifying Cultural Determinants of Information Sharing via C2 Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Individualist cultures represent loose ties between individuals where the interests of individuals prevail over the interests of the group and the...independence of individuals is emphasized. Individual accomplishments are valued whereas in collectivist cultures the group’s well being and common...goals and objectives are valued more. Collectivist cultures are characterized by tight social networks in which individuals strongly distinguish

  6. Securing the Future of Cultural Heritage by Identifying Barriers to and Strategizing Solutions for Preservation under Changing Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fatorić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change challenges cultural heritage management and preservation. Understanding the barriers that can impede preservation is of paramount importance, as is developing solutions that facilitate the planning and management of vulnerable cultural resources. Using online survey research, we elicited the opinions of diverse experts across southeastern United States, a region with cultural resources that are particularly vulnerable to flooding and erosion from storms and sea level rise. We asked experts to identify the greatest challenges facing cultural heritage policy and practice from coastal climate change threats, and to identify strategies and information needs to overcome those challenges. Using content analysis, we identified institutional, technical and financial barriers and needs. Findings revealed that the most salient barriers included the lack of processes and preservation guidelines for planning and implementing climate adaptation actions, as well as inadequate funding and limited knowledge about the intersection of climate change and cultural heritage. Experts perceived that principal needs to overcome identified barriers included increased research on climate adaptation strategies and impacts to cultural heritage characteristics from adaptation, as well as collaboration among diverse multi-level actors. This study can be used to set cultural heritage policy and research agendas at local, state, regional and national scales.

  7. Critical Drivers for Safety Culture: Examining Department of Energy and U.S. Army Operational Experiences - 12382

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Elizabeth A. [The S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    for the appropriate level of rigor in work planning and procedure adherence. A review of the root causes and key contributing causes to the events indicate: - Three of the four root cause analyses cite lack of management engagement (oversight, involvement, ability to recognize issues, etc.) as a root cause to the events. - Two of the four root cause analyses cite work planning failures as a root cause to the events and all cause analyses reflect work planning failures as contributing factors to the events. - All events with the exception of the Tuba City plant shutdown indicate procedure noncompliance as a key contributor; in the case of Tuba City the procedure issues were primarily related to a lack of procedures, or a lack of sufficiently detailed procedures. - All events included discussion or suggestion of a lack of a questioning attitude, either on the part of management/supervision, work planners, or workers. This analysis suggests that the most critical drivers to safety culture are: - Management engagement, - Effective work planning and procedures, and - Procedure adherence with a questioning attitude to ensure procedural problems are identified and fixed. In high-hazard operational environments the importance of robust work planning processes and procedure adherence cannot be overstated. However, having the processes by themselves is not enough. Management must actively engage in expectation setting and ensure work planning that meets expectations for hazard analysis and control, develop a culture that encourages incident reporting and a questioning attitude, and routinely observe work performance to reinforce expectations for adherence to procedures/work control documents. In conclusion, the most critical driver to achieving a workforce culture that supports safe and effective project performance can be summarized as follows: 'Management engagement to continually reinforce expectations for work planning processes and procedure adherence in an

  8. Identifying the poor for premium exemption: a critical step towards universal health coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka A

    2017-01-01

    Premium exemption for the poor is a critical step towards achieving universal health coverage in sub-Saharan Africa due to the large proportion of the population living in extreme poverty who cannot pay premium. However, identifying the poor for premium exemption has been a big challenge for SSA countries. This paper is a succinct review of four methods available for identifying the poor, outlining the ideal conditions under which each of the methods should be used and the drawbacks associated with using each of the methods.

  9. Identifying Critical Factors Influencing the Rents of Public Rental Housing Delivery by PPPs: The Case of Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of Public Rental Housing (PRH in China is relatively low due to the unreasonable rents. At the same time, the development of PRH using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs increases the complexity of the rents. Therefore, the critical factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs should be identified. Based on the comprehensive literature, this article identified a conceptual model for the factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs in China, composed of 14 factors grouped in three factor packages, and discussed the relationships among three factor packages. A survey based on Nanjing was conducted to assess the relative significance of 14 factors. According to the results, six critical factors were identified: construction costs, household income, floor area and structure, transportation, market rents in the same district and public facilities. In addition, the proposed conceptual model had a good fit. The results also supported two hypothetical relationships among three factor packages: (1 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of profits of private sectors; and (2 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of level of the characteristics of PRH units. For future research, six critical factors and the relationships among three factor packages can be used to determine the reasonable rents for PRH delivery by PPPs in China.

  10. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  11. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.

    2013-07-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A R; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl L.; Baker, Andrew C.; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geó rgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David Glen; Grandcourt, Edwin Mark; Hill, Ross; John, David Michael; Jones, David Alan; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda M A; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood A.; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam J.; Riegl, Bernhard M.; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles R C; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Identifying critical constraints for the maximum loadability of electric power systems - analysis via interior point method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Luciano Vitoria [Sul-riograndense Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology (IFSul), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: luciano@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an overview about the maximum load ability problem and aims to study the main factors that limit this load ability. Specifically this study focuses its attention on determining which electric system buses influence directly on the power demand supply. The proposed approach uses the conventional maximum load ability method modelled by an optimization problem. The solution of this model is performed using the Interior Point methodology. As consequence of this solution method, the Lagrange multipliers are used as parameters that identify the probable 'bottlenecks' in the electric power system. The study also shows the relationship between the Lagrange multipliers and the cost function in the Interior Point optimization interpreted like sensitivity parameters. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, the approach was applied to an IEEE test system and to assess its performance, a real equivalent electric system from the South- Southeast region of Brazil was simulated. (author)

  14. Identifying the critical financial ratios for stocks evaluation: A fuzzy delphi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mazura; Shuib, Adibah; Mohamad, Daud

    2014-12-01

    Stocks evaluation has always been an interesting and challenging problem for both researchers and practitioners. Generally, the evaluation can be made based on a set of financial ratios. Nevertheless, there are a variety of financial ratios that can be considered and if all ratios in the set are placed into the evaluation process, data collection would be more difficult and time consuming. Thus, the objective of this paper is to identify the most important financial ratios upon which to focus in order to evaluate the stock's performance. For this purpose, a survey was carried out using an approach which is based on an expert judgement, namely the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). The results of this study indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share and debt to equity are the most important ratios.

  15. A molecular systems approach to modelling human skin pigmentation: identifying underlying pathways and critical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Arathi; Sambarey, Awanti; Sharma, Neha; Mahadevan, Usha; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2015-04-29

    Ultraviolet radiations (UV) serve as an environmental stress for human skin, and result in melanogenesis, with the pigment melanin having protective effects against UV induced damage. This involves a dynamic and complex regulation of various biological processes that results in the expression of melanin in the outer most layers of the epidermis, where it can exert its protective effect. A comprehensive understanding of the underlying cross talk among different signalling molecules and cell types is only possible through a systems perspective. Increasing incidences of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers necessitate the need to better comprehend UV mediated effects on skin pigmentation at a systems level, so as to ultimately evolve knowledge-based strategies for efficient protection and prevention of skin diseases. A network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis was constructed and subjected to shortest path analysis. Virtual knock-outs were carried out to identify essential signalling components. We describe a network model for UV-mediated skin pigmentation in the epidermis. The model consists of 265 components (nodes) and 429 directed interactions among them, capturing the manner in which one component influences the other and channels information. Through shortest path analysis, we identify novel signalling pathways relevant to pigmentation. Virtual knock-outs or perturbations of specific nodes in the network have led to the identification of alternate modes of signalling as well as enabled determining essential nodes in the process. The model presented provides a comprehensive picture of UV mediated signalling manifesting in human skin pigmentation. A systems perspective helps provide a holistic purview of interconnections and complexity in the processes leading to pigmentation. The model described here is extensive yet amenable to expansion as new data is gathered. Through this study, we provide a list of important proteins essential

  16. Identifying socio-ecological networks in rural-urban gradients: Diagnosis of a changing cultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Schmitz, C; Schmitz, M F; Herrero-Jáuregui, C; Gutiérrez-Angonese, J; Pineda, F D; Montes, C

    2018-01-15

    Socio-ecological systems maintain reciprocal interactions between biophysical and socioeconomic structures. As a result of these interactions key essential services for society emerge. Urban expansion is a direct driver of land change and cause serious shifts in socio-ecological relationships and the associated lifestyles. The framework of rural-urban gradients has proved to be a powerful tool for ecological research about urban influences on ecosystems and on sociological issues related to social welfare. However, to date there has not been an attempt to achieve a classification of municipalities in rural-urban gradients based on socio-ecological interactions. In this paper, we developed a methodological approach that allows identifying and classifying a set of socio-ecological network configurations in the Region of Madrid, a highly dynamic cultural landscape considered one of the European hotspots in urban development. According to their socio-ecological links, the integrated model detects four groups of municipalities, ordered along a rural-urban gradient, characterized by their degree of biophysical and socioeconomic coupling and different indicators of landscape structure and social welfare. We propose the developed model as a useful tool to improve environmental management schemes and land planning from a socio-ecological perspective, especially in territories subject to intense urban transformations and loss of rurality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying medication error chains from critical incident reports: a new analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckels-Baumgart, Saskia; Manser, Tanja

    2014-10-01

    Research into the distribution of medication errors usually focuses on isolated stages within the medication use process. Our study aimed to provide a novel process-oriented approach to medication incident analysis focusing on medication error chains. Our study was conducted across a 900-bed teaching hospital in Switzerland. All reported 1,591 medication errors 2009-2012 were categorized using the Medication Error Index NCC MERP and the WHO Classification for Patient Safety Methodology. In order to identify medication error chains, each reported medication incident was allocated to the relevant stage of the hospital medication use process. Only 25.8% of the reported medication errors were detected before they propagated through the medication use process. The majority of medication errors (74.2%) formed an error chain encompassing two or more stages. The most frequent error chain comprised preparation up to and including medication administration (45.2%). "Non-consideration of documentation/prescribing" during the drug preparation was the most frequent contributor for "wrong dose" during the administration of medication. Medication error chains provide important insights for detecting and stopping medication errors before they reach the patient. Existing and new safety barriers need to be extended to interrupt error chains and to improve patient safety. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. A Guttman-Based Approach to Identifying Cumulativeness Applied to Chimpanzee Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Graber, RB; de Cock, DR; Burton, ML

    2012-01-01

    Human culture appears to build on itself-that is, to be to some extent cumulative. Whether this property is shared by culture in the common chimpanzee is controversial. The question previously has been approached, qualitatively (and inconclusively), by debating whether any chimpanzee culture traits have resulted from individuals building on one another's work ("ratcheting"). The fact that the chimpanzees at different sites have distinctive repertoires of traits affords a different avenue of a...

  19. A critical reassessment of cultural taxonomies in the Central European Late Palaeolithic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf; Riede, Felix

    2018-01-01

    and economic criteria in the definition of selected groups. We subject three different archaeological taxonomic units, the Bromme culture from Denmark, the Fürstein group from Switzerland and the Atzenhof group from Germany, to particularly detailed scrutiny and highlight that the classificatory criteria used...... European Late Palaeolithic (ca. 12,000–9700 cal BC) has a long research history and many regionally and temporally specific units—groups and cultures—are recognised. In this paper, we examine the complex taxonomic landscape of this period and critically analyse the use of typological, functional...... in their definition are inconsistent across units and most likely unsuitable for circumscribing past sociocultural units. We suggest a comprehensive re-examination of the overarching taxonomic system for the Late Palaeolithic, as well as a re-evaluation of the methodologies used to delineate sociocultural units...

  20. Investigating the Impact of Maternal Residential Mobility on Identifying Critical Windows of Susceptibility to Ambient Air Pollution During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Son, Ji-Young; Pereira, Gavin; Leaderer, Brian P; Bell, Michelle L

    2018-05-01

    Identifying periods of increased vulnerability to air pollution during pregnancy with respect to the development of adverse birth outcomes can improve understanding of possible mechanisms of disease development and provide guidelines for protection of the child. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is typically based on the mother's residence at delivery, potentially resulting in exposure misclassification and biasing the estimation of critical windows of pregnancy. In this study, we determined the impact of maternal residential mobility during pregnancy on defining weekly exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and estimating windows of susceptibility to term low birth weight. We utilized data sets from 4 Connecticut birth cohorts (1988-2008) that included information on all residential addresses between conception and delivery for each woman. We designed a simulation study to investigate the impact of increasing levels of mobility on identification of critical windows. Increased PM10 exposure during pregnancy weeks 16-18 was associated with an increased probability of term low birth weight. Ignoring residential mobility when defining weekly exposure had only a minor impact on the identification of critical windows for PM10 and term low birth weight in the data application and simulation study. Identification of critical pregnancy windows was robust to exposure misclassification caused by ignoring residential mobility in these Connecticut birth cohorts.

  1. Analyzing the topological, electrical and reliability characteristics of a power transmission system for identifying its critical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Golea, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the analysis of an electrical transmission system with the objective of identifying its most critical elements with respect to failures and attacks. The methodological approach undertaken is based on graph-theoretical (topological) network analysis. Four different perspectives of analysis are considered within the formalism of weighed networks, adding to the purely topological analysis of the system, the reliability and electrical characteristics of its components. In each phase of the analysis: i) a graph-theoretical representation is offered to highlight the structure of the most important system connections according to the particular characteristics examined (topological, reliability, electrical or electrical-reliability), ii) the classical degree index of a network node is extended to account for the different characteristics considered. The application of these concepts of analysis to an electrical transmission system of literature confirms the importance of different perspectives of analysis on such a critical infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We analyze a power system from topological, reliability and electrical perspectives. ► We rank critical components within a vulnerability assessment framework. ► We compute an extended degree to rank critical energy paths. ► We compare several analytical approaches and provide a table for choosing among them. ► We suggest network changes to increase the reliability of highly loaded energy paths.

  2. A Common Methodology: Using Cluster Analysis to Identify Organizational Culture across Two Workforce Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Sunny L.

    2016-01-01

    Organizational structures are comprised of an organizational culture created by the beliefs, values, traditions, policies and processes carried out by the organization. The work-life system in which individuals use work-life initiatives to achieve a work-life balance can be influenced by the type of organizational culture within one's workplace,…

  3. Identifying the Evaluative Impulse in Local Culture: Insights from West African Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Attention to cultural competence has significantly increased in the human services over the last two decades. Evaluators have long had similar concerns and have made a more concentrated effort in recent years to adapt evaluation methodology to varying cultural contexts. Little of this literature, however, has focused on the extent to which local…

  4. A critical review of cell culture strategies for modelling intracortical brain implant material reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, A D; Woolley, A J; Poole-Warren, L A; Thomson, C E; Green, R A

    2016-06-01

    The capacity to predict in vivo responses to medical devices in humans currently relies greatly on implantation in animal models. Researchers have been striving to develop in vitro techniques that can overcome the limitations associated with in vivo approaches. This review focuses on a critical analysis of the major in vitro strategies being utilized in laboratories around the world to improve understanding of the biological performance of intracortical, brain-implanted microdevices. Of particular interest to the current review are in vitro models for studying cell responses to penetrating intracortical devices and their materials, such as electrode arrays used for brain computer interface (BCI) and deep brain stimulation electrode probes implanted through the cortex. A background on the neural interface challenge is presented, followed by discussion of relevant in vitro culture strategies and their advantages and disadvantages. Future development of 2D culture models that exhibit developmental changes capable of mimicking normal, postnatal development will form the basis for more complex accurate predictive models in the future. Although not within the scope of this review, innovations in 3D scaffold technologies and microfluidic constructs will further improve the utility of in vitro approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  6. Identifying Country-Specific Cultures of Physics Education: A differential item functioning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Vanes

    2012-11-01

    In international large-scale assessments of educational outcomes, student achievement is often represented by unidimensional constructs. This approach allows for drawing general conclusions about country rankings with respect to the given achievement measure, but it typically does not provide specific diagnostic information which is necessary for systematic comparisons and improvements of educational systems. Useful information could be obtained by exploring the differences in national profiles of student achievement between low-achieving and high-achieving countries. In this study, we aimed to identify the relative weaknesses and strengths of eighth graders' physics achievement in Bosnia and Herzegovina in comparison to the achievement of their peers from Slovenia. For this purpose, we ran a secondary analysis of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data. The student sample consisted of 4,220 students from Bosnia and Herzegovina and 4,043 students from Slovenia. After analysing the cognitive demands of TIMSS 2007 physics items, the correspondent differential item functioning (DIF)/differential group functioning contrasts were estimated. Approximately 40% of items exhibited large DIF contrasts, indicating significant differences between cultures of physics education in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. The relative strength of students from Bosnia and Herzegovina showed to be mainly associated with the topic area 'Electricity and magnetism'. Classes of items which required the knowledge of experimental method, counterintuitive thinking, proportional reasoning and/or the use of complex knowledge structures proved to be differentially easier for students from Slovenia. In the light of the presented results, the common practice of ranking countries with respect to universally established cognitive categories seems to be potentially misleading.

  7. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  8. PDB2Graph: A toolbox for identifying critical amino acids map in proteins based on graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Niloofar; Khakzad, Hamed; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The integrative and cooperative nature of protein structure involves the assessment of topological and global features of constituent parts. Network concept takes complete advantage of both of these properties in the analysis concomitantly. High compatibility to structural concepts or physicochemical properties in addition to exploiting a remarkable simplification in the system has made network an ideal tool to explore biological systems. There are numerous examples in which different protein structural and functional characteristics have been clarified by the network approach. Here, we present an interactive and user-friendly Matlab-based toolbox, PDB2Graph, devoted to protein structure network construction, visualization, and analysis. Moreover, PDB2Graph is an appropriate tool for identifying critical nodes involved in protein structural robustness and function based on centrality indices. It maps critical amino acids in protein networks and can greatly aid structural biologists in selecting proper amino acid candidates for manipulating protein structures in a more reasonable and rational manner. To introduce the capability and efficiency of PDB2Graph in detail, the structural modification of Calmodulin through allosteric binding of Ca(2+) is considered. In addition, a mutational analysis for three well-identified model proteins including Phage T4 lysozyme, Barnase and Ribonuclease HI, was performed to inspect the influence of mutating important central residues on protein activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in spent embryo culture media: genetic contamination identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Elizabeth R; McGillivray, Brent C; Wicker, Sophie M; Peek, John C; Shelling, Andrew N; Stone, Peter; Chamley, Larry W; Cree, Lynsey M

    2017-01-01

    To characterize nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in spent culture media from normally developing blastocysts to determine whether it could be used for noninvasive genetic assessment. Prospective embryo cohort study. Academic center and private in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Seventy patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 227 blastocysts. Culture media assessment, artificial blastocoele fluid collapse and DNA analysis using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR), long-range PCR, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and DNA fingerprinting. Presence of nuclear and mtDNA in three different commercial culture media from Vitrolife and Irvine Scientific, spent embryo media assessment at the cleavage and blastocyst stages of development, and analysis of the internal media controls for each patient that had been exposed to identical conditions as embryo media but did not come into contact with embryos. Higher levels of nuclear and mtDNA were observed in the culture media that had been exposed to embryos compared with the internal media controls. Nuclear DNA (∼4 copies) and mtDNA (∼600 copies) could be detected in spent media, and the levels increased at the blastocyst stage. No increase in DNA was detected after artificial blastocoele fluid collapse. Mixed sex chromosome DNA was detected. This originated from contamination in the culture media and from maternal (cumulus) cells. Due to the limited amount of template, the presence of embryonic nuclear DNA could not be confirmed by DNA fingerprinting analysis. Currently DNA from culture media cannot be used for genetic assessment because embryo-associated structures release DNA into the culture medium and the DNA is of mixed origin. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying food-related life style segments by a cross-culturally valid scaling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1994-01-01

    -related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...... then applied the set of scales to a fourth country, Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 respondents. The scales had, with a fe exceptions, moderately good reliabilities. A cluster ana-ly-sis led to the identification of 5 segments, which differed on all 23 scales....

  11. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  12. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...

  13. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegetschweiler, K.T.; Vries, de Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne; Bell, Simon; Brennan, Michael; Siter, Nathan; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Voigt, Annette; Hunziker, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical

  14. THE TWO CULTURES OF C. P. SNOW. A CRITICAL APPROACH FROM THE ANTROPOLOGYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silfredo Rodríguez Bassó

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical approach to the conference given by C P Snow on May 1959, at Cambridge University from the Cuban story teller vision of Dr. José Núñez Jover, in his article “Returning to the two cultures “, allow us to open our look from a new view point of the antropology discussion as a science or as an art. Science and art get a dimension with the study of alterity, in which the researcher interact with a complex reality in movement, making him to build and rebuild the theory and method of his science to dilute inside the ambiguous border between science with art and viceverse. The three phases in which the Brazilian antropologyst Roberto Cardoso synthezied this office, may be possible through this review, to sustain that the office of the antropologyst during investigation, integrates armonically the solution of social problem of the systematic, rational, exact and verifiable knowledge, on one side; and the experience, imagination, vision and abilities and values during his academic and practice excersise, on the other.

  15. The Western Representation of Modern China: Orientalism, Culturalism and Historiographical Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Robles

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The West's perception of China as a historical entity has evolved over the centuries. China has gone from a country of miracles and marvels in the medieval world and a refined and erudite culture in early modern Europe, to become a nation without history or progress since the Enlightenment of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The first historians of China were, in fact, representatives of the great Western empires at the end of the 19th century and their work perceives China from epistemological positions that clearly form part of the Orientalist and colonial thought that was characteristic of the period. History written throughout the 20th century, despite the efforts made to overcome the prejudices of the past, was unable to distance itself completely from some of the resources used in representation or the stereotypes that the Western world had come to accept about China and East Asia since the Enlightenment. Only in recent decades has a critical historiography appeared to denounce the problems inherent in the discourse produced on China, and even this has failed to address them fully.

  16. Human Rights, Culture, and Literature. An Example in the Narrative of Latin American Social Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Guaraglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the theoretical proposal of Amartya Sen to consider human rights as demands of an ethical nature, capable of articulating a particular type of moral reciprocity, the article proposes to deepen the idea of human rights as cultural artifacts inseparable from the public sphere and from their logic of creation and legitimization of political and social identities. To do this, the paper adopts the advances of a recent field of research exploring the relation between literature and human rights, and discusses their possibilities for the case of Latin American literature. Through the analysis of four novels, belonging to the social criticism narrative in the middle of the twentieth century, the article shows the way in which the literary discourse has been involved in the promotion and expansion of human rights, and in the defense of new subjects of rights. When studying the way in which these fictions build arguments in favor of the expansion of the political space and of a more equitable reorganization of the national community, the article dares to contribute to a better understanding of both the way in which human rights are integrated and consolidated in other discourses, and the key role that literature claimed to have in the construction of a democratic ethics in the Latin American national states.

  17. Re-mastering the Master's Tools: Recognizing and affirming the life experiences and cultural practices of urban youth in critical computational literacy through a video game project

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a video game project that focuses on students' lived experiences and cultural practices teach critical literacies and computational thinking. Specifically, this research looked at how the pedagogy, processes, and student products demonstrated culturally relevant pedagogy practices, critical literacy, and computational thinking. This design-based research study utilizes critical literacy, sociocultural learning theory, and culturally relevant pedagogy in the framing, st...

  18. What's Our Position? A Critical Media Literacy Study of Popular Culture Websites with Eighth-Grade Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…

  19. Development of a Culture Specific Critical Thinking Ability Test and Using It as a Supportive Diagnostic Test for Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a culture specific critical thinking ability test for 6, 7, and 8. grade students in Turkey and to use it as an assessment instrument for giftedness. For these purposes, item pool involving 22 items was formed by writing items focusing on the current and common events presented in (Turkish) media from…

  20. Race and Culture in the Secondary School Health and Physical Education Curriculum in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, LeAnne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore issues of race and culture in health education in the secondary school health and physical education (HPE) curriculum in Ontario, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Using Ontario's secondary school curriculum as a point of analysis, this paper draws from critical race theory and a whiteness lens…

  1. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  2. Students' Critical Mathematical Thinking Skills and Character: Experiments for Junior High School Students through Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinussa, Anderson L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group that aims to assess students' critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realistic mathematics education (RME) culture-based. Subjects of this study were 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in…

  3. Students' Critical Thinking Skills in Chemistry Learning Using Local Culture-Based 7E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardana, I. Nyoman; Redhana, I. Wayan; Sudiatmika, A. A. Istri Agung Rai; Selamat, I. Nyoman

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed at describing the effectiveness of the local culture-based 7E learning cycle model in improving students' critical thinking skills in chemistry learning. It was an experimental research with post-test only control group design. The population was the eleventh-grade students of senior high schools in Singaraja, Indonesia. The…

  4. The Critical Shapes of Body Image: The Role of Culture and Family in the Production of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth-Hoeppner, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Explores how the family mediates cultural ideas about thinness, and considers how these messages are conveyed to family members. Discusses open-ended interviews with 32 White, middle-class women on the topic of body image and eating problems. Determined that a critical family environment, coercive parental control, and a dominating discourse on…

  5. Re-Conceptualizing Critical Thinking for Moral Education in Culturally Plural Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2007-01-01

    This paper critically examines the contemporary educational discourse on critical thinking as one of the primary aims of education, its modernist defence and its postmodernist criticism, so as to explore a new way of conceptualizing critical thinking for moral education. What is at stake in this task is finding a plausible answer to the question…

  6. Spatial-temporal modeling of the association between air pollution exposure and preterm birth: identifying critical windows of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua; Fuentes, Montserrat; Herring, Amy; Langlois, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution during the pregnancy is associated with increased probability of preterm birth (PTB), a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. New statistical methodology is required to specifically determine when a particular pollutant impacts the PTB outcome, to determine the role of different pollutants, and to characterize the spatial variability in these results. We develop a new Bayesian spatial model for PTB which identifies susceptible windows throughout the pregnancy jointly for multiple pollutants (PM(2.5) , ozone) while allowing these windows to vary continuously across space and time. We geo-code vital record birth data from Texas (2002-2004) and link them with standard pollution monitoring data and a newly introduced EPA product of calibrated air pollution model output. We apply the fully spatial model to a region of 13 counties in eastern Texas consisting of highly urban as well as rural areas. Our results indicate significant signal in the first two trimesters of pregnancy with different pollutants leading to different critical windows. Introducing the spatial aspect uncovers critical windows previously unidentified when space is ignored. A proper inference procedure is introduced to correctly analyze these windows. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Identifying critical success factors (CSFs) of Facilities Management (FM) in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, F. M.; Zainuddin, A.

    2018-02-01

    Critical success factors (CSFs) are important key areas of activity that must be performed well in any Facilities Management (FM) organisation to achieve its missions, objectives or goals. Before implementing CSFs, an FM organisation must identify the key areas where things must be done properly to enable the business to flourish. Although many performance measurements in FM organisation have been discussed in previous research, not much research has been done on CSFs from the perspective of FM business in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology in developing the CSFs group and CSFs for FM organisation in non-low cost residential buildings. This research will involve three (3) phases of research strategy to achieve the objective of this research.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE HISTORICAL CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL OF PSYCHOLOGY HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Marcia Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the theoretical and methodological unity between the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical psychology. It highlights, in addition to the membership of both theories to historical-dialectical materialism, the basic premises that point toward the affirmation of school education as a condition of humanization of individuals, as well as the transmission of historically systematized knowledge as one of the requirements for the achieving this purpose. In this direction, we aim to demonstrate that the historical-critical pedagogy contains, in its innerness, a solid psychological foundation, consistently built by a cultural-historical conception of man, society and educative nature that guides the relationship between them through the human vital activity, that is, through the work. It is in the core of those fundamentals that the alliance between this pedagogical theory and cultural-historical psychology is evident.

  9. A Critical Evaluation of Quantitative Measures of the Quality of Arts and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed and meas......Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed...

  10. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

    2012-01-01

    We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate…

  11. Transformative Power of Digital Citizenship: Critical Perspectives on Culture, New Media and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses culture, as a source of conflict than of synergy, how affects the use of new media to build digital citizenships. It also argues that the cultural dimensions of Geert Hofstede, who demonstrates that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations, are very persistent across time.…

  12. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Richard A. [European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD (United Kingdom); Cocq, Kate Le [Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Nikolaou, Vasilis [University of Exeter Medical School, The Veysey Building, Salmon Pool Lane, Exeter EX2 4SG (United Kingdom); Osborne, Nicholas J. [European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD (United Kingdom); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Group, Discipline of Pharmacology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Thornton, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.thornton@exeter.ac.uk [Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. - Highlights: • Monoclonal antibodies were used to track culturable allergenic moulds in homes. • Allergenic moulds were recovered from 82% of swabs from contaminated surfaces. • The mAbs were highly specific with 100% agreement to PCR of recovered fungi. • Improvements to energy

  13. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Richard A.; Cocq, Kate Le; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. - Highlights: • Monoclonal antibodies were used to track culturable allergenic moulds in homes. • Allergenic moulds were recovered from 82% of swabs from contaminated surfaces. • The mAbs were highly specific with 100% agreement to PCR of recovered fungi. • Improvements to energy

  14. Comparative analysis of four commercial on-farm culture methods to identify bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jair C; Gomes, Marilia S; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Canisso, Igor F; Garrett, Edgar F; Stewart, Jamie L; Zhou, Ziyao; Lima, Fabio S

    2018-01-01

    Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk samples from the affected quarter with clinical mastitis were aerobically cultured with the on-farm culture systems and by two additional reference laboratories. Agreeing results from both standard laboratories were denoted as the reference standard (RS). Accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) of on-farm plates were determined based on the RS culture of 211 milk samples. All four plate-systems correctly identified ≥ 84.9% of milk samples with no bacterial growth. Accumast had greater values for all overall predictive factors (Ac, Se, Sp, PPV and NPV) and a substantial agreement (k = 0.79) with RS. The inter-rater agreements of Minnesota, SSGN, and SSGNC with RS were moderate (0.45 ≤ k ≤ 0.55). The effectiveness to categorize bacterial colonies at the genus and species was numerically different amongst the commercial plates. Our findings suggest that Accumast was the most accurate on-farm culture system for identification of mastitis-associated pathogens of the four systems included in the analysis.

  15. Seeking for the Definition of "Culture": Current Concerns and their Implications. A Comment on Gustav Jahoda's Article "Critical Reflections on some Recent Definitions of "Culture'"'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, Irina A; Sorokin, Pavel S

    2018-06-01

    This article takes as a starting point the critical analysis of attempts to define "culture", offered by Jahoda in 2012. Basing on the observed proliferation of various, often contradicting, definitions of "culture" (for instance, trying to refer to its both internal and external aspects), Jahoda arrives at the conclusion that attempts to define the concept of "culture" are vain and useless and it is quite practicable simply to use the term without seeking to define it. We find it hard to agree with this statement. Elaborating on Jahoda reflections and drawing on the recent debates in social sciences, cultural studies and philosophy, we argue that seeking for the definition of culture is necessary in the context of contemporary development of social and humanitarian knowledge. Moreover, we claim that the debates about culture indicate the need for a large-scale methodological reorganization of the social and humanitarian sciences, in response to the novel ontological congruence between internal and external, the fundamental "ontological shift", "reversing the poles" of the human-related reality. The human individual becomes its core element and pivot. Other "objects", "external" in relation to the individual (for instance, social structures and institutions), undergo such massive and rapid changes that grow progressively fuzzy and sometimes even less "real", comparing to the individual. The "inner" nature of the individual also transforms: from being "subjected" to think, act and feel according to certain external conditions, an individual becomes an Actor, who is empowered to change the environment following his purposive plans, desires and visions.

  16. Virulence-associated genome mutations of murine rotavirus identified by alternating serial passages in mice and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3' consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its diarrheagenic activity in mice

  17. Virulence-Associated Genome Mutations of Murine Rotavirus Identified by Alternating Serial Passages in Mice and Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although significant clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed in many countries, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a cell culture-adapted murine rotavirus EB strain in mouse pups or in cell cultures alternately and repeatedly and fully sequenced all 11 genes of 21 virus samples passaged in mice or in cell cultures. Sequence analysis revealed that mouse-passaged viruses that regained virulence almost consistently acquired four kinds of amino acid (aa) substitutions in VP4 and substitution in aa 37 (Val to Ala) in NSP4. In addition, they gained and invariably conserved the 3′ consensus sequence in NSP1. The molecular changes occurred along with the acquisition of virulence during passages in mice and then disappeared following passages in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed the aa 37 site as important for its diarrheagenic activity in mice. These genome changes are likely to be correlated with rotavirus virulence. IMPORTANCE Serial passage of a virulent wild-type virus in vitro often results in loss of virulence of the virus in an original animal host, while serial passage of a cell culture-adapted avirulent virus in vivo often gains virulence in an animal host. Actually, live attenuated virus vaccines were originally produced by serial passage in cell cultures. Although clinical efficacy and safety of rotavirus vaccines were recently revealed, the mechanism of their attenuation is not well understood. We passaged serially a murine rotavirus by alternating switch of host (mice or cell cultures) repeatedly and sequenced the eleven genes of the passaged viruses to identify mutations associated with the emergence or disappearance of virulence. Sequence analysis revealed that changes in three genes (VP4, NSP1, and NSP4) were associated with virulence in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of recombinant NSP4 proteins confirmed its

  18. Using freelisting to identify, assess, and characterize age differences in shared cultural domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Sanchez, Julia

    2008-11-01

    Freelisting is a brief, paper-and-pencil technique in which participants make lists of items that they believe belong in a particular domain. Where cultural domains are shared, as for young and old in the same society, subtle intracultural differences may be difficult to detect. This article presents a series of techniques for revealing and describing this intracultural variation in freelisted data among young versus old age groups. Older (N = 30) and younger (N = 31) Mexicans in Mexico City made freelists in four quotidian domains: animals, emotions, illnesses, and gendered occupations. We used minimum residual factor analysis (consensus analysis) to establish domain coherence and assess overall consensus concerning contents of the domains. We established subvariation within the overall consensus by comparing levels of observed versus predicted inter-informant agreement. Results showed divergent patterns of inter-informant agreement between young and old participants across domains. Qualitative examination of items with higher salience for young versus old revealed age differences consistent with prior findings in each domain. The concatenation of these techniques renders freelisting an accessible, easily administered tool for probing age and group differences in cultural domains.

  19. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  20. Critical Conversations and the Role of Dialogue in Delivering Meaningful Improvements in Safety and Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissette, S.

    2016-01-01

    Significant scholarship has been devoted to research into safety culture assessment methodologies. These focus on the development, delivery and interpretations of safety culture surveys and other assessment techniques to assure reliable outcomes that provide insights into the safety culture of an organization across multiple dimensions. The lessons from this scholarship can be applied to the emerging area of security culture assessments as the nuclear industry broadens its focus on this topic. The aim of this paper is to discuss the value of establishing mechanisms, immediately after an assessment and regularly between assessments, to facilitate a structured dialogue among leaders around insights derived from an assessment, to enable ongoing improvements in safety and security culture. The leader’s role includes both understanding the current state of culture, the “what is”, and creating regular, open and informed dialogue around their role in shaping the culture to achieve “what should be”.

  1. Identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class. Does culture influence their consumption habits?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kim Man

    2012-01-01

    Background: The 1978 political social reform in China has led to the emergence of the rapid and fast growing urban ‘middle class’ population. With the rise of the large population of middle class consumers, global market developers and opportunists are targeting this group of people to maximize their profits in developing countries. This research aimed to identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class and to investigate if their unique Chinese culture influenc...

  2. The impact of culture and education on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo

    2003-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology has frequently considered visuospatial and non-verbal tests to be culturally and educationally fair or at least fairer than verbal tests. This paper reviews the cross-cultural differences in performance on visuoperceptual and visuoconstructional ability tasks and analyzes the impact of education and culture on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements. This paper compares: (1) non-verbal test performance among groups with different educational levels, and the same cultural background (inter-education intra-culture comparison); (2) the test performance among groups with the same educational level and different cultural backgrounds (intra-education inter-culture comparisons). Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between educational level and performance on common non-verbal neuropsychological tests. When neuropsychological test performance in different cultural groups is compared, significant differences are evident. Performance on non-verbal tests such as copying figures, drawing maps or listening to tones can be significantly influenced by the individual's culture. Arguments against the use of some current neuropsychological non-verbal instruments, procedures, and norms in the assessment of diverse educational and cultural groups are discussed and possible solutions to this problem are presented.

  3. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Cocq, Kate Le; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying relationships between the professional culture of pharmacy, pharmacists' personality traits, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsao, Nicole W; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Marra, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    Legislative changes are affording pharmacists the opportunity to provide more advanced pharmacy services. However, many pharmacists have not yet been able to provide these services sustainably. Research from implementation science suggests that before sustained change in pharmacy can be achieved an improved understanding of pharmacy context, through the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists' personality traits, is required. The primary objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between cultural factors, and personality traits, and the uptake of advanced practice opportunities by pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of registered, and practicing, pharmacists from one Canadian province. The survey gauged respondents' characteristics, practice setting, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services, and contained the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), a measure of professional culture, as well as the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a measure of personality traits. A total of 945 completed survey instruments were returned. The majority of respondents were female (61%), the average age of respondents was 42 years (SD: 12), and the average number of years in practice was 19 (SD: 12). A significant positive relationship was identified for respondents perceiving greater value in the OCP factors competitiveness and innovation and providing a higher number of all advanced services. A positive relationship was observed for respondents scoring higher on the BFI traits extraversion and the immunizations provided, and agreeableness and openness and medication reviews completed. This is the first work to identify statistically significant relationships between the OCP and BFI, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services. As such, this work serves as a starting place from which to develop more detailed insight into how the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists personality traits may

  5. Identifying a breeding habitat of a critically endangered fish, Acheilognathus typus, in a natural river in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masayuki K.; Maki, Nobutaka; Sugiyama, Hideki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species. Based on DNA cytochrome B sequences of A. typus and closely related species, we developed species-specific primers and a probe that were used in real-time PCR for detecting A. typus eDNA. After verifying the specificity and applicability of the primers and probe on water samples from known artificial habitats, eDNA analysis was applied to water samples collected at 99 sites along Omono River. Two of the samples were positive for A. typus eDNA, and thus, small fixed nets and bottle traps were set out to capture adult fish and verify egg deposition in bivalves (the preferred breeding substrate for A. typus) in the corresponding regions. Mature female and male individuals and bivalves containing laid eggs were collected at one of the eDNA-positive sites. This was the first record of adult A. typus in Omono River in 11 years. This study highlights the value of eDNA analysis to guide conventional monitoring surveys and shows that combining both methods can provide important information on breeding sites that is essential for species' conservation.

  6. Identifying a breeding habitat of a critically endangered fish, Acheilognathus typus, in a natural river in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masayuki K; Maki, Nobutaka; Sugiyama, Hideki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-11-14

    Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species. Based on DNA cytochrome B sequences of A. typus and closely related species, we developed species-specific primers and a probe that were used in real-time PCR for detecting A. typus eDNA. After verifying the specificity and applicability of the primers and probe on water samples from known artificial habitats, eDNA analysis was applied to water samples collected at 99 sites along Omono River. Two of the samples were positive for A. typus eDNA, and thus, small fixed nets and bottle traps were set out to capture adult fish and verify egg deposition in bivalves (the preferred breeding substrate for A. typus) in the corresponding regions. Mature female and male individuals and bivalves containing laid eggs were collected at one of the eDNA-positive sites. This was the first record of adult A. typus in Omono River in 11 years. This study highlights the value of eDNA analysis to guide conventional monitoring surveys and shows that combining both methods can provide important information on breeding sites that is essential for species' conservation.

  7. Using multiobjective tradeoff sets and Multivariate Regression Trees to identify critical and robust decisions for long term water utility planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Balaji, R.

    2017-12-01

    In light of deeply uncertain factors like future climate change and population shifts, responsible resource management will require new types of information and strategies. For water utilities, this entails potential expansion and efficient management of water supply infrastructure systems for changes in overall supply; changes in frequency and severity of climate extremes such as droughts and floods; and variable demands, all while accounting for conflicting long and short term performance objectives. Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) are emerging decision support tools that have been used by researchers and, more recently, water utilities to efficiently generate and evaluate thousands of planning portfolios. The tradeoffs between conflicting objectives are explored in an automated way to produce (often large) suites of portfolios that strike different balances of performance. Once generated, the sets of optimized portfolios are used to support relatively subjective assertions of priorities and human reasoning, leading to adoption of a plan. These large tradeoff sets contain information about complex relationships between decisions and between groups of decisions and performance that, until now, has not been quantitatively described. We present a novel use of Multivariate Regression Trees (MRTs) to analyze tradeoff sets to reveal these relationships and critical decisions. Additionally, when MRTs are applied to tradeoff sets developed for different realizations of an uncertain future, they can identify decisions that are robust across a wide range of conditions and produce fundamental insights about the system being optimized.

  8. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-08-11

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors.

  9. Integrating Theory, Content, and Method to Foster Critical Consciousness in Medical Students: A Comprehensive Model for Cultural Competence Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Diane K; Goss, Adeline L; Hoekzema, Andrew S; Kelly, Lauren A; Logan, Alexander A; Mehta, Sanjiv D; Sandesara, Utpal N; Munyikwa, Michelle R; DeLisser, Horace M

    2017-03-01

    Many efforts to design introductory "cultural competence" courses for medical students rely on an information delivery (competence) paradigm, which can exoticize patients while obscuring social context, medical culture, and power structures. Other approaches foster a general open-minded orientation, which can remain nebulous without clear grounding principles. Medical educators are increasingly recognizing the limitations of both approaches and calling for strategies that reenvision cultural competence training. Successfully realizing such alternative strategies requires the development of comprehensive models that specify and integrate theoretical frameworks, content, and teaching principles.In this article, the authors present one such model: Introduction to Medicine and Society (IMS), a required cultural competence course launched in 2013 for first-year medical students at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Building on critical pedagogy, IMS is centered on a novel specification of "critical consciousness" in clinical practice as an orientation to understanding and pragmatic action in three relational domains: internal, interpersonal, and structural. Instead of transmitting discrete "facts" about patient "types," IMS content provokes students to engage with complex questions bridging the three domains. Learning takes place in a small-group space specifically designed to spur transformation toward critical consciousness. After discussing the three key components of the course design and describing a representative session, the authors discuss the IMS model's implications, reception by students and faculty, and potential for expansion. Their early experience suggests the IMS model successfully engages students and prepares future physicians to critically examine experiences, manage interpersonal dynamics, and structurally contextualize patient encounters.

  10. Critical Perspectives on Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood: Building an Inclusive Curriculum and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the complexities that arise from addressing issues of cultural diversity in the early years context. It explores the challenges of developing an effective early years provision and pedagogy that values cultural difference within the framework of a mandated curriculum, "The Early Years Foundation Stage…

  11. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincioni, Fausto

    2007-12-01

    A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric.

  12. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1 m × 2 m × 1.2 m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240 kg Nha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240 kg Nha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120 kg Nha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240 kg ha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, 180 kg Nha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837 kg ha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lost in translation: Cultural divides in communication skills teaching identified in the ICCH 2016 student symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Heather K; Mohamed, Nasteha A; Seegel, Max; Gorina, Kseniya; Silverman, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marcy

    2017-11-01

    To provide a platform for learners' voices at an international conference on communication in healthcare. A group of medical students were invited to explore their experiences with communication skills learning at a symposium at the 2016 International Conference on Communication in Healthcare in Heidelberg, DE. Students from the US, Denmark, Germany, and Russia discussed their experiences with communication skills curriculum at their institutions. We identified divides that have challenged our ability to develop and maintain strong communication skills: 1) valuation of communication skills vs. other topics, 2) curricular theory vs. practice, 3) evaluation vs. feedback, 4) preclinical vs. clinical learning, and 5) the medical student vs. practicing clinician role. The points of transition we identified on the road of communication skills teaching highlight opportunities to strengthen the educational experience for students. Without an effort to address these divides, however, our communication skills may be lost in translation. Students value communication skills teaching during their medical education and there are opportunities to translate this to countries that currently lack robust curricula and to the real-life post-graduate setting. Support is necessary from students, teachers, and administrators, and focus on translation of skills during role transitions is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying critical steps towards improved access to innovation in cancer care: a European CanCer Organisation position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aapro, Matti; Astier, Alain; Audisio, Riccardo; Banks, Ian; Bedossa, Pierre; Brain, Etienne; Cameron, David; Casali, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Kelly, Daniel; Lacombe, Denis; Nilsson, Per J; Piccart, Martine; Poortmans, Philip; Riklund, Katrine; Saeter, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Soffietti, Riccardo; Travado, Luzia; van Poppel, Hein; Wait, Suzanne; Naredi, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades cancer care has seen improvements in the speed and accuracy of diagnostic procedures; the effectiveness of surgery, radiation therapy and medical treatments; the power of information technology; and the development of multidisciplinary, specialist-led approaches to care. Such innovations are essential if we are to continue improving the lives of cancer patients across Europe despite financial pressures on our healthcare systems. Investment in innovation must be balanced with the need to ensure the sustainability of healthcare budgets, and all health professionals have a responsibility to help achieve this balance. It requires scrutiny of the way care is delivered; we must be ready to discontinue practices or interventions that are inefficient, and prioritise innovations that may deliver the best outcomes possible for patients within the limits of available resources. Decisions on innovations should take into account their long-term impact on patient outcomes and costs, not just their immediate costs. Adopting a culture of innovation requires a multidisciplinary team approach, with the patient at the centre and an integral part of the team. It must take a whole-system and whole-patient perspective on cancer care and be guided by high-quality real-world data, including outcomes relevant to the patient and actual costs of care; this accurately reflects the impact of any innovation in clinical practice. The European CanCer Organisation is committed to working with its member societies, patient organisations and the cancer community at large to find sustainable ways to identify and integrate the most meaningful innovations into all aspects of cancer care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A Culture of Thinking Like a Teacher: The Role of Critical Reflection in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Karen L.; Brill, Andra

    2010-01-01

    As teacher educators for an alternative urban teacher preparation program, we believe that because we cannot teach novice teachers everything they need to know in one year, our principal responsibility is to teach our novices to think like teachers. Central to this process is supporting novices to engage in critical reflection. Critical reflection…

  16. Interdisciplinary research: maintaining the constructive impulse in a culture of criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T.A. Pickett; William R. Burch; J. Morgan. Grove

    1999-01-01

    We approach the benefits and burdens of interdisciplinary research (IDR) from the perspective that science involves both constructive and critical approaches. The constructive aspect generates concepts, theories, and data to understand the observable world, while criticism tests the internal consistency of understanding and its fit to the observable world (Pickett and...

  17. Beyond Buzzword Bingo: a Critical Examination of Genre, Culture, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasono, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This single-class teaching activity was designed for courses on public speaking, rhetorical criticism, and critical thinking. In addition, instructors can adapt this activity for online or face-to-face courses on intercultural communication, organizational communication, listening, and political communication. Objectives: By completing…

  18. Identifying cultural representations of families and the health team to improve the management of severe malnutrition in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Carniglia, Alvaro; Weisstaub, Sergio Gerardo; Aguirre, Patricia; Aguilar, Ana María; Araya, Magdalena

    2010-04-01

    Severe childhood malnutrition is no longer a priority in Latin America, but mortality of hospitalized malnourished children continues to be high, especially in Bolivia. The objective of the present study was to identify cultural representations in mothers and in health personnel that might influence the relationship between the family and the provider's health care services, thus affecting the treatment of malnourished children. We applied a flexible qualitative model of cases and controls (mothers or caregivers of both under- and well-nourished children), and in addition, health personnel. Results were analyzed following semiotics of statements. Mothers and health professionals based their cultural representations on different conceptions of health. The mothers' mindset indicated that traditional Andean medicine and public health systems are complementary and not contradictory. Conversely, health personnel expressed a univocal vision, accepting only biomedicine. Furthermore, they also expressed a negative attitude toward mothers of severely malnourished children. Results should be considered to improve ongoing local health programs.

  19. What makes astronomical heritage valuable? Identifying potential Outstanding Universal Value in cultural properties relating to astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Michel

    2016-10-01

    This communication presents the situation regarding astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage related to the World Heritage Convention through recent years up until today. Some parallel events and works were promoted strongly within the IAU-UNESCO Initiative during the International Year of Astronomy (2009). This was followed by a joint program by the IAU and ICOMOS-an official advisory body assisting the World Heritage Committee in the evaluation of nomination dossiers. The result of that work is an important publication by around 40 authors from 20 different countries all around the world: Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the Context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (Ruggles & Cotte 2010). A second volume is under preparation (2015). It was also accompanied by some initiatives such as the ``Windows to the Universe" organisation and the parallel constitution of local ``Starlight Reserves''. Some regional meetings studying specific facets or regional heritage in the field giving significant knowledge progresses also accompanied the global trend for astronomical heritage. WH assessment is defined by a relatively strict format and methodology. A key phrase is ``demonstration of Outstanding Universal Value'' to justify the WH Listing by the Committee. This communication first examines the requirements and evaluation practices about of demonstrating OUV for a given place in the context of astronomical or archaeoastronomical heritage. That means the examination of the tangible attributes, an inventory of the property in terms of immoveable and moveable components and an inventory of intangible issues related to the history (history of the place in the context of the history of astronomy and cultural history). This is also related to the application to the site of the concept of integrity and authenticity, as regards the place itself and in comparison with other similar places (WH sites already listed, sites on national WH Tentative Lists

  20. A critical analysis of intercultural communication research in cross-cultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob; Klitmøller, Anders

    2009-01-01

    of anthropology from which it originated. This theory gap between intercultural communication research in CCM and anthropology tends to exclude from CCM an understanding of how the context of social, organizational and power relationships shapes the role of culture in communication. Practical implications......Purpose - Functionalist models of intercultural interaction have serious limitations relying on static and decontextualized culture views. This paper sets out to outline newer developments in anthropological theory in order to provide inspirations to a more dynamic and contextual approach...... - The paper proposes to substitute the view of culture as comprising of abstract values and codes as determinants of communication with concepts of culture as dynamically enfolded in practice and socially situated in specific contexts, in order to give new directions to theories on intercultural communication...

  1. Critical Analysis of Nike and Nike's Marketing Strategies ---------------------From the US to China on Cultural Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Jinyan

    2011-01-01

    Nike as the world biggest athletic brand, it has expanded abroad for many years. During its international business in the overseas markets, it drew many experiences from the initial failures. There are many different factors that influence Nike's expansion outside the US, and cultural differences are main of them. Therefore, a research was carried out to seek out how Nike made its marketing strategy based on cultural gaps between the US and China. Three main questions were asked to relevant s...

  2. Effect of a training programme on blood culture contamination rate in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Arias-Rivera, S; Fraile-Gamo, P; Jareño-Collado, R; López-Román, S; Vadillo-Obesso, P; García-González, S; Pulido-Martos, M T; Sánchez-Muñoz, E I; Cacho-Calvo, J; Martín-Pellicer, A; Panadero-Del Olmo, L; Frutos-Vivar, F

    2018-03-30

    Blood culture contamination can occur from extraction to processing; its rate should not exceed 3%. To evaluate the impact of a training programme on the rate of contaminated blood cultures after the implementation of sample extraction recommendations based on the best evidence. Prospective before-after study in a polyvalent intensive care unit with 18 beds. Two phases were established (January-June 2012, October 2012-October 2015) with a training period between them. Main recommendations: sterile technique, surgical mask, double skin disinfection (70° alcohol and 2% alcoholic chlorhexidine), 70° alcohol disinfection of culture flasks and injection of samples without changing needles. Including all blood cultures of patients with extraction request. demographic, severity, pathology, reason for admission, stay and results of blood cultures (negative, positive and contaminated). Basic descriptive statistics: mean (standard deviation), median (interquartile range) and percentage (95% confidence interval). Calculated contamination rates per 100 blood cultures extracted. Bivariate analysis between periods. Four hundred and eight patients were included. Eight hundred and forty-one blood cultures were taken, 33 of which were contaminated. In the demographic variables, severity, diagnosis and stay of patients with contaminated samples, no differences were observed from those with uncontaminated samples. Pre-training vs post-training contamination rates: 14 vs 5.6 per 100 blood cultures extracted (P=.00003). An evidence-based training programme reduced the contamination of samples. It is necessary to continue working on the planning of activities and care to improve the detection of pollutants and prevent contamination of samples. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Trichostatin A, a critical factor in maintaining the functional differentiation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkens, Tom; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs

  4. Jatropha tissue culture: A critical review on present scenario and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2012-01-01

    Ever increasing fuel prices and depletion of fossil reserves have ignited worldwide search for alternative renewable energy sources. Development of biofuels as an alternative and renewable source of energy has become critical in the national efforts

  5. WORKSHOP TO IDENTIFY CRITICAL WINDOWS OF EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN'S HEALTH: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WORK GROUP SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This workgroup report addresses the central question: what are the critical windows during development (pre-conception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health. The reproductive system develops in stages...

  6. Culture conditions tailored to the cell of origin are critical for maintaining native properties and tumorigenicity of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia F; Liu, Chong; He, Hua; Harris, Alexandra R; Minussi, Darlan C; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Shaffrey, Mark E; Asthagiri, Ashok; Lopes, Maria Beatriz S; Schiff, David; Lu, Yi-Cheng; Mandell, James W; Lenz, Guido; Zong, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cell culture plays a pivotal role in cancer research. However, culture-induced changes in biological properties of tumor cells profoundly affect research reproducibility and translational potential. Establishing culture conditions tailored to the cancer cell of origin could resolve this problem. For glioma research, it has been previously shown that replacing serum with defined growth factors for neural stem cells (NSCs) greatly improved the retention of gene expression profile and tumorigenicity. However, among all molecular subtypes of glioma, our laboratory and others have previously shown that the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) rather than the NSC serves as the cell of origin for the proneural subtype, raising questions regarding the suitability of NSC-tailored media for culturing proneural glioma cells. OPC-originated mouse glioma cells were cultured in conditions for normal OPCs or NSCs, respectively, for multiple passages. Gene expression profiles, morphologies, tumorigenicity, and drug responsiveness of cultured cells were examined in comparison with freshly isolated tumor cells. OPC media-cultured glioma cells maintained tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles, and morphologies similar to freshly isolated tumor cells. In contrast, NSC-media cultured glioma cells gradually lost their OPC features and most tumor-initiating ability and acquired heightened sensitivity to temozolomide. To improve experimental reproducibility and translational potential of glioma research, it is important to identify the cell of origin, and subsequently apply this knowledge to establish culture conditions that allow the retention of native properties of tumor cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. PLD-Repair after ''holding'' of rodent cell cultures: A critical annotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.; Lange, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of cells in vitro has been reported to be influenced by culture-conditions both before and after exposure to ionising radiations. The effect of ''Stationary-Holding'' and/or delayed plating on the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR) are such examples. The so-called Stationary or Plateau-Phase of commonly used cell lines like the V79 are often quiescent (non-mitotic). The authors analysis of the V79 ''Plateau-Phase'' (S-phase cytocide through VrUdR incorporation with FuDR block and light exposure) reveals that the cultures have merely reached a state of maximal permissible density and are, in fact, in kinetic equilibrium with at least half the population of cells, even in densely confluent cultures, going through cycle. Attempts at holding the cells from cycling (through nutrient-depletion and serum-privation) were unsuccessful, although the turn-over-rate was reduced. Their assays for X-irradiated clonogenic survivors after attempted holding combined with delayed plating (DP) showed differences in the survival curves for exponentially growing (Log) and confluent cultures, Although DP improved survival in general, it abolished the shoulder in Log cultures. These observations may explain why most PLDR is seen in the second and lower survival-decades. The significance of the persistent cycling fraction in the interpretation of PLDR after delayed plating must be considered

  8. Charting the pipeline: Identifying the critical elements in the development of successful African American scientists, engineers, and mathematicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian Anthony

    Many educational researchers are concerned with the apparent poor performance of different racial and ethnic groups in the fields of science, engineering, and mathematics in the United States. Despite improvements in the performance of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans in these areas over the past decade, these groups are still less likely to enroll in advanced math and science courses or score at or above the proficient level in mathematics. Furthermore, these groups continue to be underrepresented in the nation's technical and scientific workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify the critical elements related to the success of African Americans in science, engineering, and mathematics. Specifically, this study was designed to answer the following questions as they pertained to African American graduate students: What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' initial interest in science, engineering, or mathematics? What factors were perceived to have contributed to the students' decisions to continue their studies in their specific areas of interest? What factors, associated with the K--12 schooling experience, were perceived to have contributed to the students' success in science, engineering, or mathematics? The data for the study were acquired from interviews with 32 African American students (16 males and 16 females) who were engaged in graduate work in science, engineering, or mathematics. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the interview data. The first was that all students were involved in experiences that allowed a significant level of participation in science, engineering, and mathematics. Second, all of the students experienced some form of positive personal intervention by another person. Third, all students possessed perceptions of these fields that involved some sort of positive outcome. Finally, all of the of the students believed they possessed intrinsic qualities that qualified and

  9. Immunocytochemistry and fluorescence imaging efficiently identify individual neurons with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption in primary cortical cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Hiroto; Uyeda, Akiko; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Sugo, Noriyuki

    2017-08-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful method to investigate the role of genes by introducing a mutation selectively and efficiently to specific genome positions in cell and animal lines. However, in primary neuron cultures, this method is affected by the issue that the effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9 is different in each neuron. Here, we report an easy, quick and reliable method to identify mutants induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system at a single neuron level, using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescence imaging. Dissociated cortical cells were transfected with CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Fluorescence ICC with CREB antibody and quantitative analysis of fluorescence intensity demonstrated that CREB expression disappeared in a fraction of the transfected neurons. The downstream FOS expression was also decreased in accordance with suppressed CREB expression. Moreover, dendritic arborization was decreased in the transfected neurons which lacked CREB immunoreactivity. Detection of protein expression is efficient to identify individual postmitotic neurons with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption in primary cortical cultures. The present method composed of CRISPR/Cas9 system, ICC and fluorescence imaging is applicable to study the function of various genes at a single-neuron level.

  10. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A Critical Review From A Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Tirta Agung Setiawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to briefly explain and analyse the association between entrepreneurship and development theories. It will exploit Schumpeter’s idea on economic development, especially on entrepreneurship as the main engine of that development process. It will also describe the reality of entrepreneurship in developing countries and discuss issues on the development of entrepreneurship study found in Indonesia as a case study. At the end, the paper concluded that a cultural study that link western theories of development and entrepreneurship with the unique cultural realities that exist only in developing countries is important.

  11. Between orientalism and normalization: cross-cultural lessons from Japan for a critical history of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica

    2007-05-01

    Cross-cultural research performs a vital role within the confirmation of psychological "truths." Its differentiations work simultaneously to establish their general applicability and the superiority of Anglo-U.S. ways of living and relating. Taking three examples of how "Japan" figures within English language psychological accounts (i.e., group/individual, shame/guilt societies, and attachment styles), I indicate how the apparent stability of these truths suppressed the violent history of their generation. Moreover, I suggest how resisting the assimilation of cultural specificity into a discourse of mere variation can challenge the hegemony of Anglo-U.S. psychology and reframe the vexed question of specificity versus universality.

  12. Enhancing Critical Consciousness through a Cross-Cultural Immersion Experience in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Mi; VanVoorhis, Richard W.; Ellenwood, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Using phenomenological approaches, the author explored the meanings and essences of a cross-cultural immersion experience in South Africa among counseling master's-level students. Five core themes--the meaning of being American, sociopolitical awareness, engagement with South Africans and their communities, appreciation of life, and commitment to…

  13. Provincialising the World Culture Theory Debate: Critical Insights from a Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Neo-institutionalist theory of global "isomorphism", or so-called World Culture Theory (WCT), has been much debated in comparative education. One notable feature of the debate is that the vast majority of its participants belong to a handful of closely knit comparative education communities. Ironically enough then, a debate that…

  14. Critical Entanglement: Research on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parental Involvement in Special Education 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cam

    2014-01-01

    If parental involvement in a child's education is generally viewed in positive terms, then it is important to understand what sorts of barriers might hinder it. This article reviews literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parental involvement in special education in the United States and Canada. In analyzing 20 articles published in…

  15. Practicing Critical Media Literacy Education: Developing a Community of Inquiry among Teachers Using Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Koulish, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Media literacy compels us to look anew at the most mundane, that which surrounds us: the media and our popular culture. From there media literacy compels us to accept that the media are constructed and to seek various ways to analyze them, while considering our own beliefs to evaluate for ourselves an ultimate interpretation. This process has the…

  16. The Empowerment Model: A Critical Reflection of Empowerment in Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2004-01-01

    The empowerment model has long dominated social work practice in Western countries. Many social workers in Hong Kong use this model regardless of the social or cultural context. In this article the author shares local social work practice experiences in Hong Kong and suggests that the empowerment model may need adaptation in Chinese communities.…

  17. Data cultures of mobile dating and hook-up apps: Emerging issues for critical social science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kath Albury

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethical and social implications of data mining, algorithmic curation and automation in the context of social media have been of heightened concern for a range of researchers with interests in digital media in recent years, with particular concerns about privacy arising in the context of mobile and locative media. Despite their wide adoption and economic importance, mobile dating apps have received little scholarly attention from this perspective – but they are intense sites of data generation, algorithmic processing, and cross-platform data-sharing; bound up with competing cultures of production, exploitation and use. In this paper, we describe the ways various forms of data are incorporated into, and emerge from, hook-up apps’ business logics, socio-technical arrangements, and cultures of use to produce multiple and intersecting data cultures . We propose a multi-layered research agenda for critical and empirical inquiry into this field, and suggest appropriate conceptual and methodological frameworks for exploring the social and political challenges of data cultures.

  18. Blood culture-PCR to optimise typhoid fever diagnosis after controlled human infection identifies frequent asymptomatic cases and evidence of primary bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Zhou, Liqing; Blohmke, Christoph J; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Baker, Stephen; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    Improved diagnostics for typhoid are needed; a typhoid controlled human infection model may accelerate their development and translation. Here, we evaluated a blood culture-PCR assay for detecting infection after controlled human infection with S. Typhi and compared test performance with optimally performed blood cultures. Culture-PCR amplification of blood samples was performed alongside daily blood culture in 41 participants undergoing typhoid challenge. Study endpoints for typhoid diagnosis (TD) were fever and/or bacteraemia. Overall, 24/41 (59%) participants reached TD, of whom 21/24 (86%) had ≥1 positive blood culture (53/674, 7.9% of all cultures) or 18/24 (75%) had ≥1 positive culture-PCR assay result (57/684, 8.3%). A further five non-bacteraemic participants produced culture-PCR amplicons indicating infection; overall sensitivity/specificity of the assay compared to the study endpoints were 70%/65%. We found no significant difference between blood culture and culture-PCR methods in ability to identify cases (12 mismatching pairs, p = 0.77, binomial test). Clinical and stool culture metadata demonstrated that additional culture-PCR amplification positive individuals likely represented true cases missed by blood culture, suggesting the overall attack rate may be 30/41 (73%) rather than 24/41 (59%). Several participants had positive culture-PCR results soon after ingesting challenge providing new evidence for occurrence of an early primary bacteraemia. Overall the culture-PCR assay performed well, identifying extra typhoid cases compared with routine blood culture alone. Despite limitations to widespread field-use, the benefits of increased diagnostic yield, reduced blood volume and faster turn-around-time, suggest that this assay could enhance laboratory typhoid diagnostics in research applications and high-incidence settings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic labeling of sialic acids in tissue culture cell lines: methods to identify substituted and modified radioactive neuraminic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, S.; Varki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The parent sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid can be modified or substituted in various ways, giving rise to a family of more than 25 compounds. The definitive identification of these compounds has previously required isolation of nanomole amounts for mass spectrometry or NMR. We have explored the possibility of using the known metabolic precursors of the sialic acids, particularly N-acetyl-[6-3H]mannosamine, to label and identify various forms of sialic acids in tissue culture cells. Firstly, we defined several variables that affect the labeling of sialic acids with N-acetyl-[6-3H]mannosamine. Secondly, we have devised a simple screening method to identify cell lines that synthesize substituted or modified sialic acids. We next demonstrate that it is possible to definitively identify the natures of the various labeled sialic acids without the use of mass spectrometry, even though they are present only in tracer amounts. The methods used include paper chromatography, analytical de-O-acetylation, periodate release of the 9-3H as [3H]formaldehyde (which is subsequently converted to a specific 3H-labeled chromophore), acylneuraminate pyruvate lyase treatment with identification of [3H]acylmannosamines, gas-liquid chromatography with radioactive detection, and two new high-pressure liquid chromatography methods utilizing the amine-adsorption:ion suppression and ion-pair principles. The use of an internal N-acetyl-[4-14C]neuraminic acid standard in each of these methods assures precision and accuracy. The combined use of these methods now allows the identification of radioactive tracer amounts of the various types of sialic acids in well-defined populations of tissue culture cells; it may also allow the identification of hitherto unknown forms of sialic acids

  20. The Pedagogical Potential of Video Remix: Critical Conversations about Culture, Creativity, and Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Appropriation, transformation and remix are increasingly recognized as significant aspects of digital literacy. This article considers how one form of digital remix--the video remix--might be used in classrooms to introduce critical conversations about representation, appropriation, creativity and copyright. The first half of the article explores…

  1. Intercultural Effectiveness Training in three Western immigrant countries : A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly

  2. Where Critical Postmodern Theory Meets Practice: Working in the Intersection of Instrumental, Social, and Cultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a critical postmodern adult education practice that is inclusive of peoples and knowledges and inhabits a dynamic space. Key concepts include identity difference; intersection of power relations; community as a social contract; and conflict, voice, and dialog for transformative learning. (SK)

  3. The critical role of culture and environment as determinants of women's participation in computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieze, Carol

    This thesis proposes the need for, and illustrates, a new approach to how we think about, and act on, issues relating to women's participation, or lack of participation, in computer science (CS). This approach is based on a cultural perspective arguing that many of the reasons for women entering---or not entering---CS programs have little to do with gender and a lot to do with environment and culture. Evidence for this approach comes primarily from a qualitative, research study, which shows the effects of changes in the micro-culture on CS undergraduates at Carnegie Mellon, and from studies of other cultural contexts that illustrate a "Women-CS fit". We also discuss the interventions that have been crucial to the evolution of this specific micro-culture. Our argument goes against the grain of many gender and CS studies which conclude that the reasons for women's low participation in CS are based in gender --and particularly in gender differences in how men and women relate to the field. Such studies tend to focus on gender differences and recommend accommodating (what are perceived to be) women's different ways of relating to CS. This is often interpreted as contextualizing the curriculum to make it "female-friendly". The CS curriculum at Carnegie Mellon was not contextualized to be "female-friendly". Nevertheless, over the past few years, the school has attracted and graduated well above the US national average for women in undergraduate CS programs. We argue that this is due in large part to changes in the culture and environment of the department. As the environment has shifted from an unbalanced to a more balanced environment (balanced in terms of gender, breadth of student personalities, and professional support for women) the way has been opened for a range of students, including a significant number of women, to participate, and be successful, in the CS major. Our research shows that as men and women inhabit, and participate in, a more balanced environment

  4. Roy Ellen, Stephen J. Lycett, Sarah E. Johns, eds., 2013, Understanding Cultural Transmission in Anthropology: A Critical Synthesis New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Viecelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available recensione: Roy Ellen, Stephen J. Lycett, Sarah E. Johns, eds., 2013, Understanding Cultural Transmission in Anthropology: A Critical Synthesis New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books di Clelia Viecelli

  5. Transformative Critical Media Literacy: Negotiating Latinidad and Girl Culture Through Theatre Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Elisaldez, Renee Lemus

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes textual analysis of media representations of Latinidad and girl culture in order to demonstrate the multiple subjectivities Latinxs inhabit as well as highlight the power relations structured by race, gender, class and sexuality embedded in the mass media. This analysis considers the challenges young Latinas face when negotiating their identities with, through and against the oppressive images of the mass media. Drawing on the work of Chicana/Latina feminist educato...

  6. Creating student awareness to improve cultural competence: creating the critical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Venita W; Sharp, Penny C; Crandall, Sonia J

    2002-09-01

    Teaching medical students to recognize the need for cultural competence and accept their shortcomings in this area is a challenge. A simulated patient scenario was developed to address this challenge. The objective of the simulation is to enhance students' readiness to learn by moving them from 'unconscious incompetence' to 'conscious incompetence'. The patient scenario presents a Cherokee Indian woman with a complaint of abnormal menstrual bleeding who is resistant to gynaecologic care from male providers. A faculty member facilitates a small-group videotape review of student interviews. As students discuss their encounters, they realize they 'misdiagnose' and mishandle the interview. They are confronted by their inability to recognize cultural cues and the impact they may have on health outcomes and begin to question whether cultural beliefs are affecting the care of other patients. This simulation creates an eye-opening situation that must be handled carefully. This activity is an effective method to create awareness in students who feel they 'know all this stuff.'

  7. Reprogramming of H3K27me3 is critical for acquisition of pluripotency from cultured Arabidopsis tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsheng He

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In plants, multiple detached tissues are capable of forming a pluripotent cell mass, termed callus, when cultured on media containing appropriate plant hormones. Recent studies demonstrated that callus resembles the root-tip meristem, even if it is derived from aerial organs. This finding improves our understanding of the regeneration process of plant cells; however, the molecular mechanism that guides cells of different tissue types to form a callus still remains elusive. Here, we show that genome-wide reprogramming of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 is a critical step in the leaf-to-callus transition. The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 is known to function in establishing H3K27me3. By analyzing callus formation of mutants corresponding to different histone modification pathways, we found that leaf blades and/or cotyledons of the PRC2 mutants curly leaf swinger (clf swn and embryonic flower2 (emf2 were defective in callus formation. We identified the H3K27me3-covered loci in leaves and calli by a ChIP-chip assay, and we found that in the callus H3K27me3 levels decreased first at certain auxin-pathway genes. The levels were then increased at specific leaf genes but decreased at a number of root-regulatory genes. Changes in H3K27me3 levels were negatively correlated with expression levels of the corresponding genes. One possible role of PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 in the leaf-to-callus transition might relate to elimination of leaf features by silencing leaf-regulatory genes, as most leaf-preferentially expressed regulatory genes could not be silenced in the leaf explants of clf swn. In contrast to the leaf explants, the root explants of both clf swn and emf2 formed calli normally, possibly because the root-to-callus transition bypasses the leaf gene silencing process. Furthermore, our data show that PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 and H3K27 demethylation act in parallel in the reprogramming of H3K27me3 during the leaf-to-callus transition

  8. Properties of Two Novel Esterases Identified from Culture Supernatant of Penicillium purpurogenum Grown on Sugar Beet Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Gabriela; Callegari, Eduardo; Sepulveda, Romina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, such as sugar beet pulp, and secretes to the medium a large number of enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate components of lignocellulose. Sugar beet pulp is rich in pectin, and the purpose of this work is to identify novel esterases produced by the fungus, which may participate in pectin degradation. Partially purified culture supernatants of the fungus grown on sugar beet pulp were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Peptides thus identified, which may be part of potential esterases were probed against the proteins deduced from the fungal genome sequence. The cDNAs of two putative esterases identified were expressed in Pichia pastoris and their properties studied. One of these enzymes, named FAET, is a feruloyl esterase, while the other, PE, is classified as a pectin methyl esterase. These findings add to our knowledge of the enzymology of pectin degradation by Penicillium purpurogenum, and define properties of two novel esterases acting on de-esterification of pectin. Their availability may be useful as tools for the study of pectin structure and degradation.

  9. Use of a fluorescent membrane probe to identify zooxanthellae in hospite among dissociated endoderm cell culture from coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-S; Lin, H-P; Yeh, C-C; Fang, L-S

    2005-12-01

    Preparation of homogeneous endoderm cells and culture is a prerequisite to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism of endosymbiosis in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate association. During the cell isolation from the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, various amounts of symbiotic endoderm cells were found to release their symbionts (Symbiodinium spp., or zooxanthellae in generic usage) into the culture. Due to the bulky occupation by zooxanthellae inside the endoderm cell, the symbiotic endoderm cells, or zooxanthellae in hospite, are difficult to be distinguished from released zooxanthellae by microscopic examination. We now report a method for this identification using a fluorescent analogue of sphingomyelin, N-[5-(5,7-dimethyl boron dipyrromethene difluoride)-1-pentanoyl]-D-erythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine (C(5)-DMB-SM). Incubation of symbiotic endoderm cells with C(5)-DMB-SM-defatted bovine serum albumin (DF-BSA) complex results in bright fluorescent membrane staining. Nevertheless, the membrane staining of free-living or released zooxanthellae by this complex is significantly decreased or even diminished. This method has provided a fast and reliable assay to identify symbiotic endoderm cells and will greatly accelerate the progress of endosymbiosis research.

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Jocelyn Leonie; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Mavumengwana, Vuyo; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice

    2017-09-15

    Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). Gram-positive Kocuria sp. and Arthrobacter sp. and gram-negative Cupriavidus sp., Ralstonia sp., Cronobacter sp., Tepidimonas sp., Hafnia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated, all recognised as emerging food-borne pathogens. Legionella spp. was not detected throughout the study. Isolates of Kocuria , Arthrobacter and Hafnia and an unknown species of the class Gammaproteobacteria were resistant to two antibiotics in different combinations of carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. Cronobacter sp. was sensitive to all ten antibiotics. This study suggests that hot springs are potential reservoirs for emerging opportunistic pathogens, including multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and highlights the presence of unknown populations of emerging and potential waterborne opportunistic pathogens in the environment.

  11. Safety-Culture Exploration in Taiwan’s Metal Industries: Identifying the Workers’ Background Influence on Safety Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chiang Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess the safety-climate level in Taiwan’s metal industries, as well as to identify the influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate. An earlier report showed that a poor safety culture was related to the cause of accidents in Taiwan’s traditional manufacturing industries. This study surveyed a total of 839 workers who voluntarily participated and completed the safety-culture questionnaires. These workers were from a Taiwanese metal company and its five satellite companies. Three safety-climate factors, namely safety perception, safety communication and safety-management systems, were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted by developing structural equation modeling to ensure the questionnaire’s validity. The influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate was identified by using one-way ANOVA. The reliability result of the questionnaire was above the acceptable level. The overall safety-climate score was 4.22 out of a five-point scale for safety perception, 4.23 for safety-management systems and 3.97 for safety communication. The scores indicate a good level of safety climate, with room for improvement in safety communication. Additionally, the influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate was confirmed. Based on the validity test, it was also found that the questionnaire could be improved by reconstructing its questions in its development process in order to increase the safety-climate model’s reliability and validity, as well as its model fit.

  12. National Assessment of College Student Learning: Identifying College Graduates' Essential Skills in Writing, Speech and Listening, and Critical Thinking. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    This study used an iterative Delphi survey process of about 600 faculty, employers, and policymakers to identify writing, speech and listening, and critical thinking skills that college graduates should achieve to become effective employees and citizens (National Education Goal 6). Participants reached a consensus about the importance in critical…

  13. Towards a Rational Kingdom in Africa: Knowledge, Critical Rationality and Development in a Twenty-First Century African Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to locate the kind of knowledge that is relevant for African development in the twenty-first century African cultural context and to propose the paradigm for achieving such knowledge. To do this, it advances the view that the concept of twenty-first century in an African context must be located with the colonial and post-colonial challenges of the African world and applied to serve the African demand. Anchored on this position, the paper outlines and critiques the wrong assumption on which modern state project was anchored in post-colonial Africa and its development dividend to suggest that this is an outcome of a wrong knowledge design that is foundational to the state project and which the project did not address. It proposes a shift in the knowledge paradigm in Africa and suggests critical self-consciousness as a more desirable knowledge design for Africa. It applies the term ‘rational kingdom’ (defined as a community of reason marked by critical conceptual self-awareness driven by innovation and constructivism to suggest this paradigm. ‘Innovation’ is meant as the application of reason with an enlarged capacity to anticipate and address problems with fresh options and ‘constructivism’ is meant as the disposition to sustain innovation by advancing an alternative but more reliable worldview that can meet the exigencies of modernity in an African cultural context. The paper then proceeds to outline the nature of the rational kingdom and its anticipated gains and outcomes. It applies the method of inductive reasoning to advance its position. To do this it invokes selected but crucial areas of African life to locate how the developmental demands of these aspects of life suggest a critical turn in African rationality.

  14. Cultural variation in the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism among bicultural Asian American and Anglo American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane

    2008-10-01

    Recent work on biculturalism has made theoretical and methodological inroads into our understanding of the relation of cultural processes with psychological functioning. Through the use of cultural priming methodologies, investigators have demonstrated that biculturals, or individuals who have experienced and identify with more than one culture, can switch between various "cultural frames of reference" in response to corresponding social cues (Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martinez, 2000). Drawing on this work on the cognitive implications of biculturalism, the purpose of the present study was to examine the assumption that independent and interdependent self-construals are associated with the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism, respectively. More specifically, the effects of differential primes of self on ratings of self-enhancement were investigated in a sample of bicultural Asian American (N = 42) and Anglo American (N = 60) college students; overall, more similarities than differences were noted between the two groups. It was hypothesized that Anglo American students would display marked tendencies toward self-enhancement. However, this hypothesis was not supported. Nevertheless, consistent prime effects were observed for a selected number of ratings related to academic virtues, with those who received an independent-self prime often exhibiting greater self-enhancing tendencies than those who received an interdependent-self prime. For example, participants in the independent-self condition reported on average significantly higher ratings for self-discipline and initiative, as well as the degree to which they perceived themselves to be hard working. Implications for the work on self-representations, motivation, and acculturation are discussed.

  15. Influence factors and levels to create a culture of democracy: Critical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakhane Noureddine

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Includes a general concept for the various philosophical implications for the conduct based on participation in the exercise of power through the institutions of formal and informal value of finality associated outputs any effect of each of these other actors and processes on daily life from the simplest affairs to the most complex groping ordinary citizen impact of these outputs through its relationship with actors and represented locally and nationally this perception itself constitute the base of the logical behaviour of the political mechanisms of nutritious local and other actors thus - as we have seen in the former - this is a performance of official institutions and non-formal primary factor effecting the nature and size of the feedback. We are trying to address through the topic of the impact of the level of human development and the content of those measures various dimensions of political, economic, social and cultural rights on the culture of the citizen. Lifting of the levels of human development in general requires efforts and cooperative from all sectors of society groups also requires equal participation of key parties and requires the mobilization of all the energies and finally the existence of the ability of these key parties to cooperate and participate in the responsibility for achieving development and motivating factor to all of this is to be a human being effective role through participation and production would not be available without a good rehabilitation and the acquisition of knowledge and skills with a reduction of the necessary rights of citizenship. On this basis, we examine how it affects the performance of institutions to create the motivation of individuals to be active citizens through three axes: ideology, the actors and the psychological impact of building individual capacity.

  16. Cross-Cultural Variations in Identifying Embedded Figures: Comparisons from the United States, Germany, Russia, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Ulrich; Hannover, Bettina; Roeder, Ute; Shah, Ashiq Ali; Schubert, Benjamin; Upmeyer, Arnold; Zakaria, Saliza

    2001-01-01

    Examined cross-cultural differences in field dependence, hypothesizing differences according to the degree of individualism or collectivism within college students' respective cultures. Data from U.S., German, Russian, and Malaysian students indicated that field dependence did not differ between samples representing similar cultures. U.S. And…

  17. Developing graduate student competency in providing culturally sensitive end of life care in critical care environments - a pilot study of a teaching innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Holly L; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Grealish, Laurie; Mak, Anita S

    2015-11-01

    Australia's immigration policy has generated a rich diverse cultural community of staff and patients in critical care environments. Many different cultural perspectives inform individual actions in the context of critical care, including the highly sensitive area of end of life care, with nurses feeling poorly prepared to provide culturally sensitive end of life care. This article describes and evaluates the effectiveness of an educational innovation designed to develop graduate-level critical care nurses' capacity for effective interpersonal communication, as members of a multi-disciplinary team in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. A mixed method pilot study was conducted using a curriculum innovation intervention informed by The Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program (EXCELL),(1) which is a higher education intervention which was applied to develop the nurses' intercultural communication skills. 12 graduate nursing students studying critical care nursing participated in the study. 42% (n=5) of the participants were from an international background. Information about students' cultural learning was recorded before and after the intervention, using a cultural learning development scale. Student discussions of end of life care were recorded at Week 2 and 14 of the curriculum. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Students demonstrated an increase in cultural learning in a range of areas in the pre-post surveys including understandings of cultural diversity, interpersonal skills, cross cultural interactions and participating in multicultural groups. Thematic analysis of the end of life discussions revealed an increase in the levels of nurse confidence in approaching end of life care in critical care environments. The EXCELL program provides an effective and supportive educational framework to increase graduate nurses' cultural learning

  18. Maturation, fertilisation and culture of bovine oocytes and embryos in an individually identifiable manner: a tool for studying oocyte developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Satoko; Fair, Trudee; Lonergan, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully culture oocytes and embryos individually would facilitate the study of the relationship between follicle parameters and oocyte developmental competence, in order to identify markers of competent oocytes, as well as the ability to use small numbers of oocytes from an individual donor such as when ovum pick-up is carried out. Using a total of 3118 oocytes, the aim of the present study was to develop a system capable of supporting the development of immature bovine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in an individually identifiable manner. Initially, post-fertilisation embryo culture in the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system, on the cell adhesive Cell-Tak or in polyester mesh was tested and shown to result in similar development to embryos cultured in standard group culture. The results demonstrate that it is possible to culture bovine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in an individually identifiable manner in all three culture systems with comparable success rates. This permits the localisation and identification of individual embryos throughout preimplantation development in vitro while retaining the developmental benefits of group culture. In terms of ease of preparation and use, culture in isolation within the strands of a polyester mesh is preferable.

  19. How to Identify Negative Attitudes towards Inclusive Education: Critical Discourse Analysis of Russian Transcripts Using Role and Reference Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Rubtcova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Role and Reference Grammar (RRG analysis that aims to reveal possibilities required for carrying out the interdisciplinary research development within Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. It takes a closer look at conflicts, considering the example of a conflict situation occurred in reaction to the opening of the inclusive academic programme at one of St. Petersburg’s secondary schools. Role and Reference Grammar application demonstrates that the use of different verb types and macroroles has led to the various interpretations. These findings confirm that RRG could influence the increase of objectivity of the transcript analysis in qualitative social research. RRG provides new information which in combination with other methods can help us to understand the positions of participants involved into conflicts

  20. Effects of chemotherapeutics on organotypic corticostriatal slice cultures identified by a panel of fluorescent and immunohistochemical markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Annette; Jensen, Stine Skov; Kolenda, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    no toxicity was observed. Corresponding immunostaining showed loss of MAP2 and increased expression of GFAP and p25α for cultures exposed to 1,000 nM VCR. Cultures exposed to high concentrations of ACNU and IM disintegrated, leaving no tissue for histology. In conclusion, corticostriatal slice cultures...... specific neuronal and glial degeneration induced by chemotherapeutics in organotypic rat corticostriatal slice cultures. The slice cultures were exposed to the alkylating agents temozolomide (TMZ) and nimustine (ACNU), the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM) and the microtubule...

  1. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identifying critical success factors for designing selection processes into postgraduate specialty training: the case of UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Simon; Patterson, Fiona

    2010-06-01

    The UK national recruitment process into general practice training has been developed over several years, with incremental introduction of stages which have been piloted and validated. Previously independent processes, which encouraged multiple applications and produced inconsistent outcomes, have been replaced by a robust national process which has high reliability and predictive validity, and is perceived to be fair by candidates and allocates applicants equitably across the country. Best selection practice involves a job analysis which identifies required competencies, then designs reliable assessment methods to measure them, and over the long term ensures that the process has predictive validity against future performance. The general practitioner recruitment process introduced machine markable short listing assessments for the first time in the UK postgraduate recruitment context, and also adopted selection centre workplace simulations. The key success factors have been identified as corporate commitment to the goal of a national process, with gradual convergence maintaining locus of control rather than the imposition of change without perceived legitimate authority.

  3. Jatropha tissue culture: A critical review on present scenario and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2012-10-26

    Ever increasing fuel prices and depletion of fossil reserves have ignited worldwide search for alternative renewable energy sources. Development of biofuels as an alternative and renewable source of energy has become critical in the national efforts towards maximum self-reliance, the corner stone of our energy security strategy. Ever since it was established that Jatropha methyl esters yields biodiesel of an exceptional quality and easy adaptation to semi-arid marginal lands, there has been a surge of interest in biodiesel miracle tree. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha curcas as a source of biofuel. Non-availability of superior clones/varieties, shortage of cuttings, low multiplication rate, gaps in knowledge of clonal technology, higher cost of clonal plantation, etc. are the major factors that limit large-scale cultivation. Recent advances in DNA technology and genetic transformation offer a credible approach for the genetic improvement of the species. The last decade witnessed a blooming interest in the development of micropropagation and transformation techniques for this energy crop. In this review, the achievements made during the last three decades in J. curcas micropropagation are presented. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights are reserved.

  4. Cellular adhesome screen identifies critical modulators of focal adhesion dynamics, cellular traction forces and cell migration behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkelman, Michiel; Balcıoğlu, Hayri E.; Klip, Janna E.; Yan, Kuan; Verbeek, Fons J.; Danen, Erik H. J.; van de Water, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour into surrounding tissue in order to form metastasis. Cell migration is a highly complex process, which requires continuous remodelling and re-organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we aimed to identify genes controlling aspects of tumour cell migration, including the dynamic organization of cell-matrix adhesions and cellular traction forces. In a siRNA screen targeting most cell adhesion-related genes we identified 200+ genes that regulate size and/or dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions in MCF7 breast cancer cells. In a subsequent secondary screen, the 64 most effective genes were evaluated for growth factor-induced cell migration and validated by tertiary RNAi pool deconvolution experiments. Four validated hits showed significantly enlarged adhesions accompanied by reduced cell migration upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, loss of PPP1R12B, HIPK3 or RAC2 caused cells to exert higher traction forces, as determined by traction force microscopy with elastomeric micropillar post arrays, and led to considerably reduced force turnover. Altogether, we identified genes that co-regulate cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and traction force turnover, thereby modulating overall motility behaviour. PMID:27531518

  5. Cultivating engineering ethics and critical thinking: a systematic and cross-cultural education approach using problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-08-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.

  6. Electronic problem lists: a thematic analysis of a systematic literature review to identify aspects critical to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Chad M; Narus, Scott P

    2018-05-01

    Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to systematically curate a corpus of pertinent articles. We performed a thematic analysis, looking for interesting excerpts and ideas. By aggregating excerpts from many authors, we gained broader, more inclusive insights into what makes a good problem list and what factors are conducive to its success. Analysis led to a list of 7 benefits of using the problem list, 15 aspects critical to problem list success, and knowledge to help inform policy development, such as consensus on what belongs on the problem list, who should maintain the problem list, and when. A list of suggestions is made on ways in which the problem list can be improved to increase utilization by clinicians. There is also a need for standard measurements of the problem list, so that lists can be measured, compared, and discussed with rigor and a common vocabulary.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite of Penicillium citrinum and its contamination in many food items has been widely reported. However, research on the citrinin biosynthesis pathway and its regulation mechanism in P. citrinum is rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources on citrinin production by P. citrinum and used transcriptome analysis to study the underlying molecular mechanism. Our results indicated that glucose, used as the sole carbon source, could significantly promote citrinin production by P. citrinum in Czapek’s broth medium compared with sucrose. A total of 19,967 unigenes were annotated by BLAST in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. Transcriptome comparison between P. citrinum cultured with sucrose and glucose revealed 1085 differentially expressed unigenes. Among them, 610 were upregulated while 475 were downregulated under glucose as compared to sucrose. KEGG pathway and Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that many metabolic processes (e.g., carbohydrate, secondary metabolism, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism were affected, and potentially interesting genes that encoded putative components of signal transduction, stress response and transcription factor were identified. These genes obviously had important impacts on their regulation in citrinin biosynthesis, which provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of citrinin biosynthesis by P. citrinum.

  8. A lipid E-MAP identifies Ubx2 as a critical regulator of lipid saturation and lipid bilayer stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Peng, Debby

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex, and the mechanisms underlying their homeostasis are incompletely understood. Here, we present a quantitative genetic interaction map (E-MAP) focused on various aspects of lipid biology, including lipid metabolism, sorting, and trafficking. This E-MAP contains ∼250......,000 negative and positive genetic interaction scores and identifies a molecular crosstalk of protein quality control pathways with lipid bilayer homeostasis. Ubx2p, a component of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway, surfaces as a key upstream regulator of the essential fatty acid (FA...

  9. In-service Teacher Educators and the Developing of Critical Teaching: Cultural Plurality – ‘Race’ and Ethnicity in ELT Education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida de Jesus Ferreira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization The main goal of this research is to develop a systematic investigation arising from some questions and concerns that confronted me as an EFL teacher and teacher educator. My main intention is to find out what EFL teachers in Brazil understand by “being critical” and whether they use “critical pedagogy” when teaching. These matters articulated themselves to me in a way that forced me to consider the need to discover the place of “critical teaching” in elementary education. There is not much new research concerning teaching EFL in Brazil, since the introduction of new National Curriculum Parameters (NCP in 1998. The NCP identified several themes that should permeate all teaching in Brazil and I will concentrate on one particularly relevant to the curriculum of EFL that is Cultural Plurality. Inside this theme one the concept of ‘race’ and ethnicity and it is these I shall concentrate on in particular. My choice of research is related to my own ‘race’/ethnicity African-Brazilian.

  10. Identifying ozone-sensitive communities of (semi-)natural vegetation suitable for mapping exceedance of critical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.; Hayes, F.; Jones, M.L.M.; Cinderby, S.

    2007-01-01

    Using published data on the responses of individual species to ozone, 54 EUNIS (European Nature Information System) level 4 communities with six or more ozone-sensitive species (%OS) and c. 20% or more species tested for ozone sensitivity, were identified as potentially ozone-sensitive. The largest number of these communities (23) was associated with Grasslands, with Heathland, scrub and tundra, and Mires, bogs and fens having the next highest representation at 11 and 8 level 4 communities each respectively. Within the grasslands classification, E4 (Alpine and sub-alpine grasslands), E5 (Woodland fringes and clearings) and E1 (Dry grasslands) were the most sensitive with 68.1, 51.6 and 48.6%OS respectively. It is feasible to map the land-cover for these and other communities at level 2, but it may not be currently possible to map the land-cover for all communities identified to be ozone-sensitive at levels 3 and 4. - Grassland communities such as alpine and sub-alpine grasslands have the highest potential sensitivity ozone, based on the responses of their component species

  11. Identifying the Conditions for Rural Sustainability through Place-Based Culture: Applying the CIPM and CDPM Models into Meibei Ancient Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional rural China faces more serious challenges in its sustainable development. How to regain the vital momentum of those historically and culturally preeminent villages, among over 680,000 administrative villages in total, has become the pressing agenda for all the stakeholders, due to the fact that these villages have huge potential to be the leverage for successful rural transition and new urbanization in China. This paper therefore tries to diagnose and identify the current situation of those villages from a cultural perspective by taking the Meibei ancient village as the case. By applying the proposed Cultural Inverted Pyramid Model (CIPM and Cultural Dual Pyramid Model (CDPM with seven layers, i.e., root/vision, value, symbol, hero, ritual, lifestyle, and governance & management, Meibei’s development mechanism has been systematically explored from a cultural perspective through the comparison between its past prosperity and present challenges. It is found that the great merit of Meibei’s past prosperity lied in the organic integration of cultural elements in all the layers through the five development dimensions, i.e., economic, social, institutional, environmental and cultural dimensions. The empirical study proves that CIPM is a useful tool for diagnosing and identifying the current situation of the village, while CDPM is an effective instrument for planning and designing a culture-embedded and improved place for the future. Unless Meibei can recreate a new cultural ecosystem with resilience fitting to its existed heritage with cultural excellence and tourism promotion, the village cannot catch up with its past prosperity. Finally, this paper calls for more in-depth culture-oriented research to improve the CIPM and CDPM paradigm to allow for the realization of rural sustainability, particularly from the perspectives of policy options and academic concerns.

  12. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarró, Eduard; Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita; Itarte, Emilio; Meseguer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  13. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: emili.itarte@uab.es [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: ana.meseguer@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  14. A critical assessment of the photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments: defining our current understanding and identifying knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, Jonathan K; Hanson, Mark L; Friesen, Ken J; Wong, Charles S

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a critical assessment of the state and quality of knowledge around the aquatic photochemistry of human- and veterinary-use pharmaceuticals from laboratory experiments and field observations. A standardized scoring rubric was used to assess relevant studies within four categories: experimental design, laboratory-based direct and indirect photolysis, and field/solar photolysis. Specific metrics for each category are defined to evaluate various aspects of experimental design (e.g., higher scores are given for more appropriate characterization of light source wavelength distribution). This weight of evidence-style approach allowed for identification of knowledge strengths and gaps covering three areas: first, the general extent of photochemical data for specific pharmaceuticals and classes; second, the overall quality of existing data (i.e., strong versus weak); and finally, trends in the photochemistry research around these specific compounds, e.g. the observation of specific and consistent oversights in experimental design. In general, those drugs that were most studied also had relatively good quality data. The four pharmaceuticals studied experimentally at least ten times in the literature had average total scores (lab and field combined) of ≥29, considered decent quality; carbamazepine (13 studies; average score of 31), diclofenac (12 studies; average score of 31), sulfamethoxazole (11 studies; average score of 34), and propranolol (11 studies; average score of 29). Major oversights and errors in data reporting and/or experimental design included: lack of measurement and reporting of incident light source intensity, lack of appropriate controls, use of organic co-solvents in irradiation solutions, and failure to consider solution pH. Consequently, a number of these experimental parameters were likely a cause of inconsistent measurements of direct photolysis rate constants and quantum yields, two photochemical properties that were highly

  15. Use of a Web-based Delphi for identifying critical components of a professional science master's program in biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Jeannine Wells

    The primary purpose of this research was to develop a model for a professional science master's program combining biotechnology and business. The objectives were to identify stakeholder preferences for various dimensions of a professional science master's program combining biotechnology and business and to identify differences in priorities between subgroups. A secondary purpose was to examine user preferences between Web-based and traditional methods of conducting a Delphi study and the panelist's impressions of its usefulness for program development. Prior to the first round, demographic data were collected on panelists regarding their gender, age, years experience in their current field, position title and education levels. Round 1 started with eight open-ended questions designed to investigate (a) learning objectives, (b) internships, (c) thesis vs. non-thesis degrees, (d) program focus (e) possible entry level positions, (f) roles for the industry advisory board, (g) recommended hours of hands-on experience and (h) other issues of importance. The final round ended with three questions to assess the panelists' perception of the usefulness of the Delphi for program development in higher education. Twenty-four panelists started Round 1 and participation in subsequent rounds varied from 17 in Round 2 to 11 in Round 4. Education level varied and included all levels of education in science and business. Issues emerged early in the study regarding development of different program tracks and the program goals, which were clarified in subsequent rounds. Significant differences occurred between industry and academic subgroups for two tracks, six skills designated for tracks, method of evaluating the internship, and entry-level positions appropriate for new graduates. When analyzed by level of confidence (high confidence vs. low confidence), significant differences occurred for (a) the number of semesters of hands-on experience students should have upon graduation, (b

  16. Identifying Critical Habitat for Australian Freshwater Turtles in a Large Regulated Floodplain: Implications for Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocock, J. F.; Bino, G.; Wassens, S.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, R. F.; Kingsford, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    Freshwater turtles face many threats, including habitat loss and river regulation reducing occupancy and contributing to population decline. Limited knowledge of hydrological conditions required to maintain viable turtle populations in large floodplain wetlands hinders effective adaptive management of environmental water in regulated rivers. We surveyed three turtle species over 4 years across the Lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain, a large wetland complex with a long history of water resource development. Using site and floodplain metrics and generalized linear models, within a Bayesian Model Averaging framework, we quantified the main drivers affecting turtle abundance. We also used a hierarchical modeling approach, requiring large sample sizes, quantifying possible environmental effects while accounting for detection probabilities of the eastern long-necked turtle ( Chelodina longicollis). The three species varied in their responses to hydrological conditions and connectivity to the main river channel. Broad-shelled turtles ( Chelodina expansa) and Macquarie River turtles ( Emydura macquarii macquarii) had restricted distributions, centered on frequently inundated wetlands close to the river, whereas the eastern long-necked turtles were more widely distributed, indicating an ability to exploit variable habitats. We conclude that turtle communities would benefit from long-term management strategies that maintain a spatiotemporal mosaic of hydrological conditions. More specifically, we identified characteristics of refuge habitats and stress the importance of maintaining their integrity during dry periods. Neighboring habitats can be targeted during increased water availability years to enhance feeding and dispersal opportunities for freshwater turtles.

  17. An in vitro co-culture model of esophageal cells identifies ascorbic acid as a modulator of cell competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner Kristin L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary dynamics between interacting heterogeneous cell types are fundamental properties of neoplastic progression but can be difficult to measure and quantify. Cancers are heterogeneous mixtures of mutant clones but the direct effect of interactions between these clones is rarely documented. The implicit goal of most preventive interventions is to bias competition in favor of normal cells over neoplastic cells. However, this is rarely explicitly tested. Here we have developed a cell culture competition model to allow for direct observation of the effect of chemopreventive or therapeutic agents on two interacting cell types. We have examined competition between normal and Barrett's esophagus cell lines, in the hopes of identifying a system that could screen for potential chemopreventive agents. Methods One fluorescently-labeled normal squamous esophageal cell line (EPC2-hTERT was grown in competition with one of four Barrett's esophagus cell lines (CP-A, CP-B, CP-C, CP-D under varying conditions and the outcome of competition measured over 14 days by flow cytometry. Results We demonstrate that ascorbic acid (vitamin C can help squamous cells outcompete Barrett's cells in this system. We are also able to show that ascorbic acid's boost to the relative fitness of squamous cells was increased in most cases by mimicking the pH conditions of gastrointestinal reflux in the lower esophagus. Conclusions This model is able to integrate differential fitness effects on various cell types, allowing us to simultaneously capture effects on interacting cell types without having to perform separate experiments. This model system may be used to screen for new classes of cancer prevention agents designed to modulate the competition between normal and neoplastic cells.

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies nox3 as a critical gene for susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lavinsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3. Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE and on auditory brainstem response (ABR. We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL.

  19. A critical evaluation of the use of cluster analysis to identify contaminated sediments in the Ria de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, B; Nombela, M. A; Vilas, F [Departamento de Geociencias Marinas y Ordenacion del Territorio, Vigo, Espana (Spain)

    2001-06-01

    The indiscriminate use of cluster analysis to distinguish contaminated and non-contaminated sediments has led us to make a comparative evaluation of different cluster analysis procedures as applied to heavy metal concentrations in subtidal sediments from the Ria de Vigo, NW Spain. The use of different clusters algorithms and other transformations from the same departing set of data lead to the formation of different clusters with a clear inconclusive result about the contamination status of the sediments. The results show that this approach is better suited to identifying groups of samples differing in sedimentological characteristics, such as grain size, rather than in the degree of contamination. Our main aim is to call attention to these aspects in cluster analysis and to suggest that researches should be rigorous with this kind of analysis. Finally, the use of discriminate analysis allows us to find a discriminate function that separates the samples into two clearly differentiated groups, which should not be treated jointly. [Spanish] El uso indiscriminado del analisis cluster para distinguir sedimentos contaminados y no contaminados nos ha llevado a realizar una evaluacion comparativa entre los diferentes procedimientos de estos analisis aplicada a la concentracion de metales pesados en sedimentos submareales de la Ria de Vigo, NW de Espana. La utilizacion de distintos algoritmos de cluster, asi como otras transformaciones de la misma matriz de datos conduce a la formacion de diferentes clusters con un resultado inconcluso sobre el estado de contaminacion de los sedimentos. Los resultados muestran que esta aproximacion se ajusta mejor para identificar grupos de muestras que difieren en caracteristicas sedimentologicas, tal como el tamano de grano, mas que el grado de contaminacion. El principal objetivo es llamar la atencion sobre estos aspectos del analisis cluster y sugerir a los investigadores que sean rigurosos con este tipo de analisis. Finalmente el uso

  20. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  1. Evaluation of BioFM liquid medium for culture of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, R S; Ramteke, S S; Gaherwar, H M; Deshpande, P S; Purohit, H J; Taori, G M; Daginawala, H

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of liquid culture medium (BioFM broth) for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF samples from 200 patients (TBM group = 150 and non-TBM group = 50) were tested for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BioFM liquid culture medium. Out of 150 TBM cases, 120 were found to be culture positive, indicating a sensitivity of 80% in BioFM broth within 2-3 weeks of inoculation. Positive cultures were also observed for CSF from 32 (64%) out of 50 non-TBM patients in BioFM liquid culture medium within 4 days of sample inoculation. Therefore, according to our study, BioFM broth system yielded 80% sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI): 67-93%] and 36% specificity (95% CI: 57-98%) for TBM diagnosis. Our results indicate that although BioFM broth allows the detection of positive cultures within a shorter time, it has a high potential for contamination or for the coexistence of M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous meningitis (NTM). This coexistence may go undetected or potentially lead to erroneous reporting of results.

  2. Evaluation of BioFM liquid medium for culture of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of liquid culture medium (BioFM broth for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF samples from 200 patients (TBM group = 150 and non-TBM group = 50 were tested for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BioFM liquid culture medium. Out of 150 TBM cases, 120 were found to be culture positive, indicating a sensitivity of 80% in BioFM broth within 2-3 weeks of inoculation. Positive cultures were also observed for CSF from 32 (64% out of 50 non-TBM patients in BioFM liquid culture medium within 4 days of sample inoculation. Therefore, according to our study, BioFM broth system yielded 80% sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI: 67-93%] and 36% specificity (95% CI: 57-98% for TBM diagnosis. Our results indicate that although BioFM broth allows the detection of positive cultures within a shorter time, it has a high potential for contamination or for the coexistence of M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous meningitis (NTM. This coexistence may go undetected or potentially lead to erroneous reporting of results.

  3. A new concept and a comprehensive evaluation of SYSMEX UF-1000i  flow cytometer to identify culture-negative urine specimens in patients with UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, T; Ryden, P

    2017-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in men and urine culture is gold standard for diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of culture-negative specimens, any method that identifies such specimens is of interest. The aim was to evaluate a new screening concept for flow cytometry analysis (FCA). The outcomes were evaluated against urine culture, uropathogen species and three conventional screening methods. A prospective, consecutive study examined 1,312 urine specimens, collected during January and February 2012. The specimens were analyzed using the Sysmex UF1000i FCA. Based on the FCA data culture negative specimens were identified in a new model by use of linear discriminant analysis (FCA-LDA). In total 1,312 patients were included. In- and outpatients represented 19.6% and 79.4%, respectively; 68.3% of the specimens originated from women. Of the 610 culture-positive specimens, Escherichia coli represented 64%, enterococci 8% and Klebsiella spp. 7%. Screening with FCA-LDA at 95% sensitivity identified 42% (552/1312) as culture negative specimens when UTI was defined according to European guidelines. The proposed screening method was either superior or similar in comparison to the three conventional screening methods. In conclusion, the proposed/suggested and new FCA-LDA screening method was superior or similar to three conventional screening methods. We recommend the proposed screening method to be used in clinic to exclude culture negative specimens, to reduce workload, costs and the turnaround time. In addition, the FCA data may add information that enhance handling and support diagnosis of patients with suspected UTI pending urine culture [corrected].

  4. Identifying Socio-Cultural Factors That Impact the Use of Open Educational Resources in Local Public Administrations

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Stoffregen; Jan M. Pawlowski; Eric Ras; Snezana Scepanovic; Dragica Zugic

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in...

  5. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  6. Análise Crítica Semiótica e Economia Política Cultural | Critical semiotic analysis and critical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Jessop

    2010-09-01

    Abstract This article defends the idea of a Cultural Political Economy – CPE, exploring the constitutive role of semiotics in economic and political activities and in the social order in general. This approach is post-disciplinary: it adopts the "cultural turn" in economic and political research, while not ignoring the articulation between semiotics and the interconnected materialities in economics and politics, within broader social formations. This approach is illustrated in the Knowledge-Based Economy – KBE as a master-discourse in accumulation strategies at different scales, state projects and hegemonic views, and diverse functional systems and professions, as well as in civil society. Keywords semiotics; economy and politics; cultural political economy; knowledge economy; cultural turn

  7. English as a Medium of Instruction in East Asia's Higher Education Sector: A Critical Realist Cultural Political Economy Analysis of Underlying Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As discourses of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy become increasingly influential in both policy-making and in public debates about education, employability and national competitiveness--the choice of language in the classroom takes on a strategic importance. The paper employs a critical realist Cultural Political Economy lens to…

  8. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  9. The development of critical and cultural literacies in a study of Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter in the South African literature classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Latha

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Languages, Literacy and Communication learning area of Curriculum 2005 endorses “intercultural understanding, access to different world views and a critical understanding of the concept of culture” (National Department of Education, 2001:44. Although this curriculum is learner-centred and tries to create a better balance in the previously asymmetrical relationship between teacher and student, it does place great demands on the educator to avoid reinforcing cultural and multipolitical ideals which are not concomitant with the principles of a multicultural democracy. Since learners are expected to respond to the aesthetic, affective, cultural and social values in texts, the educator has to act responsibly in choosing texts which promote the values inherent in Curriculum 2005. Implicit in the curriculum statement is a commitment to critical pedagogy in the literature classroom with the general aim of promoting societal transformation. As the cultural assumptions underlying particular texts are often not known or shared by all learners, it is important for the educator to facilitate an examination of these assumptions in order to promote cultural understanding and values such as religious tolerance. This article will therefore investigate the development of cultural and critical literacies in the South African literature classroom with particular focus on So Long a Letter by the postcolonial African Muslim woman writer, Mariama Ba.

  10. Identifying and Integrating Relevant Educational/Instructional Technology (E/IT) for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students with Disabilities in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to address the significant void in the literature related to technology integration for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with disabilities living in urban communities. Given that the vast majority of CLD students attend school within urban districts, the focus of this article is to (a) identify and…

  11. Identifying Socio-Cultural Factors That Impact the Use of Open Educational Resources in Local Public Administrations

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    Julia Stoffregen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in this respect, the independent choice of learning resources, the spirit of the platform, the range of available formats and access to technologies. Practitioners use these factors to elaborate on the readiness of public administrations towards the use of open e-Learning systems. To academic debates on culture in e-Learning, the results provide an alternative model that is contextualized to meet the demands of public sector contexts. Overall, the paper contributes to the lack of research about open e-Learning systems in the public sector, as well as regarding culture in the management of learning and knowledge exchange.

  12. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

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    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  13. A retrospective critic Re-Debate on Stakeholders’ resistance checklist in software project management within multi-cultural, multi-ethnical and cosmopolitan society context: The Malaysian experience

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    Hamed Taherdoost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Risks stemming from software projects were extensively studied. However, software project risk management has rarely researched organizational risks within multi-cultural and multi-ethnical atmospheres. The fact of the matter is that problems occur when the stakeholders’ cultural and ethnical aspects are not addressed, especially in multi-cultural, multi-ethnical, and cosmopolitan society such as Malaysia. To avoid analyzing something that has already been studied in detail, this study conducted based on in-depth literature review considering key word search in subject-specific databases. Journal articles published in reputed journals were reviewed. By employing Rumelt’s resistance to change checklist and culture gap tool source, this paper develops an organizational risk framework considering cross-cultural and cross-ethnical critical factors in order to show how can risks be better comprehended and managed. The significance of bio-cultural dimensions was scrutinized as vital criteria which should be considered in international project sphere, so that, not only the odds of project success would be increased but also the risks can be mitigated significantly. A review of the risk management process, Rumelt’s Checklist, cultural issues in international project environment allows a better understanding of the importance of cultural dimensions in project spheres.

  14. Integrative systems analysis of diet-induced obesity identified a critical transition in the transcriptomes of the murine liver and epididymal white adipose tissue.

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    Kim, J; Kwon, E-Y; Park, S; Kim, J-R; Choi, S-W; Choi, M-S; Kim, S-J

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that high-fat diet (HFD) can cause immune system-related pathological alterations after a significant body weight gain. The mechanisms of the delayed pathological alterations during the development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying DIO development, we analyzed time-course microarray data obtained from a previous study. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at each time point by comparing the hepatic transcriptome of mice fed HFD with that of mice fed normal diet. Next, we clustered the union of DEGs and identified annotations related to each cluster. Finally, we constructed an 'integrated obesity-associated gene regulatory network (GRN) in murine liver'. We analyzed the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) transcriptome usig the same procedure. Based on time-course microarray data, we found that the genes associated with immune responses were upregulated with an oscillating expression pattern between weeks 2 and 8, relatively downregulated between weeks 12 and 16, and eventually upregulated after week 20 in the liver of the mice fed HFD. The genes associated with immune responses were also upregulated at late stage, in the eWAT of the mice fed HFD. These results suggested that a critical transition occurred in the immune system-related transcriptomes of the liver and eWAT around week 16 of the DIO development, and this may be associated with the delayed pathological alterations. The GRN analysis suggested that Maff may be a key transcription factor for the immune system-related critical transition thatoccurred at week 16. We found that transcription factors associated with immune responses were centrally located in the integrated obesity-associated GRN in the liver. In this study, systems analysis identified regulatory network modules underlying the delayed immune system-related pathological changes during the development of DIO and could suggest possible

  15. Hip-Hop(e): The Cultural Practice and Critical Pedagogy of International Hip-Hop. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 56

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    Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…

  16. Role of blood culture systems in the evaluation of epidemiological features of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infection in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, L; Krimerman, S; Salam, N; Srugo, I

    1999-12-01

    The impact of blood culture systems on the detection of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in critically ill patients prior to and following the introduction of the Bactec 9240 blood culture system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA), which replaced the Bactec NR 730 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems), was investigated over a 3-year period. Following the introduction of the new culture system, the incidence of bloodstream infections doubled (P<0.001). Patient demographics, severity of illness, and mortality remained unchanged, while the annual standardized mortality ratio decreased significantly. These data suggest that blood culture systems may have a major impact on the perceived incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in this population.

  17. Critical Arts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both formal and informal) in culture and social theory. CRITICAL ARTS aims to challenge and ... Book Review: Brian McNair, An Introduction to Political Communication (3rd edition), London: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0415307082, 272pp. Phil Joffe ...

  18. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations. PMID:27890048

  19. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Zaidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method: The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results: Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion: Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  20. Cultural hegemony? Educators' perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with 'cultural hegemony' that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is 'critical consciousness'. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  1. Students' corner: using Te Tiriti O Waitangi to identify and address racism, and achieve cultural safety in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Keiko; Rameka, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Racism is an idea and belief that some races are superior to others (Harris et al., 2006a). This belief justifies institutional and individual practices that create and reinforce oppressive systems, inequality among racial or ethnic groups, and this creates racial hierarchy in society (Harris et al., 2006a). Recent studies have emphasised the impact of racism on ethnic health inequality (Harris et al., 2006a). In this article we analyse and discuss how nurses can challenge and reduce racism at interpersonal and institutional levels, and improve Māori health outcomes by understanding and using cultural safety in nursing practice and understanding Te Tiriti O Waitangi.

  2. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  3. Periodontitis-associated septic pulmonary embolism caused by Actinomyces species identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shun; Mishima, Eikan; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Ohi, Takashi; Ishida, Masatsugu; Yanai, Masaru; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Nagasawa, Tasuku; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Periodontal disease is a less common but important cause of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE). However, the pathogens causing periodontal disease-associated SPE (PD-SPE) have been poorly understood. Actinomyces species are resident microbiota in the oral cavity. Here we report a case of PD-SPE caused by Actinomyces species, which was identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). A 64-year-old Asian man, complicated with severe chronic periodontitis, was admitted with chest pain and fever. Chest CT revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules located subpleurally. We diagnosed the case as SPE associated with periodontitis. Although blood cultures were negative for the usual 5-day incubation, anaerobic culture of the BAL fluid sample yielded Actinomyces species. Antibacterial therapy alone did not ameliorate the symptoms; however, additional dental treatment, including tooth extraction, promptly did. The patient was discharged 23 days after admission. The 3-month follow-up revealed no recurrence of the symptoms and complete resolution of the lung lesions. This case demonstrated that Actinomyces species can cause PD-SPE. Additionally, clinicians should consider performing appropriate anaerobic culture of BAL fluid to identify the pathogen of SPE, and to ordering dental treatment, if necessary, in addition to antibiotics for the initial management of PD-SPE.

  4. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: CONTRIBUTIONS OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL

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    Julia Malanchen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work points to the articulations between the fundamentals of cultural-historical psychology and the historical-critical pedagogy, in regard the issue of content that should compose the curriculum. The correct organization of the teaching process by the teacher, through scientific knowledge, as well as the appropriation of classic content, by students, promotes mental development to raise the development of higher psychological functions at their highest possibilities. Thus, we affirm the cultural-historical psychology and the historical-critical pedagogy align themselves both with regard to the Marxist perspective of socialist revolution, as in respect to concept of formation of individuality and the role of schooling in human emancipation.

  6. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    central institutions and are implemented in different ways at subordinate levels. Commonly, communities make their own decisions regarding the use of natural resources within the framework of statutory and traditional governance and national legislation. The Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM) has been created between Angola, Namibia and Botswana to deal with transboundary subjects and facilitate informed policies. Developing such informed policies is even more urgent given demographic and climatological predictions. The African population is expected to almost double by the end of this century (Haub 2012), while climate predictions indicate an overall increase in average temperatures, added to by an increase in dry spells during the wet season and overall decreases in precipitation (IPCC 2013). This will result in increasing demands for food, paralleled by less favorable production conditions. The appropriation of resources in the wider region is therefore characterized by various, potentially conflicting demands that are likely to accumulate in space and time (Röder, Stellmes et al. 2013). A particular constraint draws from upstream-downstream issues, with a predicted increase in upstream water utilization for drinking and irrigation, while the Delta region relies on regular flood pulses of clean water to sustain its biodiversity, to which the tourist sector as a major source of national income is linked. This is threatened by the increasing concentrations of pesticides and herbicides used in the frame of irrigation schemes lowering water quality, and the change of flood pulse cycles through damming projects (Lindemann 2009). Besides national policies and regional planning programs, an equally important element in understanding the utilization of natural resources is the individual perspective of actors that may range from the conservation of traditions and cultures to stronger market integration and consumerism (Pröpper, Falk et al. 2013) that

  7. Identifying and engineering promoters for high level and sustainable therapeutic recombinant protein production in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-08-01

    Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  8. Receptor homodimerization plays a critical role in a novel dominant negative P2RY12 variant identified in a family with severe bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Rabbolini, D; Gabrielli, S; Chen, Q; Aungraheeta, R; Hutchinson, J L; Kilo, T; Mackay, J; Ward, C M; Stevenson, W; Morel-Kopp, M-C

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Three dominant variants for the autosomal recessive bleeding disorder type-8 have been described. To date, there has been no phenotype/genotype correlation explaining their dominant transmission. Proline plays an important role in P2Y12R ligand binding and signaling defects. P2Y12R homodimer formation is critical for the receptor function and signaling. Background Although inherited platelet disorders are still underdiagnosed worldwide, advances in molecular techniques are improving disease diagnosis and patient management. Objective To identify and characterize the mechanism underlying the bleeding phenotype in a Caucasian family with an autosomal dominant P2RY12 variant. Methods Full blood counts, platelet aggregometry, flow cytometry and western blotting were performed before next-generation sequencing (NGS). Detailed molecular analysis of the identified variant of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) was subsequently performed in mammalian cells overexpressing receptor constructs. Results All three referred individuals had markedly impaired ADP-induced platelet aggregation with primary wave only, despite normal total and surface P2Y12R expression. By NGS, a single P2RY12:c.G794C substitution (p.R265P) was identified in all affected individuals, and this was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Mammalian cell experiments with the R265P-P2Y12R variant showed normal receptor surface expression versus wild-type (WT) P2Y12R. Agonist-stimulated R265P-P2Y12R function (both signaling and surface receptor loss) was reduced versus WT P2Y12R. Critically, R265P-P2Y12R acted in a dominant negative manner, with agonist-stimulated WT P2Y12R activity being reduced by variant coexpression, suggesting dramatic loss of WT homodimers. Importantly, platelet P2RY12 cDNA cloning and sequencing in two affected individuals also revealed three-fold mutant mRNA overexpression, decreasing even further the likelihood of WT homodimer formation. R265 located within extracellular loop 3 (EL3) is

  9. Exploring Representations of "Super" Women in Popular Culture: Shaping Critical Discussions with Female College Students with Learning Exceptionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera; Munn, Caitlin; Lane, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how our analysis of several popular culture artifacts featuring "super" women characters (superheroes and supernatural) provided the foundation for a media discussion group for female college students with learning exceptionalities. We explore the use of popular culture in discussion groups as well as discuss…

  10. Students’ Critical Mathematical Thinking Skills and Character:Experiments for Junior High School Students through Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson L. Palinussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group that aims to assess students’ critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realistic mathematics education (RME culture-based. Subjects of this study were 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in Ambon. The instruments of the study are: students’ early math skills test, critical thinking skills mathematical test and perception scale of students’character. Data was analyzed by using t-test and Anova. The study found that: 1 Achievements and enhancement of students’ critical mathematical thinking skills who were treated with by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ skills were treated by conventional mathematics education. The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level; 2 Quality of students’ character who were treated by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ character who were treated by conventional mathematics education The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level  Keywords: Critical Thinking, Students’ Character, Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.566.75-94

  11. Combination of microbiological culture and multiplex PCR increases the range of vaginal microorganisms identified in cervical cancer patients at high risk for bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katarzyna; Cybulski, Zefiryn; Roszak, Andrzej; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Urbański, Bartosz; Odważna, Joanna; Wojciechowicz, Jacek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis in cervical cancer patients might becaused by mixed aerobic, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria. Since genital tract infections can be complicated, early and accurate identification of causal pathogens is vital. The purpose of this study was i) to determinate if currently used aerobic culture methods are sufficiently sensitive to identify pathogens that can appear in the cervix of women after cancer treatment; ii) to investigate if molecular methods can improve the diagnostic process of BV and vaginitis, as well as broaden the range of detectable pathogens that would otherwise be difficult to cultivate. A one-year hospital-based study was conducted in 2011/2012. Cervical swabs from 130 patients were examined by microbiological culture and multiplex PCR. Swab samples were positive for 107 and 93 women by microbiological culture and multiplex PCR, respectively The most common bacteria isolated from culture were: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus, and using the molecular technique were: Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Ureoplasma ureoliticum/parvum, Mobiluncus curtisii and Atopobium vaginae. Multiplex PCR might contribute to the diagnosis of genital tract infections and it broadens the number of detectable microorganisms responsible for BV. Combination of these two methods may become the basis for standardized diagnosis of BV and vaginitis.

  12. Object-Based Teaching and Learning for a Critical Assessment of Digital Technologies in Arts and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M.; Garside, D.; Nelson, T.; Robson, S.; Weyrich, T.

    2017-08-01

    As cultural sector practice becomes increasingly dependent on digital technologies for the production, display, and dissemination of art and material heritage, it is important that those working in the sector understand the basic scientific principles underpinning these technologies and the social, political and economic implications of exploiting them. The understanding of issues in cultural heritage preservation and digital heritage begins in the education of the future stakeholders and the innovative integration of technologies into the curriculum. This paper gives an example of digital technology skills embedded into a module in the interdisciplinary UCL Bachelor of Arts and Sciences, named "Technologies in Arts and Cultural Heritage", at University College London.

  13. A Comparison of the Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    As a critical unit for identifying family-constructed meanings of education, a deeper contextual understanding of Korean immigrant parents' cultural/ethnic perceptions in relation to educational beliefs should be central to culturally responsive education designed to support Korean immigrant families. It is necessary for educators to examine…

  14. Critical Aspects of Cultural Diversity in Music Education: Examining the Established Practices and Cultural Forms in Minority Language Schools in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Westvall, Maria; Heimonen, Marja

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the role of general music education within the framework of cultural diversity. The empirical part of the article focuses on teachers in Swedish-speaking minority schools in Finland and their perceptions of the relationship between music and multicultural perspectives. The results showed that in some instances it took some…

  15. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  16. OBJECT-BASED TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN ARTS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hess

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As cultural sector practice becomes increasingly dependent on digital technologies for the production, display, and dissemination of art and material heritage, it is important that those working in the sector understand the basic scientific principles underpinning these technologies and the social, political and economic implications of exploiting them. The understanding of issues in cultural heritage preservation and digital heritage begins in the education of the future stakeholders and the innovative integration of technologies into the curriculum. This paper gives an example of digital technology skills embedded into a module in the interdisciplinary UCL Bachelor of Arts and Sciences, named “Technologies in Arts and Cultural Heritage”, at University College London.

  17. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated by genotype 2a (strain JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based...... (HC-TN and DH6), 1b (DH1 and DH5), and 3a (DBN) isolates, using previously identified adaptive mutations. Introduction of mutations from isolates of the same subtype either led to immediate efficient virus production or accelerated culture adaptation. The DH6 and DH5 recombinants without introduced...... mutations did not adapt to culture. Universal adaptive effects of mutations in NS3 (Q1247L, I1312V, K1398Q, R1408W, and Q1496L) and NS5A (V2418L) were investigated for JFH1-based genotype 1 to 5 core-NS2 recombinants; several mutations conferred adaptation to H77C (1a), J4 (1b), S52 (3a), and SA13 (5a...

  18. Safety culture activities in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, I. C.; Park, C.; Hwang, S. R.; Choi, H. Y.; Jeon, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The yearly operation time and the number of users in HANARO are increasing since its initial criticality has been achieved in 1995. This achievement is partly in debt to the spread of safety culture to operators and reactor users. In this paper, the activities done by the reactor operation organization on safety culture are described, and their further efforts identified to be necessary for the improvement and dissemination of safety culture and are presented

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Australian corroboree frogs, Pseudophryne corroboree and Pseudophryne pengilleyi, identifies four evolutionarily significant units for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew J; Hunter, David; Pietsch, Rod; Osborne, William; Keogh, J Scott

    2008-08-01

    The iconic and brightly coloured Australian northern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne pengilleyi, and the southern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne corroboree are critically endangered and may be extinct in the wild within 3 years. We have assembled samples that cover the current range of both species and applied hypervariable microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences to assess the levels and patterns of genetic variation. The four loci used in the study were highly variable, the total number of alleles observed ranged from 13 to 30 and the average number of alleles per locus was 19. Expected heterozygosity of the four microsatellite loci across all populations was high and varied between 0.830 and 0.935. Bayesian clustering analyses in STRUCTURE strongly supported four genetically distinct populations, which correspond exactly to the four main allopatric geographical regions in which the frogs are currently found. Individual analyses performed on the separate regions showed that breeding sites within these four regions could not be separated into distinct populations. Twelve mtND2 haplotypes were identified from 66 individuals from throughout the four geographical regions. A statistical parsimony network of mtDNA haplotypes shows two distinct groups, which correspond to the two species of corroboree frog, but with most of the haplotype diversity distributed in P. pengilleyi. These results demonstrate an unexpectedly high level of genetic diversity in both species. Our data have important implications for how the genetic diversity is managed in the future. The four evolutionarily significant units must be protected and maintained in captive breeding programmes for as long as it is possible to do.

  20. Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Duarte, Paula; Wade, Michael G; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-05-01

    During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) using short, targeted exposures to the synthetic estrogen, ethinylestradiol (EE2). Post-hatch tadpoles (Gosner stage 27) were exposed over five distinct periods of metamorphosis: early (stage 27-30), mid (stage 30-36), early and mid (stage 27-36), late (stage 36-42), and the entire metamorphic period (chronic; stage 27-42). For each period, animals were sampled immediately following the EE2 exposure and at metamorphic climax (stage 42). The effects of EE2 on metamorphic development and sex differentiation were assessed through measures of length, weight, developmental stage, days to metamorphosis, sex ratios and incidence of gonadal intersex. Our results show that tadpoles exposed to EE2 during mid-metamorphosis were developmentally delayed immediately following exposure and took 2 weeks longer to reach metamorphic climax. In the unexposed groups, there was low proportion (0.15) of intersex tadpoles at stage 30 and gonads appeared to be morphologically distinct (male and female) in all individuals by stage 36. Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls. Moreover, these effects were also seen at metamorphic climax, approximately 2-3 months after the exposure period, demonstrating that transient early life-stage exposure to estrogen can induce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages.

  1. Developing a workbook to support the contextualisation of global health systems guidance: a case study identifying steps and critical factors for success in this process at WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Elizabeth; Lavis, John N; Brouwers, Melissa; Schwartz, Lisa

    2018-03-02

    Global guidance can help countries strengthen their health systems to deliver effective interventions to their populations. However, to have an impact, guidance needs to be contextualised or adapted to local settings; this process includes consideration of health system arrangements and political system factors. To date, methods to support contextualisation do not exist. In response, a workbook was designed to provide specific methods and strategies to enable the contextualisation of WHO's 'Optimizing health worker roles to improve maternal and newborn health' (OptimizeMNH) guidance at the national or subnational level. The objective of this study was to describe the process of developing the workbook and identify key steps of the development process, barriers that arose and facilitators that helped overcome some of these barriers. A qualitative single case study design was carried out. Interviews, documents and a reflexive journal were used. Constant comparison and an edit-style of organisation were used during data analysis to develop concepts, themes, subthemes and relationships among them. Thirteen interviews were conducted and 52 documents were reviewed. Three main steps were identified in the process of developing the workbook for health systems guidance contextualisation, namely (1) determining the need for and gaining approval to develop the workbook, (2) developing the workbook (taking on the task, creating the structure of the workbook, operationalising its components, undergoing approval processes and editing it), and (3) implementing the workbook both at the WHO level and at the national/subnational level. Five barriers and/or facilitators emerged relevant to each step, namely (1) having well-placed and credible champions, (2) creating and capitalising on opportunities, (3) finding the right language to engage various actors and obtain buy-in, (4) obtaining and maintaining meaningful buy-in, and (5) ensuring access to resources. Understanding the key

  2. Enhancing the Critical Role of Malaysian Institute of Higher Education from Ivy League American Universities Research Culture Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Hj. Kamaruzaman; Samah, Hjh. Siti Akmar Abu; Abdullah, Zaini

    2009-01-01

    Emulation by example is an old adage that has been a pragmatic initiative in great endeavors. To create a dynamic research culture too requires revisiting eminent personality and renowned organization by which one can copy in order to establish credibility. This paper explores the practicality of the emulation activities that help to establish…

  3. The contribution of culture to Korean American women's cervical cancer screening behavior: the critical role of prevention orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Roh, Soonhee; Vang, Suzanne; Jin, Seok Won

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proven benefits of Pap testing, Korean American women have one of the lowest cervical cancer screening rates in the United States. This study examined how cultural factors are associated with Pap test utilization among Korean American women participants. Quota sampling was used to recruit 202 Korean American women participants residing in New York City. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the association of cultural variables with Pap test receipt. Overall, participants in our study reported significantly lower Pap test utilization; only 58% reported lifetime receipt of this screening test. Logistic regression analysis revealed one of the cultural variables--prevention orientation--was the strongest correlate of recent Pap test use. Older age and married status were also found to be significant predictors of Pap test use. Findings suggest cultural factors should be considered in interventions promoting cervical cancer screening among Korean American women. Furthermore, younger Korean American women and those not living with a spouse/partner should be targeted in cervical cancer screening efforts.

  4. Quasi-Appropriation of Dialectical Materialism: A Critical Reading of Marxism in Vygotskian Approaches to Cultural Studies in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in "Cultural Studies of Science Education," that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By…

  5. Beyond Progressive Liberalism and Cultural Relativism: Towards Critical Postmodernist, Socio-historically Situated Perspectives in Classroom Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angel; Luk, Jasmine

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that classroom studies in the Teaching English as a Second or Other Language (TESOL) field tend to subscribe to either of the following two normative orders: Progressive liberalism or cultural relativism, without reflexively recognizing and meta-analyzing these normative frameworks and their social, historical, and political situatedness.…

  6. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

  7. Conceptualizing a Critical Discourse around Hip-Hop Culture and Black Male Youth in Educational Scholarship and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius; Beachum, Floyd

    2008-01-01

    While much of mainstream qualitative research has focused on conventional methodology, in terms of axis of inquiry, epistemology, and approaches to ground the theory of its questions to construct knowledge, educational researchers have yet to conceptually develop an alternative praxis in our work which takes into account hip-hop culture. More…

  8. Analyses of Tissue Culture Adaptation of Human Herpesvirus-6A by Whole Genome Deep Sequencing Redefines the Reference Sequence and Identifies Virus Entry Complex Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedy, Joshua G; Escriva, Eric; Topf, Maya; Gompels, Ursula A

    2017-12-31

    Tissue-culture adaptation of viruses can modulate infection. Laboratory passage and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)mid cloning of human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, resulted in genomic deletions and rearrangements altering genes encoding the virus entry complex, which affected cellular tropism, virulence, and vaccine development. Here, we analyse these effects on the reference genome for related betaherpesviruses, Roseolovirus, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) strain U1102. This virus is also naturally "cloned" by germline subtelomeric chromosomal-integration in approximately 1% of human populations, and accurate references are key to understanding pathological relationships between exogenous and endogenous virus. Using whole genome next-generation deep-sequencing Illumina-based methods, we compared the original isolate to tissue-culture passaged and the BACmid-cloned virus. This re-defined the reference genome showing 32 corrections and 5 polymorphisms. Furthermore, minor variant analyses of passaged and BACmid virus identified emerging populations of a further 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 loci, half non-synonymous indicating cell-culture selection. Analyses of the BAC-virus genome showed deletion of the BAC cassette via loxP recombination removing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based selection. As shown for HCMV culture effects, select HHV-6A SNPs mapped to genes encoding mediators of virus cellular entry, including virus envelope glycoprotein genes gB and the gH/gL complex. Comparative models suggest stabilisation of the post-fusion conformation. These SNPs are essential to consider in vaccine-design, antimicrobial-resistance, and pathogenesis.

  9. Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Applied, Critical, and Transformational Leadership: Women Principals Advancing Social Justice and Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Lorri J.; Jean-Marie, Gaëtane

    2014-01-01

    This study, based on the qualitatively rendered experiences and perceptions of educational leaders from historically underserved backgrounds in the US, argues that identity impacts leadership practice. To make this point, researchers build upon an emergent theoretical framework for applied critical leadership from the theories and traditions of…

  10. Environmentalization of the Physical Education Curriculum in Brazilian Universities: Culturally Comparative Lessons from Critical Outdoor Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cae; Payne, Phillip G.

    2017-01-01

    'Environmentalizing' curriculum in Brazil is a worthy goal of global educational reform for sustainability but is challenging given the limits to rational change thesis already argued in critical social science and post-structural deconstructionism. The federal government mandate to environmentalize undergraduate physical education programs poses…

  11. A Critical Interdisciplinary Analysis of Culturally Appropriate Research Approach and Practices in Health Care and Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Manfusa; Robinson, Lena

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of research approaches used in health and social care research with vulnerable and socially disadvantaged groups, and children and young people from minority ethnic backgrounds in Britain. The paper aims to critically examine research processes in health and social care from a psychological perspective and a social…

  12. Cultivating Engineering Ethics and Critical Thinking: A Systematic and Cross-Cultural Education Approach Using Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering…

  13. What is the DSM? Diagnostic manual, cultural icon, political battleground: an overview with suggestions for a critical research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the APA (known as the DSM) is a system for the classification of mental disorders that provides diagnostic criteria used by psychiatrists and experts in related fields. Although classification systems and standards are ubiquitous in social life, they are rarely conspicuous and almost never become an object of public debate. Yet the DSM has attained the status of a ‘cultural icon’ and has been an object of commentary and controversy ...

  14. Identificación de territorios críticos en salud materna mediante indicadores Using indicators to identify regions with critical maternal health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paz Ballivián

    2002-07-01

    Health and Social Welfare of Bolivia brought together a group of experts who, using available information, developed a method that made it possible to identify critical maternal and neonatal health sections of the country and to create a map of the health situation and of the existing health-services capacity in the 112 provinces of Bolivia. The objective of this piece is to describe the method that those experts created and applied. Methods. Two indices were created, one for the health situation and the other for the existing health-services capacity. The steps followed in this process were: 1 identifying the variables included in each index, 2 weighting the variables in each index, 3 creating a mathematical formula for each index, 4 preparing a list with the data from each province for the chosen variables and with the percentage for each province for each index, obtained by using the respective formula, 5 setting three continuous-data categories for each index, and 6 defining the taxonomy that was possible by combining the results of the two indices. Results. Applying this approach, a national map of the maternal health situation and of the existing capacity in each of the 112 Bolivian provinces was developed. This made it possible to choose a small number of provinces where the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare could work with other institutions to carry out joint interventions. The 9 selected provinces have a total of 26 municipalities, which include 17 health districts and which have 29% of the population of the country, 33% of the maternal deaths, and an estimated 35% of the early neonatal deaths. Conclusions. Using available information, this method generated a map of the overall maternal health situation in the 112 provinces of Bolivia and made it possible to identify critical geographical areas for health interventions.

  15. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    enough from the truth. Subjects were then interviewed individually in a sound booth to obtain “norming” speech data, pre- interview. We also...e.g. pitch, intensity, speaking rate, voice quality), gender, ethnicity and personality information, our machine learning experiments can classify...Have you ever been in trouble with the police?” vs. open-ended (e.g. “What is the last movie you saw that you really hated ?”) DISTRIBUTION A

  16. A multiplex PCR-based method to identify strongylid parasite larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures and/or pasture samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, S A; Knight, J S; Bouchet, C L G

    2014-02-24

    A multiplex PCR-based method was developed to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination as a means of identifying individual infective larvae from the wide range of strongylid parasite species commonly encountered in sheep in mixed sheep-cattle grazing situations in New Zealand. The strategy employed targets unique species-specific sequence markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) region of ribosomal DNA of the nematodes and utilises individual larval lysates as reaction templates. The basic assay involves two sets of reactions designed to target the ten strongylid species most often encountered in ovine faecal cultures under New Zealand conditions (viz. Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora, Nematodirus spathiger, Chabertia ovina, and Oesophagostomum venulosum). Five species-specific primers, together with a pair of "generic" (conserved) primers, are used in each of the reactions. Two products are generally amplified, one by the generic primer pair regardless of species (providing a positive PCR control) and the other (whose size is indicative of the species present) by the appropriate species-specific primer in combination with one or other of the generic primers. If necessary, any larvae not identified by these reactions can subsequently be tested using primers designed specifically to detect those species less frequently encountered in ovine faecal cultures (viz. Ostertagia ostertagi, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Cooperia punctata, Nematodirus filicollis, and Bunostomum trigonocephalum). Results of assays undertaken on >5500 nematode larvae cultured from lambs on 16 different farms distributed throughout New Zealand indicated that positive identifications were initially obtained for 92.8% of them, while a further 4.4% of reactions gave a generic but no visible specific product and 2.8% gave no discernible

  17. PATH OF PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROPOSAL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN VIEW OF BAURU THEORY PEDAGOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.

  18. Critical analysis of 3-D organoid in vitro cell culture models for high-throughput drug candidate toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkina, Anna; Grainger, David W

    2014-04-01

    Drug failure due to toxicity indicators remains among the primary reasons for staggering drug attrition rates during clinical studies and post-marketing surveillance. Broader validation and use of next-generation 3-D improved cell culture models are expected to improve predictive power and effectiveness of drug toxicological predictions. However, after decades of promising research significant gaps remain in our collective ability to extract quality human toxicity information from in vitro data using 3-D cell and tissue models. Issues, challenges and future directions for the field to improve drug assay predictive power and reliability of 3-D models are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Cultural and Critical Studies Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Cultural and Critical Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 10 selected papers: "Sex Noise Makes Macho Magazines Both Teasing and Tedious" (Jacqueline Lambiase and Tom Reichert); "The Buccaneer as Cultural Metaphor: Pirate Mythology in Nineteenth-Century American Periodicals" (Janice Hume); "Looking…

  20. Effect of culture medium on polymer production and temperature on recovery of polymer produced from newly identified Rhyzopus oryzae ST29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermotolerant fungal isolate ST29 was identified by observing on cell morphology and molecular technique based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene to be Rhizopus oryzae. Among four culture media tested, the strain exhibited the highest growth in yeast malt extract (YM medium (4.87 g/l, followed by Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB (4.25 g/l, potato dextrose broth (PDB (4.10 g/l and palm oil mill effluent (POME (3.29 g/l, respectively, after 4 days cultivation at 45oC. However, the strain was found to produce polymer only in POME medium at 45oC, but not in the three synthetic media tested. Effect of temperature on separation of the biopolymer produced by this fungal strain was studied by incubating the culture broth in water bath with temperatures in the range of room temperature to 70oC. The biopolymer was recovered by filtration, centrifugation, and precipitation by adding 4 volumes of 95% ethanol, then freeze-drying. These temperatures therefore had no influence on the biopolymer yields (5.58-5.78 g/l or on biomass yields (2.90-3.29 g/l.

  1. Identifying Individual, Cultural and Asthma-Related Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Resilient Asthma Outcomes in Urban Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Jandasek, Barbara; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B.; Potter, Christina; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to identify individual, family/cultural, and illness-related protective factors that may minimize asthma morbidity in the context of multiple urban risks in a sample of inner-city children and families. Methods Participating families are from African-American (33), Latino (51) and non-Latino white (47) backgrounds. A total of 131 children with asthma (56% male), ages 6–13 years and their primary caregivers were included. Results Analyses supported the relationship between cumulative risks and asthma morbidity across children of the sample. Protective processes functioned differently by ethnic group. For example, Latino families exhibited higher levels of family connectedness, and this was associated with lower levels of functional limitation due to asthma, in the context of risks. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of examining multilevel protective processes that may guard against urban risks factors to decrease morbidity. Intervention programs for families from specific ethnic groups can be tailored to consider individual, family-based/cultural and illness-related supports that decrease stress and enhance aspects of asthma treatment. PMID:22408053

  2. Bicarbonate Plays a Critical Role in the Generation of Cytotoxicity during SIN-1 Decomposition in Culture Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Shirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1 is used as a donor of peroxynitrite (ONOO− in various studies. We demonstrated, however, that, the cell-culture medium remains cytotoxic to PC12 cells even after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition, suggesting that reaction product(s in the medium, rather than ONOO−, exert cytotoxic effects. Here, we clarified that significant cytotoxicity persists after SIN-1 decomposes in bicarbonate, a component of the culture medium, but not in NaOH. Cytotoxic SIN-1-decomposed bicarbonate, which lacks both oxidizing and nitrosating activities, degrades to innocuous state over time. The extent of SIN-1 cytotoxicity, irrespective of its fresh or decomposed state, appears to depend on the total number of initial SIN-1 molecules per cell, rather than its concentration, and involves oxidative/nitrosative stress-related cell damage. These results suggest that, despite its low abundance, the bicarbonate-dependent cytotoxic substance that accumulates in the medium during SIN-1 breakdown is the cytotoxic entity of SIN-1.

  3. DEPTOR-mTOR Signaling Is Critical for Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation Homeostasis of Lymphocytes in Human PBMC Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-bing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues causes autoimmune diseases, such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Irregular lipid metabolism and inflammation may be a significant cause of autoimmune diseases. Although much progress has been made, mechanisms of initiation and proceeding of metabolic and inflammatory regulation in autoimmune disease have not been well-defined. And novel markers for the detection and therapy of autoimmune disease are urgent. mTOR signaling is a central regulator of extracellular metabolic and inflammatory processes, while DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR is a natural inhibitor of mTOR. Here, we report that overexpression of DEPTOR reduces mTORC1 activity in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Combination of DEPTOR overexpression and mTORC2/AKT inhibitors effectively inhibits lipogenesis and inflammation in lymphocytes of PBMC culture. Moreover, DEPTOR knockdown activates mTORC1 and increases lipogenesis and inflammations. Our findings provide a deep insight into the relationship between lipid metabolism and inflammations via DEPTOR-mTOR pathway and imply that DEPTOR-mTOR in lymphocytes of PBMC culture has the potential to be as biomarkers for the detection and therapies of autoimmune diseases.

  4. A critical examination of the construct of perfectionism and its relationship to mental health in Asian and African Americans using a cross-cultural framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Rendón, María José

    2012-04-01

    Although the bulk of the research literature on the construct of perfectionism and its relationship to mental health in the last 20 years has focused predominantly on Caucasian American samples, researchers are paying increasing attention to understanding perfectionism's dimensions across ethnicities. Given this momentum, the purpose of this paper is to use a cross-cultural framework to review published studies assessing perfectionism in members of an ethnic minority group living in the United States. Research to date has focused exclusively on Asian and African American samples and we organize our review by separating this literature into those studies that use level and structure-oriented cross-cultural approaches. Structure-oriented approaches empirically explore the phenomenology and/or correlates of perfectionism within each ethnic group whereas level-oriented approaches examine the relative magnitude of perfectionism's levels across groups. The last section of the review critically examines the strength of the evidence in support of researchers' arguments that certain sociocultural factors, such as collectivism and parenting style, influence perfectionism's expression and implications for ethnic minorities. Throughout the review, we offer a series of steps researchers can take to foster our understanding of perfectionism and its impacts using a cross-cultural perspective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Can we talk?" Using critical self-reflection and dialogue to build diversity and change organizational culture in nursing schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Carol Parker

    2006-01-01

    Nursing is often cited as a homogenous profession composed of a predominance of white females. It is sometimes posited that this homogeneity might be a contributor to the disparity of nursing care available to minority populations (Blakeney, 2002; Leininger, 1991). Today's nursing students do not mirror the nation's population as only 12.3% of RNs represent racial or ethnic minority groups (AACN, 2001). The absence of sufficiently diverse students in nursing schools, may have led to a dearth of qualified providers in underrepresented neighborhoods. Building diversity in nursing schools prepared specifically to reduce health disparities is, and will continue to be a challenge. While, some schools are beginning to yield successful returns, many are still searching for answers. The answer is not as simple as "increasing the numbers" or sending people to training seminars or conferences. This article focuses on what the author believes to be a preliminary and critical step to begin an effective and successful diversity initiative--critical self-reflection and dialogue. This involves the examination and deconstruction of old paradigms, assumptions, and prejudices, individually and collectively held and the construction of space, respect, and humility to discuss self in relation to "other."

  6. Confidence in critical care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeanne; Bell, Jennifer L; Sweeney, Annemarie E; Morgan, Jennifer I; Kelly, Helen M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the nursing phenomenon, confidence, from the experience of nurses in the nursing subculture of critical care. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality guided this qualitative descriptive study. Questions derived from the sunrise model were used to elicit nurses' perspectives about cultural and social structures that exist within the critical care nursing subculture and the influence that these factors have on confidence. Twenty-eight critical care nurses from a large Canadian healthcare organization participated in semistructured interviews about confidence. Five themes arose from the descriptions provided by the participants. The three themes, tenuously navigating initiation rituals, deliberately developing holistic supportive relationships, and assimilating clinical decision-making rules were identified as social and cultural factors related to confidence. The remaining two themes, preserving a sense of security despite barriers and accommodating to diverse challenges, were identified as environmental factors related to confidence. Practice and research implications within the culture of critical care nursing are discussed in relation to each of the themes.

  7. The Impact of Cultural Dimensions on Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rey, Pilar; Barbera, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasingly multicultural nature of e-learning environments, it is critical that instructors and instructional designers be aware of the importance of cultural factors in education and that they deliver culturally adaptive instruction. The main challenge of this paper is identifying the critical success factors for multicultural online…

  8. EL ENSAYO ARGENTINO COMO POLÍTICA CULTURAL Y REMEMORACIÓN CRÍTICA DE LA MODERNIDAD / THE ARGENTINE ESSAY AS CULTURAL POLICY AND CRITICAL REMINISCENCE OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Yedro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto busca dar cuenta de algunas ideas en torno al ensayo el caso particular de Nicolás Casullo, figura intelectual relevante del ensayismo del medio cultural argentino en las últimas décadas. Particularmente en su método de rememoración, esto es la crítica esbozada contra lógicas neoliberales apelando a saberes de la historia moderna. El texto tiene tres partes: la primera aborda, sucintamente, algunas ideas sobre el ensayo que aparecen en el medio intelectual argentino en el siglo XX. La segunda atiende al género del ensayo en la perspectiva de Casullo. Finalmente, tomando la figura del autor nos centraremos en su crítica al neoliberalismo desde la rememoración de la historia moderna. / This paper explores some ideas about the essay seen as cultural policy of resistance and transformation that in the Argentine intellectual scene operated in the form of criticism towards certain logics unfolded during the years of neoliberalism. We focus on the particular case of Nicolás Casullo, a relevant intellectual figure of essayism in the Argentine cultural scenario in the last decades. Particularly, in his method of reminiscence there is a criticism against neoliberal logics referring to instances of knowledge from modern history. The article is organized into three parts: the first one examines some ideas on the essay in the Argentine intellectual scene in the Twentieth Century. The second one deals with the genre of the essay from the perspective of Casullo. Finally, taking the figure of the author into account we concentrate on his critique towards neoliberalism from the reminiscence of modern history.

  9. Childbirth traditions and cultural perceptions of safety in Nepal: critical spaces to ensure the survival of mothers and newborns in remote mountain villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Sabitra; Hancock, Heather; Newman, Lareen A

    2013-10-01

    to uncover local beliefs regarding pregnancy and birth in remote mountainous villages of Nepal in order to understand the factors which impact on women's experiences of pregnancy and childbirth and the related interplay of tradition, spiritual beliefs, risk and safety which impact on those experiences. this study used a qualitative methodological approach with in-depth interviews framework within social constructionist and feminist critical theories. the setting comprised two remote Nepalese mountain villages where women have high rates of illiteracy, poverty, disadvantage, maternal and newborn mortality, and low life expectancy. Interviews were conducted between February and June, 2010. twenty five pregnant/postnatal women, five husbands, five mothers-in-law, one father-in-law, five service providers and five community stakeholders from the local communities were involved. Nepalese women, their families and most of their community strongly value their childbirth traditions and associated spiritual beliefs and they profoundly shape women's views of safety and risk during pregnancy and childbirth, influencing how birth and new motherhood fit into daily life. These intense culturally-based views of childbirth safety and risk conflict starkly with the medical view of childbirth safety and risk. if maternity services are to improve maternal and neonatal survival rates in Nepal, maternity care providers must genuinely partner with local women inclusive of their cultural beliefs, and provide locally based primary maternity care. Women will then be more likely to attend maternity care services, and benefit from feeling culturally safe and culturally respected within their spiritual traditions of birth supported by the reduction of risk provided by informed and reverent medicalised care. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity vs. Difference: A Critical Analysis of Hybridity and Cultural Identity Crisis in the Novels of Cheikh Hamidou Kane and Chinua Achebe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Abdoulaye DIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity has been one of the most recurrent themes of the African fiction during and after the colonial period. It is one of the complex issues of postcolonial Africa as it was difficult for many Négritude writers, such as Léopold Sédar Senghor, Aimé Césaire, and Frantz Fanon, to find a common ground on what colonization bequeathed to Africa. Hence, Senghor (1977 came up with the oxymoron of “colonization as a necessary evil”. However, to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of colonization to Africans, in terms of impact, one should go further than expected to approve or dismantle Senghor’s position. The issues of cultural hybridity and identity crisis are still topical in African literature. Also, in the context of globalization, it is relevant to study the post-independence situation of African societies as represented by their early prominent and visionary writers such as Chinua Achebe from Nigeria and Cheikh Hamidou Kane from Senegal. Therefore, hybridity becomes a concern, through which writers address the dilemma of the African. They portray the intellectual who is entrapped in two different cultures and becomes alienated. The corpus of this article showcases this phenomenon through the characters of Obi Okonkwo in No Longer at Ease (1960 and Samba Diallo in Ambiguous Adventure (1962. Through a critical analysis and a post-colonial perspective, the article focuses on identity crisis, alongside the contentious debate over cultural diversity versus cultural difference, which is highly reflected in the novels investigated in the paper.

  11. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Parrish; Jennifer A. Linder-VanBerschot

    2010-01-01

    The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framewor...

  12. Quasi-appropriation of dialectical materialism: a critical reading of Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in Cultural Studies of Science Education, that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By closely examining these categories ("thesis, antithesis and synthesis," "unity of analysis," "History," "revolution," "materialism") we expect to enrich the general discussion about the possible contributions of Marxism to science education. We perceive part of science education practice as orientating toward positivism, which reduces human beings—teachers, learners and researchers—to isolated individuals who construct knowledge by themselves. The very same approach aggravates the inner contradiction of the capitalist society demanding commitments from researchers to continually build innovative science education from human praxis. Nevertheless, it is necessary to situate ourselves beyond a formal commitment with dialectical materialism and hence reach the heart of this method. Besides understanding the researchers' commitments, we question the extent to which the respective research helps to radically refresh the current view on science, science education practice, and research in science education.

  13. Optimization of critical factors to enhance polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis by mixed culture using Taguchi design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Venkateswar Reddy, M

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing different factors is crucial for enhancement of mixed culture bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) production. Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence and specific function of eight important factors (iron, glucose concentration, VFA concentration, VFA composition, nitrogen concentration, phosphorous concentration, pH, and microenvironment) on the bioplastics production. Three levels of factor (2(1) × 3(7)) variation were considered with symbolic arrays of experimental matrix [L(18)-18 experimental trails]. All the factors were assigned with three levels except iron concentration (2(1)). Among all the factors, microenvironment influenced bioplastics production substantially (contributing 81%), followed by pH (11%) and glucose concentration (2.5%). Validation experiments were performed with the obtained optimum conditions which resulted in improved PHA production. Good substrate degradation (as COD) of 68% was registered during PHA production. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  15. Emory University: MEDICI (Mining Essentiality Data to Identify Critical Interactions) for Cancer Drug Target Discovery and Development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has developed a computational methodology to combine high-throughput knockdown data with known protein network topologies to infer the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for the survival of cancer cells.  Applying these data to the Achilles shRNA results, the CCLE cell line characterizations, and known and newly identified PPIs provides novel insights for potential new drug targets for cancer therapies and identifies important PPI hubs.

  16. Autonomous Histories of Muslim Women Cultural Poetics; A Critical Reading of the Personal/Academic Narratives of Leila Ahmed and Amina Wadud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeer Abo El Nagah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Louis Montrose's "Professing the Renaissance: the Poetics and Politics of Culture" renewed concern with the historical, social and political conditions of literary productions (1989. He suggested a platform through which autonomous aesthetics and academic issues to be understood as inextricably linked to other discourses. While autobiography is considered as a "writing back," I argue here that it is rather a strategic transitional act that connects the past with the present and remaps the future. Though a very personal opening, autobiography is seen as a documentation of public events from a personal perspective. Academic autobiographies like Arab American history professor Leila Ahmad's A Border Passage from Cairo to America; A Woman’s Journey (2012 and African American theology professor Amina Wadud’s Inside the Gender Jihad (2008 are two examples of the production of interwoven private and public histories. The personal opening in such narratives is an autonomous act that initiates cross-disciplinary dialogues that trigger empowerment and proposes future changes. In that sense, these autobiographies are far from being mere stories of the past. Conversely, they are tools of rereading one's contributions and thus repositioning the poetics and politics of culture as testimonial narratives. Employing post-colonial, Islamic feminism and new historicism, the aim of this study is to critically read the above academic/personal two autobiographies as examples of the private/ public negotiations of culture. It also aims to explore the dialogue between the literary, historical and social elements as they remap the future of women in Muslim societies and the diaspora.

  17. Introduction to four reviews addressing critical topics identified by the 2015 Nurse Practitioner Research Agenda Roundtable: Priorities for policy, workforce, education, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Susan W; Klein, Tracy; Cooke, Cindy; Cook, Michelle L; Knestrick, Joyce; Dickins, Kirsten

    2018-05-04

    In 2015, an invitational think tank was convened by the Fellows of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners to update the 2010 Nurse Practitioner (NP) Research Agenda Roundtable. This effort was undertaken to provide guidance for future health care research. The purpose of this article is to introduce the process used for conducting four reviews that address critical topics related to specific research priorities emanating from the 2015 NP Research Agenda Roundtable. The four reviews are published in this issue of Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (JAANP) to address the state of current research relevant to NP policy, workforce, education, and practice. This introductory article provides an overview of the systematic process used to evaluate the four topical area. The type of review selected, the search strategy, critical appraisal, data extraction, and data synthesis will be further described in the four review articles. Four reviews that examine literature regarding specific aims important to NPs will address strengths as well as gaps in the literature. The knowledge offered by the four reviews has the potential to inform future research, which will benefit NPs and other health care stakeholders.

  18. End-of-life care across Southern Europe: a critical review of cultural similarities and differences between Italy, Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meñaca, Arantza; Evans, Natalie; Andrew, Erin V W; Toscani, Franco; Finetti, Silvia; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard; Pool, Robert; Gysels, Marjolein

    2012-06-01

    Evidence from a range of sources demonstrates that end-of-life (EoL) care practices and preferences vary across countries; culture is consistently one of the main explanations given for this. In order to understand how cultural factors are used to explain similarities and differences in EoL care between Spain, Italy and Portugal, database and hand searches were performed and cross-cutting core themes identified. Similarities included higher proportions of people who wished to die at home than actually died at home, a persistent trend for partial disclosure in Italy and Spain, low use of advance directives, and low incidence of all medical EoL decisions (with the exception of terminal sedation) compared to northern European countries. The role of religion and the importance of family ties were the two main cultural factors used to explain the similarities. Further research is needed in order to interpret the important differences that were also found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What is Culture? Kant and Simmel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kyslan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immanuel Kant and Georg Simmel both lived in different cultural atmospheres. While the former is the one who reflects upon the enlightenment era with criticism and hope, the latter evaluates capitalism and the industrial era with apathetic criticism. However, both of them have managed to philosophically grasp the phenomenon of culture in its universality and true meaning. This text aims at identifying the parallels between the spirits of both eras.

  20. Critical evaluation of gamma-irradiated serum used as feeder in the culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Martel

    Full Text Available The culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria (NB and calcifying nanoparticles (CNP from human and animal tissues has relied primarily on the use of a culture supplement consisting of FBS that had been gamma-irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy (gamma-FBS. The use of gamma-FBS is based on the assumption that this sterilized fluid has been rid entirely of any residual NB/CNP, while it continues to promote the slow growth in culture of NB/CNP from human/animal tissues. We show here that gamma-irradiation (5-50 kGy produces extensive dose-dependent serum protein breakdown as demonstrated through UV and visible light spectrophotometry, fluorometry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Yet, both gamma-FBS and gamma-irradiated human serum (gamma-HS produce NB/CNP in cell culture conditions that are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable from their normal serum counterparts. Contrary to earlier claims, gamma-FBS does not enhance the formation of NB/CNP from several human body fluids (saliva, urine, ascites, and synovial fluid tested. In the presence of additional precipitating ions, both gamma-irradiated serum (FBS and HS and gamma-irradiated proteins (albumin and fetuin-A retain the inherent dual NB inhibitory and seeding capabilities seen also with their untreated counterparts. By gel electrophoresis, the particles formed from both gamma-FBS and gamma-HS are seen to have assimilated into their scaffold the same smeared protein profiles found in the gamma-irradiated sera. However, their protein compositions as identified by proteomics are virtually identical to those seen with particles formed from untreated serum. Moreover, particles derived from human fluids and cultured in the presence of gamma-FBS contain proteins derived from both gamma-FBS and the human fluid under investigation-a confusing and unprecedented scenario indicating that these particles harbor proteins from both the host tissue and the FBS

  1. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  2. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  3. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  4. Critical modeling parameters identified for 3D CFD modeling of rectangular final settling tanks for New York City wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Xanthos, S; Gong, M; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; McCorquodale, J A

    2012-01-01

    New York City Environmental Protection is in the process of incorporating biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in its wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which entails operating the aeration tanks with higher levels of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) than a conventional activated sludge process. The objective of this paper is to discuss two of the important parameters introduced in the 3D CFD model that has been developed by the City College of New York (CCNY) group: (a) the development of the 'discrete particle' measurement technique to carry out the fractionation of the solids in the final settling tank (FST) which has critical implications in the prediction of the effluent quality; and (b) the modification of the floc aggregation (K(A)) and floc break-up (K(B)) coefficients that are found in Parker's flocculation equation (Parker et al. 1970, 1971) used in the CFD model. The dependence of these parameters on the predictions of the CFD model will be illustrated with simulation results on one of the FSTs at the 26th Ward WWTP in Brooklyn, NY.

  5. How Many Interviews Are Enough to Identify Metathemes in Multisited and Cross-Cultural Research? Another Perspective on Guest, Bunce, and Johnson's (2006) Landmark Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K.; Wutich, Amber

    2017-01-01

    There is much debate over the number of interviews needed to reach data saturation for themes and metathemes in qualitative research. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the number of interviews needed to reach data saturation for metathemes in multisited and cross-cultural research. The analysis is based on a cross-cultural study on…

  6. Digital Storytelling: A Tool for Identifying and Developing Cultural Competence with Preservice Teachers in an Introduction to Middle Level Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Nancy; Adcock, Lee T.; Crave, Jared

    2017-01-01

    Using five themes associated with a diversity intensive undergraduate course, preservice teachers in an upper level introduction to middle grade course described their knowledge of cultural competence using digital storytelling as the tool. Findings suggest digital storytelling provides a tool to explore and describe how cultural competence is…

  7. Characterization of novel tumor stroma markers identified by gene expression profiling of human cancer tissues and 3D co-culture models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, C.

    2010-01-01

    The tumor stroma plays an important role in tumorigenesis. During cancer progression it undergoes changes in architecture, gene expression and secretion of proteolytic enzymes that are essential for the invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant tumors. Cancer associated fibroblasts (Cafes) represent the major cellular component of the stroma and recent studies demonstrated the prognostic and therapeutic significance of CaF-related molecular signatures. The identification and characterization of genes and signaling pathways involved in the molecular interactions between tumor and stromal cells has been the focus of this study. For that purpose we have used two complementary approaches: the identification of novel tumor stroma targets in human colon cancer samples using whole genome Affymetrix GeneChip analysis and the validation of theses targets in a newly established of 3D co-culture model that mimics the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of human cancers. We have demonstrated increased expression of gene sets related to hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TGFβ pathway activation in CAFs vs their normal counterparts in both systems. The putative TGFβ target IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7) was identified as a tumor stroma marker of epithelial cancers and as a tumor antigen in mesenchyme-derived sarcomas. IGFPB7 was shown to promote anchorage-independent growth in malignant mesenchymal cells and malignant epithelial cells with an EMT-phenotype, whereas a tumor suppressor function was observed in tumor epithelial cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that a number of important signaling pathways involved in cancer progression and metastasis are specifically dysregulated in the tumor stroma both in our in vivo screen and in the in vitro 3D model, illustrating the value of these approaches for the identification and characterization of novel stromal markers. (author) [de

  8. Effect of glycine nitrogen on lettuce growth under soilless culture: a metabolomics approach to identify the main changes occurred in plant primary and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Feng, Lei; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiaosong; Hassani, Danial; Huang, Danfeng

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic nitrogen (N) could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mmol L -1 nitrate or 9 mmol L -1 glycine for 4 weeks. Primary and secondary metabolites were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/IMS/QTOF-MS). Data analysis revealed that 29 metabolites were significantly altered between nitrate and glycine treatments. Metabolites were tentatively identified by comparison with online databases, literature and standards and using collision cross-section values. Significant differences in flavonoid biosynthesis, phenolic biosynthesis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle response were observed between N sources. Compared with nitrate, glycine promoted accumulation of glycosylated flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-(6″-malonyl-glucoside), luteolin 7-glucuronide, luteolin 7-glucoside), ascorbic acid and amino acids (l-valine, l-leucine, l-glutamine, asparagine, l-serine, l-ornithine, 4-aminobutanoic acid, l-phenylalanine) but reduced phenolic acids (dihydroxybenzoic acid hexose isomers 1 and 2, chicoric acid, chicoric acid isomer 1) and TCA intermediates (fumaric, malic, citric and succinic acids). The novel methodology applied in this study can be used to characterize metabolites in lettuce. Accumulation of glycosylated flavonoids, amino acids and ascorbic acid in response to glycine supply provides strong evidence supporting the idea that using amino acids as an N source alters the nutritional value of vegetable crops. © 2017

  9. Proteomics and pathway analysis identifies JNK signaling as critical for high linear energy transfer radiation-induced apoptosis in non-small lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Sara; Fung, Eva; Adams, Christopher; Lengqvist, Johan; Mörk, Birgitta; Stenerlöw, Bo; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lehtiö, Janne; Zubarev, Roman; Viktorsson, Kristina

    2009-05-01

    During the past decade, we have witnessed an explosive increase in generation of large proteomics data sets, not least in cancer research. There is a growing need to extract and correctly interpret information from such data sets to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. A pathway search engine (PSE) has recently been developed as a novel tool intended to meet these requirements. Ionizing radiation (IR) is an anticancer treatment modality that triggers multiple signal transduction networks. In this work, we show that high linear energy transfer (LET) IR induces apoptosis in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, U-1810, whereas low LET IR does not. PSE was applied to study changes in pathway status between high and low LET IR to find pathway candidates of importance for high LET-induced apoptosis. Such pathways are potential clinical targets, and they were further validated in vitro. We used an unsupervised shotgun proteomics approach where high resolution mass spectrometry coupled to nanoflow liquid chromatography determined the identity and relative abundance of expressed proteins. Based on the proteomics data, PSE suggested the JNK pathway (p = 6.10(-6)) as a key event in response to high LET IR. In addition, the Fas pathway was found to be activated (p = 3.10(-5)) and the p38 pathway was found to be deactivated (p = 0.001) compared with untreated cells. Antibody-based analyses confirmed that high LET IR caused an increase in phosphorylation of JNK. Moreover pharmacological inhibition of JNK blocked high LET-induced apoptotic signaling. In contrast, neither an activation of p38 nor a role for p38 in high LET IR-induced apoptotic signaling was found. We conclude that, in contrast to conventional low LET IR, high LET IR can trigger activation of the JNK pathway, which in turn is critical for induction of apoptosis in these cells. Thus PSE predictions were largely confirmed, and PSE was proven to be a useful hypothesis-generating tool.

  10. A comparison of pedigree- and DNA-based measures for identifying inbreeding depression in the critically endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerly, Susan C; Morrow, Michael E; Johnson, Jeff A

    2013-11-01

    The primary goal of captive breeding programmes for endangered species is to prevent extinction, a component of which includes the preservation of genetic diversity and avoidance of inbreeding. This is typically accomplished by minimizing mean kinship in the population, thereby maintaining equal representation of the genetic founders used to initiate the captive population. If errors in the pedigree do exist, such an approach becomes less effective for minimizing inbreeding depression. In this study, both pedigree- and DNA-based methods were used to assess whether inbreeding depression existed in the captive population of the critically endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), a subspecies of prairie grouse that has experienced a significant decline in abundance and concurrent reduction in neutral genetic diversity. When examining the captive population for signs of inbreeding, variation in pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (f(pedigree)) was less than that obtained from DNA-based methods (f(DNA)). Mortality of chicks and adults in captivity were also positively correlated with parental relatedness (r(DNA)) and f(DNA), respectively, while no correlation was observed with pedigree-based measures when controlling for additional variables such as age, breeding facility, gender and captive/release status. Further, individual homozygosity by loci (HL) and parental rDNA values were positively correlated with adult mortality in captivity and the occurrence of a lethal congenital defect in chicks, respectively, suggesting that inbreeding may be a contributing factor increasing the frequency of this condition among Attwater's Prairie-chickens. This study highlights the importance of using DNA-based methods to better inform management decisions when pedigrees are incomplete or errors may exist due to uncertainty in pairings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Proteomics and Pathway Analysis Identifies JNK Signaling as Critical for High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation-induced Apoptosis in Non-small Lung Cancer Cells*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Sara; Fung, Eva; Adams, Christopher; Lengqvist, Johan; Mörk, Birgitta; Stenerlöw, Bo; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lehtiö, Janne; Zubarev, Roman; Viktorsson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    During the past decade, we have witnessed an explosive increase in generation of large proteomics data sets, not least in cancer research. There is a growing need to extract and correctly interpret information from such data sets to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. A pathway search engine (PSE) has recently been developed as a novel tool intended to meet these requirements. Ionizing radiation (IR) is an anticancer treatment modality that triggers multiple signal transduction networks. In this work, we show that high linear energy transfer (LET) IR induces apoptosis in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, U-1810, whereas low LET IR does not. PSE was applied to study changes in pathway status between high and low LET IR to find pathway candidates of importance for high LET-induced apoptosis. Such pathways are potential clinical targets, and they were further validated in vitro. We used an unsupervised shotgun proteomics approach where high resolution mass spectrometry coupled to nanoflow liquid chromatography determined the identity and relative abundance of expressed proteins. Based on the proteomics data, PSE suggested the JNK pathway (p = 6·10−6) as a key event in response to high LET IR. In addition, the Fas pathway was found to be activated (p = 3·10−5) and the p38 pathway was found to be deactivated (p = 0.001) compared with untreated cells. Antibody-based analyses confirmed that high LET IR caused an increase in phosphorylation of JNK. Moreover pharmacological inhibition of JNK blocked high LET-induced apoptotic signaling. In contrast, neither an activation of p38 nor a role for p38 in high LET IR-induced apoptotic signaling was found. We conclude that, in contrast to conventional low LET IR, high LET IR can trigger activation of the JNK pathway, which in turn is critical for induction of apoptosis in these cells. Thus PSE predictions were largely confirmed, and PSE was proven to be a useful hypothesis-generating tool. PMID:19168796

  12. Identification of irradiated food. I.-A test established on the ''in vitro'' culture of potato buds to identify the irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method based upon the ''in vitro'' culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (author)

  13. Identification of irradiated food. I.- A test established on the in vitro culture of potato buds to identified the irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method based upon the in vitro culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (Author) 9 refs

  14. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member - Homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Witz, Sandra

    2014-03-12

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members. 2014 Witz et al.

  15. Robust full-length hepatitis C virus genotype 2a and 2b infectious cultures using mutations identified by a systematic approach applicable to patient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, but treatment options are limited. Basic HCV research required for vaccine and drug development has been hampered by inability to culture patient isolates, and to date only the JFH1 (genotype 2a) recombinant...... represents an important advance, and the approach used might permit culture development of other isolates, with implications for improved individualized treatments of HCV patients and for development of broadly efficient vaccines....

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Critical and Cultural Studies Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Critical and Cultural Studies Division of the proceedings contains the following 6 papers: "Examining Diversity in Cable Television: A Proposal for Linking Diversity of Content to Diversity of Ownership" (Siho Nam); "'The Agency': Naturalizing Terrorism" (Sue Lawrence); "Television News and Gender-Relevant Visual…

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Cultural and Critical Studies Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Cultural and Critical Studies Division section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "'Grimm' News Indeed--'Madstones,' Clever Toads, and Killer Tarantulas: Fairy-Tale Briefs in Wild West Newspapers" (Paulette Kilmer); "The First Amendment and the Doctrine of Corporate Personhood: Collapsing the Press-Corporation…

  18. Cultural Centre, Destination Cultural Offer and Visitor Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxiang Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to establish the link between tourists’ perceptions on cultural offers and their overall satisfaction, and explore the implication of this link for sustainable tourist destination management. Assessing online customers’ reviews, this study identifies a positive correlation between visitors’ perspectives and experiences at the on-site cultural centre and visitors’ destination satisfaction. It suggests that the on-site cultural centre plays a critical role in building up visitors’ perception on cultural attributes of the destination, and its impact on visitor satisfaction is a double-edged sword. Visitors’ positive perspectives on the cultural centre enhance visitors’ experiences and contribute to their destination satisfaction; however, not only does a negative perspective on their cultural and spiritual experience compromise visitors’ satisfaction, but also subsequent negative online reviews damage the destination image and discourage visitor return/visit. The findings help destination management organisations to better understand visitors’ preference for cultural centres and therefore to improve visitors’ cultural experience. This paper appeals for further study of on-site cultural centres’ role in forming destination cultural attributes, and of social media’s potential in enriching cultural experience.

  19. The needs of the relatives in the adult intensive care unit: Cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Chilean-Spanish version of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Silva, Noelia; Padilla Fortunatti, Cristobal; Molina Muñoz, Yerko; Amthauer Rojas, Macarena

    2017-12-01

    The admission of a patient to an intensive care unit is an extraordinary event for their family. Although the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory is the most commonly used questionnaire for understanding the needs of relatives of critically ill patients, no Spanish-language version is available. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate theCritical Care Family Needs Inventory in a sample of Chilean relatives of intensive care patients. The back-translated version of the inventory was culturally adapted following input from 12 intensive care and family experts. Then, it was evaluated by 10 relatives of recently transferred ICU patients and pre-tested in 10 relatives of patients that were in the intensive care unit. Psychometric properties were assessed through exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's α in a sample of 251 relatives of critically ill patients. The Chilean-Spanish version of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventoryhad minimal semantic modifications and no items were deleted. A two factor solution explained the 31% of the total instrument variance. Reliability of the scale was good (α=0.93), as were both factors (α=0.87; α=0.93). The Chilean-Spanish version of theCritical Care Family Needs Inventory was found valid and reliable for understanding the needs of relatives of patients in acute care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimisation of critical medium components and culture conditions for enhanced biomass and lipid production in the oleaginous diatom Navicula phyllepta: a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Sanyo; Singh, Isaac Sarojini Bright; Joseph, Valsamma

    2017-12-01

    Diatoms hold great promise as potential sources of biofuel production. In the present study, the biomass and lipid production in the marine diatom Navicula phyllepta, isolated from Cochin estuary, India and identified as a potential biodiesel feedstock, were optimized using Plackett-Burman (PB) statistical experimental design followed by central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The growth analyses of the isolate in different nitrogen sources, salinities and five different enriched sea water media showed the best growth in the cheapest medium with minimum components using urea as nitrogen source at salinity between 25 and 40 g kg -1 . Plackett-Burman experimental analyses for screening urea, sodium metasilicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, ferric chloride, salinity, temperature, pH and agitation influencing lipid and biomass production showed that silicate and temperature had a positive coefficient on biomass production, and temperature had a significant positive coefficient, while urea and phosphate showed a negative coefficient on lipid content. A 2 4 factorial central composite design (FCCD) was used to optimize the concentration of the factors selected. The optimized media resulted in 1.62-fold increase (64%) in biomass (1.2 ± 0.08 g L -1 ) and 1.2-fold increase (22%) in estimated total lipid production (0.11 ± 0.003 g L -1 ) compared to original media within 12 days of culturing. A significantly higher biomass and lipid production in the optimized medium demands further development of a two-stage strategy of biomass production followed by induction of high lipid production under nutrient limitation or varying culture conditions for large-scale production of biodiesel from the marine diatom.

  1. Identifying the bacterial community on the surface of Intralox belting in a meat boning room by culture-dependent and culture-independent 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Gale; Boerema, Jackie; Mills, John; Mowat, Eilidh; Pulford, David

    2006-05-25

    We examined the bacterial community present on an Intralox conveyor belt system in an operating lamb boning room by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria extracted in the presence or absence of cultivation. RFLP patterns for 16S rDNA clone library and cultures were generated using HaeIII and MspI restriction endonucleases. 16S rDNA amplicons produced 8 distinct RFLP pattern groups. RFLP groups I-IV were represented in the clone library and RFLP groups I and V-VIII were represented amongst the cultured isolates. Partial DNA sequences from each RFLP group revealed that all group I, II and VIII representatives were Pseudomonas spp., group III were Sphingomonas spp., group IV clones were most similar to an uncultured alpha proteobacterium, group V was similar to a Serratia spp., group VI with an Alcaligenes spp., and group VII with Microbacterium spp. Sphingomonads were numerically dominant in the culture-independent clone library and along with the group IV alpha proteobacterium were not represented amongst the cultured isolates. Serratia, Alcaligenes and Microbacterium spp. were only represented with cultured isolates. Pseudomonads were detected by both culture-dependent (84% of isolates) and culture-independent (12.5% of clones) methods and their presence at high frequency does pose the risk of product spoilage if transferred onto meat stored under aerobic conditions. The detection of sphingomonads in large numbers by the culture-independent method demands further analysis because sphingomonads may represent a new source of meat spoilage that has not been previously recognised in the meat processing environment. The 16S rDNA collections generated by both methods were important at representing the diversity of the bacterial population associated with an Intralox conveyor belt system.

  2. Cultural values and diversity management perspectives : Testing the impact of cultural values on the diversity management perspectives in Sierra Leone, Germany and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cultural values impact the attitudes towards diversity management perspectives. Therefore they convey critical opportunities and challenges that a country encounters, and which need to be identified for the successful implementation of diversity management initiatives. This thesis discusses the different diversity management perspectives and their motivations and rationales to diversify and the process in which the national culture influences the organizational culture practices. The ...

  3. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  4. Using Proteomics to 1) Identify the Bone Marrow Homing Receptors Expressed on Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells and 2) Elucidate Critical Signaling Pathways Responsible for the Blockage of Hematopoietic Differentiation in Leukemia

    KAUST Repository

    Chin, Chee J.

    2011-05-22

    signaling events critical for proliferation and differentiation in AML cells. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture is used to quantify the changes in the global phosphorylation profile upon CD44 activation. Preliminary results showed that the heavy isotope was fully incorporated and that anti-CD44 induction of myeloid differentiation was not perturbed in our culture conditions. We anticipate that this study will bring forth new candidates for a targeted therapy of AML.

  5. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  6. The Critical Difference: Identifying the Dyslexic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgett, Russell; King, James

    A study compared peripheral vision applied to letter-pair and Dolch word recognition. Subjects, 6 normal readers, 12 Chapter 1 students, and 34 learning disabled (and assumed dyslexic) students from grades one through three enrolled in a parochial school, a public school, and a university summer reading clinic, completed a test designed to…

  7. A Critical Co-Constructed Autoethnography of a Gendered Cross-Cultural Mentoring between Two Early Career Latin@ Scholars Working in the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriel, Regina L.; Martinez, James; Evans-Winters, Venus

    2018-01-01

    Multicultural mentoring has been suggested to support Latin@ faculty success in their careers, yet current literature on effective mentorships of Latin@ faculty is limited. This critical co-constructed autoethnography draws on critical race theory (CRT) and latin@ critical race theory (LatCrit) frameworks to highlight the lived experiences and key…

  8. Influences of Caregivers' Cultural Norms, Values, Beliefs and Experiences on Caregiver Physical Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of physical violence against children is well established, but cultural norms surrounding appropriate acts of violence vary and aspects of one’s culture influence these behaviors. Given that the U.S. is multicultural, it is critical to examine which aspects of immigrants’ cultures are risky or protective for physical discipline. However, researchers who study the links between culture and physical punishment typically focus on one culture and the factors identified in one ...

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of Hsp40 J-domain mutants identifies disruption of the critical HPD-motif as the key factor for impaired curing in vivo of the yeast prion [URE3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Wang, Hao; Riedy, Michael; Roberts, Brittany-Lee; Sun, Yuna; Song, Yong-Bo; Jones, Gary W; Masison, Daniel C; Song, Youtao

    2018-05-01

    Genetic screens using Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified an array of Hsp40 (Ydj1p) J-domain mutants that are impaired in the ability to cure the yeast [URE3] prion through disrupting functional interactions with Hsp70. However, biochemical analysis of some of these Hsp40 J-domain mutants has so far failed to provide major insight into the specific functional changes in Hsp40-Hsp70 interactions. To explore the detailed structural and dynamic properties of the Hsp40 J-domain, 20 ns molecular dynamic simulations of 4 mutants (D9A, D36A, A30T, and F45S) and wild-type J-domain were performed, followed by Hsp70 docking simulations. Results demonstrated that although the Hsp70 interaction mechanism of the mutants may vary, the major structural change was targeted to the critical HPD motif of the J-domain. Our computational analysis fits well with previous yeast genetics studies regarding highlighting the importance of J-domain function in prion propagation. During the molecular dynamics simulations several important residues were identified and predicted to play an essential role in J-domain structure. Among these residues, Y26 and F45 were confirmed, using both in silico and in vivo methods, as being critical for Ydj1p function.

  10. Hollywood and film critics: Is journalistic criticism about cinema now a part of the culture industry helping economy more than art? Argo: a case study of the movie and film reviews published in the printed media in United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rasooli, Seyedjavad

    2015-01-01

    The term “Culture industry” coined by Adorno and Horkheimer in 1944, is now a very fundamental concept to analyse social and cultural problems in social sciences. When it comes to media studies, it is more useful to investigate problematics in this field. The purpose of this study is to focus on a special part of the culture industry which relates to the movies but not directly about them. The fact that Hollywood, as the biggest industry of film production, has all of the characteristics of t...

  11. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  12. Leitura de imagens e cultura visual: desenredando conceitos para a prática educativa Image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture: unraveling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia Sardelich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quase tudo do pouco que conhecemos, em relação ao conhecimento produzido, nos chega pelos meios de informação e comunicação. Estes, por sua vez, também constroem imagens do mundo. Imagens para deleitar, entreter, vender, com mensagens sobre o que devemos vestir, comer, aparentar, pensar. Em nossa sociedade contemporânea discute-se a necessidade de uma alfabetização visual que se expressa em várias designações como: leitura de imagens e compreensão crítica da cultura visual. Freqüentes mudanças de expressões e conceitos dificultam o entendimento dessas propostas para o currículo escolar, a definição do/a professor/a responsável por tal conhecimento e o referencial teórico do mesmo. Este artigo apresenta os conceitos que fundamentam as propostas da leitura de imagens e cultura visual, sinalizando suas proximidades e distâncias. Contrasta alguns referenciais teóricos da antropologia, arte, educação, história, sociologia, e sugere linhas de trabalho em ambientes de aprendizagem com o intuito de refletir sobre nossa permanente formação como docentes.Almost everything from the little we know relating to manufactured knowledge comes to us by means of information and communication. This in turn also build images of the world. Images for pleasure, entertainment, trade, telling us what to wear, to eat, to think, how to look. In our contemporary society there is a debate about the need of a visual education that expresses itself in different denominations such as image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture. Frequent changes in expressions and concepts cause more difficulties in understanding these propositions in the national curriculum, the definition of the teachers responsible for this knowledge and the theoretical reference of it. This article intends to unravel the concepts that establish these different propositions, pointing out their similarities and differences. It contrasts theoretical references

  13. Communication, Cooperation, and Negotiation in Culturally Heterogeneous Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.; Triandis, Harry C.

    This research program has been concerned with three major subprojects: identifying concepts and behaviors which critically affect intercultural relations; developing principles and methods for programed self-instructional cultural training to help Americans adjust to, and work more effectively in, foreign cultures, or with persons from different…

  14. Moral Judgment Development across Cultures: Revisiting Kohlberg's Universality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John C.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.; Snarey, John R.

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits Kohlberg's cognitive developmental claims that stages of moral judgment, facilitative processes of social perspective-taking, and moral values are commonly identifiable across cultures. Snarey [Snarey, J. (1985). "The cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research."…

  15. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  16. End-of-life care across Southern Europe: a critical review of cultural similarities and differences between Italy, Spain and Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meñaca, A.; Evans, N.; Andrew, E.V.W.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Gómez-Batiste, X.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from a range of sources demonstrates that end-of-life (EoL) care practices and preferences vary across countries; culture is consistently one of the main explanations given for this. In order to understand how cultural factors are used to explain similarities and differences in EoL care

  17. "A Tale of Two Programs": Interrogating "Open(closed)ness" and "Cultural Diversity" through Critical Observations of Two Japanese University English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Japan is known to be a country that manicures its socio-cultural borders. In this article I will examine discourses regarding openness, closedness and cultural diversity in relation to policies and practices that draw heavily on mythologies of English language as an inroad to greater openness and diversity. To do this I will examine two English…

  18. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  19. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  20. Internet culture

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  1. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  2. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  3. The stressful (and not so stressful) nature of language brokering: identifying when brokering functions as a cultural stressor for Latino immigrant children in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Lazarevic, Vanja

    2014-12-01

    Language brokering remains prevalent among immigrant families, but it is widely assumed that brokering functions as a cultural stressor, resulting in adverse health outcomes for immigrant youth. Few studies, however, have tested this assumption, particularly while using longitudinal data and capturing multiple dimensions of brokering. Thus, this study examined how depressive symptoms and family-based acculturation stress mediated the relationships between various aspects of brokering (i.e., frequency of brokering, positive and negative feelings about brokering, brokering norms, and brokering efficacy) and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and other risky behaviors. Using longitudinal survey data from 234 Latino early adolescents in 6th-8th grades (M age  = 12.4 years; Females = 46.2 %), brokering for parents indirectly affected alcohol and marijuana use through family-based acculturation stress; however, these significant indirect effects became non-significant when taking into account negative brokering feelings and brokering as a burden on one's time. Feeling positively or efficacious about brokering or having pro-brokering norms did not directly predict any adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes. Moderation analyses, however, revealed that brokering for parents did not seem to function as a stressor when Latino early adolescents were high in brokering efficacy (e.g., feeling confident in one's ability to broker) or descriptive brokering norms (e.g., perceiving one's peers as brokering often). By contrast, when Latino early adolescents perceived brokering as a burden, brokering for parents functioned as a stressor, placing Latino early adolescents at risk for family-based acculturation stress, and in turn, alcohol and marijuana use. Such findings point to the complexity of brokering.

  4. Paramilitary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  5. Análise crítica do discurso e teorias culturais: hibridismo necessário Critical discourse analysis and cultural theory: towards a much needed hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pagano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma reflexão teórica sobre a análise de discurso crítica (Chouliaraki e Fairclough, 1999 e os estudos culturais e pós-coloniais, como espaços híbridos de saberes complementares que informam os estudos do papel da linguagem nas representações de identidades culturais híbridas. Propõe-se uma articulação do conceito bakhtiniano de hibridização textual - adotado na análise crítica do discurso como peça fundamental da prática de interpretação textual e expandido para dar conta de gêneros de discursos emergentes -, com o conceito de hibridismo cultural de Homi Bhabha (1998, uma reelaboração também do conceito de Bakhtin que visa dar conta do espaço pós-colonial ambivalente das culturas. Uma análise do poema "Para ouvir e entender 'Estrela' ", do escritor brasileiro negro Cuti, é apresentada para ilustrar o potencial dessa articulação teórica para investigar manifestações culturais que buscam interrogar um sistema de valores e conceitos em torno da obliteração das diferenças raciais e sua inserção no espaço político e cultural da nação.This paper invites theoretical reflection on critical discourse analysis (Chouliaraki e Fairclough, 1999, cultural studies and postcolonial studies as sites of hybridity of complementary knowledges which inform studies of the role of language in the representations of hybrid cultural identities. A theoretical dialogue is proposed between Bakhtin's concept of textual hybridization - borrowed by critical discourse analysis as a fundamental notion in textual interpretation and expanded so as to account for genres pertaining to emerging discourses -, and Homi Bhabha's concept of cultural hybridity, also drawing on Bakhtin in order to explain ambivalence in postcolonial cultures. An analysis of the poem "Para ouvir e entender 'Estrela' ", by black Brazilian writer Cuti, is carried out in order to illustrate the potentiality of this theoretical dialogue for

  6. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd and the foundation of his hermeneutics: A critical review of the attitude that the Quran is the product of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Seid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cognitive stage of religious traditions, science, in the light of the authority of religious revelation and reason, was dominant in relation to culture, which means that it was possible to determine the true value of different cultures using scientific knowledge. Nowadays, the completely opposite approach is gaining in popularity. Namely, when they discovered the fundamental weaknesses of empiristic definition of science, postmodern philosophers started more vocally saying that culture actually has a crucial influence on the method and internal science structure. Thus, science loses its cognitive independence and becomes the product of culture. In other words, each culture creates a separate scientific knowledge in accordance with its other cognitive layers and needs of the members of that culture. Among the Muslim reformist thinkers, influential Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd wrote in a most comprehensive and thorough manner about the text of the Quran undergoing the influence of culture from the time of life of t he Prophet Muhammad. He explained that the interpreter necessarily has a crucial role in forming the meaning of a text and that the meaning of the text will not be determined on its own until the hermeneutical position of the person reading and interpreting it is taken into consideration. Abu Zayd believed that the primal meaning of the Quran was conditioned by cultural and historic contexts of the time when the Quran appeared and that meaning was no longer credible. However, according to his opinion, the essence of the Quran message will be discovered using hermeneutics, when we harmonize the text with our contemporary cultural realities. With his pioneering attitude, Abu Zayd broke all ontological and metaphysical principles of mystical hermeneutics in the traditional cognitive environment of Islam. The renowned representatives of Islamic mystical heritage insisted that essential and inner meanings of the Quran text are in no way

  7. Integration of Latino/a cultural values into palliative health care: a culture centered model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adames, Hector Y; Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y; Fuentes, Milton A; Salas, Silvia P; Perez-Chavez, Jessica G

    2014-04-01

    Culture helps us grapple with, understand, and navigate the dying process. Although often overlooked, cultural values play a critical and influential role in palliative care. The purpose of the present study was two-fold: one, to review whether Latino/a cultural values have been integrated into the palliative care literature for Latinos/as; two, identify publications that provide recommendations on how palliative care providers can integrate Latino/a cultural values into the end-of-life care. A comprehensive systematic review on the area of Latino/a cultural values in palliative care was conducted via an electronic literature search of publications between 1930-2013. Five articles were identified for reviewing, discussing, or mentioning Latino/a cultural values and palliative care. Only one article specifically addressed Latino/a cultural values in palliative care. The four remaining articles discuss or mention cultural values; however, the cultural values were not the main focus of each article's thesis. The results of the current study highlight the lack of literature specifically addressing the importance of integrating Latino/a cultural values into the delivery of palliative care. As a result, this article introduces the Culture-Centered Palliative Care Model (CCPC). The article defines five key traditional Latino/a cultural values (i.e., familismo, personalismo, respeto, confianza, and dignidad), discusses the influence of each value on palliative health care, and ends with practical recommendations for service providers. Special attention is given to the stages of acculturation and ethnic identity.

  8. The Ontogeny of Cultural Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Harris, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Developmental research has the potential to address some of the critical gaps in our scientific understanding of the role played by cultural learning in ontogenetic outcomes. The goal of this special section was to gather together leading examples of research on cultural learning across a variety of social contexts and caregiving settings. Although the field of developmental psychology continues to struggle with the persistent problem of oversampling U.S. and Western European populations, we argue that the articles in this special section add to the growing evidence that children everywhere draw on a repertoire of cultural learning strategies that optimize their acquisition of the specific practices, beliefs, and values of their communities. We also identify future directions and outline best practices for the conduct of research on cultural learning. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. A critical engagement with BJ van der Walt’s reformational approach towards African culture and world view / Isaac Njaramba Mutua

    OpenAIRE

    Mutua, Isaac Njaramba

    2014-01-01

    This research interrogates Bennie van der Walt’s third way as a solution for the “divided soul” of the African people - a divided soul that creates a false dilemma. This division is the creation of political colonialism and neo-colonialism, which impacts negatively on the African socio-economic and political structure. The myth of the superiority of Western culture propagates this vice. Van der Walt’s clarification of the concepts of a world view and culture are depicted in chapter 1. He w...

  10. Cultural Change: The How and the Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-11-01

    More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change. Ecological approaches provide insights into the why of cultural change: They identify specific environmental pressures, which evoke shifts in psychology and thereby enable greater precision in predictions of specific cultural changes based on changes in ecological conditions. Complementary insights from the ecological and cultural evolutionary approaches can jointly clarify the process by which cultures change. We end by discussing the relevance of cultural change research for the contemporary societal shifts and by highlighting several critical challenges and future directions for the emerging field of cross-temporal research on culture and psychology.

  11. Corporate Culture as an Impediment to Employee Involvement: When You Can't Get There from Here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelte, Anthony F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Corporate culture may be the most difficult barrier to overcome in implementing an employee involvement program, and management action is critical in shaping and maintaining that culture. To eliminate resistance to basic changes, organizational values must be identified and recognized by the most powerful purveyor of corporate culture. (Author/JOW)

  12. A promising method for identifying cross-cultural differences in patient perspective: the use of Internet-based focus groups for content validation of new patient reported outcome assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu

    2006-09-22

    This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures--all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology provided an empirical platform on which to

  13. Multilingual Education in Morocco and the Question of Cultural Identity: Toward Implementing a Critical Thinking Approach in High School English Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elboubekri, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural pedagogies theorists and cultural studies scholars have no controversies over the fact that language is the appropriate realm for the formation, contestation and negotiation of identities. As a matter of fact, language teaching and learning are not only involved with linguistic structures and lexical components. They are more engaged…

  14. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 Portuguese version used to identify violence within couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Leite Moraes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a previous evaluation of concept, item and semantic equivalences, this paper assesses the measurement equivalence between a Portuguese version of Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 and the original instrument conceived in English. The CTS2 has been widely used to tap violence between couples. An intra-observer reliability evaluation involved 165 replications carried out within a 24-48 hour period. Kappa point-estimates were above 0.75 for all scales except sexual coercion. The analysis of internal consistency concerned 768 subjects with complete sets of items. Kuder-Richardson-20 estimates ranged from 0.65 to 0.86. Results were similar to those found in the original instrument in English for the negotiation, psychological aggression and physical violence scales, yet not so for the sexual coercion and injury scales. Factor analysis identified factors with a recognizable correspondence to the underlying dimensions, although a few inconsistencies were detected. For the assessment of construct validity (n = 528 associations between the instrument's scales were evaluated, as well as the relationships between violence and putative underlying dimensions. Overall, the findings suggest that the version can be used in the Brazilian context, although further investigation should be carried out to unveil some important remaining issues.

  15. Tracking micro-optical resonances for identifying and sensing novel procaspase-3 protein marker released from cell cultures in response to toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Jen; Vollmer, Frank; Xiang, Wei; Klucken, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The response of cells to toxins is commonly investigated by detecting intracellular markers for cell death, such as caspase proteins. This requires the introduction of labels by the permeabilization or complete lysis of cells. Here we introduce a non-invasive tool for monitoring a caspase protein in the extracellular medium. The tool is based on highly sensitive optical micro-devices, referred to as whispering-gallery mode biosensors (WGMBs). WGMBs are functionalized with antibodies for the specific and label-free detection of procaspase-3 released from human embryonic kidney HEK293 and neuroglioma H4 cells after introducing staurosporine and rotenone toxins, respectively. Additional tests show that the extracellular accumulation of procaspase-3 is concomitant with a decrease in cell viability. The hitherto unknown release of procaspase-3 from cells in response to toxins and its accumulation in the medium is further investigated by Western blot, showing that the extracellular detection of procaspase-3 is interrelated with cytotoxicity of alpha-synuclein protein (aSyn) overexpressed in H4 cells. These studies provide evidence for procaspase-3 as a novel extracellular biomarker for cell death, with applications in cytotoxicity tests. Such WGMBs could be applied to further identify as-yet unknown extracellular biomarkers using established antibodies against intracellular antigens. (paper)

  16. Identifying some pathogenic Vibrio/Photobacterium species during mass mortalities of cultured Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax from some Egyptian coastal provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdel-Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Photobacterium damselae subsp damselae were isolated during recurrent episodes of mass mortalities among different stages of Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax. The pathogens were recovered from the external/internal lesions of a total of 320 seeds, juvenile and adult fishes from the period of February 2013 through August 2013. Two hundred and sixty four bacterial isolates were retrieved and presumptively identified using morpho-chemical characterization and API®20NE. However, definitive molecular confirmation of V. alginolyticus was obtained through implementing collagenase gene based regular PCR technique. The total prevalence of V. alginolyticus, V. parahemolyticus and Photobacterium damselae subsp damselae among naturally infected Gilthead seabream and European seabass was 82.19%, 87.28% 10.27%, 6.79% and 7.54%, 5.93% respectively. Antibiogram has revealed that isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid while resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, and lincomycin.

  17. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  18. KEEPING CULTURAL GENES ALIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2012-01-01

    China's contemporary culture and the protection of its diverse cultural heritage have become some of the most talked about issues today.Cultural prosperity was put forward as an important objective of the Central Government's national development strategy last year.However,the industrialization and commercialization of China's culture have been both criticized and celebrated.Many scholars believe industrialization and enormous government investment may not be the best means to protect intangible cultural heritage (ICH).

  19. Mechanism of mucosal permeability enhancement of CriticalSorb® (Solutol® HS15) investigated In Vitro in cell cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Shubber, Saif; Vllasaliu, Driton; Rauch, Cyril; Jordan, Faron; Illum, Lisbeth; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CriticalSorb?, with the principal component Solutol? HS15, is a novel mucosal drug delivery system demonstrated to improve the bioavailability of selected biotherapeutics. The intention of this study is to elucidate mechanism(s) responsible for the enhancement of trans-mucosal absorption of biological drugs by Solutol? HS15. Methods Micelle size and CMC of Solutol? HS15 were determined in biologically relevant media. Polarised airway Calu-3 cell layers were used to measure the permeab...

  20. Extending Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted J.; Court, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Advocates defining cultural literacy to recognize the mass media's role in transmitting and maintaining cultural stereotypes and shaping values and beliefs. Distinguishes between ideational and material aspects of culture. Advocates teaching critical thinking and respect for persons in light of questionable moral perspectives in certain media…

  1. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  2. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-03-01

    This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GAME AS EXPRESSION OF CULTURE BODY MOTION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION SCHOOL: the three dimensions of content and the development of critical thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teixeira Maldonado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical education (PE contributes, through their content and working techniques, with the integral development of the child. This paper describes an educational experiment carried out with students from the 7th grade of elementary school to a public school of the east side of São Paulo where the games were themed on the three dimensions of content in view of the proposed political pedagogical project of the school. Students were encouraged to reflect, analyze and discuss the games experienced and his lines showed the presence of critical thinking on the subject.

  4. Mechanism of mucosal permeability enhancement of CriticalSorb® (Solutol® HS15) investigated in vitro in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubber, Saif; Vllasaliu, Driton; Rauch, Cyril; Jordan, Faron; Illum, Lisbeth; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2015-02-01

    CriticalSorb™, with the principal component Solutol® HS15, is a novel mucosal drug delivery system demonstrated to improve the bioavailability of selected biotherapeutics. The intention of this study is to elucidate mechanism(s) responsible for the enhancement of trans-mucosal absorption of biological drugs by Solutol® HS15. Micelle size and CMC of Solutol® HS15 were determined in biologically relevant media. Polarised airway Calu-3 cell layers were used to measure the permeability of a panel of biological drugs, and to assess changes in TEER, tight junction and F-actin morphology. The rate of cell endocytosis was measured in vitro in the presence of Solutol® HS15 using a membrane probe, FM 2-10. This work initially confirms surfactant-like behaviour of Solutol® HS15 in aqueous media, while subsequent experiments demonstrate that the effect of Solutol® HS15 on epithelial tight junctions is different from a 'classical' tight junction opening agent and illustrate the effect of Solutol® HS15 on the cell membrane (endocytosis rate) and F-actin cytoskeleton. Solutol® HS15 is the principle component of CriticalSorb™ that has shown an enhancement in permeability of medium sized biological drugs across epithelia. This study suggests that its mechanism of action arises primarily from effects on the cell membrane and consequent impacts on the cell cytoskeleton in terms of actin organisation and tight junction opening.

  5. Hispanic American Degree Attainment and the Effects of Critical Events and Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the critical events and support systems that have contributed to the attainment of an academic doctorate by Hispanics and to discern the similarities that existed in their parental educational level, socioeconomic status, and cultural background. The study will furthermore seek to identify major obstacles…

  6. A critical analysis of gerontological nursing practice guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universaity Involucramiento de la teoría del cuidado cultural en la sustentabilidad del cuidado gerontológico Envolvimentos da teoria do cuidado cultural na sustentabilidade do cuidado gerontológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Silveira de Almeida Hammerschmidt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a critical analysis of gerontological nursing practice guided by Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. A LILACS database search was performed from January 1970 to June 2006. The analysis suggests that gerontological nursing care based on Leininger's theory needs further development; there is very little published research. The pluralism point of view of the process of taking care of the elderly requires close approximation, active involvement, respect, commitment, and responsibility from health care providers. Appropriate methods of taking care of the elderly should focus on the promotion and maintenance of health, emancipated care, and independence and autonomy. The report of this critical analysis might encourage further development of nursing care to the elderly.Se trata de un ensayo reflexivo de la práctica de enfermería gerontológica, fundamentado en la Teoría de la Diversidad y Universalidad del Cuidado Cultural de Leininger, que resalta el proceso del cuidar involucrado con las cuestiones culturales del individuo. Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en la base de datos LILACS; en el período de enero de 1970 a junio del 2006. Se capta que el desarrollo del cuidado gerontológico fundamentado en esta teoría necesita profundización, pues la literatura aun es escasa. La visión pluralista del proceso de cuidar incita aproximaciones y compromisos sólidos entre el profesional y el ser anciano, acentúa los principios de respeto, compromiso y responsabilidad. La introducción de métodos adecuados en el proceso de cuidar del anciano, interactúa con la promoción de la salud en búsqueda de la sustentabilidad y del cuidado emancipable, posibilita la independencia y autonomía para el ser anciano/familia/comunidad. Se espera que estas reflexiones sirvan como estímulo para el desarrollo de las competencias necesarias para la práctica del cuidado gerontológico digno de la persona

  7. L’innovazione dell’amministrazione dei beni culturali in Italia: caratteristiche e criticità / The innovation of cultural heritage administration in Italy: peculiarities and criticalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Nacci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo si apre con l’analisi di un fenomeno internazionale di riforma della pubblica amministrazione, conosciuto come New Public Management, che ha trovato ampia diffusione soprattutto nei paesi anglosassoni e che ha, con le sue logiche, innescato un processo di grandi cambiamenti anche nel settore dei beni culturali, interessandone la normativa, l’organizzazione delle strutture e i modelli di gestione. Dopo una breve disamina sulle novità che il fenomeno ha introdotto in primis nel Regno Unito, l’attenzione viene focalizzata sul ritardo con cui in Italia è stato intrapreso questo percorso, e su come alcune importanti occasioni di innovazione nel settore dei beni culturali si siano trasformate in occasioni perse. Il contributo termina con alcune riflessioni sui motivi del ritardo e sui possibili interventi utili a migliorare una situazione di lentezza che si presenta stabile, consolidata e purtroppo strutturale.   The paper starts with an analysis of an international phenomenon of public administration reform, known as New Public Management, which has found widespread use, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries and that has, with its logic, triggered a process of great change even in the field of cultural heritage, affecting legislation, organization and management models. After a short discussion on the innovations that first of all the phenomenon has introduced in United Kingdom, the attention is focused on the delay wherewith in Italy the new way has started, and how some important opportunities for innovation in the field of cultural heritage have been transformed into missed opportunities. The essay concludes with some reflections on the reasons for the delay and any possible useful intervention to improve a situation of slowness that is stable, consolidated and unfortunately structural.

  8. Microorganisms in cryopreserved semen and culture media used in the in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Dávila; Santos, Vanessa G; Braga, Patrícia A C; Ferreira, Christina R; Ballottin, Daniela; Tasic, Ljubica; Basso, Andréa C; Sanches, Bruno V; Pontes, José H F; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Garboggini, Fabiana Fantinatti; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tata, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Commercial cattle breeders produce their own herd offspring for the dairy and beef market using artificial insemination. The procedure involves sanitary risks associated with the collection and commercialization of the germplasm, and the in vitro production and transfer of the bovine embryos must be monitored by strict health surveillance. To avoid the spreading of infectious diseases, one must rely on using controlled and monitored germplasm, media, and reagents that are guaranteed free of pathogens. In this article, we investigated the use of a new mass spectrometric approach for fast and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi in bovine semen and in culture media employed in the embryo in vitro production process. The microorganisms isolated from samples obtained in a commercial bovine embryo IVP setting were identified in a few minutes by their conserved peptide/protein profile, obtained applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), matched against a commercial database. The successful microorganisms MS identification has been confirmed by DNA amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the MS technique seems to offer a powerful tool for rapid and accurate microorganism identification in semen and culture media samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  10. Critical Practice: Teaching "Shakespeare."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Bronwyn; Patterson, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the authors taught their students to read "Hamlet" from a critical literacy perspective, analyzing how particular readings of texts and characters are constructed or produced; how they are determined by historical and cultural conventions; analyzing values that various readings support or challenge--rather than trying to…

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Extracellular Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications from Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures and Seedlings: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Ghahremani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteins secreted by plant cells into the extracellular space, consisting of the cell wall, apoplastic fluid, and rhizosphere, play crucial roles during development, nutrient acquisition, and stress acclimation. However, isolating the full range of secreted proteins has proven difficult, and new strategies are constantly evolving to increase the number of proteins that can be detected and identified. In addition, the dynamic nature of the extracellular proteome presents the further challenge of identifying and characterizing the post-translational modifications (PTMs of secreted proteins, particularly glycosylation and phosphorylation. Such PTMs are common and important regulatory modifications of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes. This review explores the most recent methods in isolating and characterizing the plant extracellular proteome with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, highlighting the current challenges yet to be overcome. Moreover, the crucial role of protein PTMs in cell wall signalling, development, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress is discussed.

  12. From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretical framework like hermeneutics. This allows the possibility of retaining the theoretical intentions of the old Frankfurt school and at the same time there will be no boundaries by specific dominant theoretical perspectives. In this paper, such a framework for a critical hermeneutics is discussed on the basis of Weber’s, Gadamer’s, and Habermas’ theories on hermeneutics within the social sciences.

  13. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  14. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  15. Culture and Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Besides the financial statements, rules, and calculations, the accounting also impliesprofessional reasoning, and the organizational culture promoted within the firm influences theaccounting decisions. We analyzed and identified several of accounting policies determined by thecorporate governance and organizational culture influence.

  16. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz da teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1 a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2 pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3 a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária.Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  17. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  18. Criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility. Think back on JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Keiji

    2003-09-01

    This book is written in order to understand the fundamental knowledge of criticality safety or criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility by the citizens. It consists of four chapters such as critical conditions and criticality accident of nuclear facility, risk of criticality accident, prevention of criticality accident and a measure at an occurrence of criticality accident. A definition of criticality, control of critical conditions, an aspect of accident, a rate of incident, damage, three sufferers, safety control method of criticality, engineering and administrative control, safety design of criticality, investigation of failure of safety control of JCO criticality accident, safety culture are explained. JCO criticality accident was caused with intention of disregarding regulation. It is important that we recognize the correct risk of criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility and prevent disasters. On the basis of them, we should establish safety culture. (S.Y.)

  19. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  20. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  1. Beyond individualism: professional culture and its influence on feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher; Driessen, Erik; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Vanstone, Meredith; Lingard, Lorelei

    2013-06-01

    Although feedback is widely considered essential to learning, its actual influence on learners is variable. Research on responsivity to feedback has tended to focus on individual rather than social or cultural influences on learning. In this study, we explored how feedback is handled within different professional cultures, and how the characteristics and values of a profession shape learners' responses to feedback. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted 12 focus groups and nine individual interviews (with a total of 50 participants) across three cultures of professional training in, respectively, music, teacher training and medicine. Constant comparative analysis for recurring themes was conducted iteratively. Each of the three professional cultures created a distinct context for learning that influenced how feedback was handled. Despite these contextual differences, credibility and constructiveness emerged as critical constants, identified by learners across cultures as essential for feedback to be perceived as meaningful. However, the definitions of credibility and constructiveness were distinct to each professional culture and the cultures varied considerably in how effectively they supported the occurrence of feedback with these critical characteristics. Professions define credibility and constructiveness in culturally specific ways and create contexts for learning that may either facilitate or constrain the provision of meaningful feedback. Comparison with other professional cultures may offer strategies for creating a productive feedback culture within medical education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Critical Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how w...

  3. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  4. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  5. ENSI Approach to Oversight of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbel Haag, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Claudia Humbel Haag presented developments in ENSI approach to safety culture oversight. ENSI has developed a definition/understanding of Safety Culture and a concept of how to perform oversight of Safety Culture. ENSI defines safety culture in the following way: Safety Culture comprises the behaviour, world views (in the sense of conceptualisations of reality and explanation models), values (in the sense of aims and evaluation scales), and features of the physical environment (specifically, the nuclear power plant and the documents used) which are shared by many members of an organization, in as much as these are of significance to nuclear safety. A model of the accessibility of safety culture was presented ranging from the observable (external aspects of safety culture), to aspects that are accessible by asking questions, through to aspects that are not accessible (internal part of safety culture). ENSI considers observable aspects through the existing systematic safety assessment compliance program. Aspects that are observable by asking questions will be addressed by additional oversight activities outside the systematic assessment program. Aspects that are not accessible are addressed by helping the licensee to re-think its safety culture through proactive discussions on safety culture. Reports are issued to the licensee on assumptions and observations identified through the discussions. The conclusions of the presentation emphasised the importance of basing any interventions in this area on a solid understanding of the concept of safety culture. ENSI safety culture oversight principles were also described. These include licensee responsibility for safety, and the need for the regulator to critically review their own activities to ensure a positive influence on the licensee

  6. Nuclear criticality predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of lots of efforts, a large portion of the tedious and redundant research and processing of critical experiment data has been eliminated. The necessary step in criticality safety analyses of validating computer codes with benchmark critical data is greatly streamlined, and valuable criticality safety experimental data is preserved. Criticality safety personnel in 31 different countries are now using the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'. Much has been accomplished by the work of the ICSBEP. However, evaluation and documentation represents only one element of a successful Nuclear Criticality Safety Predictability Program and this element only exists as a separate entity, because this work was not completed in conjunction with the experimentation process. I believe; however, that the work of the ICSBEP has also served to unify the other elements of nuclear criticality predictability. All elements are interrelated, but for a time it seemed that communications between these elements was not adequate. The ICSBEP has highlighted gaps in data, has retrieved lost data, has helped to identify errors in cross section processing codes, and has helped bring the international criticality safety community together in a common cause as true friends and colleagues. It has been a privilege to associate with those who work so diligently to make the project a success. (J.P.N.)

  7. Supporting staff recovery and reintegration after a critical incident resulting in infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Roberta; Ward, Debra; Short, Mary

    2009-08-01

    A critical incident is described as any sudden unexpected event that has the power to overwhelm the usual effective coping skills of an individual or a group and can cause significant psychological distress in usually healthy persons. A Just Culture model to deal with critical incidents is an approach that seeks to identify and balance system events and personal accountability. This article reports a critical incident that occurred at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Methodist Hospital of Indianapolis, when 5 infants received an overdose of heparin that resulted in the death of 3 infants. Although care of the family after the critical incident was the immediate priority, the focus of this article was on the recovery and reintegration of the NICU staff after a critical incident based on the Just Culture philosophy.

  8. Managing culture in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The pap...... through individual sense-making and mutual learning and adjustment as key to the process of cultural negotiation.......The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The paper...... argues that dynamic aspects of culture as enacted by key individual actors and constructed in a given context are far more relevant and critical for the joint venture’s managerial process. With evidence from four Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, the paper proposes a way of managing culture in IJVs...

  9. Critical Social Theories. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Praised for its clarity and accessibility, this fully updated edition of "Critical Social Theories" presents a comprehensive analysis of leading social and cultural theories today. Diverse perspectives are addressed from feminism and cultural studies to postmodernism and critical theory. Written accessibly for students and faculty, the second…

  10. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesser, J.A. [ed.] [comp.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course

  12. Management Studies, Cultural Criticism and American Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews three books related to industrial management, including "False Prophets: The Gurus Who Created Modern Management and Why Their Ideas Are Bad for Business Today," by James Hoopes, "Organization and Innovation: Guru Schemes and American Dreams," by David Knights and Darren Mc...

  13. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  14. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  15. Cinema and Culture in Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4.......Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4....

  16. Criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a sufficient quantity of fissile material is brought together a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction will be started in it and will continue until some change occurs in the fissile material to stop the chain reaction. The quantity of fissile material required is the 'Critical Mass'. This is not a fixed quantity even for a given type of fissile material but varies between quite wide limits depending on a number of factors. In a nuclear reactor the critical mass of fissile material is assembled under well-defined condition to produce a controllable chain reaction. The same materials have to be handled outside the reactor in all stages of fuel element manufacture, storage, transport and irradiated fuel reprocessing. At any stage it is possible (at least in principle) to assemble a critical mass and thus initiate an accidental and uncontrollable chain reaction. Avoiding this is what criticality safety is all about. A system is just critical when the rate of production of neutrons balances the rate of loss either by escape or by absorption. The factors affecting criticality are, therefore, those which effect neutron production and loss. The principal ones are:- type of nuclide and enrichment (or isotopic composition), moderation, reflection, concentration (density), shape and interaction. Each factor is considered in detail. (author)

  17. Critical Kinship Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In recent decades the concept of kinship has been challenged and reinvigorated by the so-called “repatriation of anthropology” and by the influence of feminist studies, queer studies, adoption studies, and science and technology studies. These interdisciplinary approaches have been further...... developed by increases in infertility, reproductive travel, and the emergence of critical movements among transnational adoptees, all of which have served to question how kinship is now practiced. Critical Kinship Studies brings together theoretical and disciplinary perspectives and analytically sensitive...... in the Humanities and Social Sciences today. Critical Kinship Studies should be of particular interest to students and scholars in Anthropology, Sociology, Cultural Studies, Medical Humanities, Politics, Gender and Queer Studies and Globalization....

  18. From the Guilty City to the Ideas of Alternative Urbanization and Alternative Modernity: Anti-Urbanism as a Border-Zone of City-Philosophy and Cultural Criticism in the Interwar Hungarian Political Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kovács

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of anti-urbanism has accompanied the process of modernisation since the emergence of modernity. The city, the modern metropolis played a vital role in this transition from premodern world to modern era. The metamorphosis of archaic structures, including the fields of economy, society and thinking, are inevitably associated with tensions engendering aversion against the city. Anti-urbanism appeared sporadically everywhere, as a continuous tradition, it emerged at two remote corners of the world: in United States and Germany. Hungarian anti-urbanism of the interwar period had been motivated by the shock of the disintegration of the “Historical Greater Hungary”. The motif of guilty city emerged in the atmosphere of scapegoating: Budapest appeared as incompatible with Hungarian national character. These ruminations about the role of city were embedded in a special context mixing city-philosophy, cultural criticism, German-origin crisis philosophy, political philosophy and national characterology. It was a peculiar mixture in the Central European region: Hungarian interwar thought, from this respect, follows the regional patterns.

  19. Quantitative criticism of literary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Joseph P; Katz, Theodore; Tripuraneni, Nilesh; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Kannan, Ajay; Brofos, James A; Bonilla Lopez, Jorge A; Schroeder, Lea A; Casarez, Adriana; Rabinovich, Maxim; Haimson Lushkov, Ayelet; Chaudhuri, Pramit

    2017-04-18

    Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships ("intertextuality") and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus marked by an extraordinary concentration of intertextuality. Our work, which we term "quantitative criticism," focuses on case studies involving two influential Roman authors, the playwright Seneca and the historian Livy. We find that four plays related to but distinct from Seneca's main writings are differentiated from the rest of the corpus by subtle but important stylistic features. We offer literary interpretations of the significance of these anomalies, providing quantitative data in support of hypotheses about the use of unusual formal features and the interplay between sound and meaning. The second part of the paper describes a machine-learning approach to the identification and analysis of citational material that Livy loosely appropriated from earlier sources. We extend our approach to map the stylistic topography of Latin prose, identifying the writings of Caesar and his near-contemporary Livy as an inflection point in the development of Latin prose style. In total, our results reflect the integration of computational and humanistic methods to investigate a diverse range of literary questions.

  20. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...