WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify control measures

  1. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.

    2015-01-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  2. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: tsouza@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  3. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  4. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  5. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  6. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  7. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  8. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harvel, Charles [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Clark, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gregg Protection Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the accounting values.

  9. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harvel, Charles [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Clark, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gregg Protection Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the ac counting values.

  10. Measuring Industry Coagglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We construct a new coagglomeration index based purely on the location of firms. We...... underlying stories at work. We conclude that in conducting analyses of this kind giving consideration to the source of agglomeration economies, employees or entrepreneurs, and finding an appropriate measure for agglomeration, are both crucial to the process of identifying agglomerative forces....

  11. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  12. THE MEASURABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Laval

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The urge to increase the performance of company processes is ongoing. Surveys indicate however, that many companies do not measure the controlling performance with a defined set of key performance indicators. This paper will analyze three categories of controlling key performance indicators based on their degree of measurability and their impact on the financial performance of a company. Potential measures to optimize the performance of the controlling department will be outlined and put in a logical order. The aligning of the controlling activity with the respective management expectation will be discussed as a key success factor of this improvement project.

  13. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: identifying extreme counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available Accelerometers are designed to measure plausible human activity, however extremely high count values (EHCV have been recorded in large-scale studies. Using population data, we develop methodological principles for establishing an EHCV threshold, propose a threshold to define EHCV in the ActiGraph GT1M, determine occurrences of EHCV in a large-scale study, identify device-specific error values, and investigate the influence of varying EHCV thresholds on daily vigorous PA (VPA.We estimated quantiles to analyse the distribution of all accelerometer positive count values obtained from 9005 seven-year old children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. A threshold to identify EHCV was derived by differentiating the quantile function. Data were screened for device-specific error count values and EHCV, and a sensitivity analysis conducted to compare daily VPA estimates using three approaches to accounting for EHCV.Using our proposed threshold of ≥ 11,715 counts/minute to identify EHCV, we found that only 0.7% of all non-zero counts measured in MCS children were EHCV; in 99.7% of these children, EHCV comprised < 1% of total non-zero counts. Only 11 MCS children (0.12% of sample returned accelerometers that contained negative counts; out of 237 such values, 211 counts were equal to -32,768 in one child. The medians of daily minutes spent in VPA obtained without excluding EHCV, and when using a higher threshold (≥19,442 counts/minute were, respectively, 6.2% and 4.6% higher than when using our threshold (6.5 minutes; p<0.0001.Quality control processes should be undertaken during accelerometer fieldwork and prior to analysing data to identify monitors recording error values and EHCV. The proposed threshold will improve the validity of VPA estimates in children's studies using the ActiGraph GT1M by ensuring only plausible data are analysed. These methods can be applied to define appropriate EHCV thresholds for different accelerometer models.

  14. Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

    2011-01-14

    This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded

  15. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  16. Searching for Moral Dumbfounding: Identifying Measurable Indicators of Moral Dumbfounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian McHugh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Moral dumbfounding is defined as maintaining a moral judgement, without supporting reasons. The most cited demonstration of dumbfounding does not identify a specific measure of dumbfounding and has not been published in peer-review form, or directly replicated. Despite limited empirical examination, dumbfounding has been widely discussed in moral psychology. The present research examines the reliability with which dumbfounding can be elicited, and aims to identify measureable indicators of dumbfounding. Study 1 aimed at establishing the effect that is reported in the literature. Participants read four scenarios and judged the actions described. An Interviewer challenged participants’ stated reasons for judgements. Dumbfounding was evoked, as measured by two indicators, admissions of not having reasons (17%, unsupported declarations (9% with differences between scenarios. Study 2 measured dumbfounding as the selecting of an unsupported declaration as part of a computerised task. We observed high rates of dumbfounding across all scenarios. Studies 3a (college sample and 3b (MTurk sample, addressing limitations in Study 2, replaced the unsupported declaration with an admission of having no reason, and included open-ended responses that were coded for unsupported declarations. As predicted, lower rates of dumbfounding were observed (3a 20%; 3b 16%; or 3a 32%; 3b 24% including unsupported declarations in open-ended responses. Two measures provided evidence for dumbfounding across three studies; rates varied with task type (interview/computer task, and with the particular measure being employed (admissions of not having reasons/unsupported declarations. Possible cognitive processes underlying dumbfounding and limitations of methodologies used are discussed as a means to account for this variability.

  17. Redundant measurements for controlling errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Crawford, J.M.; Madeen, M.L.

    1979-07-01

    Current federal regulations for nuclear materials control require consideration of operating data as part of the quality control program and limits of error propagation. Recent work at the BNFP has revealed that operating data are subject to a number of measurement problems which are very difficult to detect and even more difficult to correct in a timely manner. Thus error estimates based on operational data reflect those problems. During the FY 1978 and FY 1979 R and D demonstration runs at the BNFP, redundant measurement techniques were shown to be effective in detecting these problems to allow corrective action. The net effect is a reduction in measurement errors and a significant increase in measurement sensitivity. Results show that normal operation process control measurements, in conjunction with routine accountability measurements, are sensitive problem indicators when incorporated in a redundant measurement program

  18. Measurement of viscosity as a means to identify irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, E.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of viscosity is a simple method to identify previous irradiation of some kinds of spices and foods, at least in combination with other methods. A possible change of the soaking capacity was examined up to a storage period of 18 months after irradiation of black pepper, white pepper, cinnamon, ginger and onion powder with a radiation dose of 10 kGy each. After irradiation, either increased or decreased viscosity values were measured; the results showed, also after the 18-months-storage period, considerable differences of the viscosity behaviour in non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The time of storage had no effect to the individual viscosity values, so that this method could also be applied to the examined spices after a longer storage period. (orig.) With 51 figs., 25 tabs [de

  19. Optimal control of quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Daniel; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution towards a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of non-controllable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the GRAPE algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a non-unitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a measurement pulse for superconducting phase qubits. We show how this technique can lead to large measurement contrast close to 99%. We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 ns pulses with 98.2% contrast.

  20. Radiation measurements and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate measurements are essential to research leading to a successful radiation process and to the commissioning of the process and the facility. On the other hand, once the process is in production, the importance to quality control of measuring radiation quantities (i.e., absorbed dose, dose rate, dose distribution) rather than various other parameters of the process (i.e. conveyor speed, dwell time, radiation field characteristics, product dimensions) is not clearly established. When the safety of the product is determined by the magnitude of the administered dose, as in radiation sterilization, waste control, or food preservation, accuracy and precision of the measurement of the effective dose are vital. Since physical dose measurements are usually simpler, more reliable and reproducible than biological testing of the product, there is a trend toward using standardized dosimetry for quality control of some processes. In many industrial products, however, such as vulcanized rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable, the effective dose can be controlled satisfactorily by controlling process variables or by product testing itself. In the measurement of radiation dose profiles by dosimetry, it is necessary to have suitable dose meter calibrations, to account for sources of error and imprecision, and to use correct statistical procedures in specifying dwell times or conveyor speeds and source and product parameters to achieve minimum and maximum doses within specifications. (author)

  1. Identifying shortcomings in the measurement of service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, G; Catts, R; Forlin, C

    2000-01-01

    SERVPEFR, the performance component of the Service Quality Scale (SERVQUAL), has been shown to measure five underlying dimensions corresponding to Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Empathy (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988). This paper describes three separate studies employing SERVPERF in an Australian context. In the first of these studies (N = 113), a shortened 15-item version of the SERVPERF scale (SERVPERF-R) was found to be suitable for use in an Australian small business setting. A five-factor structure was identifiable but the factors were highly correlated, suggesting that they were not clearly distinct. The tendency for marked negative skewness observed by other researchers was also noted here. A follow-up study involving three other small businesses (N = 212) used Rasch analysis to test assumptions about the spread of items on the underlying continuum. These analyses indicated that there is an even, though narrow, spread of items across the continuum. The Rasch analysis suggested that the items in both SERVPERF and SERVPERF-R are too easy to rate highly and that more "difficult" items need to be added to the scale. The third study (N = 122) was conducted using a version of SERVPERF-R that included seven new items intended to extend the range of the scale. The new items, however, did not achieve this desirable outcome. The implications for service quality assessment are discussed.

  2. Identifying Controlling Nodes in Neuronal Networks in Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have detected hubs in neuronal networks using degree, betweenness centrality, motif and synchronization and revealed the importance of hubs in their structural and functional roles. In addition, the analysis of complex networks in different scales are widely used in physics community. This can provide detailed insights into the intrinsic properties of networks. In this study, we focus on the identification of controlling regions in cortical networks of cats’ brain in microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, based on single-objective evolutionary computation methods. The problem is investigated by considering two measures of controllability separately. The impact of the number of driver nodes on controllability is revealed and the properties of controlling nodes are shown in a statistical way. Our results show that the statistical properties of the controlling nodes display a concave or convex shape with an increase of the allowed number of controlling nodes, revealing a transition in choosing driver nodes from the areas with a large degree to the areas with a low degree. Interestingly, the community Auditory in cats’ brain, which has sparse connections with other communities, plays an important role in controlling the neuronal networks. PMID:22848475

  3. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  4. Identifying customer-focused performance measures : final report 655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) completed a comprehensive customer satisfaction : assessment in July 2009. ADOT commissioned the assessment to acquire statistically valid data from residents : and community leaders to help it identify...

  5. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  6. Identifying and correcting epigenetics measurements for systematic sources of variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrier, Flavie; Novoloaca, Alexei; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Baglietto, Laura; Ghantous, Akram; Perduca, Vittorio; Barrdahl, Myrto; Harlid, Sophia; Ong, Ken K; Cardona, Alexia; Polidoro, Silvia; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Overvad, Kim; Omichessan, Hanane; Dollé, Martijn; Bamia, Christina; Huerta, José Marìa; Vineis, Paolo; Herceg, Zdenko; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Methylation measures quantified by microarray techniques can be affected by systematic variation due to the technical processing of samples, which may compromise the accuracy of the measurement process and contribute to bias the estimate of the association under investigation. The quantification of

  7. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  8. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  9. Registrar wellness in Botswana: Measuring burnout and identifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited settings where stressors are intensified. Burnout leads to decreased quality of life for doctors, poor job and patient satisfaction, and difficulty retaining doctors. Objectives. Primary: to measure burnout among registrars working at Princess ...

  10. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  11. The challenge of measuring investments and identifying investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Hain, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    , there are several types of flaws and difficulties related to getting a statistical overview of investments in innovation in the energy sector; it is not just a matter of increasing the existing statistical efforts and precision, there are more generic difficulties. Obviously, activity indicators of energy...... innovation (cf. other chapters in this volume) are closely related to indicators of investments in energy innovation. Hence, a number of general measurement challenges, such as separating innovation and activities, apply to investment measurement as well. Furthermore, any kinds of outcome measures...... in the energy realm, and elsewhere, are by nature interdependent with investment activities. We will in this chapter focus on the challenges that are special to the investment activities and on the mapping of investors. The measurement challenges may be approached from a ‘receiver’ perspective, i...

  12. Measuring a leader's ability to identify and avert crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Brownlee-Turgeon

    2017-01-01

    Leaders often have influence over the impact of pending crises by either preventing or minimizing the crisis (Pearson and Mitroff, 1993; Bonvillian, 2013). With crisis looming just around the corner, a leader’s ability to identify, avert, and manage a crisis has become a fundamental element in organizational sustainability. Yet, most literature on crisis is focused in the field of communication or crisis management during the actual event. Wooten and James (2008) provide a conceptual model...

  13. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquín–Prado E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994 and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the process mean vector. Us ing simulation and the Average Run Length (ARL, the performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated. The ARL means the average points within control before an out–of–control point is detected, The results of the simulation show that the proposed chart is more sensitive that each one of the three charts individually

  14. Measuring Consumer Innovativeness: Identifying Innovators among Consumers of Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Filová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.

  15. A preliminary approach to identify irradiated foods by thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Choonshik; Kim, Hyoung-Ook; Lim, Yoongho

    2012-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is one of the physical methods for the identification of irradiated foods. Among the currently developed methods, TL is the most widely used method for the identification of irradiated foods. However, in order to use this method, silicate minerals should be isolated from food samples. The process for the isolation of silicate minerals is time consuming and laborious. In this work, we have investigated the applicability of the TL method using iron-containing minerals instead of silicate minerals. In the TL analyses of dried spices, TL glow curves of iron-containing minerals showed maximum temperatures between 150 and 250 °C which were the same as those of silicate minerals. The process for the mineral separation of the proposed method is simple, fast, easy, and reliable. Moreover, the analysis results including TL ratio have not shown significant differences compared with the silicate minerals method. As a result, the TL measurements using the iron-containing minerals could be an excellent method for the identification of the irradiated foods, including dried spices. - Highlights: ► A thermoluminescence method using iron-containing minerals is proposed. ► Current method using silicate minerals is time consuming and laborious. ► However, the proposed method is simple, fast, easy, and reliable. ► Analysis results are similar to those of the silicate minerals method.

  16. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  17. Radioactivity measurements and control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Constantin, F.; Petcu, M.; Rusu, Al.

    2003-01-01

    In our department, in the last years, a new line of production has been developed devoted to the radioactivity measurements (portal monitor, gamma source detector, neutron monitor). Instruments of different design (hand-held, portals or steady-state) are intended for detection and locating of radioactive sources. Monitors are intended to detect radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for illegal traffic prevention of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarm signals when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. Neutron dosimeters are designed for the determination of dose equivalent rate around neutron generators or sources. All devices can be recommended for use to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments, nuclear research or power facilities. Incorporating micro controllers and new design, our products span almost all the spectra of radioactivity detection (gamma, beta, X and neutrons). No special knowledge is needed to operate these instruments as all service functions are performed automatically (self-tests, background updating and threshold calculation). The Portal monitor is intended to be a checkpoint in contamination control or in unauthorized traffic of radioactive materials. The portal monitor can be installed both in open, unprotected to environmental conditions areas or in enclosed areas. It may be used at pedestrian cross border points, at check points of Nuclear Power Plants, enterprises of nuclear industry, weapons manufacturing and storage plants, nuclear waste disposal and storage sites, at the entrances to steel plants, the post-offices and airports, the governmental offices, banks, private companies etc. The monitor provides audio alarming signals when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. The monitor consists in a portal frame, which sustains 5 detectors. Each

  18. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and measurement...

  19. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  20. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  1. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.

    The main

  2. Measuring device for control rod driving time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hanabusa, Masatoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device for control driving time having a function capable of measuring a selected control rod driving time and measuring an entire control rod driving time simultaneously. A calculation means and a store means for the selected rod control rod driving time, and a calculation means and a store means for the entire control rod driving time are disposed individually. Each of them measures the driving time and stores the data independent of each other based on a selected control rod insert ion signal and an entire control rod insertion signal. Even if insertion of selected and entire control rods overlaps, each of the control rod driving times can be measured reliably to provide an advantageous effect capable of more accurately conducting safety evaluation for the nuclear reactor based on the result of the measurement. (N.H.)

  3. TOWARDS MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE BASED ON SEMIOTIC CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. JOSLYN

    2000-08-01

    We address the question of how to identify and measure the degree of intelligence in systems. We define the presence of intelligence as equivalent to the presence of a control relation. We contrast the distinct atomic semioic definitions of models and controls, and discuss hierarchical and anticipatory control. We conclude with a suggestion about moving towards quantitative measures of the degree of such control in systems.

  4. HOW to Identify and Control Sapsucker Injury on Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls

    1976-01-01

    The yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), a member of the woodpecker family, is a migratory bird whose summer breeding range includes the Lakes States region. The identifying field markings of adult birds are a black crescent on the breast, pale yellow belly, white wing stripe, and a crimson crown. The male also has a crimson chin and throat, distinguishing...

  5. From control system security indices to attack identifiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; Sandberg, H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate detectability and identifiability of attacks on linear dynamical systems that are subjected to external disturbances. We generalize a concept for a security index, which was previously introduced for static systems. The index exactly quantifies the resources

  6. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  7. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  8. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  9. Controlled searching in reversibly de-identified medical imaging archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge Miguel; Pinho, Eduardo; Monteiro, Eriksson; Silva, João Figueira; Costa, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, digital medical imaging in healthcare has become a fundamental tool for medical diagnosis. This growth has been accompanied by the development of technologies and standards, such as the DICOM standard and PACS. This environment led to the creation of collaborative projects where there is a need to share medical data between different institutions for research and educational purposes. In this context, it is necessary to maintain patient data privacy and provide an easy and secure mechanism for authorized personnel access. This paper presents a solution that fully de-identifies standard medical imaging objects, including metadata and pixel data, providing at the same time a reversible de-identifier mechanism that retains search capabilities from the original data. The last feature is important in some scenarios, for instance, in collaborative platforms where data is anonymized when shared with the community but searchable for data custodians or authorized entities. The solution was integrated into an open source PACS archive and validated in a multidisciplinary collaborative scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Control measurement system in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, V.V.S.

    1985-01-01

    The dependence of a bulk facility handling Purex Process on the control measurement system for evaluating the process performance needs hardly be emphasized. process control, Plant control, inventory control and quality control are the four components of the control measurement system. The scope and requirements of each component are different and the measurement methods are selected accordingly. However, each measurement system has six important elements. These are described in detail. The quality assurance programme carried out by the laboratory as a mechanism through which the quality of measurements is regularly tested and stated in quantitative terms is also explained in terms of internal and external quality assurance, with examples. Suggestions for making the control measurement system more responsive to the operational needs in future are also briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Identifying the social capital influencing diabetes control in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yohei; Suematsu, Mina; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Kentaro; Yasui, Hiroki; Hida, Takeshi; Uemura, Kazumasa; Murotani, Kenta; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes is increasing in Japan. Recently, Social capital (SC) has received increasing attention as a factor influencing health conditions. In the US, the relation between SC and diabetes control has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this connection in Japan. Three SC questionnaires, entitled “trust in people in a community,” “social support,” and “social relationships,” were constructed. The subjects were adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Inf...

  12. Measurement control program at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data

  13. Computer controlled quality of analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Huff, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    A PDP 11/35 computer system is used in evaluating analytical chemistry measurements quality control data at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. This computerized measurement quality control system has several features which are not available in manual systems, such as real-time measurement control, computer calculated bias corrections and standard deviation estimates, surveillance applications, evaluaton of measurement system variables, records storage, immediate analyst recertificaton, and the elimination of routine analysis of known bench standards. The effectiveness of the Barnwell computer system has been demonstrated in gathering and assimilating the measurements of over 1100 quality control samples obtained during a recent plant demonstration run. These data were used to determine equaitons for predicting measurement reliability estimates (bias and precision); to evaluate the measurement system; and to provide direction for modification of chemistry methods. The analytical chemistry measurement quality control activities represented 10% of the total analytical chemistry effort

  14. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  15. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems

  16. Identifying Core Competencies of Infection Control Nurse Specialists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Fong; Bond, Trevor G; Adamson, Bob; Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    To confirm a core competency scale for Hong Kong infection control nurses at the advanced nursing practice level from the core competency items proposed in a previous phase of this study. This would serve as the foundation of competency assurance in Hong Kong hospitals. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All public and private hospitals in Hong Kong. All infection control nurses in hospitals of Hong Kong. The 83-item proposed core competency list established in an earlier study was transformed into a questionnaire and sent to 112 infection control nurses in 48 hospitals in Hong Kong. They were asked to rate the importance of each infection prevention and control item using Likert-style response categories. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The response rate of 81.25% was achieved. Seven items were removed from the proposed core competency list, leaving a scale of 76 items that fit the measurement requirements of the unidimensional Rasch model. Essential core competency items of advanced practice for infection control nurses in Hong Kong were identified based on the measurement criteria of the Rasch model. Several items of the scale that reflect local Hong Kong contextual characteristics are distinguished from the overseas standards. This local-specific competency list could serve as the foundation for education and for certification of infection control nurse specialists in Hong Kong. Rasch measurement is an appropriate analytical tool for identifying core competencies of advanced practice nurses in other specialties and in other locations in a manner that incorporates practitioner judgment and expertise.

  17. Non interacting control by measurement feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we shall solve the problem of non interacting control by measurement feedback for systems that in addition to a control input and a measurement output have two exogenous inputs and two exogenous outputs. That is, we shall derive necessary and sufficient conditions that can actually be

  18. Fundamental data analyses for measurement control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.L.; Fazal, B.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of a complete measurement control program for special nuclear materials is the analysis of data from periodic control measurements of known standards. This chapter covers the following topics: basic algorithms including an introduction and terminology, the standard case (known mean and standard deviation), Shewart control charts, and sequential test for bias; modifications for nonstandard cases including modification for changing (decaying) standard value, modifications for deteriorating measurement precision, and modifications when repeated measurements are made; maintenance information including estimation of historical standard deviation (standard case), estimation of historical standard deviation (changing with time), normality and outliners, and other tests of randomness

  19. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental data analyses for measurement control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.L.; Fazal, B.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1987-02-01

    A set of measurment control data analyses was selected for use by analysts responsible for maintaining measurement quality of nuclear materials accounting instrumentation. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted locally, quickly, and easily. The control charts provide for visual inspection of data and enable an alert reviewer to spot problems possibly before statistical tests detect them. The statistical tests are useful for automating the detection of departures from the controlled state or from the underlying assumptions (such as normality). 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-06-01

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  2. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local

  3. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  4. Controlling You Watching Me: Measuring Perception Control on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Melanie; Attrill-Smith, Alison

    2017-09-01

    Online self-presentation assumes that individuals intentionally control how others perceive them based on their online behaviors. Existing tools are limited in their ability to measure this notion of perception control and there is little understanding around factors which may affect the desire for perception control. This article reports on the development of a perception control scale and comparisons of perception control across age and between genders. A total of 222 participants completed an online survey with items measuring perception control and participant demographics. A principal component analysis revealed a one-factor, 12-item scale explaining 41.14% of the variance. Perception control was found to increase with age and did not differ between genders. Results are consistent with existing impression management research suggesting that while participants of both genders desire to control how others perceive them, as a person's sense of self stabilizes over time, they are less motivated to change their behaviors to control others' impressions of them.

  5. Quality control of gamma radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of quality control and assurance of gamma radiation measuring systems has been described in detail. The factors deciding of high quality of radiometric measurements as well as statistical testing and calibration of measuring systems have been presented and discussed

  6. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  7. SALE, Quality Control of Analytical Chemical Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, W.J.; Gentillon, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program is a statistical analysis program written to analyze the data received from laboratories participating in the SALE quality control and evaluation program. The system is aimed at identifying and reducing analytical chemical measurement errors. Samples of well-characterized materials are distributed to laboratory participants at periodic intervals for determination of uranium or plutonium concentration and isotopic distributions. The results of these determinations are statistically evaluated and participants are informed of the accuracy and precision of their results. 2 - Method of solution: Various statistical techniques produce the SALE output. Assuming an unbalanced nested design, an analysis of variance is performed, resulting in a test of significance for time and analyst effects. A trend test is performed. Both within- laboratory and between-laboratory standard deviations are calculated. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Up to 1500 pieces of data for each nuclear material sampled by a maximum of 75 laboratories may be analyzed

  8. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups.

  9. Programming the control of magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a short review concerning the new NMR probe measurement control system. Then it presents the new program 'CYCLOCHAMP' attached to the magnetic field measurement which also allows to cycle the magnetic field inside the cyclotrons and to equilibrate it among the SSC sectors. (authors)

  10. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  11. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Measuring the Balance Control System – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Jančová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of postural control during standing have employed wide range of procedures including the outcome measures use to quantify postural control, the duration of the sample collected, sampling frequency and methods for data processing. Due to these differences there remains little, if any, common grounds for comparisons between studies to establish a concrete understanding of the features and bouns which characterize normal healthy postural control. This article deals with terms such as reliability and repeatability of stabilometric measurements, stabilometric data quantification and analysis. To clear up those terms is suggested, by the author of this paper, very important. The stabilometric measurements remain, nevertheless, different when dealing with aging adults. Though, we notes some alterations of the aging systems, this article is not entirely dedicated to the seniors population. Measurements of COP and technical notes remain the main axis of present paper.

  13. Performance expectations of measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The principal index for designing and assessing the effectiveness of safeguards is the sensitivity and reliability of gauging the true status of material balances involving material flows, transfers, inventories, and process holdup. The measurement system must not only be capable of characterizing the material for gradation or intensity of protection, but also be responsive to needs for detection and localization of losses, provide confirmation that no diversion has occurred, and help meet requirements for process control, health and safety. Consequently, the judicious application of a measurement control and quality assurance program is vital to a complete understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the measurement system including systematic and random components of error for weight, volume, sampling, chemical, isotopic, and nondestructive determinations of material quantities in each material balance area. This paper describes performance expectations or criteria for a measurement control program in terms of ''what'' is desired and ''why'', relative to safeguards and security objectives

  14. Establishing a volumetric measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.H.; Jenkins, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), several facilities have nearly all their special nuclear material in solution and therefore, volume measurements play a key role in the accountability of these materials. Normally, facilities rely on frequent instrument calibrations, periodic tank calibrations and proper instrument configuration to ensure measurement control. At SRS, methods have been employed that go beyond these basic steps to monitor the volume measurement systems and provide real time indication of measurement control. These methods can be used to indicate if a tank requires recalibration, if there is a sampling problem, or if there is an instrument problem. The methods include: sample density comparison, in-tank to laboratory density comparison, redundant instrument comparison and tank to tank transfer comparison. This paper describes these methods and the generation of control charts to track these comparisons in real time

  15. Measurement control program for new special recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  17. Identifying an outcome measure to assess the impact of Mobility Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Suzie; Rewi, Dallas; Channon, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Mobility Dogs® trains dogs to work with people with physical disabilities to increase independence, confidence, self-esteem and participation. Mobility Dogs® seeks to critically evaluate and improve its services as it grows. This study aimed to identify and implement a standardised outcome measure into practice at Mobility Dogs®. Based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and guided by a steering group of key stakeholders, a three-phase approach was developed to identify and assess an outcome measure. The steering group highlighted the organisation's specific needs, selected participation as the assessment domain and identified core utility requirements of the measure. A comprehensive review of evidence was undertaken to identify and rank potential measures according to the specified needs. Of the seven participation outcome measures that met inclusion criteria, the three highest ranked measures were critically evaluated by the steering group to determine suitability against the organisation's needs. The Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) was selected for implementation into practice at Mobility Dogs®. Use of the IPA is an important first step for Mobility Dogs® to test the benefits of trained service dogs. This process could be replicated by other service dog organisations to identify outcome measures to assess their own services. Implications for Rehabilitation Service dogs (such as Mobility Dogs® in New Zealand) assist people living with physical impairments by performing tasks, however there is limited evidence on outcomes. The process for selecting an appropriate outcome measure for Mobility Dogs® involving partnership between Mobility Dogs® personnel and academics was an effective way to steer the project by determining important properties of the measure, before a search of the literature was undertaken. While the IPA was selected as the most appropriate outcome measure for use at Mobility Dogs®, it was the process that

  18. A decision support tool for identifying abuse of controlled substances by ForwardHealth Medicaid members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Allan T; Cummings, Stephen W; Mugdh, Mrinal

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to use Wisconsin's Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support (MEDS) data warehouse to develop and validate a decision support tool (DST) that (1) identifies Wisconsin Medicaid fee-for-service recipients who are abusing controlled substances, (2) effectively replicates clinical pharmacist recommendations for interventions intended to curb abuse of physician and pharmacy services, and (3) automates data extraction, profile generation and tracking of recommendations and interventions. From pharmacist manual reviews of medication profiles, seven measures of overutilization of controlled substances were developed, including (1-2) 6-month and 2-month "shopping" scores, (3-4) 6-month and 2-month forgery scores, (5) duplicate/same day prescriptions, (6) count of controlled substance claims, and the (7) shopping 6-month score for the individual therapeutic class with the highest score. The pattern analysis logic for the measures was encoded into SQL and applied to the medication profiles of 190 recipients who had already undergone manual review. The scores for each measure and numbers of providers were analyzed by exhaustive chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) to determine significant thresholds and combinations of predictors of pharmacist recommendations, resulting in a decision tree to classify recipients by pharmacist recommendations. The overall correct classification rate of the decision tree was 95.3%, with a 2.4% false positive rate and 4.0% false negative rate for lock-in versus prescriber-alert letter recommendations. Measures used by the decision tree include the 2-month and 6-month shopping scores, and the number of pharmacies and prescribers. The number of pharmacies was the best predictor of abuse of controlled substances. When a Medicaid recipient receives prescriptions for controlled substances at 8 or more pharmacies, the likelihood of a lock-in recommendation is 90%. The availability of the Wisconsin MEDS data warehouse has

  19. Measuring strategic control in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Jones, Emma

    2011-12-01

    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL), we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars (pure-block condition), or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial (novel mixed-block condition) which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation

  1. A systematic literature search to identify performance measure outcomes used in clinical studies of racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C E; Newton, J R

    2018-05-01

    Racing performance is often used as a measurable outcome variable in research studies investigating clinical diagnoses or interventions. However, the use of many different performance measures largely precludes conduct of meaningful comparative studies and, to date, those being used have not been collated. To systematically review the veterinary scientific literature for the use of racing performance as a measurable outcome variable in clinical studies of racehorses, collate and identify those most popular, and identify their advantages and disadvantages. Systematic literature search. The search criteria "((racing AND performance) AND (horses OR equidae))" were adapted for both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases. Data were collected in standardised recording forms for binary, categorical and quantitative measures, and the use of performance indices. In total, 217 studies that described racing performance were identified, contributing 117 different performance measures. No one performance measure was used in all studies, despite 90.3% using more than one variable. Data regarding race starts and earnings were used most commonly, with 88.0% and 54.4% of studies including at least one measure of starts and earnings, respectively. Seventeen variables were used 10 times or more, with the top five comprising: 'return to racing', 'number of starts', 'days to first start', 'earnings per period of time' and 'earnings per start'. The search strategies may not have identified all relevant papers, introducing bias to the review. Performance indices have been developed to improve assessment of interventions; however, they are not widely adopted in the scientific literature. Use of the two most commonly identified measures, whether the horse returned to racing and number of starts over a defined period of time, would best facilitate future systematic reviews and meta-analyses in advance of the development of a gold-standard measure of race performance outcome. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, F.M.; Pool, D.M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification proce...

  3. A portable nondestructive assay measurement control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Portable nondestructive assay (NDA) of plutonium processing hoods, solvent extraction columns, glove boxes, filters, and other items is required for both nuclear materials accountability and criticality control purposes. The Plutonium Finishing Plant has hundreds of such items that require routine portable NDA measurement. Previous recordkeeping of NDA measurements consisted of boxes of papers containing results and notebooks containing notes for each item to be measured. If the notes for any item were lost, new measurement parameters had to be calculated for that item. As a result, subsequent measurements could no longer be directly compared with previous results for that item due to possible changes in measurement parameters. The new portable NDA management system keeps all the necessary information in a computerized data base. Technicians are provided with a computer-generated drawing of each item to be measured, which also contains comments, measurement points, measurement parameters, and a form for filling in the raw data. After the measurements are made, the technician uses the computer to calculate and print out the results

  4. Non-identifier based adaptive control in mechatronics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Christoph M

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces non-identifier-based adaptive control (with and without internal model) and its application to the current, speed and position control of mechatronic systems such as electrical synchronous machines, wind turbine systems, industrial servo systems, and rigid-link, revolute-joint robots. In mechatronics, there is often only rough knowledge of the system. Due to parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities and unknown disturbances, model-based control strategies can reach their performance or stability limits without iterative controller design and performance evaluation, or system identification and parameter estimation. The non-identifier-based adaptive control presented is an alternative that neither identifies the system nor estimates its parameters but ensures stability. The adaptive controllers are easy to implement, compensate for disturbances and are inherently robust to parameter uncertainties and nonlinearities. For controller implementation only structural system knowledge (like relativ...

  5. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the indigenous methods or measures adopted by urban livestock owners in the control of mosquito in Sokoto metropolis. Fifty (50) respondents who were engaged in urban livestock production were conveniently sampled, In addition, five (5) locations (Sidi farm, Kara market, Sokoto ...

  6. On the necessity of identifying the true parameter in adaptive LQ control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.

    1986-01-01

    In adaptive control problems one may drop the requirement of identifying the true system in order to simplify the problem of control. It will be shown that in the adaptive LQ control problem this does not at all lead to an easier problem.

  7. Control perceptions and control appraisal: Relation to measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between control variables and measures of subjective wellbeing. The primary question asked was “who is happy and well, and why?” Design: A questionnaire survey and the data was analyzed by examining bivariate relationships between variables of interest. Participants: Two ...

  8. Hybrid scatterometry measurement for BEOL process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Kang, Byeong Cheol; Liu, Haibo; Isbester, Paul; Cheng, Marjorie; Ng-Emans, Susan; Yellai, Naren; Sendelbach, Matt; Koret, Roy; Gedalia, Oram

    2017-03-01

    Scaling of interconnect design rules in advanced nodes has been accompanied by a reducing metrology budget for BEOL process control. Traditional inline optical metrology measurements of BEOL processes rely on 1-dimensional (1D) film pads to characterize film thickness. Such pads are designed on the assumption that solid copper blocks from previous metallization layers prevent any light from penetrating through the copper, thus simplifying the effective film stack for the 1D optical model. However, the reduction of the copper thickness in each metallization layer and CMP dishing effects within the pad, have introduced undesired noise in the measurement. To resolve this challenge and to measure structures that are more representative of product, scatterometry has been proposed as an alternative measurement. Scatterometry is a diffraction based optical measurement technique using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), where light diffracted from a periodic structure is used to characterize the profile. Scatterometry measurements on 3D structures have been shown to demonstrate strong correlation to electrical resistance parameters for BEOL Etch and CMP processes. However, there is significant modeling complexity in such 3D scatterometry models, in particlar due to complexity of front-end-of-line (FEOL) and middle-of-line (MOL) structures. The accompanying measurement noise associated with such structures can contribute significant measurement error. To address the measurement noise of the 3D structures and the impact of incoming process variation, a hybrid scatterometry technique is proposed that utilizes key information from the structure to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty of the scatterometry measurement. Hybrid metrology combines measurements from two or more metrology techniques to enable or improve the measurement of a critical parameter. In this work, the hybrid scatterometry technique is evaluated for 7nm and 14nm node BEOL measurements of

  9. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  10. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  11. Phase measurement and control of bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An ion bean buncher was developed at ANL for bunching all ion species through a tandem accelerator. Transit time variations through the tandem, caused by ripple and fluctuations in the injection and lens power supplies and terminal voltage, and to varying voltage distributions in the accelerating tube, cause a beam-phase variation at the output of the tandem. A beam-phase measurement and control system was designed and installed in conjunction with the ion beam buncher to control beam phase at the tandem output. That system is described

  12. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  13. Identifying Genes Controlling Ferulate Cross-Linking Formation in Grass Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de O. Buanafina, Marcia Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-10-16

    This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties.

  14. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  15. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  16. The non-contact biometric identified bio signal measurement sensor and algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Il; Lee, Jong-Ha

    2018-04-25

    In these days, wearable devices have been developed for effectively measuring biological data. However, these devices have tissue allege and noise problem. To solve these problems, biometric measurement based on a non-contact method, such as face image sequencing is developed. This makes it possible to measure biometric data without any operation and side effects. However, it is impossible for a remote center to identify the person whose data are measured by the novel methods. In this paper, we propose the novel non-contact heart rate and blood pressure imaging system, Deep Health Eye. This system has authentication process at the same time as measuring bio signals, through non-contact method. In the future, this system can be convenient home bio signal monitoring system by combined with smart mirror.

  17. Out of control: Identifying the role of self-control strength in family violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Baumeister, R. F.; Schoemaker, K.; Bartels, M.; Vohs, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Family violence is common and brings tremendous costs to individuals, relationships, and society. Victims are vulnerable to negative outcomes across a host of dimensions, including cognitive performance, impulse control, emotion regulation, and physical health. Links between family violence and

  18. Automatic control unit for neutron transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Eid, Y.; Ashry, A.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Inshas (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed to control the neutron transmission measurements carried out using the time-of-flight spectrometer. The function of the automatic unit is to control the measurements of the neutron counting rate distribution transmitted through a sample at a selected channel group of the time analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. At the end of this time, the unit removes the sample out of the neutron beam, selects a second equal channel group of the time analyzer and provides the measurement of the neutron counting rate distribution for the same time period as in the case with the sample on. Such a measuring cycle can be repeated as much as the experiment requires. At the end of these cycles the stored information can be immediately obtained through the analyzer read out unit. It is found that the time of removing the sample out of the neutron beam or returning it back does not exceed 20 seconds instead of the five minutes required in case of manual operation. The most important advantages of using such an automatic unit are saving about 20 percent of the reactor operating time avoidng unnecessary radiation exposure of the experimentalists.

  19. HIV-1 envelope sequence-based diversity measures for identifying recent infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Kafando

    Full Text Available Identifying recent HIV-1 infections is crucial for monitoring HIV-1 incidence and optimizing public health prevention efforts. To identify recent HIV-1 infections, we evaluated and compared the performance of 4 sequence-based diversity measures including percent diversity, percent complexity, Shannon entropy and number of haplotypes targeting 13 genetic segments within the env gene of HIV-1. A total of 597 diagnostic samples obtained in 2013 and 2015 from recently and chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were selected. From the selected samples, 249 (134 from recent versus 115 from chronic infections env coding regions, including V1-C5 of gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain of HIV-1, were successfully amplified and sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The ability of the four sequence-based diversity measures to correctly identify recent HIV infections was evaluated using the frequency distribution curves, median and interquartile range and area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC. Comparing the median and interquartile range and evaluating the frequency distribution curves associated with the 4 sequence-based diversity measures, we observed that the percent diversity, number of haplotypes and Shannon entropy demonstrated significant potential to discriminate recent from chronic infections (p<0.0001. Using the AUC of ROC analysis, only the Shannon entropy measure within three HIV-1 env segments could accurately identify recent infections at a satisfactory level. The env segments were gp120 C2_1 (AUC = 0.806, gp120 C2_3 (AUC = 0.805 and gp120 V3 (AUC = 0.812. Our results clearly indicate that the Shannon entropy measure represents a useful tool for predicting HIV-1 infection recency.

  20. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  1. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  2. On-line method to identify control rod drops in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, T.J.; Martinez, A.S.; Medeiros, J.A.C.C.; Palma, D.A.P.; Gonçalves, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • On-line method to identify control rod drops in PWR reactors. • Identification method based on the readings of the ex-core detector. • Recognition of the patterns in the ex-core detector responses. - Abstract: A control rod drop event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimise undesirable effects in such a scenario. The goal of this work is to develop an online method to identify control rod drops in PWR reactors. The method entails the construction of a tool based on ex-core detector responses. It proposes to recognize patterns in the neutron ex-core detectors responses and thus to make an online identification of a control rod drop in the core during the reactor operation. The results of the study, as well as the behaviour of the detector responses demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  3. An Ontology for Identifying Cyber Intrusion Induced Faults in Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James; Guan, Jian

    This paper presents an ontological framework that permits formal representations of process control systems, including elements of the process being controlled and the control system itself. A fault diagnosis algorithm based on the ontological model is also presented. The algorithm can identify traditional process elements as well as control system elements (e.g., IP network and SCADA protocol) as fault sources. When these elements are identified as a likely fault source, the possibility exists that the process fault is induced by a cyber intrusion. A laboratory-scale distillation column is used to illustrate the model and the algorithm. Coupled with a well-defined statistical process model, this fault diagnosis approach provides cyber security enhanced fault diagnosis information to plant operators and can help identify that a cyber attack is underway before a major process failure is experienced.

  4. Modified Smith-predictor multirate control utilizing secondary process measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Ergon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Smith-predictor is a well-known control structure for industrial time delay systems, where the basic idea is to estimate the non-delayed process output by use of a process model, and to use this estimate in an inner feedback control loop combined with an outer feedback loop based on the delayed estimation error. The model used may be either mechanistic or identified from input-output data. The paper discusses improvements of the Smith-predictor for systems where also secondary process measurements without time delay are available as a basis for the primary output estimation. The estimator may then be identified also in the common case with primary outputs sampled at a lower rate than the secondary outputs. A simulation example demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of the suggested control structure.

  5. Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Piou, Cyril; Tadu, Zéphirin; Babin, Régis

    2018-06-06

    The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.

  6. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  7. Anterior temporal artery tap to identify systemic interference using short-separation NIRS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sood, Mehak; Jindal, Utkarsh; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    that are also affected by tDCS. An approach may be to use short optode separations to measure systemic hemodynamic fluctuations occurring in the superficial layers which can then be used as regressors to remove the systemic contamination. Here, we demonstrate that temporal artery tap may be used to better...... of neural activity is possible with a measure of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In principal accordance, NIRS can capture the hemodynamic response to tDCS but the challenge remains in removing the systemic interference occurring in the superficial layers of the head...... identify systemic interference using this short-separation NIRS. Moreover, NIRS-EEG joint-imaging during anodal tDCS was used to measure changes in mean cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) along with changes in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz-11.25 Hz. We found that percent...

  8. Self-control, future orientation, smoking, and the impact of Dutch tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The pronounced discrepancy between smokers' intentions to quit and their smoking behavior has led researchers to suggest that many smokers are time inconsistent, have self-control problems, and may benefit from external efforts to constrain their consumption. This study aims to test whether self-control and future orientation predict smoking levels and to identify if these traits modify how cigarette consumption responds to the introduction of tobacco control measures. A sample of Dutch adults (N = 1585) completed a measure of self-control and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS) in 2001 and indicated their tobacco consumption each year from 2001 to 2007. In 2004, a workplace smoking ban and substantial tax increase on tobacco was introduced in the Netherlands. To identify the potential impact of these tobacco control measures we examined whether participants smoked or were heavy smokers (20 + cigarettes per day) each year from 2001 to 2007. Participants with high self-control and CFCS scores showed lower rates of smoking across the seven year period of the study. The 2004 smoking restrictions were linked with a subsequent decline in heavy smoking. This decline was moderated by self-control levels. Those with low self-control showed a large reduction in heavy smoking whereas those with high self-control did not. The effects were, however, temporary: many people with low self-control resumed heavy smoking 2-3 years after the introduction of the tobacco restrictions. The immediate costs which national tobacco control measures impose on smokers may assist smokers with poor self-control in reducing their cigarette consumption.

  9. Best available control measures for prescribed burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Stoneman, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Section 190 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990 requires the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue guidance on Best Available Control Measures (BACM) of PM 10 (particulate matter with a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers) from urban fugitive dust, residential wood combustion, and prescribed silvicultural and agricultural burning (prescribed burning). The purpose of this guidance is to assist states (especially, but not exclusively, those with PM 10 nonattainment areas which have been classified as serious) in developing a control measure for these three source categories. This guidance is to be issued no later than May 15, 1992 as required under the CAA. The guidance will be issued in the form of a policy guidance generic to all three BACM and in the form of Technical Information Documents (TIDs) for each of the three source categories. The policy guidance will provide the analytical approach for determining BACM and the TID will provide the technical information. The purpose of this paper is to present some insight from the forthcoming TID on what BACM might entail for prescribed burning in a serious PM 10 nonattainment area

  10. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Frank M; Pool, Daan M; van Paassen, Marinus Rene M; Mulder, Max; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2018-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification procedure is presented that aims at an objective model selection for identifying the human feedforward response, using linear time-invariant autoregressive with exogenous input models. A new model selection criterion is proposed to decide on the model order (number of parameters) and the presence of feedforward in addition to feedback. For a range of typical control tasks, it is shown by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations that the classical Bayesian information criterion (BIC) leads to selecting models that contain a feedforward path from data generated by a pure feedback model: "false-positive" feedforward detection. To eliminate these false-positives, the modified BIC includes an additional penalty on model complexity. The appropriate weighting is found through computer simulations with a hypothesized HC model prior to performing a tracking experiment. Experimental human-in-the-loop data will be considered in future work. With appropriate weighting, the method correctly identifies the HC dynamics in a wide range of control tasks, without false-positive results.

  11. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... workshop, and analyses of documents. Findings – It is found that the local government relies vastly on informal control mechanisms and five control problems are identified: weak accountability processes between the political and administrative level; weak accountability between the director level...... the identified control problems. Research limitations/implications – As a single qualitative case study, the results are limited to one organization and subject. Practical implications – The paper has implications for IT PPM in Danish local governments and similar organizations in other countries. The paper...

  12. A Systematic Review of Tools to Measure Respiratory Rate in Order to Identify Childhood Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Lenahan, Jennifer L; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Ansermino, J Mark

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children. We identified 16 studies: 2 describing manual devices and 14 describing automated devices. Although both studies describing manual devices took place in low-resource settings, all studies describing automated devices were conducted in well-resourced settings. Direct comparison between studies was complicated by small sample size, absence of a consistent reference standard, and variations in comparison methodology. There is an urgent need for affordable and appropriate innovations that can reliably measure a child's respiratory rate in low-resource settings. Accelerating development or scale-up of these technologies could have the potential to advance childhood pneumonia diagnosis worldwide.

  13. Turbulent Flow and Sand Dune Dynamics: Identifying Controls on Aeolian Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G.

    2007-12-01

    Sediment transport models are founded on cubic power relationships between the transport rate and time averaged flow parameters. These models have achieved limited success and recent aeolian and fluvial research has focused on the modelling and measurement of sediment transport by temporally varying flow conditions. Studies have recognised turbulence as a driving force in sediment transport and have highlighted the importance of coherent flow structures in sediment transport systems. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, research in the fluvial environment has identified the significance of turbulent structures for bedform morphology and spacing. However, equivalent research in the aeolian domain is absent. This paper reports the findings of research carried out to characterise the importance of turbulent flow parameters in aeolian sediment transport and determine how turbulent energy and turbulent structures change in response to dune morphology. The relative importance of mean and turbulent wind parameters on aeolian sediment flux was examined in the Skeleton Coast, Namibia. Measurements of wind velocity (using sonic anemometers) and sand transport (using grain impact sensors) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz were made across a flat surface and along transects on a 9 m high barchan dune. Mean wind parameters and mass sand flux were measured using cup anemometers and wedge-shaped sand traps respectively. Vertical profile data from the sonic anemometers were used to compute turbulence and turbulent stress (Reynolds stress; instantaneous horizontal and vertical fluctuations; coherent flow structures) and their relationship with respect to sand transport and evolving dune morphology. On the flat surface time-averaged parameters generally fail to characterise sand transport dynamics, particularly as the averaging interval is reduced. However, horizontal wind speed correlates well with sand transport even with short averaging times. Quadrant

  14. Identifying the best locations to install flow control devices in sewer networks to enable in-sewer storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; Carbajal, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Simões, N. E.; Sá Marques, A.; de Sousa, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The activation of available in-sewer storage volume has been suggested as a low-cost flood and combined sewer overflow mitigation measure. However, it is currently unknown what the attributes for suitable objective functions to identify the best location for flow control devices are and the impact of those attributes on the results. In this study, we present a novel location model and efficient algorithm to identify the best location(s) to install flow limiters. The model is a screening tool that does not require hydraulic simulations but rather considers steady state instead of simplistic static flow conditions. It also maximises in-sewer storage according to different reward functions that also considers the potential impact of flow control device failure. We demonstrate its usefulness on two real sewer networks, for which an in-sewer storage potential of approximately 2,000 m3 and 500 m3 was estimated with five flow control devices installed.

  15. Least-squares methods for identifying biochemical regulatory networks from noisy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslop-Harrison Pat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying the dynamic interactions in biochemical networks from noisy experimental data. Typically, approaches for solving this problem make use of an estimation algorithm such as the well-known linear Least-Squares (LS estimation technique. We demonstrate that when time-series measurements are corrupted by white noise and/or drift noise, more accurate and reliable identification of network interactions can be achieved by employing an estimation algorithm known as Constrained Total Least Squares (CTLS. The Total Least Squares (TLS technique is a generalised least squares method to solve an overdetermined set of equations whose coefficients are noisy. The CTLS is a natural extension of TLS to the case where the noise components of the coefficients are correlated, as is usually the case with time-series measurements of concentrations and expression profiles in gene networks. Results The superior performance of the CTLS method in identifying network interactions is demonstrated on three examples: a genetic network containing four genes, a network describing p53 activity and mdm2 messenger RNA interactions, and a recently proposed kinetic model for interleukin (IL-6 and (IL-12b messenger RNA expression as a function of ATF3 and NF-κB promoter binding. For the first example, the CTLS significantly reduces the errors in the estimation of the Jacobian for the gene network. For the second, the CTLS reduces the errors from the measurements that are corrupted by white noise and the effect of neglected kinetics. For the third, it allows the correct identification, from noisy data, of the negative regulation of (IL-6 and (IL-12b by ATF3. Conclusion The significant improvements in performance demonstrated by the CTLS method under the wide range of conditions tested here, including different levels and types of measurement noise and different numbers of data points, suggests that its application will enable

  16. Tuning quantum measurements to control chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jessica K; Hope, Joseph J; Carvalho, André R R

    2017-03-20

    Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes.

  17. Microneedle Manufacture: Assessing Hazards and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal microneedles have captured the attention of researchers in relation to a variety of applications, and silicone-based moulds required to produce these systems are now widely available and can be readily manufactured on the lab bench. There is however some concern over the potential for accidental needlestick injuries and, as with any sharp hazard, the potential for blood-borne pathogen transmission must be considered. This follows from recent governmental concerns over the use of microneedle systems in dermabrasion. Despite the piercing nature of the microneedle patch sharing many similarities with conventional hypodermic needles, there are notable factors that mitigate the risk of contamination. A range of microneedle systems has been prepared using micromoulding techniques, and their puncture capability assessed. A critical assessment of the potential for accidental puncture and the control measures needed to ensure safe utilisation of the patch systems is presented.

  18. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  19. Cardiac output measurement instruments controlled by microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, M.; Barritault, L.; Boeri, C.; Fauchet, M.; Gambini, D.; Vernejoul, P. de

    The nuclear medicine and biophysics laboratory of the Necker-Enfants malades University Hospital Centre has built a microprocessor controlled Cardiac flowmetre. The principle of the cardiac output measurement from a radiocardiogram is well established. After injection of a radioactive indicator upstream from the heart cavities the dilution curve is obtained by the use of a gamma-ray precordial detector. This curve normally displays two peaks due to passage of the indicator into the right and left sides of the heart respectively. The output is then obtained from the stewart Hamilton principle once recirculation is eliminated. The graphic method used for the calculation however is long and tedious. The decreasing fraction of the dilution curve is projected in logarithmic space in order to eliminate recirculation by determining the mean straight line from which the decreasing exponential is obtained. The principle of the use of microprocessors is explained (electronics, logics) [fr

  20. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to

  1. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... to understand how local governments can improve IT PPM. Keywords IT project portfolio management, E-government, Control theory, Control problems, Formal mechanisms, Informal mechanisms, Local government, Denmark...... control in IT PPM. The authors identify control problems and formulate recommendations to address these. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting principles from Engaged Scholarship, the authors have conducted a case study using a wide variety of data collection methods, including 29 interviews, one...

  3. Measurement and control of occupational noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elammari, Muftah Faraj

    2007-01-01

    High level of environmental and occupational noise remain a problem all over the world. As problems and complaints increased dramatically by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries focusing on the problem was intensified. In this thesis occupational noise levels at different places were measured and compared with the international permissible levels using the integrating sound level meter (Quest 2800). The calibration of the instrument was carried out before and after each measurement using the acoustic calibrator (Quest CA-12B calibrator). The method which was followed was measuring the sound pressure level of the different noise sources over a broad frequency band covering the audible frequency range using the (octave band filter, model OB-100), disregrading variation with time. Since the human ear is most sensitive in the 2-5 khz range of frequencies and least sensitive at extremely high and low frequencies the instrument was adjusted on the A weighting net work which varies with frequencies in a very similar way as that of the human ear. From the obtained results, some noise levels which were recorded were within the permissible levels i.e. below 90 dba and some noise levels were higher than the permissible limit as in janzour textile factory (95 dba), The welding workshop (120 dba), Benghazi Macaroni factory (100 dba), and near the air blowers at Zletin cement factory, Benghazi cement factory (97-10-dba) in these cases suggestions were made to minimize the problem. Concerning the noise control, four methods of noise control were tested, these methods were: reducing noise by sound absorbing material at Sirt local broadcasting radio, reducing noise by keeping a distance from the noise source, at the Boilers hall at REWDC, reducing noise by enclosures, at the compressors room at Zletin cement factory, and finally reducing noise by performing regular maintenance at Garabolli photo development centre. The percentage of noise reduction was 21%, 12

  4. IDENTIFYING ANTHROPOGENIC METALLIC POLLUTANTS USING FREQUENCY DEPENDENT MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN ABUJA METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatto S. Solomon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil formed from lithological and weathering processes of parent rocks generally exhibit paramagnetic properties due to some minerals contained in the rocks and thus have significant value of magnetic susceptibility. This susceptibility arising from the influence of the parent rocks tend to mask anthropogenic grains pollutants released into the environment by human activities. Hence, it becomes difficult to identify the effect of the lithological and anthropogenic magnetic susceptibility in complex soil found in urban areas. The superparamagnetic effect of lithological soil, a single state domain and multi-domain state of anthropogenic grains can easily be investigated by frequency dependent measurements where readings between 0-2.0% indicates the absence of lithological influence, 2.0-8.0% indicates multi-domain grains or mixture of both single stage and multi-domian grains and 8.0-12% indicates the superparamagntic (SP grain from lithological origin. In this work frequency dependent measurements were carried out along 5 selected road networks within the 5 districts of Abuja phase 1. Measurements were also carried out in 379 random points at the surface and depth of 40.0cm to investigate the distribution of anthropogenic grains in Abuja metropolis using the Bartington susceptibility meter. Frequency dependent measurements along the selected road networks indicate0-3.0% immediately after the roads pavement to a distance of about 3.0m from the road, indicating that the magnetic susceptibility arise mostly form anthropogenic influence rather than lithological processes. At the distance of 3.0-8.0m, frequency dependent values of about 3.0-8.0% were recorded, indicating mixture of both superparamagnetic and multi-domain grains. Beyond the distance of 8.0m, the frequency dependent values are mostly above 8.0.0%, indicating virtually all SP grains. The spatial distribution frequency dependent surface map shows the presence of anthropogenic grains in

  5. Identifying hotspots of coastal risk and evaluating DRR measures: results from the RISC-KIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.

    2016-02-01

    High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea

  6. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  7. GEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used in the Earth Sciences as a means of obtaining information about the molecular-scale environment of fluids in porous geological materials. Laboratory experiments were conducted to advance our fundamental understanding of the link between the NMR response and the geochemical properties of geological materials. In the first part of this research project, we studied the impact of both the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space and the surface relaxivity on the NMR response of fluids in sand-clay mixtures. This study highlighted the way in which these two parameters control our ability to use NMR measurements to detect and quantify fluid saturation in multiphase saturated systems. The second part of the project was designed to explore the way in which the mineralogic form of iron, as opposed to simply the concentration of iron, affects the surface relaxation rate and, more generally, the NMR response of porous materials. We found that the magnitude of the surface relaxation rate was different for the various iron-oxide minerals because of changes in both the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the pore space, and the surface relaxivity. Of particular significance from this study was the finding of an anomalously large surface relaxivity of magnetite compared to that of the other iron minerals. Differences in the NMR response of iron minerals were seen in column experiments during the reaction of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand with aqueous Fe(II) solutions to form goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite; indicating the potential use of NMR as a means of monitoring geochemical reactions. The final part of the research project investigated the impact of heterogeneity, at the pore-scale, on the NMR response. This work highlighted the way in which the geochemistry, by controlling the surface relaxivity, has a significant impact on the link between NMR data and the microgeometry of the pore space.

  8. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  9. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  10. Chemoluminescence measurement of 16 spices as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Boegl, W.

    1984-09-01

    This report is based on a series of experiments conducted with 16 spices to find out whether the chemiluminescence intensity measurements of the reaction to luminol solution is appropriate as an indicator of treatment with ionizing radiation. For this purpose the optimum conditions of reaction were first assessed for each spice in order to determine the dependence of the chemiluminescence intensity on the radiation dose and storage time after irradiation. Only in garlic the irradiation was not able to be identified any more after 3 days of storage time. In most of the spices it is possible to take proof of radiation exposure even after storage times of more than 2 months. (orig./PW) [de

  11. Measurement and control systems using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    Non-destructive Assay is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: interface of input/output (I/O) (hardware) and graphical interface (software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (set point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: to reject or to accept the analyzed material. The I/O interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical interface (software) is written in visual C++ language. (author)

  12. Impedance measurement of irradiated potatoes: a method to identify radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The potato is firmly established in many parts of the world as a major staple food. Then, radiation processing of potato is approved in many countries for sprouting inhibition and extension of shelf life in a dose range from about 0.01 to 0.15 kGy of 60 Co. The use of electrical conductance methods for the detection of Salmonella, some virus or the action of herbicides on plant has been reported and differences have been observed between instruments in respect of the magnitude of conductance change or rates of change in conductance response. A reliable technique to identify potatoes or other food products has not been established so far, though several methods have been reported. Electrical impedance might thus serve for characterization of unirradiated and irradiated tissues and cells. In this work, potato tubers from an European variety, named Bintje, grown in Sao Paulo State were employed. Potatoes were punctured with steel electrodes and impedance measured at different frequencies (1 k Hz-100 k Hz) by passing 3-5 m A alternating current through it. The impedance ratio of 50 k Hz/5 k Hz calculated from ten replicate samples decreases with the increment of the dose when doses of O 0.75 and 0.15 kGy from a Gamma Cell 220 were utilized. The impedance measurement were slightly affected by the place of puncture. (author)

  13. TransDetect Identifies a New Regulatory Module Controlling Phosphate Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sikander; Kisko, Mushtak; Dubos, Christian; Lacombe, Benoit; Berthomieu, Pierre; Krouk, Gabriel; Rouached, Hatem

    2017-10-01

    Identifying transcription factor (TFs) cooperation controlling target gene expression is still an arduous challenge. The accuracy of current methods at genome scale significantly drops with the increase in number of genes, which limits their applicability to more complex genomes, like animals and plants. Here, we developed an algorithm, TransDetect, able to predict TF combinations controlling the expression level of a given gene. TransDetect was used to identify novel TF modules regulating the expression of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) phosphate transporter PHO1;H3 comprising MYB15, MYB84, bHLH35, and ICE1. These TFs were confirmed to interact between themselves and with the PHO1;H3 promoter. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of TF mutants enable the organization of these four TFs and PHO1;H3 in a new gene regulatory network controlling phosphate accumulation in zinc-dependent manner. This demonstrates the potential of TransDetect to extract directionality in nondynamic transcriptomes and to provide a blueprint to identify gene regulatory network involved in a given biological process. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Identifying mechanisms in the control of quantum dynamics through Hamiltonian encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Abhra; Rabitz, Herschel

    2003-01-01

    A variety of means are now available to design control fields for manipulating the evolution of quantum systems. However, the underlying physical mechanisms often remain obscure, especially in the cases of strong fields and high quantum state congestion. This paper proposes a method to quantitatively determine the various pathways taken by a quantum system in going from the initial state to the final target. The mechanism is revealed by encoding a signal in the system Hamiltonian and decoding the resultant nonlinear distortion of the signal in the system time-evolution operator. The relevant interfering pathways determined by this analysis give insight into the physical mechanisms operative during the evolution of the quantum system. A hierarchy of mechanism identification algorithms with increasing ability to extract more detailed pathway information is presented. The mechanism identification concept is presented in the context of analyzing computer simulations of controlled dynamics. As illustrations of the concept, mechanisms are identified in the control of several simple, discrete-state quantum systems. The mechanism analysis tools reveal the roles of multiple interacting quantum pathways to maximally take advantage of constructive and destructive interference. Similar procedures may be applied directly in the laboratory to identify control mechanisms without resort to computer modeling, although this extension is not addressed in this paper

  15. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic by the Multistage Trust Evaluation of Destination Identifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Burghouwt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Network-based detection of botnet Command and Control communication is a difficult task if the traffic has a relatively low volume and if popular protocols, such as HTTP, are used to resemble normal traffic. We present a new network-based detection approach that is capable of detecting this type of Command and Control traffic in an enterprise network by estimating the trustworthiness of the traffic destinations. If the destination identifier of a traffic flow origins directly from: human input, prior traffic from a trusted destination, or a defined set of legitimate applications, the destination is trusted and its associated traffic is classified as normal. Advantages of this approach are: the ability of zero day malicious traffic detection, low exposure to malware by passive host-external traffic monitoring, and the applicability for real-time filtering. Experimental evaluation demonstrates successful detection of diverse types of Command and Control Traffic.

  16. Control-based method to identify underlying delays of a nonlinear dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongchuan; Frasca, Mattia; Liu, Fang

    2008-10-01

    We suggest several stationary state control-based delay identification methods which do not require any structural information about the controlled systems and are applicable to systems described by delayed ordinary differential equations. This proposed technique includes three steps: (i) driving a system to a steady state; (ii) perturbing the control signal for shifting the steady state; and (iii) identifying all delays by detecting the time that the system is abruptly drawn out of stationarity. Some aspects especially important for applications are discussed as well, including interaction delay identification, stationary state convergence speed, performance comparison, and the influence of noise on delay identification. Several examples are presented to illustrate the reliability and robustness of all delay identification methods suggested.

  17. Registrar wellness in Botswana: Measuring burnout and identifying ways to improve wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D Westmoreland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Burnout during registrar training is high, especially in resource-limited settings where stressors are intensified. Burnout leads to decreased quality of life for doctors, poor job and patient satisfaction, and difficulty retaining doctors. Objectives. Primary: to measure burnout among registrars working at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary: to determine factors contributing to burnout and identify potential wellness interventions. Methods. The validated Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure the degree of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Work-related difficulties and potential wellness interventions were explored through multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Results. Of 40 eligible registrars, 20 (50% completed the survey. High levels of burnout were reported for emotional exhaustion in 65% (13/20, depersonalisation in 45% (9/20, and personal accomplishment in 35% (7/20 of registrars. A high degree of burnout was reported by 75% (15/20 of registrars in one or more domains. In the previous 7 days, registrars worked an average of 77 hours, took 1.5 overnight calls, slept 5.7 hours per night, and 53% (10/19 had ≥1 of their patients die. Five (25% registrars considered leaving Botswana to work in another country, which correlated with those with the highest degree of burnout. The most common frustrations included insufficient salary and limited medical resources. Suggested interventions included improved mentorship and wellness lectures. Conclusions. There is a high degree of burnout, especially emotional exhaustion, among registrars. Encouragingly, most registrars have a desire to work in Botswana after training. Future research on improving registrar wellness in low-resource settings is urgently needed.

  18. Individual Pitch Control Using LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. However as the plant is nonlinear and time varying, a new approach is proposed to simplify......-of-plane blade root bending moments and a better transient response compared to a benchmark PI individual pitch controller....

  19. Review of measures to control radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1980-03-01

    Methods used in Canada and the U.S.A. to overcome problems in the control of radiation, to prescribe standards and to ensure that compliance with the standards is achieved are reviewed. The relevant Acts and Regulations are outlined. Options which could be applied in Australia for effecting better control of radiation are suggested

  20. Identifying Patient Attitudinal Clusters Associated with Asthma Control: The European REALISE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; Fletcher, Monica; Price, David

    Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical phenotypes, and treatment may be tailored accordingly. However, factors beyond purely clinical traits, such as patient attitudes and behaviors, can also have a marked impact on treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to further analyze data from the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Europe survey, to identify distinct patient groups sharing common attitudes toward asthma and its management. Factor analysis of respondent data (N = 7,930) from the REALISE Europe survey consolidated the 34 attitudinal variables provided by the study population into a set of 8 summary factors. Cluster analyses were used to identify patient clusters that showed similar attitudes and behaviors toward each of the 8 summary factors. Five distinct patient clusters were identified and named according to the key characteristics comprising that cluster: "Confident and self-managing," "Confident and accepting of their asthma," "Confident but dependent on others," "Concerned but confident in their health care professional (HCP)," and "Not confident in themselves or their HCP." Clusters showed clear variability in attributes such as degree of confidence in managing their asthma, use of reliever and preventer medication, and level of asthma control. The 5 patient clusters identified in this analysis displayed distinctly different personal attitudes that would require different approaches in the consultation room certainly for asthma but probably also for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  2. Automatization of the radiation control measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Akio; Ogata, Harumi; Horikoshi, Yoshinori; Shirai, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) was constructed to fabricate the MOX fuels for 'MONJU' and 'JOYO' reactors and to develop the practical fuel fabricating technology. For the fuel fabrication process in this facility, centralized controlling system is being adopted for the mass production of the fuel and reduction of the radiation exposure dose. Also, the radiation control systems are suitable for the large-scale facility and the automatic-remote process of the fuel fabrication. One of the typical radiation control systems is the self moving survey system which has been developed by PNC and adopted for the automatic routine monitoring. (author)

  3. Laser-based measuring equipment controlled by microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miron, N.; Sporea, D.; Velculescu, V.G.; Petre, M.

    1988-03-01

    Some laser-based measuring equipment controlled by microcomputer developed for industrial and scientific purposes are described. These equipments are intended for dial indicators verification, graduated rules measurement, and for very accurate measurement of the gravitational constant. (authors)

  4. Measuring End-Tidal Carbon Monoxide of Jaundiced Neonates in the Birth Hospital to Identify Those with Hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Malleske, Daniel T; Lambert, Diane K; Baer, Vickie L; Prchal, Josef T; Denson, Leslie E; Gerday, Erick; Weaver Lewis, Kimberlee A; Shepherd, JuLyn G

    2016-01-01

    End-tidal breath carbon monoxide (ETCOc) levels correlate with catabolism of heme, but until recently, this measurement was not readily available for application to neonatology practice. We performed a prospective, multihospital, test-of-concept study where ETCOc was measured during the birth hospitalization of neonates with a total bilirubin (TB) value >75th percentile on the Bhutani bilirubin nomogram. This was done to test the feasibility and ease of use of this new device. Neonates with an elevated ETCOc (with a >95th percentile reference interval previously established) were labeled as having 'hemolytic jaundice'. We recommended a follow-up TB check jaundice treatment compared with a rate of 2.99 rehospitalizations per 100 control neonates who had a TB value >75th percentile (p = 0.079). ETCOc measurement is a feasible means of assessing hemolysis in jaundiced neonates during the birth hospitalization. When hemolysis is identified, parents are likely to comply with instructions to bring the infant for a TB checkup <24 h after discharge home. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. The role of transportation control measures in California's air pollution control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guensler, R.; Burmich, P.; Geraghty, A.

    1992-01-01

    In California, significant progress has been made to control emissions from industrial sources as well as from motor vehicles. Nonetheless, policy analysts still debate over whether it makes sense to control motor vehicle emissions through legislated reductions in vehicle use, especially when new vehicle emission standards are becoming even more stringent in California. In this paper, the emission reduction benefits of California's new low-emission vehicles and clean fuels program are reviewed. The air quality management plans of three major metropolitan areas in California are examined, to identify emission reductions needed to meet federal and state air quality standards. For each of these three areas, emission reductions expected from transportation control measure implementation are presented. Then, the extent to which the reductions are open-quotes significantclose quotes and relied upon in each of the local attainment efforts is analyzed. The emission reductions expected from the stringent exhaust emission standards of California's new low-emission vehicles and clean fuels program will not be sufficient to meet mandated clean air standards in the study areas. Based upon our review, transportation control measures appear to be necessary components of the air quality management plans in California's major metropolitan areas. The paper concludes that cost-effective transportation control measures (TCMs) will be needed as a complementary strategy to California's stringent tail-pipe standards in moderate to extreme nonattainment areas

  7. Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F; Marsh, Herbert W; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  8. Transcriptional patterns identify resource controls on the diazotroph Trichodesmium in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Mónica; Frischkorn, Kyle R; Haley, Sheean T; Alexander, Harriet; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2018-02-28

    The N 2 -fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is intensely studied because of the control this organism exerts over the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the low nutrient ocean gyres. Although iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) bioavailability are thought to be major drivers of Trichodesmium distributions and activities, identifying resource controls on Trichodesmium is challenging, as Fe and P are often organically complexed and their bioavailability to a single species in a mixed community is difficult to constrain. Further, Fe and P geochemistries are linked through the activities of metalloenzymes, such as the alkaline phosphatases (APs) PhoX and PhoA, which are used by microbes to access dissolved organic P (DOP). Here we identified significant correlations between Trichodesmium-specific transcriptional patterns in the North Atlantic (NASG) and North Pacific Subtropical Gyres (NPSG) and patterns in Fe and P biogeochemistry, with the relative enrichment of Fe stress markers in the NPSG, and P stress markers in the NASG. We also observed the differential enrichment of Fe-requiring PhoX transcripts in the NASG and Fe-insensitive PhoA transcripts in the NPSG, suggesting that metalloenzyme switching may be used to mitigate Fe limitation of DOP metabolism in Trichodesmium. This trait may underpin Trichodesmium success across disparate ecosystems.

  9. The ability of clinical balance measures to identify falls risk in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gillian; Comber, Laura; Galvin, Rose; Coote, Susan

    2018-05-01

    To determine the ability of clinical measures of balance to distinguish fallers from non-fallers and to determine their predictive validity in identifying those at risk of falls. AMED, CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, PubMed Central and Google Scholar. First search: July 2015. Final search: October 2017. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults with a definite multiple sclerosis diagnosis, a clinical balance assessment and method of falls recording. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 scale and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Statistical analysis was conducted for the cross-sectional studies using Review Manager 5. The mean difference with 95% confidence interval in balance outcomes between fallers and non-fallers was used as the mode of analysis. We included 33 studies (19 cross-sectional, 5 randomised controlled trials, 9 prospective) with a total of 3901 participants, of which 1917 (49%) were classified as fallers. The balance measures most commonly reported were the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go and Falls Efficacy Scale International. Meta-analysis demonstrated fallers perform significantly worse than non-fallers on all measures analysed except the Timed Up and Go Cognitive ( p Balance Confidence Scale had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value (0.92), but without reporting corresponding measures of clinical utility. Clinical measures of balance differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers but have poor predictive ability for falls risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

  10. Topological Constraints on Identifying Additive Link Metrics via End-to-end Paths Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    identifiable if and only ifR in (1) has full column rank, i.e., rank(R) = n. In other words, to uniquely determine w, there must be n linearly...be identified from paths traversing l1; similar argument applies to l2. Moreover, similar analysis as in the proof of this lemma shows that none of

  11. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  12. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  13. Abstract: Implementing Infection Control Measures in Neonatology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background Neonatal infection is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Objective The project's objective is to facilitate quality improvement by reduction of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in hospitalized neonates. Methods Current infection control practices were surveyed and three main areas were ...

  14. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.

  15. Do microbial exudates control EH electrode measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelova, E.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Redox electrodes are widely used as simple, inexpensive monitoring devices to rapidly measure redox potentials (EH) of waterlogged soils, sediments, and aquifers. While a variety of physicochemical and biogeochemical factors have been involved to explain measured EH values, the role of microorganisms remains comparatively understudied and uncertain. Besides catalyzing many inorganic redox reactions (e.g., nitrate reduction), microorganisms produce a variety of redox-active organic compounds (e.g., NAD+/NADH, GSSG/2GSH, FAD/FADH2), which can be released into the surrounding environment via active secretion, passive diffusion, or cell lysis. To isolate different microbial effects on EH measurements, we performed batch experiments using S. oneidensis MR-I as a model heterotrophic microorganism and flavins as example microbial exudates [1]. We monitored EH and pH along with flavin production (fluorescence measurements) during dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Dissolved flavins increased to 0.2 mM (riboflavin equivalent) under anoxic conditions during complete consumption of 1 mM nitrate by DNRA at pH 7.4 and 30 °C over 80 hours. The observed redox cascade from +255 to -250 mV did not follow the EH predicted for the reduction of NO3- to NO2- and NO2- to NH4+ by the Nernst equation. However, a set of separate abiotic experiments on the photoreduction of synthetic flavins (LMC, RF, FMN, and FAD, Sigma Aldrich) under the same conditions indicated that measured EH values are buffered at +270 ± 20 mV and -230 ± 50 mV when oxidized and reduced flavin species dominate, respectively. Moreover, based on the temporal changes in EH, we speculate that NO3- reduction by S. oneidensis consumes reduced flavins (i.e., NO3- accepts electrons from reduced flavins) and generates oxidized flavins, thus buffering EH at +255 mV. By contrast, NO2- reduction to NH4+ is independent of flavin speciation, which leads to the accumulation of reduced flavins in the solution and

  16. Identifying reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) via a hybrid machine learning and crowdsourcing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Byron C; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain J; Cohen, Aaron M; Smalheiser, Neil R; Thomas, James

    2017-11-01

    Identifying all published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is an important aim, but it requires extensive manual effort to separate RCTs from non-RCTs, even using current machine learning (ML) approaches. We aimed to make this process more efficient via a hybrid approach using both crowdsourcing and ML. We trained a classifier to discriminate between citations that describe RCTs and those that do not. We then adopted a simple strategy of automatically excluding citations deemed very unlikely to be RCTs by the classifier and deferring to crowdworkers otherwise. Combining ML and crowdsourcing provides a highly sensitive RCT identification strategy (our estimates suggest 95%-99% recall) with substantially less effort (we observed a reduction of around 60%-80%) than relying on manual screening alone. Hybrid crowd-ML strategies warrant further exploration for biomedical curation/annotation tasks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  17. Identifying Usability and Productivity Dimensions for Measuring the Success of Mobile Business Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiju Vuolle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews existing measures used for evaluating the usability of information systems and those used for evaluating the level of the productivity of a company. We discuss the usefulness of the existing measures in the mobile business context, where both mobility and work-context pose specific demands for the mobile business services. The review showed that the existing measures rarely consider the great contextual variation caused by the mobility of the services and the demands this poses on usability; which, in turn, affects productivity. To build a measurement tool that better meets the requirements of mobile business services, we completed case studies on two mobile business services, one used in passenger transport and the other in construction sites. Based on the understanding gained from the case studies, we propose a list of dimensions and items addressing both usability and productivity aspects that work as the basis for a multidisciplinary measurement tool.

  18. An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    Key words: Construction processes, waste, factors, effects, control measures. INTRODUCTION ... of construction projects, an optimum material control on site should be .... on site due to mishandling or careless delivery accounted for 20% of.

  19. Validation of Storm Water Management Model Storm Control Measures Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. A.; Platz, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance. Many municipalities are relying on SWMM results to design multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructure upgrades. Since the 1970's, EPA and others have developed five major releases, the most recent ones containing storm control measures modules for green infrastructure. The main objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy with which SWMM v5.1.10 simulates the hydrologic activity of previously monitored low impact developments. Model performance was evaluated with a mathematical comparison of outflow hydrographs and total outflow volumes, using empirical data and a multi-event, multi-objective calibration method. The calibration methodology utilized PEST++ Version 3, a parameter estimation tool, which aided in the selection of unmeasured hydrologic parameters. From the validation study and sensitivity analysis, several model improvements were identified to advance SWMM LID Module performance for permeable pavements, infiltration units and green roofs, and these were performed and reported herein. Overall, it was determined that SWMM can successfully simulate low impact development controls given accurate model confirmation, parameter measurement, and model calibration.

  20. Identifying thematic roles from neural representations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Yang, Ying; Chang, Kai-Min Kevin; Vargas, Robert; Diana, Nicholas; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-01-01

    The generativity and complexity of human thought stem in large part from the ability to represent relations among concepts and form propositions. The current study reveals how a given object such as rabbit is neurally encoded differently and identifiably depending on whether it is an agent ("the rabbit punches the monkey") or a patient ("the monkey punches the rabbit"). Machine-learning classifiers were trained on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data evoked by a set of short videos that conveyed agent-verb-patient propositions. When tested on a held-out video, the classifiers were able to reliably identify the thematic role of an object from its associated fMRI activation pattern. Moreover, when trained on one subset of the study participants, classifiers reliably identified the thematic roles in the data of a left-out participant (mean accuracy = .66), indicating that the neural representations of thematic roles were common across individuals.

  1. Analogue particle identifier and test unit for automatic measuring of errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, A.; Lauch, J.

    1979-04-01

    A high accuracy analogue particle identifier is described. The unit is used for particle identification or data correction of experimental based errors in magnetic spectrometers. Signals which are proportional to the energy, the time-of-flight or the position of absorption of the particles are supplied to an analogue computation circuit (multifunction converter). Three computation functions are available for different applications. The output of the identifier produces correction signals or pulses whose amplitudes are proportional to the mass of the particles. Particle identification and data correction can be optimized by the adjustment of variable parameters. An automatic test unit has been developed for adjustment and routine checking of particle identifiers. The computation functions can be tested by this unit with an accuracy of 1%. (orig.) [de

  2. Gap analysis of Mycoplasma bovis disease, diagnosis and control: An aid to identify future development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, M J; Lysnyansky, I; Sachse, K; Fox, L K; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2018-05-01

    There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods. The main considerations are as follows: no vaccines are commercially available; antimicrobial resistance is increasing; diagnostic and antimicrobial sensitivity testing needs to be improved; and a pen-side test would facilitate more rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment with antimicrobials. More data on host susceptibility, stress factors, immune response and infectious dose levels are required. The impact of asymptomatic carriers, M. bovis survival in the environment and the role of wildlife in transmitting the disease also needs investigation. To facilitate development of vaccines, further analysis of more M. bovis genomes, its pathogenic mechanisms, including variable surface proteins, is required, along with reproducible disease models. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Use of GIS to identify optimal settings for cancer prevention and control in African American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Bryan, Rebecca P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Rarely have Geographic Information Systems (GIS) been used to inform community-based outreach and intervention planning. This study sought to identify community settings most likely to reach individuals from geographically localized areas. Method An observational study conducted in an urban city in Missouri during 2003–2007 placed computerized breast cancer education kiosks in seven types of community settings: beauty salons, churches, health fairs, neighborhood health centers, Laundromats, public libraries and social service agencies. We used GIS to measure distance between kiosk users’ (n=7,297) home ZIP codes and the location where they used the kiosk. Mean distances were compared across settings. Results Mean distance between individuals’ home ZIP codes and the location where they used the kiosk varied significantly (pLaundromats (2.3 miles) and public libraries (2.8 miles) and greatest among kiosk users at health fairs (7.6 miles). Conclusion Some community settings are more likely than others to reach highly localized populations. A better understanding of how and where to reach specific populations can complement the progress already being made in identifying populations at increased disease risk. PMID:19422844

  4. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied

  5. Operators manual for a computer controlled impedance measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J.

    1987-02-01

    Operating instructions of a computer controlled impedance measurement system based in Hewlett Packard instrumentation are given. Hardware details, program listings, flowcharts and a practical application are included.

  6. Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Andre; Kitchen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Used 1996 Canadian census data to examine the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. Analysis of 20 indicators of urban deprivation identified 6 main types of deprivation in the city and found that they were most visible on the Island of Montreal. Urban deprivation was not confined to the inner city. (SM)

  7. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  8. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  9. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  10. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mason, Peter, E-mail: peter.mason@ch.doe.gov [New Brunswick Laboratory (DOE/NBL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards

  11. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Mason, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards authorities

  12. Role of measurement in feedback-controlled quantum engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon

    2018-01-01

    In feedback controls, measurement is an essential step in designing protocols according to outcomes. For quantum mechanical systems, measurement has another effect; to supply energy to the measured system. We verify that in feedback-controlled quantum engines, measurement plays a dual role; not only as an auxiliary to perform feedback control but also as an energy supply to drive the engines. We consider a specific engine cycle exploiting feedback control followed by projective measurement and show that the maximum bound of the extractable work is set by both the efficacy of the feedback control and the energy change caused by projective measurement. We take a concrete example of an engine using an immobile spin-1/2 particle as a working substance and suggest two possible scenarios for work extraction.

  13. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  14. A new centrality measure for identifying influential nodes in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Delel; Ben Romdhane, Lotfi

    2018-04-01

    The identification of central nodes has been a key problem in the field of social network analysis. In fact, it is a measure that accounts the popularity or the visibility of an actor within a network. In order to capture this concept, various measures, either sample or more elaborate, has been developed. Nevertheless, many of "traditional" measures are not designed to be applicable to huge data. This paper sets out a new node centrality index suitable for large social network. It uses the amount of the neighbors of a node and connections between them to characterize a "pivot" node in the graph. We presented experimental results on real data sets which show the efficiency of our proposal.

  15. Getting ready to use control: Advances in the measurement of young children's use of proactive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Doebel

    Full Text Available A key developmental transition in executive function is in the temporal dynamics of its engagement: children shift from reactively calling to mind task-relevant information as needed, to being able to proactively maintain information across time in anticipation of upcoming demands. This transition is important for understanding individual differences and developmental changes in executive function; however, methods targeting its assessment are limited. We tested the possibility that Track-It, a paradigm developed to measure selective sustained attention, also indexes proactive control. In this task children must track a target shape as it moves unpredictably among moving distractors, and identify where it disappears, which may require proactively maintaining information about the target or goal. In two experiments (5-6 year-olds, Ns = 33, 64, children's performance on Track-It predicted proactive control across two established paradigms. These findings suggest Track-It measures proactive control in children. Theoretical possibilities regarding how proactive control and selective sustained attention may be related are also discussed.

  16. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  17. Toward a Research-Based Assessment of Dyslexia: Using Cognitive Measures To Identify Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Cox, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children (n=105) completed measures of reading achievement and cognitive abilities. Factor analysis produced three empirically and theoretically derived factors, auditory processing, visual processing/speed, and memory. Together the three factors combined predicted 61 to 85% of the variance associated with different…

  18. Ability of Different Measures of Adiposity to Identify High Metabolic Risk in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15–18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes, with exception of WHtR for boys. BMI, WC, and WHtR performed well in detecting high MRS, indicated by areas under the curve (AUC, with slightly greater AUC for BMI than for WC and WHtR in both sexes. Conclusion. All measures of adiposity were significantly associated with metabolic risk factors in a sample of Portuguese adolescents.

  19. Using a measure of person-perception skills to identify outstanding home care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Kerry; Medvene, Louis; Walker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This study involved university-community collaboration with an international home care company for the purpose of developing a tool to identify talented caregivers. Tested was the hypothesis that workers' ability to provide care in person-centered ways would be positively associated with their ability to describe others in complex ways--that is, their person-perception skills. Company coordinators functioning as supervisors used an innovative 10-item instrument to screen 554 home health aides for their person centeredness. The most and least person-centered workers were evaluated for their person-perception skills. Person centeredness was positively associated with the complexity of home care workers' descriptions of others.

  20. The Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study reveals the need for extensive refinement of the Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure purported in the past to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure the relationship between the psychological construct, "locus of control," and environmental action or environmentally responsible behavior. (MCO)

  1. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephen J; Busa, Michael A; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A; Bollt, Erik M

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  2. Measuring the Electronic Properties of DNA-Specific Schottky Diodes Towards Detecting and Identifying Basidiomycetes DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vengadesh; Rizan, Nastaran; Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Tan, Yee Shin; Tajuddin, Hairul Annuar; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of semiconducting behavior of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in a large number of literatures in the study of DNA electronics. Sequence-specific electronic response provides a platform towards understanding charge transfer mechanism and therefore the electronic properties of DNA. It is possible to utilize these characteristic properties to identify/detect DNA. In this current work, we demonstrate a novel method of DNA-based identification of basidiomycetes using current-voltage (I-V) profiles obtained from DNA-specific Schottky barrier diodes. Electronic properties such as ideality factor, barrier height, shunt resistance, series resistance, turn-on voltage, knee-voltage, breakdown voltage and breakdown current were calculated and used to quantify the identification process as compared to morphological and molecular characterization techniques. The use of these techniques is necessary in order to study biodiversity, but sometimes it can be misleading and unreliable and is not sufficiently useful for the identification of fungi genera. Many of these methods have failed when it comes to identification of closely related species of certain genus like Pleurotus. Our electronics profiles, both in the negative and positive bias regions were however found to be highly characteristic according to the base-pair sequences. We believe that this simple, low-cost and practical method could be useful towards identifying and detecting DNA in biotechnology and pathology. PMID:27435636

  3. Identifying measures to balance the risk profile of the Tihange 2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eer, A.M.; Monniez, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, each Nuclear Power Plant is subject to a periodic safety reassessment. In this context, it was found to be desirable to perform a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in support of the ten yearly back-fitting process. The Tihange 2 NPP is a 3-loop PWR having a thermal capacity of 2905 MW. Analysis of the plant's risk profile shows that implementing feasible measures for improvement of the shutdown risk, would be beneficial. This is because a configuration leading to significant risk, namely cold pressurization when the residual heat removal system is lost during reduced primary inventory, thus can be avoided. As a result the risk between reactor shutdown and power operation will be balanced. The presentation describes the lessons learnt regarding the Tihange 2 shutdown PSA model and the expected benefits following implementation of one of the proposed measures. (author)

  4. Detrital illite crystals identified from crystallite thickness measurements in siliciclastic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldega, L.; Eberl, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Illite crystals in siliciclastic sediments are heterogeneous assemblages of detrital material coming from various source rocks and, at paleotemperatures >70 ??C, of superimposed diagenetic modification in the parent sediment. We distinguished the relative proportions of 2M1 detrital illite and possible diagenetic 1Md + 1M illite by a combined analysis of crystal-size distribution and illite polytype quantification. We found that the proportions of 1Md + 1M and 2M1 illite could be determined from crystallite thickness measurements (BWA method, using the MudMaster program) by unmixing measured crystallite thickness distributions using theoretical and calculated log-normal and/or asymptotic distributions. The end-member components that we used to unmix the measured distributions were three asymptotic-shaped distributions (assumed to be the diagenetic component of the mixture, the 1Md + 1M polytypes) calculated using the Galoper program (Phase A was simulated using 500 crystals per cycle of nucleation and growth, Phase B = 333/cycle, and Phase C = 250/ cycle), and one theoretical log-normal distribution (Phase D, assumed to approximate the detrital 2M1 component of the mixture). In addition, quantitative polytype analysis was carried out using the RockJock software for comparison. The two techniques gave comparable results (r2 = 0.93), which indicates that the unmixing method permits one to calculate the proportion of illite polytypes and, therefore, the proportion of 2M1 detrital illite, from crystallite thickness measurements. The overall illite crystallite thicknesses in the samples were found to be a function of the relative proportions of thick 2M1 and thin 1Md + 1M illite. The percentage of illite layers in I-S mixed layers correlates with the mean crystallite thickness of the 1Md + 1M polytypes, indicating that these polytypes, rather than the 2M1 polytype, participate in I-S mixed layering.

  5. Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, J.D.; Carr, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M ampersand TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M ampersand TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M ampersand TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M ampersand TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M ampersand TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M ampersand TE for use

  6. Identifying biological landmarks using a novel cell measuring image analysis tool: Cell-o-Tape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Andrew P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to quantify the geometry of plant organs at the cellular scale can provide novel insights into their structural organization. Hitherto manual methods of measurement provide only very low throughput and subjective solutions, and often quantitative measurements are neglected in favour of a simple cell count. Results We present a tool to count and measure individual neighbouring cells along a defined file in confocal laser scanning microscope images. The tool allows the user to extract this generic information in a flexible and intuitive manner, and builds on the raw data to detect a significant change in cell length along the file. This facility can be used, for example, to provide an estimate of the position of transition into the elongation zone of an Arabidopsis root, traditionally a location sensitive to the subjectivity of the experimenter. Conclusions Cell-o-tape is shown to locate cell walls with a high degree of accuracy and estimate the location of the transition feature point in good agreement with human experts. The tool is an open source ImageJ/Fiji macro and is available online.

  7. Efficacy of anthropometric measures for identifying cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Wheatley, Sean D; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Duncan, Michael J; Cobayashi, Fernanda; Berg, Gabriela; Musso, Carla; Graffigna, Mabel; Soutelo, Jimena; Bovet, Pascal; Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S; Grammatikos, Evangelos; Griffiths, Claire; Ingle, Lee; Jung, Christian

    2018-04-12

    To compare the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk levels in adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed after a database search for relevant literature (Cochrane, Centre for Review and Dissemination, PubMed, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, BIOSIS citation index, ChildData, metaRegister). 117 records representing 96 studies with 994,595 participants were included in the systematic review, 14 of which (13 studies, n=14,610) were eligible for the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that BMI was a strong indicator of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin; but not total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein or glucose. Few studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis considering WC or WHtR (n≤2). The narrative synthesis found measures of central adiposity to be consistently valid indicators of the same risk factors as BMI. BMI was an indicator of CVD risk. WC and WHtR were efficacious for indicating the same risk factors BMI performed strongly for, though there was insufficient evidence to judge the relative strength of each measure possibly due to heterogeneity in the methods for measuring and classifying WC.

  8. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  9. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the

  10. Farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease control measures in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, Wudu T.; Mourits, M. C M; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected

  11. Legal control scenario applied to embedded software in measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, C.G. de; Brandao, P.C.; Leitao, F.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a scenario of legal control of software in measuring instruments. Such control is hampered by intrinsic problems related to software analysis and verification. To circumvent these difficulties, several projects are being developed to attack different stages of legal control, such as the model type approval, periodic verifications and metrological expertise. The proposals that will arise from these projects will be discussed among the parts and may be incorporated into the measuring instruments. (author)

  12. Determination of the range of control limits in radioimmunoassay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, A.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    A grouping technique is proposed for control limits in radioimmunoassay measurements. It has the advantage of working with control limits of 99.7% without the inconvenience of the confidence intervals. The method is practical and simple. It provides considerable flexibility for the processing of data. As the number of samples increases, the control limits become better defined. (author) [es

  13. Identifying Students Struggling in Courses by Analyzing Exam Grades, Self-reported Measures and Study Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...

  14. Combining measures of dispersal to identify conservation strategies in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the way in which habitat fragmentation disrupts animal dispersal is key to identifying effective and efficient conservation strategies. To differentiate the potential effectiveness of 2 frequently used strategies for increasing the connectivity of populations in fragmented landscapes-corridors and stepping stones-we combined 3 complimentary methods: behavioral studies at habitat edges, mark-recapture, and genetic analyses. Each of these methods addresses different steps in the dispersal process that a single intensive study could not address. We applied the 3 methods to the case study of Atrytonopsis new species 1, a rare butterfly endemic to a partially urbanized stretch of barrier islands in North Carolina (U.S.A.). Results of behavioral analyses showed the butterfly flew into urban and forested areas, but not over open beach; mark-recapture showed that the butterfly dispersed successfully through short stretches of urban areas (5 km) were a dispersal barrier, but shorter stretches of urban areas (≤5 km) were not. Although results from all 3 methods indicated natural features in the landscape, not urbanization, were barriers to dispersal, when we combined the results we could determine where barriers might arise: forests restricted dispersal for the butterfly only when there were long stretches with no habitat. Therefore, urban areas have the potential to become a dispersal barrier if their extent increases, a finding that may have gone unnoticed if we had used a single approach. Protection of stepping stones should be sufficient to maintain connectivity for Atrytonopsis new species 1 at current levels of urbanization. Our research highlights how the use of complementary approaches for studying animal dispersal in fragmented landscapes can help identify conservation strategies. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic pipe control with a multiple digit automatic measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenzer, P.

    1984-01-01

    With the flow rotating method, thin-walled pipes can be produced with very tight tolerances and high mechanical sturdiness. The measuring device permits a dynamic control of these pipes, the outer diameter of which can lie between 70 and 300 mm, the length between 500 and 2000 mm and the wall thickness between 0,5 and 10 mm. Depending on the pipe type, up to 27 measurements in a maximum of 5 measuring levels are to be controlled. (orig.) [de

  17. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long-term care facilities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Bruce; Schall, Valerie; Grant, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. LTC institutions-with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care-represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A measurement model of perinatal stressors: identifying risk for postnatal emotional distress in mothers of high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMier, R L; Hynan, M T; Hatfield, R F; Varner, M W; Harris, H B; Manniello, R L

    2000-01-01

    A measurement model of perinatal stressors was first evaluated for reliability and then used to identify risk factors for postnatal emotional distress in high-risk mothers. In Study 1, six measures (gestational age of the baby, birthweight, length of the baby's hospitalization, a postnatal complications rating for the infant, and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min) were obtained from chart reviews of preterm births at two different hospitals. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the six measures could be accounted for by three factors: (a) Infant Maturity, (b) Apgar Ratings, and (c) Complications. In Study 2, a modified measurement model indicated that Infant Maturity and Complications were significant predictors of postnatal emotional distress in an additional sample of mothers. This measurement model may also be useful in predicting (a) other measures of psychological distress in parents, and (b) measures of cognitive and motor development in infants.

  19. Fourier transform and controlling of flux in scalar hysteresis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczmann, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with a possible realization of eliminating the effect of noise in scalar hysteresis measurements. The measured signals have been transformed into the frequency domain, and, after applying digital filter, the spectrums of the filtered signals have been transformed back to the time domain. The proposed technique results in an accurate noise-removal algorithm. The paper illustrates a fast controlling algorithm applying the inverse of the actually measured hysteresis loop, and another proportional one to measure distorted flux pattern. By developing the mentioned algorithms, it aims at the controlling of a more complicated phenomena, i.e. measuring the vector hysteresis characteristics

  20. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  1. Identifying clinical correlates for suicide among epilepsy patients in South Korea: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Ahn, Myung Hee; Park, Subin; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Ryu, Han Uk; Kang, Joong-Koo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy. We aimed to identify the clinical correlates of suicide in these patients. We conducted a matched, case-control study based on a clinical case registry of epilepsy patients (n = 35,638) treated between January 1994 and December 2011 at an academic tertiary medical center in Seoul, Korea. Each epilepsy patient in the suicide group (n = 74) was matched with three epilepsy patients in the nonsuicide group (n = 222) by age, gender, and approximate time at first treatment. The clinical characteristics of the patients in both groups were then compared. In a univariate analysis, seizure frequency during the year before suicide, use of antiepileptic drug polytherapy, lack of aura before seizure, diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy, use of levetiracetam, psychiatric comorbidity, and use of antidepressants were all significantly higher in the suicide group than in the nonsuicide group. Multivariate analysis revealed that a high seizure frequency (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-10.2), a lack of aura before seizure (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.3), temporal lobe epilepsy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.6-8.6), and use of levetiracetam (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.1-53.7) and antidepressants (OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.5-34.1) were all associated with a higher probability of suicide. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who experience seizures weekly or more frequently, experience a lack of aura, use levetiracetam, or take antidepressants are all at a higher risk of suicide and should be monitored closely. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Control measures in industrial and medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment; additionally the use of human made radiation is widespread. Sources of radiation are essential to modern health care, disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease, radiology is a vital diagnostic tool and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Nuclear techniques are in growing use in industry, agriculture, medicine and many fields of research, benefiting hundreds of millions of people and giving employment to millions of people in the related occupations, Irradiation is used around the world to preserve and reduce wastage and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds and detect cracks and help prevent the failure of engineered structures. It is also known that exposure to ionizing radiation can result to injuries that manifest themselves in the individual and his descendants. It is therefore imperative that the use of radiation sources be accompanied with the methods necessary for the prevention of the harmful effects of the radiation. These methods are referred to as control measures. Control measures that have been applied in establishments can be classified into physical control measures and administrative control measures. Physical control measures involve the technical aspects while administrative control measures augment physical measures. The guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials are provided through legislative and regulatory controls

  3. Measuring Awareness and Identifying Misconceptions About Genetic Counseling Services and Utilizing Television to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Dena

    Understanding awareness and perceptions of genetic counseling (GC) is important in identifying and overcoming potential barriers to GC services. However, there are relatively few empirical data regarding these factors among US-based populations. To address this, we attended various community events for the general public, disability community, and new parents and recruited participants for a survey-based study comprising demographic questions, closed-ended knowledge-based and awareness questions, and open text sections. We applied descriptive statistics to responses about demographics, awareness of GC, purposes of GC, and perceptions of GC practice. In total, 320 individuals participated, including 69 from the general public, 209 from the disability community, and 42 from the new parent community. Slightly more than half of respondents (n =173, 54%) had heard of GC. Risk assessment and counseling were among the most frequently cited activities attributed to genetic counselors; a few felt that GC was related to eugenics. Respondents thought that GC aims to prevent genetic disorders (n=82, 74%), helps people find their ethnic origins and understand their ancestry (n=176, 55%), advises people whether to have children (n=140, 44%), and helps couples have children with desirable characteristics (n=126, 39%). Our data showed the majority of participants preferred to watch a medical thriller involving genetic counseling, followed by documentary series; comedy was rated the lowest. These data revealed gaps in awareness of GC and misperceptions about its purpose and can be useful in devising targeted interventions by developing entertainment-based education to improve public knowledge of genetic health and the roles of GCs.

  4. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar

    2018-04-17

    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  5. Identifying ADHD children using hemodynamic responses during a working memory task measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yue; Miao, Shuo; Han, Junxia; Liang, Zhenhu; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Yang, Jian; Li, Xiaoli

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children and adults. Previous studies found that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can reveal significant group differences in several brain regions between ADHD children and healthy controls during working memory tasks. This study aimed to use fNIRS activation patterns to identify ADHD children from healthy controls. Approach. FNIRS signals from 25 ADHD children and 25 healthy controls performing the n-back task were recorded; then, multivariate pattern analysis was used to discriminate ADHD individuals from healthy controls, and classification performance was evaluated for significance by the permutation test. Main results. The results showed that 86.0% (pADHD children from healthy controls based on fNIRS signals, which argues for the potential utility of fNIRS in future assessments.

  6. Development and validation of measures to assess prevention and control of AMR in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mindy; Ramanujam, Rangaraj; Sutherland, Jason; Vaughn, Thomas; Diekema, Daniel; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-06-01

    The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the US hospitals poses serious quality and safety problems. Expert panels, identifying strategies for optimizing antibiotic use and preventing AMR spread, have recommended hospitals undertake efforts to implement specific evidence-based practices. To develop and validate a measurement scale for assessing hospitals' efforts to implement recommended AMR prevention and control measures. Surveys were mailed to infection control professionals in a national sample of 670 US hospitals stratified by geographic region, bedsize, teaching status, and VA affiliation. : Four hundred forty-eight infection control professionals participated (67% response rate). Survey items measured implementation of guideline recommendations, practices for AMR monitoring and feedback, AMR-related outcomes (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence and outbreaks [MRSA]), and organizational features. "Derivation" and "validation" samples were randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factors underlying AMR prevention and control efforts. Multiple methods were used for validation. We identified 4 empirically distinct factors in AMR prevention and control: (1) practices for antimicrobial prescription/use, (2) information/resources for AMR control, (3) practices for isolating infected patients, and (4) organizational support for infection control policies. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale was reliable and had content and construct validity. MRSA prevalence was significantly lower in hospitals with higher resource/information availability and broader organizational support. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale offers a simple yet discriminating assessment of AMR prevention and control efforts. Use should complement assessment methods based exclusively on AMR outcomes.

  7. Role of institutional controls in selection of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, A.A.; Agoston, E.N.; McLeod, R.V.; Hicks, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the regulatory intent of CERCLA's definition and applicability of institutional controls at hazardous substance release sites undergoing remedial action and institutional controls that have been defined and implemented at selected CERCLA (Superfund) sites in the United States. Under provisions of CERCLA, institutional controls can be components of, or supplements to, interim or final remedial measures for hazardous substance [as defined under CERCLA 101(14)] releases. The use of institutional controls has been proposed in a number of RODs for large Superfund sites (e.g., Times Beach, Missouri; the Clothier Disposal Site in Oswego County, New York; and the Wildcat Landfill in Kent County, Delaware). In these cases, the selected remedial actions combine active response measures with institutional controls to protect human health and the environment. These RODs provide insight to how widely the concept of institutional controls is used and under what conditions. The use of institutional controls at large federal facilities is also discussed

  8. Effect of context on respiratory rate measurement in identifying non-severe pneumonia in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Florida; Mtove, George; Mosha, Neema; Wangai, Hannah; Harrison, Nicole; Hildenwall, Helena; Schellenberg, David; Todd, Jim; Olomi, Raimos; Reyburn, Hugh

    2015-06-01

    Cough or difficult breathing and an increased respiratory rate for their age are the commonest indications for outpatient antibiotic treatment in African children. We aimed to determine whether respiratory rate was likely to be transiently raised by a number of contextual factors in a busy clinic leading to inaccurate diagnosis. Respiratory rates were recorded in children aged 2-59 months presenting with cough or difficulty breathing to one of the two busy outpatient clinics and then repeated at 10-min intervals over 1 h in a quiet setting. One hundred and sixty-seven children were enrolled with a mean age of 7.1 (SD ± 2.9) months in infants and 27.6 (SD ± 12.8) months in children aged 12-59 months. The mean respiratory rate declined from 42.3 and 33.6 breaths per minute (bpm) in the clinic to 39.1 and 32.6 bpm after 10 min in a quiet room and to 39.2 and 30.7 bpm (P pneumonia. In a random effects linear regression model, the variability in respiratory rate within children (42%) was almost as much as the variability between children (58%). Changing the respiratory rates cut-offs to higher thresholds resulted in a small reduction in the proportion of non-severe pneumonia mis-classifications in infants. Noise and other contextual factors may cause a transient increase in respiratory rate and consequently misclassification of non-severe pneumonia. However, this effect is less pronounced in older children than infants. Respiratory rate is a difficult sign to measure as the variation is large between and within children. More studies of the accuracy and utility of respiratory rate as a proxy for non-severe pneumonia diagnosis in a busy clinic are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  10. Measuring strategic control in implicit learning: how and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for measuring the extent to which implicitly learned knowledge can be applied in a strategic, flexible manner. Examples include generation exclusion tasks in Serial Reaction Time (SRT) learning (Goschke, 1998; Destrebecqz and Cleeremans, 2001) and 2-grammar classification tasks in Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL; Dienes et al., 1995; Norman et al., 2011). Strategic control has traditionally been used as a criterion for determining whether acquired knowledge is conscious or unconscious, or which properties of knowledge are consciously available. In this paper I first summarize existing methods that have been developed for measuring strategic control in the SRT and AGL tasks. I then address some methodological and theoretical questions. Methodological questions concern choice of task, whether the measurement reflects inhibitory control or task switching, and whether or not strategic control should be measured on a trial-by-trial basis. Theoretical questions concern the rationale for including measurement of strategic control, what form of knowledge is strategically controlled, and how strategic control can be combined with subjective awareness measures.

  11. Measuring strategic control in implicit learning: How and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eNorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed for measuring the extent to which implicitly learned knowledge can be applied in a strategic, flexible manner. Examples include generation exclusion tasks in SRT learning (Destrebecqz & Cleeremans, 2001; Goschke, 1998 and 2-grammar classification tasks in AGL (Dienes, Altmann, Kwan, & Goode, 1995; Norman, Price, & Jones, 2011. Strategic control has traditionally been used as a criterion for determining whether acquired knowledge is conscious or unconscious, or which properties of knowledge is consciously available. In this paper I first summarize existing methods that have been developed for measuring strategic control in the SRT and AGL tasks. I then address some methodologial and theoretical questions. Methodological questions concern choice of task, whether the measurement reflects inhibitory control or task switching, and whether or not strategic control should be measured on a trial-by-trial basis. Theoretical questions concern the rationale for including measurement of strategic control, what form of knowledge is strategically controlled, and how strategic control can be combined with subjective awareness measures.

  12. Bulk tank somatic cell counts analyzed by statistical process control tools to identify and monitor subclinical mastitis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J M; Hawkins, D M; Kinsel, M L; Reneau, J K

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank SCC data were collected for 12 mo of 2003 from 275 Upper Midwest dairy herds. Herds were divided into 5 herd production categories. A linear score [LNS = ln(BTSCC/100,000)/0.693147 + 3] was calculated for each individual bulk tank SCC. For both the raw SCC and the transformed data, the mean and sigma were calculated using the statistical quality control individual measurement and moving range chart procedure of Statistical Analysis System. One hundred eighty-three herds of the 275 herds from the study data set were then randomly selected and the raw (method 1) and transformed (method 2) bulk tank SCC mean and sigma were used to develop models for predicting subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates. Herd production category was also included in all models as 5 dummy variables. Models were validated by calculating estimates of subclinical mastitis and new infection rates for the remaining 92 herds and plotting them against observed values of each of the dependents. Only herd production category and bulk tank SCC mean were significant and remained in the final models. High R2 values (0.83 and 0.81 for methods 1 and 2, respectively) indicated a strong correlation between the bulk tank SCC and herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence. The standard errors of the estimate were 4.02 and 4.28% for methods 1 and 2, respectively, and decreased with increasing herd production. As a case study, Shewhart Individual Measurement Charts were plotted from the bulk tank SCC to identify shifts in mastitis incidence. Four of 5 charts examined signaled a change in bulk tank SCC before

  13. Control charts for identifying systematic errors using control sera to detect antibody to Salmonella in an indirect ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; Barfod, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the preparation of Shewhart's control charts using the concept of rational subgroups for monitoring the Salmonella antibody ELISA used for surveillance of Danish pig herds. Control charts were prepared for a buffer control sample, a negative serum sample and a positive serum...

  14. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Additional considerations regarding the choice of measurement control check frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous paper, factors involved in the choice of frequency of instrument measurement control checks were presented. Unfortunately, some discussions were inadvertently omitted from the paper during the process of review, editing and printing. That material is presented here

  16. Rapid and accurate control rod calibration measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, George W.; Doane, Harry J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reduce the time needed to perform control rod calibrations and improve the accuracy of the results, a technique for a measurement, analysis, and tabulation of integral rod worths has been developed. A single series of critical rod positions are determined at constant low power to reduce the waiting time between positive period measurements and still assure true stable reactor period data. Reactivity values from positive period measurements and control rod drop measurements are used as input data for a non-linear fit to the expected control rod integral worth shape. With this method, two control rods can be calibrated in about two hours, and integral and differential calibration tables for operator use are printed almost immediately. Listings of the BASIC computer programs for the non-linear fitting and calibration table preparation are provided. (author)

  17. Knowledge and application of infectious diseases control measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research ... control measures among Primary Care workers in Nigeria: The Lassa fever example ... The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of Lassa fever ...

  18. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behav...

  19. VIBRATIONS MEASUREMENT IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY THE FAULTS TO THE TABLES AND SUPPORTS ON WHICH THE EMBROIDERY MACHINES ARE PLACED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to accurately and quickly identify the faults of the tables and supports on which the embroidery machines are placed through vibrations measuring method. Vibrations measurements on Happy embroidery machine were performed at S.C. CONFIDEX S.R.L Oradea. A FFT spectrum analyzer Impaq was used, made by Benstone Instruments Inc –SUA. The measurements were performed in order to seek the role and importance of the rigidity of embroidery machine supports for a better and more efficient performance of the machine. Before performing these measurements was determined the optimal operating mode of the embroidery machine. The vibration measurements were performed in each measuring point, by installing a vibration sensor on the three directions of the Cartesian coordinates system: axial (X, horizontal (Y, vertical (Z. In the present paper is shown only the measuring direction Z (sensor mounting direction and advance of the material on x direction (the embroidery direction this is the most relevant direction, as on this part the embroidery is executed. After performing these vibration measurements on the HAPPY embroidery machine, previously mounted on a big table, after that mounted on a smaller table and a less rigid base. The same vibrations measurements were performed and it was noticed that it is mandatory to position the machine on a big table and a stable base because it will influence both the reliability and the working regime of the machine.

  20. Radiometric densimeter for measuring and automatic control of liquid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajs, J.

    1982-01-01

    A performance rule of the radiometric densimeter produced by ''POLON ''Works is presented. A simplified analysis of the correction of density indication changes due to liquid temperature variations is described. A method of replacing the measuring pipe carrying the liquid being measured by suitable standards is given. The method is for automatic systems control. (A.S.)

  1. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement

  2. Cost effectiveness analysis of indoor radon control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The problem of radon 222 in buildings as a contributor to radiation exposure is described. Five different control methods and the dose reductions that would result from each are analysed. The annualized cost for each control measure was evaluated and the cost effectiveness of each control measure was calculated on the basis of dollars per person-sievert dose reduction. The use of unipolar ion generators for particle removal appears to be the most cost effective and the use of ceiling fans to increase air circulation the least cost effective. 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Testing and evaluation of existing techniques for identifying uptakes and measuring retention of uranium in mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Preliminary tests and evaluations of existing bio-analytical techniques for identifying uptakes and measuring retention of uranium in mill workers were made at two uranium mills. Urinalysis tests were found to be more reliable indicators of uranium uptakes than personal air sampling. Static air samples were not found to be good indicators of personal uptakes. In vivo measurements of uranium in lung were successfully carried out in the presence of high and fluctuating background radiation. Interference from external contamination was common during end of shift measurements. A full scale study to evaluate model parameters for the uptake, retention and elimination of uranium should include, in addition to the above techniques, particle size determination of airborne uranium, solubility in simulated lung fluid, uranium analysis in faeces and bone and minute volume measurements for each subject

  4. Remote control and data processing for measurement of radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu; Luo Yisheng; Guo Yong; Ji Gang; Wang Xinggong; Zhang Hong; Zhang Wenzhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To protect the workers from the reactor radiation and to improve the accuracy and efficiency of neutron dose measurement. Methods: With the application of remote control technology, a remote control and automatic measurement system for radiation dose measurement(especially for neutron dose) was set up. A Model 6517A electrometer was operated all automatically over RS-232 serial interface using SCPI commands with a computer. Results: The workers could stay far from the reactor and be able to control the portable computer in site though internet or LAN and then to control the 6517A electrometer to implement the dose measurement. After the measurement, the data were transferred to the remote computer near the workers and shared by many experts at the first time through the net. Conclusion: This is the first time that the remote control technology is applied in radiation dose measurement, which has so far been considered can only be performed at a near place. This new system can meet the need of neutron radiobiology researches as well as of the safety and health of the workers. (author)

  5. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru; Tamura, Naoki

    2005-06-28

    Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  6. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Naoki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. Methods The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. Results We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. Conclusion The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  7. Measuring outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review to identify current strengths, weaknesses and gaps in patient-reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Sayf S A; van Hooff, Miranda L; Holewijn, Roderick M; Polly, David W; Haanstra, Tsjitske M; de Kleuver, Marinus

    2017-08-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). This study aims to identify the current strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in PROMs used for ASD. Studies were included following a systematic search in multiple bibliographic databases between 2000 and 2015. PROMs were extracted and linked to the outcome domains of WHO's International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) framework. Subsequently, the clinimetric quality of identified PROMs was evaluated. The literature search identified 144 papers that met the inclusion criteria, and nine frequently used PROMs were identified. These covered 29 ICF outcome domains, which could be grouped into three of the four main ICF chapters: body function (n = 7), activity and participation (n = 19), environmental factors (n = 3), and body structure (n = 0). A low quantity (n = 3) of papers was identified that studied the clinimetric quality of PROMs. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 has the highest level of clinimetric quality for ASD. Outcome domains related to mobility and pain were well represented. We identified a gap in current outcome measures regarding neurological and pulmonary function. In addition, no outcome domains were measured in the ICF chapter body structure. These results will serve as a foundation for the process of seeking international consensus on a standard set of outcome domains, accompanied PROMs and contributing factors to be used in future clinical trials and spine registries.

  8. Use of stream water pH and specific conductance measurements to identify ground water discharges of fly ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Low pH and high specific conductance are typical chemical characteristics of coal fly ash leachate. Measurements of these parameters in streams adjacent to a fly ash facility were used to identify areas of ground water discharge into the streams. In-situ specific conductance and pH were determined at approximately 50 surface water stations from on-site and off-site streams. The results of the in-situ determinations were used to select twelve surface water stations for more detailed chemical analyses. The chemical character of the stream water affected by ground water discharges was similar to the water quality of sedimentation ponds which received drainage from the fly ash embankment. The results indicated that in-situ measurements of indicator parameters such as pH and specific conductance can be used as a screening method for identifying surface water quality impacts at fly ash facilities

  9. Different Combinations of Perceived Autonomy Support and Control: Identifying the Most Optimal Motivating Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, L.; Vansteenkiste, M.; De Meester, A.; Delrue, J.; Tallir, I.; Vande Broek, G.; Goris, W.; Aelterman, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to Self-Determination Theory, teachers and sport coaches can differ in the motivating style they rely upon to motivate young people. When endorsing an autonomy-supportive motivating style, instructors try to identify, vitalize, and nurture youngsters' inner motivational resources. In contrast, instructors with a dominant…

  10. Social Networking Privacy Control: Exploring University Variables Related to Young Adults' Sharing of Personally Identifiable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Melisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, create opportunities for individuals to share private and identifiable information with a closed or open community. Internet crime has been on the rise and research has shown that criminals are using individuals' personal information pulled from social…

  11. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  12. Investigation to identify a resource-efficient case-control methodology for determining antibiotics associated with Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Currie, Brian; Guo, Yi; Talansky, Moshe; Brown, Shakara; Ostrowsky, Belinda

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial exposure remains an important risk factor for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Efficient method to identify antibiotics associated with CDI is important for formulating strategies to curtail their use. As a prelude to a more extensive Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-funded project (Evaluation & Research on Antimicrobial Stewardship's Effect on Clostridium difficile), we undertook an exploratory evaluation to determine a resource-efficient method for identifying antibiotic targets for antimicrobial stewardship interventions. The study compared a series of 6 focused case-control studies. Cases consisted of patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI admitted from July-October 2009. Controls were selected from patients without CDI hospitalized during the same period. Five groups of controls were matched to cases (2:1 ratio) using group-specific matching criteria, including admission date, age, type of admission, length of stay (LOS) to discharge, and/or LOS to CDI diagnosis. The final control group was selected from patients who received antibiotics during hospitalization. Data, including demographics and antibiotic usage, were compared between case and control groups. A total of 126 cases were matched to 6 groups of 252 controls. For control groups 1-5, the use of piperacillin and tazobactam, ceftriaxone or cefepime, ciprofloxacin or moxifloxacin, intravenous vancomycin, azithromycin, and antibiotics of last resort were significantly more frequent in case than control patients. For the final control group, the associations between ceftriaxone or cefepime, and ciprofloxacin or moxifloxacin use and CDI no longer persisted. This could in part be explained by differences in comorbidities between case and control patients even with stringent matching criteria. Use of a simple matching strategy to conduct case-control studies is an efficient and feasible compromise strategy, especially in resource-limited settings, to identify high

  13. Metrology and process control: dealing with measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potzick, James

    2010-03-01

    Metrology is often used in designing and controlling manufacturing processes. A product sample is processed, some relevant property is measured, and the process adjusted to bring the next processed sample closer to its specification. This feedback loop can be remarkably effective for the complex processes used in semiconductor manufacturing, but there is some risk involved because measurements have uncertainty and product specifications have tolerances. There is finite risk that good product will fail testing or that faulty product will pass. Standard methods for quantifying measurement uncertainty have been presented, but the question arises: how much measurement uncertainty is tolerable in a specific case? Or, How does measurement uncertainty relate to manufacturing risk? This paper looks at some of the components inside this process control feedback loop and describes methods to answer these questions.

  14. Automatic control and detector for three-terminal resistance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1976-10-26

    A device is provided for automatic control and detection in a three-terminal resistance measuring instrument. The invention is useful for the rapid measurement of the resistivity of various bulk material with a three-terminal electrode system. The device maintains the current through the sample at a fixed level while measuring the voltage across the sample to detect the sample resistance. The three-electrode system contacts the bulk material and the current through the sample is held constant by means of a control circuit connected to a first of the three electrodes and works in conjunction with a feedback controlled amplifier to null the voltage between the first electrode and a second electrode connected to the controlled amplifier output. An A.C. oscillator provides a source of sinusoidal reference voltage of the frequency at which the measurement is to be executed. Synchronous reference pulses for synchronous detectors in the control circuit and an output detector circuit are provided by a synchronous pulse generator. The output of the controlled amplifier circuit is sampled by an output detector circuit to develop at an output terminal thereof a D.C. voltage which is proportional to the sample resistance R. The sample resistance is that segment of the sample between the area of the first electrode and the third electrode, which is connected to ground potential.

  15. Identifiability analysis of rotational diffusion tensor and electronic transition moments measured in time-resolved fluorescence depolarization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubiakowski, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is studies of the deterministic identifiability of molecular parameters, such as rotational diffusion tensor components and orientation of electronic transition moments, resulting from the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiment. In the most general case considered, a pair of perpendicularly polarized emissions enables the unique determination of all the rotational diffusion tensor's principal components. The influence of the tensor's symmetry and the associated degeneration of its eigenvalues on the identifiability of the electronic transitions moments is systematically investigated. The analysis reveals that independently of the rotational diffusion tensor's symmetry, the transition moments involved in photoselection and emission processes cannot be uniquely identified without a priori information about their mutual orientation or their orientation with respect to the principal axes of the tensor. Moreover, it is shown that increasing the symmetry of the rotational diffusion tensor deteriorates the degree of the transition moments identifiability. To obtain these results analytically, a novel approach to solve bilinear system of equations for Markov parameters is applied. The effect of the additional information, obtained from fluorescence measurements for different molecular mobilities, to improve the identifiability at various levels of analysis is shown. The effectiveness and reliability of the target analysis method for experimental determination of the molecular parameters is also discussed

  16. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Identifying a cooperative control mechanism between an applied field and the environment of open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Rey-de-Castro, Roberto; Wang, Yaoxiong; Rabitz, Herschel; Shuang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Many systems under control with an applied field also interact with the surrounding environment. Understanding the control mechanisms has remained a challenge, especially the role played by the interaction between the field and the environment. In order to address this need, here we expand the scope of the Hamiltonian-encoding and observable-decoding (HE-OD) technique. HE-OD was originally introduced as a theoretical and experimental tool for revealing the mechanism induced by control fields in closed quantum systems. The results of open-system HE-OD analysis presented here provide quantitative mechanistic insights into the roles played by a Markovian environment. Two model open quantum systems are considered for illustration. In these systems, transitions are induced by either an applied field linked to a dipole operator or Lindblad operators coupled to the system. For modest control yields, the HE-OD results clearly show distinct cooperation between the dynamics induced by the optimal field and the environment. Although the HE-OD methodology introduced here is considered in simulations, it has an analogous direct experimental formulation, which we suggest may be applied to open systems in the laboratory to reveal mechanistic insights.

  18. Identifying postural control and thresholds of instability utilizing a motion-based ATV simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Our ATV simulator is currently the only one in existence that allows studies of human subjects engaged in active riding, a process that is necessary for ATV operators to perform in order to maintain vehicle control, in a virtual reality environ...

  19. Using operating experience and a cause coding tree to identify improvements for nuclear process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.; Busch, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines a systematic approach to identification of the root causes of incidents and the use of that information to improve nuclear plant process control. The paper describes how the system was developed, how the system is used, and how the system has been accepted

  20. Gait and Balance Measures Can Identify Change From a Cerebrospinal Fluid Tap Test in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ryan; Marquez, Jodie; Osmotherly, Peter

    2018-04-25

    To identify in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) undergoing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT) for consideration of a ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunt: (1) gait and balance measures, which identify symptom change; (2) differences present between pre- and post-CSF TT scores between patients classified as responders and nonresponder; (3) ability of patients with iNPH to accurately quantify change in their gait and balance symptoms from a CSF TT. Prospective observational study. Post-CSF TT assessment was completed 2-4 hours post. Tertiary referral neurological and neurosurgical hospital. Patients (N=74) with iNPH receiving a 30 mL CSF TT for consideration of a VP shunt. Patients underwent a battery of gait and balance measures pre- and post-CSF TT and indicated their perceived change on a global rating of change (GRC). Patients deemed to improve and offered VP shunt insertion by a neurologist or neurosurgeon were labeled responders. Performance oriented mobility assessment (Tinetti), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), timed Up and Go (TUG), 10-meter walk test (10MWT), GRC. Forty patients were classified responders, 34 nonresponders. Significant differences were identified for responders: Tinetti (3.88 points), TUG (3.98 seconds), 10MWT (0.08 m/sec), and BBS (5.29 points). Significant differences were found for nonresponders for the Tinetti (0.91 points) and BBS (2.06 points). Change scores for responders and nonresponders were significantly different for all tests between responders and nonresponders. GRC scores for gait (+2 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) and balance (+2.5 for responders, 0 for nonresponders) were both significantly different. The Tinetti, BBS, and TUG can identify change in patients undergoing a CSF TT for iNPH. Patients appear to be able to accurately identify if change has occurred. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    , we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based......The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  2. Phase measurement and control of pulsed charged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method and system is described that measures and controls the arrival phase of a pulsed ion beam. The repetitive beam pulse passes through and resonantly excites a high-Q structure, tuned to the beam repetition frequency or to a higher harmonic thereof. A reference signal of the same frequency is phase-flipped from -90 0 to +90 0 at a high audio rate and also coupled to the resonator. The low-level output signal, comprised of the vector sum of the beam-induced signal and the phase-flipped reference, is amplified and processed to obtain phase information. The system is usable for beams with average currents as low as a few picoamperes and can be used in the measurement and control of pulsed beam experiments involving timing, the control of beam phase for rf particle accelerators and the nondestructive measurement of beam energy. (Auth.)

  3. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Procedures for Identifying and Controlling DoD UCNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures, including security plans, procedures, and equipment, for the physical protection of DoD... stand-alone personal computers, or shared-logic work processing systems, if protection from unauthorized... and security by increasing significantly the likelihood of the illegal production of nuclear weapons...

  5. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  6. Using Historical Data to Automatically Identify Air-Traffic Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.

  7. Control-free control: Manipulating a quantum system using only a limited set of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss different protocols for preparing an arbitrary quantum state of a qubit using only a restricted set of measurements, with no unitary operations at all. We show that an arbitrary state can indeed be prepared, provided that the available measurements satisfy certain requirements. Our results shed light on the role that measurement-induced back-action plays in quantum feedback control and the extent to which this back-action can be exploited in quantum-control protocols.

  8. Complex optimization of radiometric control and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Fundamentals of a new approach to increase in the accuracy of radiometric systems of control and measurements are presented in succession. Block diagram of the new concept of radiometric system optimization is provided. The approach involving radical increase in accuracy and envisages ascertaining of controlled parameter by the totality of two intelligence signals closely correlated with each other. The new concept makes use of system analysis as a unified one-piece object, permitting euristic synthesis of the system. 4 refs., 3 figs

  9. The History of Rabies in Trinidad: Epidemiology and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine F. R. Seetahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bat-transmitted rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak reported in 1925. Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We conducted a literature review to describe the changing epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad and give a historical perspective to rabies prevention and control measures on the island. The last human case of rabies occurred in 1937 and although no case of canine-transmitted rabies was reported since 1914, sporadic outbreaks of bat-transmitted rabies still occur in livestock to date. Over the last century, seven notable epidemics were recorded in Trinidad with the loss of over 3000 animals. During the 1950s, several measures were effectively adopted for the prevention and control of the disease which led to a significant reduction in the number of cases. These measures include: vampire bat population control, livestock vaccination, and animal surveillance. However, due to lapses in these measures over the years (e.g., periods of limited vampire control and incomplete herd vaccination, epidemics have occurred. In light of the significant negative impact of rabies on animal production and human health, rabies surveillance in Trinidad should be enhanced and cases evaluated towards the design and implementation of more evidence-based prevention and control programs.

  10. Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations. The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and

  11. Increase of Investment Appeal of Projects for Noise Control Measures in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, A. V.; Ignatyeva, V. O.

    2017-11-01

    The authors analyzed the contemporary noise pollution level in the large cities of the Russian Federation. The article identifies the factors causing the reduction of acoustically comfortable urban territories. It states the task for the increase of investment appeal of the projects aimed at noise control measures adoption.

  12. Non destructive nuclear measurements for control and characterization purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2002-01-01

    In this report for accreditation to supervise researches, the author proposes a large and rather precise overview of his research works which dealt with the upstream and downstream parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. After having discussed the different needs associated with non destructive nuclear measurements during the fuel cycle, the author describes his past research activities. In the following parts, he discusses control and characterization methods associated with the upstream and downstream parts of the fuel cycle: fuel density variation measurement, non destructive control of uranium-235 content of enriched uranium ingots, examination of induced photo-fissions in radioactive waste parcels, use of electron accelerator for simultaneous neutron and photon examination, measurement of the spatial distribution of the photonic component from the Mini Linatron, association of non destructive measurement techniques

  13. Identifying the Threshold of Dominant Controls on Fire Spread in a Boreal Forest Landscape of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of fuel, topography, and weather on fire spread varies at different spatial scales, but how the relative importance of these controls respond to changing spatial scales is poorly understood. We designed a “moving window” resampling technique that allowed us to quantify the relative importance of controls on fire spread at continuous spatial scales using boosted regression trees methods. This quantification allowed us to identify the threshold value for fire size at which the dominant control switches from fuel at small sizes to weather at large sizes. Topography had a fluctuating effect on fire spread across the spatial scales, explaining 20–30% of relative importance. With increasing fire size, the dominant control switched from bottom-up controls (fuel and topography) to top-down controls (weather). Our analysis suggested that there is a threshold for fire size, above which fires are driven primarily by weather and more likely lead to larger fire size. We suggest that this threshold, which may be ecosystem-specific, can be identified using our “moving window” resampling technique. Although the threshold derived from this analytical method may rely heavily on the sampling technique, our study introduced an easily implemented approach to identify scale thresholds in wildfire regimes. PMID:23383247

  14. Transcriptomic variation among six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions identified several novel genes controlling aluminium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Kazutaka; Nakano, Yuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sakata, Yoichi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yuriko

    2017-02-01

    Differences in the expression levels of aluminium (Al) tolerance genes are a known determinant of Al tolerance among plant varieties. We combined transcriptomic analysis of six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with contrasting Al tolerance and a reverse genetic approach to identify Al-tolerance genes responsible for differences in Al tolerance between accession groups. Gene expression variation increased in the signal transduction process under Al stress and in growth-related processes in the absence of stress. Co-expression analysis and promoter single nucleotide polymorphism searching suggested that both trans-acting polymorphisms of Al signal transduction pathway and cis-acting polymorphisms in the promoter sequences caused the variations in gene expression associated with Al tolerance. Compared with the wild type, Al sensitivity increased in T-DNA knockout (KO) lines for five genes, including TARGET OF AVRB OPERATION1 (TAO1) and an unannotated gene (At5g22530). These were identified from 53 Al-inducible genes showing significantly higher expression in tolerant accessions than in sensitive accessions. These results indicate that the difference in transcriptional signalling is partly associated with the natural variation in Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of comparative transcriptome analysis by using natural genetic variation for the identification of genes responsible for Al stress tolerance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Use of AUDIT-based measures to identify unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence in primary care: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J Aaron; Lee, Anna; Vinson, Daniel; Seale, J Paul

    2013-01-01

    As programs for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use disseminate, evidence-based approaches for identifying patients with unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence (AD) are needed. While the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Clinician Guide suggests use of a single alcohol screening question (SASQ) for screening and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual checklists for assessment, many SBIRT programs use alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) "zones" for screening and assessment. Validation data for these zones are limited. This study used primary care data from a bi-ethnic southern U.S. population to examine the ability of the AUDIT zones and other AUDIT-based approaches to identify unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Existing data were analyzed from interviews with 625 female and male adult drinkers presenting to 5 southeastern primary care practices. Timeline follow-back was used to identify at-risk drinking, and diagnostic interview schedule was used to identify alcohol abuse and dependence. Validity measures compared performance of AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT dependence domains scores, with and without a 30-day binge drinking measure, for detecting unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Optimal AUDIT scores for detecting unhealthy alcohol use were lower than current commonly used cutoffs (5 for men, 3 for women). Improved performance was obtained by combining AUDIT cutoffs of 6 for men and 4 for women with a 30-day binge drinking measure. AUDIT scores of 15 for men and 13 for women detected AD with 100% specificity but low sensitivity (20 and 18%, respectively). AUDIT dependence subscale scores of 2 or more showed similar specificity (99%) and slightly higher sensitivity (31% for men, 24% for women). Combining lower AUDIT cutoff scores and binge drinking measures may increase the detection of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. Use of lower cutoff scores and dependence subscale

  16. IMPORTANCE OF KINETIC MEASURES IN TRAJECTORY PREDICTION WITH OPTIMAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer GÜNDOĞDU

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional sagittally symmetric human-body model was established to simulate an optimal trajectory for manual material handling tasks. Nonlinear control techniques and genetic algorithms were utilized in the optimizations to explore optimal lifting patterns. The simulation results were then compared with the experimental data. Since the kinetic measures such as joint reactions and moments are vital parameters in injury determination, the importance of comparing kinetic measures rather than kinematical ones was emphasized.

  17. Identifying Mechanisms that Predict Loss of Control (LOC) Eating Using Ecological Momentary Assessment: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    not with substance abuse or generalized anxiety (241 ). Furthermore, BED participants were more likely to have undergone therapy and have a family...depressed adolescents by Mufson and colleagues (140). Interpersonal therapy for depressed adolescents (termed IPT-A) focuses on current interpersonal...associated with meals labeled as binges and involving LOC (219). In another study involving measured intake of comfort food ( chocolate ) among 40 obese

  18. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  19. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  20. Radio-controlled boat for measuring water velocities and bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej

    2016-04-01

    Radio-controlled boat named "Hi3" was designed and developed in order to facilitate water velocity and bathymetry measurements. The boat is equipped with the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 instrument that is designed for measuring open channel hydraulics (discharge and bathymetry). Usually channel cross sections measurements are performed either from a bridge or from a vessel. However, these approaches have some limitations such as performing bathymetry measurements close to the hydropower plant turbine or downstream from a hydropower plant gate where bathymetry changes are often the most extreme. Therefore, the radio-controlled boat was designed, built and tested in order overcome these limitations. The boat is made from a surf board and two additional small balance support floats. Additional floats are used to improve stability in fast flowing and turbulent parts of rivers. The boat is powered by two electric motors, steering is achieved with changing the power applied to left and right motor. Furthermore, remotely controlled boat "Hi3" can be powered in two ways, either by a gasoline electric generator or by lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are lighter, quieter, but they operation time is shorter compared to an electrical generator. With the radio-controlled boat "Hi3" we can perform measurements in potentially dangerous areas such as under the lock gates at hydroelectric power plant or near the turbine outflow. Until today, the boat "Hi3" has driven more than 200 km in lakes and rivers, performing various water speed and bathymetry measurements. Moreover, in future development the boat "Hi3" will be upgraded in order to be able to perform measurements automatically. The future plans are to develop and implement the autopilot. With this approach the user will define the route that has to be driven by the boat and the boat will drive the pre-defined route automatically. This will be possible because of the very accurate differential GPS from the Sontek River

  1. A newly identified essential complex, Dre2-Tah18, controls mitochondria integrity and cell death after oxidative stress in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vernis

    Full Text Available A mutated allele of the essential gene TAH18 was previously identified in our laboratory in a genetic screen for new proteins interacting with the DNA polymerase delta in yeast [1]. The present work shows that Tah18 plays a role in response to oxidative stress. After exposure to lethal doses of H(2O(2, GFP-Tah18 relocalizes to the mitochondria and controls mitochondria integrity and cell death. Dre2, an essential Fe/S cluster protein and homologue of human anti-apoptotic Ciapin1, was identified as a molecular partner of Tah18 in the absence of stress. Moreover, Ciapin1 is able to replace yeast Dre2 in vivo and physically interacts with Tah18. Our results are in favour of an oxidative stress-induced cell death in yeast that involves mitochondria and is controlled by the newly identified Dre2-Tah18 complex.

  2. An interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on finite-order independence of structural difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Hikita, Shiro

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on the concept of finite-order independence of structural difference. This concept includes Dyer and Sarin's weak difference independence as special cases. The algorithm developed is composed of four major parts: 1) formulation of the problem 2) assessment of normalized conditional value functions and structural difference functions 3) assessment of corner values 4) assessment of the order of independence of structural difference and selection of the model. A hypothetical numerical example of a trade-off analysis for siting a nuclear power plant is included. (author)

  3. Quantification of tomographic PIV uncertainty using controlled experimental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Yue; Ma, Lin

    2018-01-20

    The goal of this work was to experimentally quantify the uncertainty of three-dimensional (3D) and three-component (3C) velocity measurements using tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). Controlled measurements were designed using tracer particles embedded in a solid sample, and tomo-PIV measurements were performed on the sample while it was moved both translationally and rotationally to simulate various known displacement fields, so the 3D3C displacements measured by tomo-PIV can be directly compared to the known displacements created by the sample. The results illustrated that (1) the tomo-PIV technique was able to reconstruct the 3D3C velocity with an averaged error of 0.8-1.4 voxels in terms of magnitude and 1.7°-1.9° in terms of orientation for the velocity fields tested; (2) view registration (VR) plays a significant role in tomo-PIV, and by reducing VR error from 0.6° to 0.1°, the 3D3C measurement accuracy can be improved by at least 2.5 times in terms of both magnitude and orientation; and (3) the use of additional cameras in tomo-PIV can extend the 3D3C velocity measurement to a larger volume, while maintaining acceptable accuracy. These results obtained from controlled tests are expected to aid the error analysis and the design of tomo-PIV measurements.

  4. Identifying dominant controls on hydrologic parameter transfer from gauged to ungauged catchments: a comparative hydrology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Archfield, S.A.; Wagener, T.

    2014-01-01

    Daily streamflow information is critical for solving various hydrologic problems, though observations of continuous streamflow for model calibration are available at only a small fraction of the world’s rivers. One approach to estimate daily streamflow at an ungauged location is to transfer rainfall–runoff model parameters calibrated at a gauged (donor) catchment to an ungauged (receiver) catchment of interest. Central to this approach is the selection of a hydrologically similar donor. No single metric or set of metrics of hydrologic similarity have been demonstrated to consistently select a suitable donor catchment. We design an experiment to diagnose the dominant controls on successful hydrologic model parameter transfer. We calibrate a lumped rainfall–runoff model to 83 stream gauges across the United States. All locations are USGS reference gauges with minimal human influence. Parameter sets from the calibrated models are then transferred to each of the other catchments and the performance of the transferred parameters is assessed. This transfer experiment is carried out both at the scale of the entire US and then for six geographic regions. We use classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to determine the relationship between catchment similarity and performance of transferred parameters. Similarity is defined using physical/climatic catchment characteristics, as well as streamflow response characteristics (signatures such as baseflow index and runoff ratio). Across the entire US, successful parameter transfer is governed by similarity in elevation and climate, and high similarity in streamflow signatures. Controls vary for different geographic regions though. Geology followed by drainage, topography and climate constitute the dominant similarity metrics in forested eastern mountains and plateaus, whereas agricultural land use relates most strongly with successful parameter transfer in the humid plains.

  5. Financial Control Measures and the Enhancement of Administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was focused on the determination of the relationship between financial control measures and enhancement of administrative effectiveness of secondary school Principals in Akwa Ibom State. The choice of this topic was necessitated by the fact that despite the continuous personnel auditing conducted in the ...

  6. Resource management in Diffserv measurement-based admission control PHR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, L.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios; Oosthoek, S.; Partain, D.; Rexhepi, Vlora; Szabo, R.; Wallentin, P.; El Allali, H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this draft is to present the Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) Measurement-Based Admission Control (RIMA) Per Hop Reservation (PHR) protocol. The RIMA PHR protocol is used on a per-hop basis in a Differentiated Services (Diffserv) domain and extends the Diffserv Per Hop Behavior

  7. How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand in Panama. Panama's tobacco epidemic demonstrates ... Their goal: establish a new threshold for increasing the luxury tax on tobacco products, including cigarettes, based on the monthly evolution of cigarette sales. The researchers will survey brands in ...

  8. Knowledge and use of asthma control measurement tools in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and use of asthma control measurement (ACM) tools in the management of asthma among doctors working in family and internal medicine practice in Nigeria. Method: A questionnaire based on the global initiative on asthma (GINA) guideline was self-administered by 194 doctors.

  9. Antibiotic control measures in Dutch secondary care hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.A.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Natsch, S.S.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    Control measures for the use of antibiotics are essential because of the potential harmful consequences of side effects. Various methods have been developed to help curb undesirable antibiotic prescription. We performed a survey in Dutch secondary care hospitals (response rate 73%) to make an

  10. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  11. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  12. An instrumentation for control and measurement of activated mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaarup, P.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an instrumentation for control of a pneumatic tube system used to transport mineral samples for activation in a reactor and from there to a detector arrangement. A possible content of uranium in the samples can be seen from the radiation measured. The instrumentation includes a PDP-11 computer and a CAMAC crate

  13. Power-over-ethernet for remote measurement and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Murali, N.

    2011-01-01

    Power-Over-Ethernet (PoE) technology (IEEE standard 802.3af) allows Remote Measurement and Control in harsh environment where human access is difficult in various nuclear research fields. The terminal measurement and control unit receives power for its operation and communicates data over the same LAN cable, without needing to provide power supplies from different source. Almost all data acquisition systems require both data connectivity and a power supply. In a familiar example, telephones are powered from the telephone exchange through the same twisted pair that carries the voice. Now we can do the same thing with Ethernet devices by combining power and data. Only one set of wires is required to bring to the end measurement and control unit which will simplify installation and save space. Remote unit can be easily moved, to wherever a LAN cable can be laid with minimal disruption to the workplace. It is safer as no mains supply is required. Uninterrupted power supply can be guaranteed to the terminal unit during mains power failure. The terminal unit can be shut down and reset remotely without needing for a reset button and power switch. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) can be used to monitor and control the remote unit. PoE will enable to deploy many more embedded systems in nuclear and other industry like Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Security Camera, Tele-information System, Remote Access Control System, Intruder Detection System, and Tele-Medicine System, etc. (author)

  14. Insight into particle production mechanisms from angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Two-particle angular correlations are a robust tool which provide access to the underlying physics phenomena of particle production in collisions of both protons and heavy ions by studying distributions of particles in pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference. The correlation measurement is sensitive to several phenomena, including mini-jets, elliptic flow, Bose-Einstein correlations, resonance decays, conservation laws, which can be separated by selections of momentum, particle type and by analysing the shapes of the correlation structures. In this talk, we report measurements of the correlations of identified particles and their antiparticles (for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas) at low transverse momenta in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, recently submitted for publication by the ALICE Collaboration [arXiv:1612.08975]. The analysis reveals differences in particle production between baryons and mesons. The correlation functions for mesons exhibit the expected peak dominated by effects of mini-jet...

  15. Tobacco control recommendations identified by LGBT Atlantans in a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence; Damarin, Amanda K; Marshall, Zack

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are increasingly aware that disproportionately high smoking rates severely impact the health of their communities. Motivated to make a change, a group of LGBT community members, policymakers, and researchers from Atlanta carried out a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. This formative research study sought to identify recommendations for culturally relevant smoking prevention and cessation interventions that could improve the health of Atlanta's LGBT communities. Data presented here come from four focus groups with 36 participants and a community meeting with 30 participants. Among study participants, the most favored interventions were providing LGBT-specific cessation programs, raising awareness about LGBT smoking rates, and getting community venues to go smoke-free. Participants also suggested providing reduced-cost cessation products for low-income individuals, using LGBT "role models" to promote cessation, and ensuring that interventions reach all parts of the community. Findings reinforce insights from community-based research with other marginalized groups. Similarities include the importance of tailoring cessation programs for specific communities, the need to acknowledge differences within communities, and the significance of community spaces in shaping discussions of cessation. Further, this study highlights the need for heightened awareness. The Atlanta LGBT community is largely unaware that high smoking rates affect its health, and is unlikely to take collective action to address this problem until it is understood.

  16. Optimal Load Control via Frequency Measurement and Neighborhood Area Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, CH; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-11-01

    We propose a decentralized optimal load control scheme that provides contingency reserve in the presence of sudden generation drop. The scheme takes advantage of flexibility of frequency responsive loads and neighborhood area communication to solve an optimal load control problem that balances load and generation while minimizing end-use disutility of participating in load control. Local frequency measurements enable individual loads to estimate the total mismatch between load and generation. Neighborhood area communication helps mitigate effects of inconsistencies in the local estimates due to frequency measurement noise. Case studies show that the proposed scheme can balance load with generation and restore the frequency within seconds of time after a generation drop, even when the loads use a highly simplified power system model in their algorithms. We also investigate tradeoffs between the amount of communication and the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation-based experiments.

  17. Control Measures Used during Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulscher, Marlies E.J.L.; Vos, Dieuwke; van de Laar, Marita J.W.; Fenton, Kevin A.; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Grol, Richard P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the response to the reemergence of lymphogranuloma venereum, we conducted a cross-sectional survey by administering a structured questionnaire to representatives from 26 European countries. Responses were received from 18 countries. The ability to respond quickly and the measures used for outbreak detection and control varied. Evidence-based criteria were not consistently used to develop recommendations. We did not develop criteria to determine the effectiveness of the recommendations. The degree of preparedness for an unexpected outbreak, as well as the ability of countries to respond quickly to alerts, varied, which indicates weaknesses in the ability to control an outbreak. More guidance is needed to implement and evaluate control measures used during international outbreaks. PMID:18394274

  18. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC).

  20. The electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC). (author)

  1. Measurements in Concentrated Sun using a Remote Controlled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Floroian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, using the concentrated sunlight is a big issue because the amount of energy is very high and the light is concentrated in a very small area. The main problem in this situation is the heating, and in order to make safe measurements a remote controlled robot is needed. After that, a remote controlled robot will assume the duty of protect the measured sample and to expose it for a precise time to the concentrated sun in order to reduce heating of the sample. For easy operating, and for automatize the process, all the duties, starting with initial conditions, continuing with triggering the measurements, and conditioning the signals and finalizing with data saving must be assured by the robot.

  2. Components of Standing Postural Control Evaluated in Pediatric Balance Measures: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Beauchamp, Marla K; Van Ooteghem, Karen; Paterson, Marie; Wittmeier, Kristy D

    2017-10-01

    To identify measures of standing balance validated in pediatric populations, and to determine the components of postural control captured in each tool. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases using key word combinations of postural balance/equilibrium, psychometrics/reproducibility of results/predictive value of tests, and child/pediatrics; gray literature; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were measures with a stated objective to assess balance, with pediatric (≤18y) populations, with at least 1 psychometric evaluation, with at least 1 standing task, with a standardized protocol and evaluation criteria, and published in English. Two reviewers independently identified studies for inclusion. There were 21 measures included. Two reviewers extracted descriptive characteristics, and 2 investigators independently coded components of balance in each measure using a systems perspective for postural control, an established framework for balance in pediatric populations. Components of balance evaluated in measures were underlying motor systems (100% of measures), anticipatory postural control (72%), static stability (62%), sensory integration (52%), dynamic stability (48%), functional stability limits (24%), cognitive influences (24%), verticality (9%), and reactive postural control (0%). Assessing children's balance with valid and comprehensive measures is important for ensuring development of safe mobility and independence with functional tasks. Balance measures validated in pediatric populations to date do not comprehensively assess standing postural control and omit some key components for safe mobility and independence. Existing balance measures, that have been validated in adult populations and address some of the existing gaps in pediatric measures, warrant consideration for validation in children. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement control for plutonium isotopic measurements using gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A measurement control (MC) program should be an integral part of every nondestructive assay measurement system used for the assay of special nuclear materials. This report describes an MC program for plutonium isotopic composition measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. This MC program emphasizes the standardization of data collection procedures along with the implementation of internal and external measurement control checks to provide the requisite measurement quality assurance. This report also describes the implementation of the MC program in the isotopic analysis code GRPAUT. Recommendations are given concerning the importance and frequency of the various MC checks in order to ensure a successful implementation of the MC procedures for the user's application

  4. How viral capsids adapt to mismatched cargoes—identifying mechanisms of morphology control with simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Oren

    2009-03-01

    During the replication of many viruses, hundreds to thousands of protein subunits assemble around the viral nucleic acid to form a protein shell called a capsid. Most viruses form one particular structure with astonishing fidelity; yet, recent experiments demonstrate that capsids can assemble with different sizes and morphologies to accommodate nucleic acids or other cargoes such as functionalized nanoparticles. In this talk, we will explore the mechanisms of simultaneous assembly and cargo encapsidation with a computational model that describes the assembly of icosahedral capsids around functionalized nanoparticles. With this model, we find parameter values for which subunits faithfully form empty capsids with a single morphology, but adaptively assemble into different icosahedral morphologies around nanoparticles with different diameters. Analyzing trajectories in which adaptation is or is not successful sheds light on the mechanisms by which capsid morphology may be controlled in vitro and in vivo, and suggests experiments to test these mechanisms. We compare the simulation results to recent experiments in which Brome Mosaic Virus capsid proteins assemble around functionalized nanoparticles, and describe how future experiments can test the model predictions.

  5. Measuring hydrodynamical expansion via the production of identified hadrons in Pb$-$Pb collisions with ALICE arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Jacazio, Nicolò

    During the LHC Run-2, ALICE has collected data from Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The centrality dependence of identified particle production, including elliptic ($v_{2}$) and higher harmonic flow coefficients ($v_{3},v_{4}$), has been measured. The high-precision measurement of transverse momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) differential elliptic flow of the $\\phi$-meson (whose mass is close to that of the proton) allows for a unique testing of mass ordering at low $p_{\\rm T}$ as well as baryon and meson grouping at intermediate $p_{\\rm T}$. The $p_{\\rm T}$-differential hadron spectra are presented and, together with flow coefficients, compared with state-of-the-art calculations from models based on relativistic hydrodynamics coupled with UrQMD. The added transport code is to describe rescattering in the hadronic phase, which has been successful in describing the $p_{\\rm T}$-spectra of identified particles up to a few GeV/$c$. Moreover, results from the simultaneous Blast-Wave fit to the $p_{\\rm T...

  6. Attempts to identify a control system for chemical reactivity in the living state using virtual energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B L; Bourke, C

    2001-07-01

    This thesis explores the activation of chemicals in metabolic systems from the viewpoint that this activation is under the control of elements of the space-sea in which the chemicals are immersed. Themselves inert, the chemicals are theorised to exploit a force or action issuing from space (fluctuation) and characterized by the homogeneity (termed symmetry) of this medium. The fluctuation is heterogenized upon collision with matter from the intervention of well recognized fields of gravity and electromagnetism at the instant of its issue to form the near field of radiation. Fractions of original space waves and of their intrinsic spin are produced resulting in the activation of the orbitals (valency) in the chemical itself. The thesis continues: the disturbed fluctuation must return to space, obliging in turn, a prior return to the homogeneous state requiring special restorative wave rearrangements known as resonance. The success of the restorative resonance is signalled by a singularity of the fluctuation now propelled to infinity (space), and the contingent chemical reactions thereby terminated. Compromise to this return can occur from many causes and, in its presence, activation of the orbitals continues. They now effectively constitute autonomous reactions alienated from the system as a whole. The thesis is supported from evidence from diverse fields such as space theory, history of quantum field theory in attempts to derive its meaning, dielectrics and the near field of electromagnetic radiation, electron-space interactions at the Fermi surface during phase transitions and evolution of equilibrium conditions in resonance phenomena. The utility of the hypothesis rests on recognition of the resonance condition at various points in the system sufficiently macroscopic as to be available clinically as an abrupt interface between physiology and pathology. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Identifying the candidate genes involved in the calyx abscission process of 'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu) by digital transcript abundance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lifen; Li, Leiting; Cao, Yufen; Tian, Luming; Dong, Xingguang; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-10-23

    'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu), a native pear of Xinjiang, China, is an important agricultural fruit and primary export to the international market. However, fruit with persistent calyxes affect fruit shape and quality. Although several studies have looked into the physiological aspects of the calyx abscission process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In order to better understand the molecular basis of the process of calyx abscission, materials at three critical stages of regulation, with 6000 × Flusilazole plus 300 × PBO treatment (calyx abscising treatment) and 50 mg.L-1GA3 treatment (calyx persisting treatment), were collected and cDNA fragments were sequenced using digital transcript abundance measurements to identify candidate genes. Digital transcript abundance measurements was performed using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing on seven samples that were collected at three important stages of the calyx abscission process with chemical agent treatments promoting calyx abscission and persistence. Altogether more than 251,123,845 high quality reads were obtained with approximately 8.0 M raw data for each library. The values of 69.85%-71.90% of clean data in the digital transcript abundance measurements could be mapped to the pear genome database. There were 12,054 differentially expressed genes having Gene Ontology (GO) terms and associating with 251 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. The differentially expressed genes correlated with calyx abscission were mainly involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, candidate calyx abscission-specific genes, e.g. Inflorescence deficient in abscission gene, were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the digital transcript abundance measurements results. We identified candidate genes that showed highly dynamic changes in

  8. Hillslope characterization: Identifying key controls on local-scale plant communities' distribution using remote sensing and subsurface data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Steltzer, H.; Wilmer, C.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous watershed systems are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in hydrological and pedological properties that influence biotic activities, plant communities and their dynamics. To gain predictive understanding of how ecosystem and watershed system evolve under climate change, it is critical to capture such heterogeneity and to quantify the effect of key environmental variables such as topography, and soil properties. In this study, we exploit advanced geophysical and remote sensing techniques - coupled with machine learning - to better characterize and quantify the interactions between plant communities' distribution and subsurface properties. First, we have developed a remote sensing data fusion framework based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of plant communities. The framework allows the integration of both plant spectral and structural information, which are derived from multispectral satellite images and airborne LiDAR data. We then use the RF method to evaluate the estimated plant community map, exploiting the subsurface properties (such as bedrock depth, soil moisture and other properties) and geomorphological parameters (such as slope, curvature) as predictors. Datasets include high-resolution geophysical data (electrical resistivity tomography) and LiDAR digital elevation maps. We demonstrate our approach on a mountain hillslope and meadow within the East River watershed in Colorado, which is considered to be a representative headwater catchment in the Upper Colorado Basin. The obtained results show the existence of co-evolution between above and below-ground processes; in particular, dominant shrub communities in wet and flat areas. We show that successful integration of remote sensing data with geophysical measurements allows identifying and quantifying the key environmental controls on plant communities' distribution, and provides insights into their potential changes in the future

  9. Do measures of reactive balance control predict falls in people with stroke returning to the community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, A; Wong, J S; McIlroy, W E; Biasin, L; Brunton, K; Bayley, M; Inness, E L

    2015-12-01

    To determine if reactive balance control measures predict falls after discharge from stroke rehabilitation. Prospective cohort study. Rehabilitation hospital and community. Independently ambulatory individuals with stroke who were discharged home after inpatient rehabilitation (n=95). Balance and gait measures were obtained from a clinical assessment at discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Measures of reactive balance control were obtained: (1) during quiet standing; (2) when walking; and (3) in response to large postural perturbations. Participants reported falls and activity levels up to 6 months post-discharge. Logistic and Poisson regressions were used to identify measures of reactive balance control that were related to falls post-discharge. Decreased paretic limb contribution to standing balance control [rate ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7 to 1.0; P=0.011], reduced between-limb synchronisation of quiet standing balance control (rate ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.8 to 0.9; Pfall rates when controlling for age, stroke severity, functional balance and daily walking activity. Impaired reactive balance control in standing and walking predicted increased risk of falls post-discharge from stroke rehabilitation. Specifically, measures that revealed the capacity of both limbs to respond to instability were related to increased risk of falls. These results suggest that post-stroke rehabilitation strategies for falls prevention should train responses to instability, and focus on remediating dyscontrol in the more-affected limb. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Benchmarking Measures of Network Controllability on Canonical Graph Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Yan, Elena; Betzel, Richard F.; Tang, Evelyn; Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2018-03-01

    The control of networked dynamical systems opens the possibility for new discoveries and therapies in systems biology and neuroscience. Recent theoretical advances provide candidate mechanisms by which a system can be driven from one pre-specified state to another, and computational approaches provide tools to test those mechanisms in real-world systems. Despite already having been applied to study network systems in biology and neuroscience, the practical performance of these tools and associated measures on simple networks with pre-specified structure has yet to be assessed. Here, we study the behavior of four control metrics (global, average, modal, and boundary controllability) on eight canonical graphs (including Erdős-Rényi, regular, small-world, random geometric, Barábasi-Albert preferential attachment, and several modular networks) with different edge weighting schemes (Gaussian, power-law, and two nonparametric distributions from brain networks, as examples of real-world systems). We observe that differences in global controllability across graph models are more salient when edge weight distributions are heavy-tailed as opposed to normal. In contrast, differences in average, modal, and boundary controllability across graph models (as well as across nodes in the graph) are more salient when edge weight distributions are less heavy-tailed. Across graph models and edge weighting schemes, average and modal controllability are negatively correlated with one another across nodes; yet, across graph instances, the relation between average and modal controllability can be positive, negative, or nonsignificant. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that controllability statistics (and their relations) differ across graphs with different topologies and that these differences can be muted or accentuated by differences in the edge weight distributions. More generally, our numerical studies motivate future analytical efforts to better understand the mathematical

  11. Dynamical Behaviors of Rumor Spreading Model with Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Xia Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumor has no basis in fact and flies around. And in general, it is propagated for a certain motivation, either for business, economy, or pleasure. It is found that the web does expose us to more rumor and increase the speed of the rumors spread. Corresponding to these new ways of spreading, the government should carry out some measures, such as issuing message by media, punishing the principal spreader, and enhancing management of the internet. In order to assess these measures, dynamical models without and with control measures are established. Firstly, for two models, equilibria and the basic reproduction number of models are discussed. More importantly, numerical simulation is implemented to assess control measures of rumor spread between individuals-to-individuals and medium-to-individuals. Finally, it is found that the amount of message released by government has the greatest influence on the rumor spread. The reliability of government and the cognizance ability of the public are more important. Besides that, monitoring the internet to prevent the spread of rumor is more important than deleting messages in media which already existed. Moreover, when the minority of people are punished, the control effect is obvious.

  12. Identifying and controlling a multiresistant pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a latin-american cancer centre and its associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Cortes

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important and frightening microorganism for patients suffering from cancer. Multiresistant P. aeruginosa (MRPA may appear as a consequence of exposure to multiple antibiotics or from a breakdown in infection control practices. This article reports an MRPA outbreak in a cancer treatment centre and the consequent case control study. Mechanical ventilation was identified as being the main risk factor for developing MRPA colonisation or infection; molecular analysis confirmed the outbreak. A multifaceted strategy was adopted, involving reinforcing hand-washing practices, contact isolation, antibiotic restriction and suction devices for mechanically-ventilated patients. MRPA was controlled and the outbreak ended. Such strategy may be effective in controlling MRPS in low-resource environments amongst high risk cancer patients.

  13. VWF mutations and new sequence variations identified in healthy controls are more frequent in the African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Daniel B; Christopherson, Pamela A; Flood, Veronica H; Gill, Joan Cox; Friedman, Kenneth D; Haberichter, Sandra L; Shapiro, Amy D; Abshire, Thomas C; Leissinger, Cindy; Hoots, W Keith; Lusher, Jeanne M; Ragni, Margaret V; Montgomery, Robert R

    2012-03-01

    Diagnosis and classification of VWD is aided by molecular analysis of the VWF gene. Because VWF polymorphisms have not been fully characterized, we performed VWF laboratory testing and gene sequencing of 184 healthy controls with a negative bleeding history. The controls included 66 (35.9%) African Americans (AAs). We identified 21 new sequence variations, 13 (62%) of which occurred exclusively in AAs and 2 (G967D, T2666M) that were found in 10%-15% of the AA samples, suggesting they are polymorphisms. We identified 14 sequence variations reported previously as VWF mutations, the majority of which were type 1 mutations. These controls had VWF Ag levels within the normal range, suggesting that these sequence variations might not always reduce plasma VWF levels. Eleven mutations were found in AAs, and the frequency of M740I, H817Q, and R2185Q was 15%-18%. Ten AA controls had the 2N mutation H817Q; 1 was homozygous. The average factor VIII level in this group was 99 IU/dL, suggesting that this variation may confer little or no clinical symptoms. This study emphasizes the importance of sequencing healthy controls to understand ethnic-specific sequence variations so that asymptomatic sequence variations are not misidentified as mutations in other ethnic or racial groups.

  14. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  15. Control and Data Analysis for Emittance Measuring Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, T

    2001-01-01

    Due to the wide range of heavy ion beam intensities and energies in the GSI linac and the associated transfer channel to the synchrotron, several different types of emittance measurement systems have been established. Many common devices such as slit/grid or dipole-sweep systems are integrated into the GSI control system. Other systems like the single shot pepper pot method using CCD-cameras or stand-alone slit/grid set-ups are connected to personal computers. An overview is given about the various systems and their software integration. Main interest is directed on the software development for emittance front-end control and data analysis such as evaluation algorithms or graphical presentation of the results. In addition, special features for improved usability of the software such as data export, project databases and automatic report generation will be presented. An outlook on a unified evaluation procedure for all different types of emittance measurement is given.

  16. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  17. Surveillance and control of containment by means of radioactive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, H.; Seveon, J.J.; Rousseau, L.; Delalande, J.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, the radioactive measurements participating in the surveillance and control of the reactor containment as well as the possible procedures or operating rules related to, especially the ultimate procedures which could be implemented in case of a beyond of design accident, are presented. However, an overall view of the plant radiation monitoring system installed on the French plants is first given. If necessary, difference between 900 MW and 1300 MW units are emphasized

  18. Kinematic control of redundant robots and the motion optimizability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Gruver, W A; Zhang, Q; Yang, Z

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats the kinematic control of manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom. We derive an analytical solution for the inverse kinematics that provides a means for accommodating joint velocity constraints in real time. We define the motion optimizability measure and use it to develop an efficient method for the optimization of joint trajectories subject to multiple criteria. An implementation of the method for a 7-dof experimental redundant robot is present.

  19. Measuring strategic control in implicit learning: how and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for measuring the extent to which implicitly learned knowledge can be applied in a strategic, flexible manner. Examples include generation exclusion tasks in Serial Reaction Time (SRT) learning (Goschke, 1998; Destrebecqz and Cleeremans, 2001) and 2-grammar classification tasks in Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL; Dienes et al., 1995; Norman et al., 2011). Strategic control has traditionally been used as a criterion for determining whether acquired knowledg...

  20. Optimization of Drilling Resistance Measurement (DRM) user-controlled variables

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor, Dumitrescu; Pesce, Giovanni; Ball, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Drilling Resistance Measurement (DRM) is recognised as an important on-site micro-invasive procedure for assessment of construction materials. This paper presents a detailed investigation of user-controlled variables and their influence on drilling resistance. The study proves that the ratio of penetration rate/rotational speed (PR/RPM) is proportional to drilling resistance. Data from Bath stone and an artificial reference stone demonstrates how different materials can be compared using thei...

  1. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  2. Single-cell quantitative HER2 measurement identifies heterogeneity and distinct subgroups within traditionally defined HER2-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsum, Matthew D; Geretti, Elena; Paragas, Violette; Kudla, Arthur J; Moulis, Sharon P; Luus, Lia; Wickham, Thomas J; McDonagh, Charlotte F; MacBeath, Gavin; Hendriks, Bart S

    2013-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker for breast and gastric cancer prognosis and patient treatment decisions. HER2 positivity, as defined by IHC or fluorescent in situ hybridization testing, remains an imprecise predictor of patient response to HER2-targeted therapies. Challenges to correct HER2 assessment and patient stratification include intratumoral heterogeneity, lack of quantitative and/or objective assays, and differences between measuring HER2 amplification at the protein versus gene level. We developed a novel immunofluorescence method for quantitation of HER2 protein expression at the single-cell level on FFPE patient samples. Our assay uses automated image analysis to identify and classify tumor versus non-tumor cells, as well as quantitate the HER2 staining for each tumor cell. The HER2 staining level is converted to HER2 protein expression using a standard cell pellet array stained in parallel with the tissue sample. This approach allows assessment of HER2 expression and heterogeneity within a tissue section at the single-cell level. By using this assay, we identified distinct subgroups of HER2 heterogeneity within traditional definitions of HER2 positivity in both breast and gastric cancers. Quantitative assessment of intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity may offer an opportunity to improve the identification of patients likely to respond to HER2-targeted therapies. The broad applicability of the assay was demonstrated by measuring HER2 expression profiles on multiple tumor types, and on normal and diseased heart tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Editorial: disarmament, non proliferation, confidence-building measures, armament control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutou, Georges-Henri

    2015-01-01

    After having described the vicious circle existing between disarmament and security as it appeared before and during the first World War, the author deals with the specific case of nuclear disarmament as it was first addressed just after the Second World War, and was then not accepted by the Russians. He comments the political and strategical approach adopted by the Kennedy administration, notably within the context of severe crises (Berlin and Cuba). This resulted in the re-establishment of a relationship between war and policy as defined by Clausewitz, but based on a trilogy of three inseparable pairs: deterrence and armament control, armament control and non proliferation, armament control and confidence-building measures. The author shows that this trilogy has been somehow operating until the end of Cold War, and that nothing works anymore since the end of Cold War and of the bipolar world

  4. Jet reconstruction and measurement of identified fragmentation functions in Pb-Pb and pp collisions with the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo; Busch, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Jets are defined in QCD as cascades of consecutive emission of partons from an initial hard scattering. The process of parton showering and subsequent hadronisation is broadly known as fragmentation. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions allow us to probe parton fragmentation within a QCD medium and the properties of this medium via the modification of the jet spectrum and jet structure. Jet reconstruction in pp collisions provides an elementary baseline and allows to investigate perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of particle production. In addition to inclusive probes, identified particles in the final states provide an enhanced sensitivity to the flavor dependence of fragmentation and nuclear modifications. ALICE at the CERN LHC is a general-purpose heavy ion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the Quark-Gluon-Plasma. It has an excellent tracking and particle identification performance over a wide momentum range. In this talk we present results on inclusive jet observable as well as the novel measurements of identified fragmentation functions in pp and Pb-Pb collisions. The results are confronted with theory predictions.

  5. Automatic control system for measuring currents produced by ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancaccio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Ionization Chambers in current mode operation are usually used in Nuclear Metrology. Activity measurements are quickly performed by Ionization Chambers, with very good precision. For this purpose measurements of very low ionization currents, carried out by high quality instrumentation, are required. Usually, electrometers perform the current integration method under command of signals from an automation system, in order to reduce the measurement uncertainties. Among the measurement systems at the Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear (LMN) of IPEN, there are two ionization chamber systems. In the present work, an automation system developed for current integration measurements is described. This automation system is composed by software (graphic interface and control) and an electronic module connected to a microcomputer, by means of a commercial data acquisition card. Several test measurements were performed in order to determine the intrinsic uncertainty, linearity and stability of the system. Using calibrated radioactive solutions, the IG12/A20 chamber calibration factors for 18 F and 153 Sm were obtained, making possible to determine activities of these radionuclides. (author)

  6. Measurement model choice influenced randomized controlled trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Rosalie; Fox, Jean-Paul; Apeldoorn, Adri; Twisk, Jos

    2016-11-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), outcome variables are often patient-reported outcomes measured with questionnaires. Ideally, all available item information is used for score construction, which requires an item response theory (IRT) measurement model. However, in practice, the classical test theory measurement model (sum scores) is mostly used, and differences between response patterns leading to the same sum score are ignored. The enhanced differentiation between scores with IRT enables more precise estimation of individual trajectories over time and group effects. The objective of this study was to show the advantages of using IRT scores instead of sum scores when analyzing RCTs. Two studies are presented, a real-life RCT, and a simulation study. Both IRT and sum scores are used to measure the construct and are subsequently used as outcomes for effect calculation. The bias in RCT results is conditional on the measurement model that was used to construct the scores. A bias in estimated trend of around one standard deviation was found when sum scores were used, where IRT showed negligible bias. Accurate statistical inferences are made from an RCT study when using IRT to estimate construct measurements. The use of sum scores leads to incorrect RCT results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Hitrex Programme: unperturbed HTR lattice and control rod measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beynon, A J; Nunn, D L

    1972-06-15

    Reactivity, power distributions, plutonium production and fast neutron graphite damage are being studied at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL) on the HTR 'Hitrex' reactor under cold clean conditions. Rod interactions, important in assessing local criticality hazards, are receiving special attention in the measurements. The proposals for the first two series of measurements on Hitrex are discussed in this note, Hitrex 1a being the unperturbed reactor, and Hitrex 1b the same fuel array but with a number of different control absorber loadings in it. Common to both series will be cross pin, cross block and cross core measurements of power rating, thermal spectrum and damage dose distributions, so that these will be known as functions of the fuel, reflector and absorber environment.

  8. Measurement and control systems for an imaging electromagnetic flow metre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Y; Lucas, G; Leeungculsatien, T

    2014-03-01

    Electromagnetic flow metres based on the principles of Faraday's laws of induction have been used successfully in many industries. The conventional electromagnetic flow metre can measure the mean liquid velocity in axisymmetric single phase flows. However, in order to achieve velocity profile measurements in single phase flows with non-uniform velocity profiles, a novel imaging electromagnetic flow metre (IEF) has been developed which is described in this paper. The novel electromagnetic flow metre which is based on the 'weight value' theory to reconstruct velocity profiles is interfaced with a 'Microrobotics VM1' microcontroller as a stand-alone unit. The work undertaken in the paper demonstrates that an imaging electromagnetic flow metre for liquid velocity profile measurement is an instrument that is highly suited for control via a microcontroller. © 2013 ISA Published by ISA All rights reserved.

  9. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... of the coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  10. Identifying Measures Used for Assessing Quality of YouTube Videos with Patient Health Information: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel; Lau, Annie Ys

    2013-02-28

    Recent publications on YouTube have advocated its potential for patient education. However, a reliable description of what could be considered quality information for patient education on YouTube is missing. To identify topics associated with the concept of quality information for patient education on YouTube in the scientific literature. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsychINFO. Abstract selection was first conducted by two independent reviewers; discrepancies were discussed in a second abstract review with two additional independent reviewers. Full text of selected papers were analyzed looking for concepts, definitions, and topics used by its authors that focused on the quality of information on YouTube for patient education. In total, 456 abstracts were extracted and 13 papers meeting eligibility criteria were analyzed. Concepts identified related to quality of information for patient education are categorized as expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures. These include (in descending order): (1) quality of content in 10/13 (77%), (2) view count in 9/13 (69%), (3) health professional opinion in 8/13 (62%), (4) adequate length or duration in 6/13 (46%), (5) public ratings in 5/13 (39%), (6) adequate title, tags, and description in 5/13 (39%), (7) good description or a comprehensive narrative in 4/13 (31%), (8) evidence-based practices included in video in 4/13 (31%), (9) suitability as a teaching tool in 4/13 (31%), (10) technical quality in 4/13 (31%), (11) credentials provided in video in 4/13 (31%), (12) enough amount of content to identify its objective in 3/13 (23%), and (13) viewership share in 2/13 (15%). Our review confirms that the current topics linked to quality of information for patient education on YouTube are unclear and not standardized. Although expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures are used as proxies to estimate the quality of video information

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies risk loci for spirometric measures among smokers of European and African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Sharon M; Cho, Michael H; Young, Kendra; Hersh, Craig P; Castaldi, Peter J; McDonald, Merry-Lynn; Regan, Elizabeth; Mattheisen, Manuel; DeMeo, Dawn L; Parker, Margaret; Foreman, Marilyn; Make, Barry J; Jensen, Robert L; Casaburi, Richard; Lomas, David A; Bhatt, Surya P; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Crapo, James D; Beaty, Terri H; Laird, Nan M; Lange, Christoph; Hokanson, John E; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-12-03

    Pulmonary function decline is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among smokers. Post bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio are considered the standard assessment of airflow obstruction. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 9919 current and former smokers in the COPDGene study (6659 non-Hispanic Whites [NHW] and 3260 African Americans [AA]) to identify associations with spirometric measures (post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). We also conducted meta-analysis of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC GWAS in the COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and GenKOLS cohorts (total n = 13,532). Among NHW in the COPDGene cohort, both measures of pulmonary function were significantly associated with SNPs at the 15q25 locus [containing CHRNA3/5, AGPHD1, IREB2, CHRNB4] (lowest p-value = 2.17 × 10(-11)), and FEV1/FVC was associated with a genomic region on chromosome 4 [upstream of HHIP] (lowest p-value = 5.94 × 10(-10)); both regions have been previously associated with COPD. For the meta-analysis, in addition to confirming associations to the regions near CHRNA3/5 and HHIP, genome-wide significant associations were identified for FEV1 on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value = 8.99 × 10(-9)), 9 [DBH] (p-value = 9.69 × 10(-9)) and 19 [CYP2A6/7] (p-value = 3.49 × 10(-8)) and for FEV1/FVC on chromosome 1 [TGFB2] (p-value = 8.99 × 10(-9)), 4 [FAM13A] (p-value = 3.88 × 10(-12)), 11 [MMP3/12] (p-value = 3.29 × 10(-10)) and 14 [RIN3] (p-value = 5.64 × 10(-9)). In a large genome-wide association study of lung function in smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations at several previously described loci with lung function or COPD. We additionally identified a novel genome-wide significant locus with FEV1 on chromosome 9 [DBH] in a meta-analysis of three study populations.

  12. Statistical method for quality control in presence of measurement errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer-Peccoud, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    In a quality inspection of a set of items where the measurements of values of a quality characteristic of the item are contaminated by random errors, one can take wrong decisions which are damageable to the quality. So of is important to control the risks in such a way that a final quality level is insured. We consider that an item is defective or not if the value G of its quality characteristic is larger or smaller than a given level g. We assume that, due to the lack of precision of the measurement instrument, the measurement M of this characteristic is expressed by ∫ (G) + ξ where f is an increasing function such that the value ∫ (g 0 ) is known and ξ is a random error with mean zero and given variance. First we study the problem of the determination of a critical measure m such that a specified quality target is reached after the classification of a lot of items where each item is accepted or rejected depending on whether its measurement is smaller or greater than m. Then we analyse the problem of testing the global quality of a lot from the measurements for a example of items taken from the lot. For these two kinds of problems and for different quality targets, we propose solutions emphasizing on the case where the function ∫ is linear and the error ξ and the variable G are Gaussian. Simulation results allow to appreciate the efficiency of the different considered control procedures and their robustness with respect to deviations from the assumptions used in the theoretical derivations. (author)

  13. Familial colorectal cancer, can it be identified by microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability? - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Lone; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Soll-Johanning, Helle

    2009-01-01

    (Chromosome INstability=LOH (loss of heterozygosity) and/or DNA-aneuploidy (abnormal nuclear DNA contents)) could be used as predictors of familial CRC. Formalin-fixed tissue from 97 patients with CRC (29 patients with 2 or more affected first-degree relatives (="cases"), 29 matched CRC controls without......Colonoscopy is recommended for persons with a familial risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). A familial risk is identified by a family history with CRC and/or predisposing mutation(s). However, such information may not be available. We analysed whether MSI (MicroSatellite Instability) and/or CIN...... a family history, and 39 relatives to cases) were analysed for MSI and CIN. In this small case-control study, no significant differences in the frequencies of MSI and CIN were observed between cases with a family history and their controls without a family history. MSI+;CIN- was observed in 6/29 cases...

  14. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Warneke, C.; Stockwell, C. E.; de Gouw, J.; Akagi, S. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Hosseini, S.; Miller, J. W.; Cocker III, D. R.; Jung, H.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for “smoldering compounds” emitted by burning the semi

  15. Using the community pharmacy to identify patients at risk of poor asthma control and factors which contribute to this poor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carol L; Lemay, Kate; Saini, Bandana; Reddel, Helen K; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Smith, Lorraine D; Burton, Deborah; Song, Yun Ju Christine; Alles, Marie Chehani; Stewart, Kay; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines

    2011-11-01

    Although asthma can be well controlled by appropriate medication delivered in an appropriate way at an appropriate time, there is evidence that management is often suboptimal. This results in poor asthma control, poor quality of life, and significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to describe a population recruited in community pharmacy identified by trained community pharmacists as being at risk for poor asthma outcomes and to identify factors associated with poor asthma control. It used a cross-sectional design in 96 pharmacies in metropolitan and regional New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and Australian Capital Territory in Australia. Community pharmacists with specialized asthma training enrolled 570 patients aged ≥18 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma who were considered at risk of poor asthma outcomes and then conducted a comprehensive asthma assessment. In this assessment, asthma control was classified using a symptom and activity tool based on self-reported frequency of symptoms during the previous month and categorized as poor, fair, or good. Asthma history was discussed, and lung function and inhaler technique were also assessed by the pharmacist. Medication use/adherence was recorded from both pharmacy records and the Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ). The symptom and activity tool identified that 437 (77%) recruited patients had poor asthma control. Of the 570 patients, 117 (21%) smoked, 108 (19%) had an action plan, 372 (69%) used combination of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β(2)-agonist (LABA) medications, and only 17-28% (depending on device) used their inhaler device correctly. In terms of adherence, 90% had their ICS or ICS/LABA dispensed <6 times in the previous 6 months, which is inconsistent with regular use; this low adherence was confirmed from the BMQ scores. A logistic regression model showed that patients who smoked had incorrect inhaler technique or low adherence (assessed by either dispensing history or

  16. Human factors measurement for future air traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Sankey, Michael J; Canty, James M

    2009-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.

  17. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive program of experiments focused on biomass burning emissions began with a laboratory phase in which vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected in the southeastern and southwestern US and burned in a series of 71 fires at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5 emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured by an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS, negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS, and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS. 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC were identified and quantified with the above instruments. Many of the 182 species quantified by the GC-MS have rarely, if ever, been measured in smoke before. An additional 153 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species.

    In a second, "field" phase of this program, airborne and ground-based measurements were made of the emissions from prescribed fires that were mostly located in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5 was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. The field measurements of emission factors (EF are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab EF/field EF ratio for

  18. Temperature, its measurement and control in industry - ITM '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Blieck, L.; Jescheck, M.; Neubert, W.; Kunze, D.

    1990-01-01

    The publication refers to the new VDE/VDI guideline 3511 and explains its practical intentions and implications by thoroughly discussing the applications of temperature sensors and their limits of use. The current state of the art in temperature measuring is fully described by the discussion of the new temperature scale introduced recently, the ITS '90. The authors of the book look in detail at the particular requirements and conditions of infrared measuring techniques using radiation thermometers as defined in DIN 5496, the applications of microprocessors (DIN-measuring-field-bus, etc.), time program emitters, and measuring transducers (EX ib, etc.). A full chapter has been devoted to the subject of surface temperature measurement. Examples referring to practical applications in industry serve as an introduction to thermal control engineering, in particular with infrared sensors, for processes such as thermal forming. New, optical thermometers for the low temperature range have been given much attention. An annex presents comprehensive tables for calculation and conversion of thermal quantities. (orig./HP) With 192 figs., 134 refs [de

  19. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  20. Creating a measure of portion control self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Lindsey C; Harman, Jennifer J; Maertens, Julie A; Burnette, Jeni L; Dreith, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, food portion sizes have steadily increased by as much as 700% (Young & Nestle, 2002). Food portions are often much larger than dietary guidelines recommend, leaving individuals to manage their food consumption on their own and making it necessary to understand individual factors impacting food consumption. In the current paper, we focus on self-efficacy for portion control. Specifically, across three studies, we developed and validated a new measure of portion control self-efficacy (PCSE). The PCSE measure yielded good fit statistics and had acceptable test-retest reliability using two cross-sectional surveys (Studies 1(a) and 1(b)). Results from Study 2 demonstrated construct and predictive validity of the PCSE using the Food Amount Rating Scale (FARS; Dohm, & Striegel-Moore, 2002). Study 3 offered additional support for reliability and validity with a sample of overweight and obese adults currently trying to lose weight. Overall, findings indicate that the new PCSE measure is reliable and valid. Individuals often make inaccurate food portion estimates (Slawson & Eck, 1997; Yuhas, Bolland, & Bolland, 1989) which can lead to overeating and weight-gain. Thus, the discussion centers on the need to incorporate PCSE in future research and intervention work targeting weight loss, health, and food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Funnel plot control limits to identify poorly performing healthcare providers when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Evans, T Alun

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing use of statistical methods, such as funnel plots, to identify poorly performing healthcare providers. Funnel plots comprise the construction of control limits around a benchmark and providers with outcomes falling outside the limits are investigated as potential outliers. The benchmark is usually estimated from observed data but uncertainty in this estimate is usually ignored when constructing control limits. In this paper, the use of funnel plots in the presence of uncertainty in the value of the benchmark is reviewed for outcomes from a Binomial distribution. Two methods to derive the control limits are shown: (i) prediction intervals; (ii) tolerance intervals Tolerance intervals formally include the uncertainty in the value of the benchmark while prediction intervals do not. The probability properties of 95% control limits derived using each method were investigated through hypothesised scenarios. Neither prediction intervals nor tolerance intervals produce funnel plot control limits that satisfy the nominal probability characteristics when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark. This is not necessarily to say that funnel plots have no role to play in healthcare, but that without the development of intervals satisfying the nominal probability characteristics they must be interpreted with care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Backward compatibility as a key measure for smooth upgrades to the LHC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggiolini, V.; Csikos, D.; Tarasenko, P.; Zaharieva, Z.; Arruat, M.; Gorbosonov, R.

    2012-01-01

    It is a big challenge to smoothly upgrade the control system of a large operational accelerator such as the LHC without causing unnecessary downtime. We have identified backward compatibility as a key measure to achieve this, because a backward compatible component can be easily upgraded. This document describes the work the CERN Accelerator Controls group does to provide methods and tools supporting backward compatibility. We have identified four areas for which we want to provide tools: (1) dependency analysis to identify incoming dependencies, (2) backward compatibility validation to verify that API (Application Program Interface) changes are really backward compatible, (3) version upgrading with rules to clearly inform the dependent clients if a modification is backward compatible, and (4) API consolidation to clearly specify classes and methods belonging to the API and to enforce their appropriate usage

  3. Identifying barriers to glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes after completion of an accredited education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Chris M; Lantaff, Wendy M; Olenik, Nicole L

    The objective of this study was to identify patient-perceived barriers to achieving A1C targets after receiving instruction in an accredited diabetes education program. Qualitative research using semistructured interviews and thematic analyses. One pharmacist-run diabetes center located within an independent community pharmacy in a suburban region of southern Indiana. A total of 17 participants between the ages of 41-78 were interviewed in March and April 2016. Not applicable. Patient-perceived barriers to attaining glycemic control after completion of a pharmacist-taught diabetes self-management education (DSME) program accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Participants reported a variety of perceived barriers to glycemic control subsequent to the receipt of structured education. Seven major themes emerged: 1) health care provider factors; 2) self-identified indiscretions; 3) psychological barriers and poor social support; 4) knowledge deficits; 5) personal injury or adverse drug events; 6) time constraints and competing life demands; and 7) financial constraints. Participants reported a variety of perceived barriers to achieving A1C targets after completing DSME. Incorporation of solutions and coping mechanisms to these barriers into diabetes education programs may help patients attain glycemic control. Other factors may require individualized attention outside of DSME in follow-up episodes of diabetes care. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of measurements in material control and accountability (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical techniques are widely used for verification and accountancy of nuclear materials. Nuclear Material (NM) inventories are based on sampling followed by Destructive Analysis. Destructive Analyses range from traditional chemical techniques to recent implementations of radiometric methods. These techniques are performed to quantify the amount of nuclear material (elemental assay and isotopic composition) present in a specific item, container, or in some cases facility and resolving shipper-receiver differences. Analytical techniques used for the MC and A of nuclear material normally require more attention than that for process control because the largest contribution to Material Unaccounted For is in measurement uncertainty. Therefore analytical techniques selected for material control and accountability are highly precise and they comply with accepted 'International Target Values 2010'. (author)

  5. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized

  6. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  7. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik

    is constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal......This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control af coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsværket Unit 3. The coal mills are not equipped with coal flow sensors; thus an observer-based approach is investigated. A nonlinear differential equation model of the boiler...

  8. Social construction of stormwater control measures in Melbourne and Copenhagen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Urban stormwater systems in cities around the world are challenged by urbanization and climate change, and a range of Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are being implemented as solutions to these challenges. We developed a conceptual framework of technological stabilization based on Social...... differences in their application due to different physical, organizational and cultural contexts in the two cities, drought being the main driver during the past decade in Melbourne (1997–2010) and pluvial flooding in Copenhagen (2007-). In Melbourne there is currently a strong integrated understanding...

  9. Attosecond physics attosecond measurements and control of physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Ricardo; Zaïr, Amelle

    2013-01-01

    Attophysics is an emerging field in physics devoted to the study and characterization of matter dynamics in the sub-femtosecond time scale. This book gives coverage of a broad set of selected topics in this field, exciting by their novelty and their potential impact. The book is written review-like. It also includes fundamental chapters as introduction to the field for non-specialist physicists. The book is structured in four sections: basics, attosecond pulse technology, applications to measurements and control of physical processes and future perspectives. It is a valuable reference tool for researchers in the field as well as a concise introduction to non-specialist readers.

  10. Methodology for performing measurements to release material from radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the existing and proposed methodologies for performing measurements of contamination prior to releasing material for uncontrolled use at the Hanford Site. The technical basis for the proposed methodology, a modification to the existing contamination survey protocol, is also described. The modified methodology, which includes a large-area swipe followed by a statistical survey, can be used to survey material that is unlikely to be contaminated for release to controlled and uncontrolled areas. The material evaluation procedure that is used to determine the likelihood of contamination is also described

  11. Infectious bronchitis virus variants ? History, current situation and control measures

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is ubiquitous in most parts of the world where poultry are reared and is able to spread very rapidly in non-protected birds. It is shed via both the respiratory tract and the faeces and can persist in the birds and the intestinal tract for several weeks or months. Outdoors, survival of IBV for 56 days in litter has been reported. Although strict biosecurity and working with a one-age system are essential control measures, normally vaccinat...

  12. Design of triaxial test with controlled suction: measure of strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasc-Barbier, M.; Cosenza, Ph.; Ghoreychi, M.; Chanchole, S.; Cosenza, Ph.; Tessier, D.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental study of mechanical behavior of clayey materials under hygrometric condition is usually performed either on unloaded samples or by means of classical odometer tests used in soil mechanics. Such methods are not well adapted to hard deep clayey rocks with little deformability, porosity and permeability. Moreover, stress and strain tensors having a significant effect on hygro-mechanical behaviour and properties cannot be measured and investigated appropriately by classical tests. This is why a specific triaxial test was designed in which the sample is surrounded by a fiber glass tissue allowing air circulation and then by silicon on which confining pressure is applied. Thus, equilibrium between air and sample was reduced. Stress and strain tensors were also measured in time on the sample subjected to a mechanical loading and to a controlled suction. After presentation of the test, preliminary results are given. (authors)

  13. Quality Assurance and Quality Control in TLD Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Qronfla, M.M.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kinsara, A.A.; Taha, T.M.; Molla, N.I.; Elmohr, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    TLD technique characterized by high precision and reproducibility of dose measurement is presented by addressing pre-readout annealing, group sorting, dose evaluation, blind tests, internal dose quality audit and external quality control audits. Two hundred and forty TLD chips were annealed for 1 hour at 4000 degree C followed by 2 h at 1000 degree C. After exposure of 1 mGy from 90 Sr irradiator TLDs were subjected to pre-readout annealing at 1000 degree C, then readout, sorted into groups each with nearly equal sensitivity. Upon repeating the procedures, TLDs having response >3.5% from group mean were dropped to assuring group stability. Effect of pre-readout annealing has been studied. Series of repeated measurements were conducted to stabilize calibration procedures and DCF generation using SSDL level 137 Cs calibrator, dose master, ionization chambers. Performed internal dose quality audits, blind tests and validated by external QC tests with King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology

  14. A Feedback-Controlled Mandibular Positioner Identifies Individuals With Sleep Apnea Who Will Respond to Oral Appliance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, John E; Topor, Zbigniew; Grosse, Joshua; Vranjes, Nikola; Mosca, Erin V; Brant, Rollin; Bruehlmann, Sabina; Charkhandeh, Shouresh; Zareian Jahromi, Seyed Abdolali

    2017-07-15

    Mandibular protruding oral appliances represent a potentially important therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, their clinical utility is limited by a less-than-ideal efficacy rate and uncertainty regarding an efficacious mandibular position, pointing to the need for a tool to assist in delivery of the therapy. The current study assesses the ability to prospectively identify therapeutic responders and determine an efficacious mandibular position. Individuals (n = 202) with OSA participated in a blinded, 2-part investigation. A system for identifying therapeutic responders was developed in part 1 (n = 149); the predictive accuracy of this system was prospectively evaluated on a new population in part 2 (n = 53). Each participant underwent a 2-night, in-home feedback-controlled mandibular positioner (FCMP) test, followed by treatment with a custom oral appliance and an outcome study with the oral appliance in place. A machine learning classification system was trained to predict therapeutic outcome on data obtained from FCMP studies on part 1 participants. The accuracy of this trained system was then evaluated on part 2 participants by examining the agreement between prospectively predicted outcome and observed outcome. A predicted efficacious mandibular position was derived from each FCMP study. Predictive accuracy was as follows: sensitivity 85%; specificity 93%; positive predictive value 97%; and negative predictive value 72%. Of participants correctly predicted to respond to therapy, the predicted mandibular protrusive position proved efficacious in 86% of cases. An unattended, in-home FCMP test prospectively identifies individuals with OSA who will respond to oral appliance therapy and provides an efficacious mandibular position. The trial that this study reports on is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT03011762, study name: Feasibility and Predictive Accuracy of an In-Home Computer Controlled Mandibular Positioner in Identifying Favourable

  15. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  16. Experimental measurements in the BYU controlled profile reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tree, D.R.; Black, D.l.; Rigby, J.R.; McQuay, M.Q.; Webb, B.W. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-09-01

    Over the past decade the Controlled Profile Reactor (CPR) has been used to obtain extensive combustion data sets. CPR is a small scale (0.2-0.4 MW) combustion facility that has been used to obtain data for model validation, the testing of new combustion concepts, and the development of new combustion instruments. This review of the past ten years of research completed in the CPR includes a description of the reactor and instrumentation used, a summary of three experimental data sets which have been obtained in the reactor, and a description of novel tests and instrumentation. Measurements obtained include gas species, gas temperature, particle velocity, particle size, particle number density, particle-cloud temperature profiles, radiation and total heat flux to the wall, and wall temperatures. Species data include the measurement of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub x}, O{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCN. The three combustion studies included one with natural gas combustion in a swirling flow, and two pulverized-coal combustion studies involving Utah Blind Canyon and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals. Most, but not all of the above measurements were obtained in each study. The second coal study involving the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal contained the most complete set of data and is described in detail. Novel combustion instrumentation includes the use of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) to measure gas temperature. Novel combustion experiments include the measurement of NO{sub x} and burnout with coal-char blends. The measurements have led to an improved understanding of the combustion process and an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses associated with different aspects of comprehensive combustion models. 67 refs., 26 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.

  18. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Kiew-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins. Results ESTs were generated from a cDNA library of C. irritans tomonts isolated from infected Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Clustering of the 5356 ESTs produced 2659 unique transcripts (UTs containing 1989 singletons and 670 consensi. BLAST analysis showed that 74% of the UTs had significant similarity (E-value -5 to sequences that are currently available in the GenBank database, with more than 15% of the significant hits showing unknown function. Forty percent of the UTs had significant similarity to ciliates from the genera Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Comparative gene family analysis with related taxa showed that many protein families are conserved among the protozoans. Based on gene ontology annotation, functional groups were successfully assigned to 790 UTs. Genes encoding excretory/secretory proteins and membrane and membrane-associated proteins were identified because these proteins often function as antigens and are good antibody targets. A total of 481 UTs were classified as encoding membrane proteins, 54 were classified as encoding for membrane-bound proteins, and 155 were found to contain excretory/secretory protein-coding sequences. Amino acid repeat-containing proteins and GPI-anchored proteins were also identified as potential candidates for the development of

  20. Identifying protective and risk factors for injurious falls in patients hospitalized for acute care: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Aryee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admitted patients who fall and injure themselves during an acute hospitalization incur increased costs, morbidity, and mortality, but little research has been conducted on identifying inpatients at high risk to injure themselves in a fall. Falls risk assessment tools have been unsuccessful due to their low positive predictive value when applied broadly to entire hospital populations. We aimed to identify variables associated with the risk of or protection against injurious fall in the inpatient setting. We also aimed to test the variables in the ABCs mnemonic (Age > 85, Bones-orthopedic conditions, anti-Coagulation and recent surgery for correlation with injurious fall. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control study at an academic tertiary care center comparing admitted patients with injurious fall to admitted patients without fall. We collected data on the demographics, medical and fall history, outcomes, and discharge disposition of injured fallers and control patients. We performed multivariate analysis of potential risk factors for injurious fall with logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Results We identified 117 injured fallers and 320 controls. There were no differences in age, anti-coagulation use or fragility fractures between cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, recent surgery (OR 0.46, p = 0.003 was protective; joint replacement (OR 5.58, P = 0.002, psychotropic agents (OR 2.23, p = 0.001, the male sex (OR 2.08, p = 0.003 and history of fall (OR 2.08, p = 0.02 were significantly associated with injurious fall. Conclusion In this study, the variables in the ABCs parameters were among the variables not useful for identifying inpatients at risk of injuring themselves in a fall, while other non-ABCs variables demonstrated a significant association with injurious fall. Recent surgery was a protective factor, and practices around the care of surgical patients could be

  1. Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    This document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)) This guidance also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous DOE guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents. 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(7)(A) specifies that facility energy managers shall certify compliance for each covered facility with the 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(2)-(5) requirements via a web-based tracking system and make it publicly available. This document also describes the role of the tracking system that has been developed for the collection and reporting of data needed for the demonstration of compliance and progress toward meeting all energy and water efficiency requirements outlined in the statute.

  2. The role of geriatric assessment tests and anthropometric measurements in identifying the risk of falls in elderly nursing home residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Bulent; Aran, Sinan N.; Ozkaya, Ismail; Aksoy, Sevki M.; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relation among the risk of falls, geriatric assessment, and anthropometric measurements, including the mini mental state examination, geriatric depression scale, handgrip test, and key pinch test. Methods: This prospective study included 89 residents hospitalized between May 2014 and September 2015 in the geriatric care unit of the Istanbul Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were followed-up for one year, and their falls were recorded. Medical records of the included patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: A total of 89 patients, comprising 37 men and 52 women with an average age of 75.8 ± 8.2 years were included in the study. The residents’ annual falling averages were 1.0 ± 1.5. The most significant factors were identified to be predicted muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, whole body bioimpedance, dominant arm muscle strength, dominant arm bioimpedance, and free fat mass. Conclusions: The mini mental test, geriatric depression scale and lawton-brody scale combined with the handgrip, 6-meters walking, and bioimpedance tests are favorable for detecting the risk of falls and recurrent falls in vulnerable elderly nursing home residents. PMID:27652361

  3. Simultaneously combining AOD and multiple trace gas measurements to identify decadal changes in urban and biomass burning aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a methodology by which to comprehensively analyze simultaneous tropospheric measurements of AOD and associated trace gasses. It then applies this methodology by focusing over the past 11 years (2006-2016) on one of the most rapidly changing regions of the troposphere: Eastern and Southeastern Asia. The specific work presented incorporates measurements of both aerosol and related gas phase tropospheric measurements across different spectral, spatial, temporal, and passive/active sensors and properties, including: MODIS, MISR, OMI, CALIOP, and others. This new characterization reveals a trio of new information, including a time-invariant urban signal, slowly-time-varying new-urbanization signal, and a rapidly time-varying biomass burning signal. Additionally, due to the different chemical properties of the various species analyzed, analyzing the different spatial domains of the resulting products allows for further information in terms of the amounts of aerosols produced both through primary emissions as well as secondary processing. The end result is a new characterization, in space, time, and magnitude, of both anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols. These results are then used to drive an advanced modeling system including aerosol chemistry, physics, optics, and transport, and employing an aerosol routine based on multi-modal and both externally mixed and core-shell mixing. The resulting characterization in space, time, and quantity is analyzed and compared against AERONET, NOAA, and other ground networks, with the results comparing consistently to or better than present approaches which set up net emissions separately from urban and biomass burning products. Scientifically, new source regions of emissions are identified, some of which were previously non-urbanized or found to not contain any fire hotspots. This new approach is consistent with the underlying economic and development pathways of expanding urban areas and rapid economic growth

  4. Measurements and simulation of controlled beamfront motion in the Laser Controlled Collective Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Striffler, C.D.; Rodgers, J.; Scgalov, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In the Laser Controlled Collective Accelerator, an intense electron beam is injected at a current above the vacuum space charge limit into an initially evacuated drift tube. A plasma channel, produced by time-sequenced, multiple laser beam ionization of a solid target on the drift tube wall, provides the necessary neutralization to allow for effective beam propagation. By controlling the rate of production of the plasma channel as a function of time down the drift tube, control of the electron beamfront can be achieved. Recent experimental measurements of controlled beamfront motion in this configuration are presented, along with results of ion acceleration experiments conducted using two different accelerating gradients. These results are compared with numerical simulations of the system in which both controlled beamfront motion and ion acceleration is observed consistent with both design expectations and experimental results. 5 refs., 6 figs

  5. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  6. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  7. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  8. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  9. Lung function and functional capacity among foundry workers using effective risk control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Negreiros, Alexandher; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled dust in the environment can trigger specific reactions in the airways and cause various respiratory diseases. Evaluate the lung function and functional capacity of foundry workers who are exposed to metals and use effective control measures. A cross-sectional study was realized with 108 workers at a bronze foundry and machining plant and in maintenance at a private university, both in Brazil. The workers were divided into two groups: the study group exposed to metals but using risk control measues and a control group not exposed to metal work. The Medical Research Council Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered, and lung function and functional capacity were evaluated. Comparative statistics were used to identify differences in the outcome measures between the two groups. The groups had similar personal and anthropometric characteristics and time on the job. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow presented no significant differences between the groups. And there was also no statistically significant difference between groups in functional capacity as assessed by performance on the six-minute walk test. Foundry industry workers in Brazil who were exposed to metal but used risk control measures had similar lung function and functional capacity when compared to the control group who were not exposed to metal. This is a positive results and maybe related to age, time exposure and control of occupational hazards. However, these workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.

  10. Impact of Soil Conservation Measures on Erosion Control and Soil Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This publication summarises the lessons learnt from a FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality over a five-year period across a wide geographic area and range of environments. It demonstrates the new trends in the use of fallout radionuclide-based techniques as powerful tools to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. As a comprehensive reference material it will support IAEA Member States in the use of these techniques to identify practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  11. Out-of-office blood pressure: from measurement to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baguet JP

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Philippe Baguet1,21Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, 2Bioclinic Radiopharmaceutics Laboratory, INSERM U1039, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, FranceAbstract: Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, hypertension diagnosis and treatment and clinical evaluations of antihypertensive efficacy have been based on office blood pressure (BP measurements; however, there is increasing evidence that office measures may provide inadequate or misleading estimates of a patient’s true BP status and level of cardiovascular risk. The introduction, and endorsement by treatment guidelines, of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and self (or home BP monitoring has facilitated more reliable and reproducible estimations of true BP, including the identification of white-coat and masked hypertension, and evaluation of BP variability. In addition, ambulatory BP monitoring enables accurate assessment of treatment effectiveness over 24 hours and both ambulatory and self BP monitoring may lead to better tailoring of therapy according to BP profile and concomitant disease. This review describes the clinical benefits and limitations of out-of-office assessments and their applications for effective management of hypertension and attainment of BP control.Keywords: ambulatory, ABPM, SBPM, blood pressure measurement, hypertension

  12. A tape-controlled remote automatic diameter measurement machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, W.; Salmon, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The machine is designed for the automatic measurement of fuel pins after irradiation in the fast reactors and is a modified version of a machine which has been in use for several years. These modifications consist of mechanical improvements and solid state control circuitry but the design criteria are unchanged. Irradiated fuel pins with diameters up to 0.875 in. are measured at fixed axial positions and angular intervals. Axial stepping of either 1 cm or 1 in. with a standard deviation of 5 x 10 -4 in. and angular rotation by multiples of 18 0 with a non-cumulative error of 1 0 can be selected. Data on axial position to 0.1 in. or 0.1 cm and fuel element diameter to 5 x 10 -5 in. are both punched and printed out for computer evaluation. The standard deviation of a single measurement on cylindrical specimens with an eccentricity of up to at least 0.1 in. should be no worse than 1 x 10 -4 in. No operator attention is required after the pin is positioned in the machine and 40 sets of 10 diameter readings at 36 0 intervals can be performed in an hour. Switches can be set between 1 and 99 to terminate an examination when power is switched off with the machine in its rest position. (author)

  13. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning performed under varying conditions (speed, environment. An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility.

  14. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozana, Stepan, E-mail: stepan.ozana@vsb.cz; Pies, Martin, E-mail: martin.pies@vsb.cz; Docekal, Tomas, E-mail: docekalt@email.cz [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava-Poruba, 700 30 (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  15. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  16. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  17. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU: Investigation and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Farruggia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  18. Outbreak of ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU): investigation and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-02-26

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  19. Control of oral malodour by dentifrices measured by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Evelyn E; Hickling, Jenneth M; Hughes, Francis J; Proskin, Howard M; Bosma, Marylynn P

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of toothpaste treatments on levels of oral volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) measured by gas chromatography in two clinical studies. These were blinded, randomised, controlled, crossover studies with 16 (study A) or 20 (study B) healthy volunteers between the ages of 19-54. Study A: breath samples were collected at baseline, immediately and lhr after brushing. Four dentifrices (Zinc A, Zinc B, commercially available triclosan dentifrice and zinc free control) were evaluated. Study B: breath samples were collected at baseline, immediately, 1, 2, 3 and 7 hours after treatment. Subjects consumed a light breakfast then provided an additional breath sample between baseline assessment and treatment. Two dentifrices (gel-to-foam and a commercially available triclosan dentrifrice) were evaluated. Breath samples were collected in syringes and analysed for VSCs (hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and Total VSCs) utilising gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Study A: immediately after treatment, a statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed for Zinc A product only. A statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed after 1 hour for all products. Both zinc products exhibited a significantly greater reduction from baseline VSCs than Colgate Total and Control at all time points. Study B: a statistically significant reduction in VSCs from baseline was observed at all time points for both products. The gel-to-foam product exhibited significantly greater reduction from baseline Total VSC concentration than Colgate Total at all time points from 1 hour post-treatment. Control of oral malodour by toothpaste treatment, evaluated as VSC levels using GC, has been demonstrated. Zinc is effective at reducing VSCs and the efficacy of zinc is formulation dependent. A gel-to-foam dentifrice was more effective at reducing VSCs than Colgate Total up to 7 hours.

  20. Identification of typical process control problems that can, cost efficiently, be remedied by the use of multivariable control; Identifiering av typiska processtyrningsproblem som kostnadseffektivt kan avhjaelpas med multivariabel reglering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin; Velut, Stephane; Persson, Leif [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Many processes in thermal power plants are characterized by their multivariable nature: most inputs interact with most outputs. A standard way to control those systems is to disregard the internal interactions, couple each input to an output and design Single Input-Single Output controllers. This approach may work properly but in the case of strong internal couplings this can lead to very poor control performance, especially under transient conditions such as at start-up or when powerful disturbances act on the process. The control structure can sometimes be completed by additional feed-forward links to counteract the interactions. A multivariable and systematic approach that accounts for all process interactions would however be preferable. A dynamical process model is necessary for the design of most multivariable controllers. With such a model the design is relatively easy and the resulting controller can achieve good performance in spite of the internal interactions. The controller performance can be measured by its robustness against process variations, its ability to quickly reject disturbances or the way process limitations are handled. A multivariable control strategy makes it possible to drive the plant closer to its capacity without compromising the operation safety. The project aims at spreading both knowledge about multivariable control and its use in thermal power applications. The present document describes the main multivariable control techniques and reports applications in the power industry. Four control problems have been identified: load following, furnace control, control of a flue gas heat recovery unit and control of a pre-heater chain. Every control problem is approached as follows: after a process description and a control problem formulation, industrial experience of multivariable control is reviewed and some control strategy is proposed. Multivariable techniques have been successfully applied to solve some of the studied problems. State

  1. Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, H.

    2010-02-26

    Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall β-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

  2. Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, H.; Damsz, B.; Woloshuk, C. P.; Bressan, R. A.; Narasimhan, Meena L.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall β-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

  3. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacArthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hauck, Danielle K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit

  4. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  5. Measurement and control system for ITER remote maintenance equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Takiguchi, Yuji; Akou, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets and divertors are categorized as scheduled maintenance components because they are subjected to severe plasma heat and particle loads. Blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle Heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a 2 mm precision tolerance. Divertor maintenance requires remote replacement of 60 cassettes with a dead weight of about 25 tons each. In the ITER R and D program, full-scale remote handling equipment for blanket and divertor maintenance has been designed and assembled for demonstration tests. This paper reviews the measurement and control system developed for full-scale remote handling equipment, the Japan Home Team contribution. (author)

  6. Measurement and control system for ITER remote maintenance equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Takiguchi, Yuji; Akou, Kentaro

    1998-01-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets and divertors are categorized as scheduled maintenance components because they are subjected to severe plasma heat and particle loads. Blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle Heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a 2 mm precision tolerance. Divertor maintenance requires remote replacement of 60 cassettes with a dead weight of about 25 tons each. In the ITER R and D program, full-scale remote handling equipment for blanket and divertor maintenance has been designed and assembled for demonstration tests. This paper reviews the measurement and control system developed for full-scale remote handling equipment, the Japan Home Team contribution. (author)

  7. Genome-wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, ovine lentivirus (OvLV is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelong infection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for infected animals. However, breed differences in prevalence and proviral concentration have indicated a genetic basis for susceptibility to OvLV. A recent study identified TMEM154 variants in OvLV susceptibility. The objective here was to identify additional loci associated with odds and/or control of OvLV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This genome-wide association study (GWAS included 964 sheep from Rambouillet, Polypay, and Columbia breeds with serological status and proviral concentration phenotypes. Analytic models accounted for breed and age, as well as genotype. This approach identified TMEM154 (nominal P=9.2×10(-7; empirical P=0.13, provided 12 additional genomic regions associated with odds of infection, and provided 13 regions associated with control of infection (all nominal P<1 × 10(-5. Rapid decline of linkage disequilibrium with distance suggested many regions included few genes each. Genes in regions associated with odds of infection included DPPA2/DPPA4 (empirical P=0.006, and SYTL3 (P=0.051. Genes in regions associated with control of infection included a zinc finger cluster (ZNF192, ZSCAN16, ZNF389, and ZNF165; P=0.001, C19orf42/TMEM38A (P=0.047, and DLGAP1 (P=0.092. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These associations provide targets for mutation discovery in sheep susceptibility to OvLV. Aside from TMEM154, these genes have not been associated previously with lentiviral infection in any species, to our knowledge. Further, data from other species suggest functional hypotheses for future testing of these genes in OvLV and other lentiviral infections. Specifically, SYTL3 binds and may regulate RAB27A, which is required for enveloped

  8. Identifying patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Retrospective medical record review study and a nested case -control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bature, Fidelia; Pang, Dong; Robinson, Anthea; Polson, Norma; Pappas, Yannis; Guinn, Barbara

    2018-04-04

    Evidence suggests that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often diagnosed in the later stages of their disease with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of AD to suggest a predictive model for earlier diagnosis of the disease in the primary care. A retrospective medical record review; nested case control design. Participants included one hundred and nine patients from three general practice (GP) surgeries in Milton Keynes and Luton Clinical Commissioning groups (CCG) (37 cases with AD and 72 controls without AD). A retrospective analysis using the logistic regression of the presence of signs and symptoms before the diagnosis of AD was attained. Identification of the timing and sequence of appearance of these presentations as first reported before the clinical diagnosis was measured. Episodic memory with an odds ratio of 1.85 was the most frequent presentation, documented in 1.38% of the controls and 75.6% in cases. Auditory disturbance with an odds ratio of 3.03, which has not previously been noted except in the form of auditory hallucination, could have a diagnostic value. Auditory disturbance, which occurred mostly in the Caucasian females, could discriminate individuals with AD from those without. The symptom, which presented up to 14.5 (mean time) years prior to clinical diagnosis, was identified in Caucasians and mixed race individuals only. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Temperature measurement and control system for transtibial prostheses: Functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Lee, Tat Hing; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The accumulation of heat inside the prosthetic socket increases skin temperature and fosters perspiration, which consequently leads to high tissue stress, friction blister, discomfort, unpleasant odor, and decreased prosthesis suspension and use. In the present study, the prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was designed, fabricated, and functionally evaluated in a phantom model of the transtibial prosthetic socket. The TM&C system was comprised of 12 thermistors divided equally into two groups that arranged internal and external to a prosthetic silicone liner. Its control system was programmed to select the required heating or cooling function of a thermal pump to provide thermal equilibrium based on the amount of temperature difference from a defined set temperature, or the amount of difference between the mean temperature recorded by inside and outside thermistors. A thin layer of aluminum was used for thermal conduction between the thermal pump and different sites around the silicone liner. The results showed functionality of the TM&C system for thermoregulation inside the prosthetic socket. However, enhancing the structure of this TM&C system, increasing its thermal power, and decreasing its weight and cost are main priorities before further development.

  10. Overview of Zika infection, epidemiology, transmission and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rabaan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current Zika virus outbreak in the Americas and the proposed link to increases in microcephaly and neurological disorders have prompted the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and potentially by transfusion, perinatal and sexual transmission. The potential for spread into countries where Aedes mosquitoes are endemic is high. Previously, cases tended to be sporadic and associated with mild, non-specific symptoms. Prior outbreaks occurred in Yap Island in Micronesia in 2007, the first time Zika arose outside of Africa and Asia, and in French Polynesia in 2013. A birth data review has confirmed that the latter outbreak was followed by an increase in microcephaly cases. A coordinated international response is needed to address mosquito control; expedite development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and specific treatments for Zika; and address the proposed link to microcephaly and neurological diseases. Keywords: ZIKV, Zika infection, Epidemiology, Transmission, Control measures, Diagnostic test

  11. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  12. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  13. Flow measurement and control in the defense waste process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1985-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive waste is now under construction. Previously stored waste is retrieved and processed into a glass matrix for permanent storage. The equipment operates in an entirely remote environment for both processing and maintenance due to the highly radioactive nature of the waste. A fine powdered glass frit is mixed with the waste prior to its introduction as a slurry into an electric glass furnace. The slurry is Bingham plastic in nature and of high viscosity. This combination of factors has created significant problems in flow measurement and control. Specialized pieces of equipment have been demonstrated that will function properly in a highly abrasive environment while receiving no maintenance during their lifetime. Included are flow meters, flow control technology, flow switching, and remote connections. No plastics or elastomers are allowed in contact with fluids and all electronic components are mounted remotely. Both two- and three-way valves are used. Maintenance is by crane replacement of process sections, utilizing specialized connectors. All portions of the above are now operating full scale (radioactively cold) at the test facility at SRP. 4 references, 8 figures

  14. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  15. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease...

  16. DISCONTOOLS: a database to identify research gaps on vaccines, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics for the control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane

    2017-01-03

    The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.

  17. Control measurements of low- and intermediate level waste to be disposed of in SFR-1; Measurements of year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, M.

    1995-11-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute regularly performs control measurements of waste packages produced by the Swedish nuclear power plants. The report presents the results of the gamma spectrometric measurements made during the fall 1995. The agreement between the nuclear facilities own measurements and the control results is generally good. 4 tabs

  18. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-10-01

    To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease.

  19. Dynamic connectivity states estimated from resting fMRI Identify differences among Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Damaraju, Eswar; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and age matched SZ and BP patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between HCs and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average) and dynamic (windowed) connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Notably, results suggest that patients make fewer transitions to some states (states 1, 2, and 4) compared to HCs, with most such differences confined to a single state. SZ patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3). Also group differences between SZ and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states) of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1) and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3). Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  20. Towards a Diagnostic Instrument to Identify Improvement Opportunities for Quality Controlled Logistics in Agrifood Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  Western-European consumers have become not only more demanding on product availability in retail outlets but also on other food attributes such as quality, integrity, and safety. When (redesigning food supply-chain networks, from a logistics point of view, one has to consider these demands next to traditional efficiency and responsiveness requirements. The concept ‘quality controlled logistics’ (QCL hypothesizes that if product quality in each step of the supply chain can be predicted in advance, goods flows can be controlled in a pro-active manner and better chain designs can be established resulting in higher product availability, constant quality, and less product losses. The paper discusses opportunities of using real-time product quality information for improvement of the design and management of ‘AgriFood Supply Chain Networks’, and presents a preliminary diagnostic instrument for assessment of ‘critical quality’ and ‘logistics control’ points in the supply chain network. Results of a tomato-chain case illustrate the added value of the QCL concept for identifying improvement opportunities in the supply chain as to increase both product availability and quality. Future research aims for the further development of the diagnostic instrument and the quantification of costs and benefits of QCL scenarios.

  1. Individual differences in the ability to identify, select and use appropriate frames of reference for perceptuo-motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isableu, B; Ohlmann, T; Cremieux, J; Vuillerme, N; Amblard, B; Gresty, M A

    2010-09-01

    The causes of the interindividual differences (IDs) in how we perceive and control spatial orientation are poorly understood. Here, we propose that IDs partly reflect preferred modes of spatial referencing and that these preferences or "styles" are maintained from the level of spatial perception to that of motor control. Two groups of experimental subjects, one with high visual field dependency (FD) and one with marked visual field independency (FI) were identified by the Rod and Frame Test, which identifies relative dependency on a visual frame of reference (VFoR). FD and FI subjects were tasked with standing still in conditions of increasing postural difficulty while visual cues of self-orientation (a visual frame tilted in roll) and self-motion (in stroboscopic illumination) were varied and in darkness to assess visual dependency. Postural stability, overall body orientation and modes of segmental stabilization relative to either external (space) or egocentric (adjacent segments) frames of reference in the roll plane were analysed. We hypothesized that a moderate challenge to balance should enhance subjects' reliance on VFoR, particularly in FD subjects, whereas a substantial challenge should constrain subjects to use a somatic-vestibular based FoR to prevent falling in which case IDs would vanish. The results showed that with increasing difficulty, FD subjects became more unstable and more disoriented shown by larger effects of the tilted visual frame on posture. Furthermore, their preference to coalign body/VFoR coordinate systems lead to greater fixation of the head-trunk articulation and stabilization of the hip in space, whereas the head and trunk remained more stabilized in space with the hip fixed on the leg in FI subjects. These results show that FD subjects have difficulties at identifying and/or adopting a more appropriate FoR based on proprioceptive and vestibular cues to regulate the coalignment of posturo/exocentric FoRs. The FI subjects' resistance

  2. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  3. A measurement control program to meet desired levels of precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement control programs are usually designed to test for precision and accuracy. Many instruments, however, display non-random data patterns such as biases or seasonal variations which are statistically significant but are of no practical significance. Application of the usual statistical tests can cause these instruments to be removed from service unnecessarily. It is tempting to try to overcome this problem by frequently adjusting the instrument or by arbitrarily changing the parameters of the statistical tests so that failures occur less often. This, of course invalidates the statistical tests. In the author's opinion, the correct way to handle this problem is to identify the desired levels of precision and accuracy, and then to combine these levels with valid statistical techniques in the measurement control-program. This paper describes one way to accomplish this

  4. Farmers' Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal movement

  5. Farmers’ Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Wudu T.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers’ intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal movement

  6. Quality control scheme for thyroid related hormones measured by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.S.

    1989-09-01

    A regional quality control scheme for thyroid related hormones measured by radioimmunoassay is being established in the Middle East. The scheme started in January 1985, with eight laboratories which were all from Iraq. At the present nineteen laboratories from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai) are now participating in the scheme. The scheme was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All participants received monthly three freeze dried quality control samples for assay. Results for T3, T4 and TSH received from participants are analysed statistically batch by batch and returned to the participants. Laboratories reporting quite marked bias results were contacted to check the assay performance for that particular batch and to define the weak points. Clinical interpretation for certain well defined samples were reported. A regular case study report is recently introduced to the scheme and will be distributed regularly as one of the guidelines in establishing a trouble shooting programme throughout the scheme. The overall mean between the laboratory performance showed a good result for the T4, moderate but acceptable for T3 and poor for TSH. The statistical analysis of the results based on the concept of a ''target'' value is derived from the believed correct value the ''Median''. The overall mean bias values (ignoring signs) for respectively low, normal and high concentration samples were for T4 18.0 ± 12.5, 11.2 ± 6.4 and 11.2 ± 6.4, for T3 28.8 ± 23.5, 11.2 ± 8.4 and 13.4 ± 9.0 and for TSH 46.3 ± 50.1, 37.2 ± 28.5 and 19.1 ± 12.1. The scheme proved to be effective not only in improving the overall performance but also it helped to develop awareness of the need for internal quality control programmes and gave confidence in the results of the participants. The scheme will continue and will be expanded to involve more laboratories in the region. Refs, fig and tabs

  7. To twist or poke? A method for identifying usability issues with the rotary controller and touch screen for control of in-vehicle information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Catherine; Stanton, Neville A; Pickering, Carl A; McDonald, Mike; Zheng, Pengjun

    2011-07-01

    In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be controlled by the user via direct or indirect input devices. In order to develop the next generation of usable IVIS, designers need to be able to evaluate and understand the usability issues associated with these two input types. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a set of empirical usability evaluation methods for identifying important usability issues and distinguishing between the IVIS input devices. A number of usability issues were identified and their causal factors have been explored. These were related to the input type, the structure of the menu/tasks and hardware issues. In particular, the translation between inputs and on-screen actions and a lack of visual feedback for menu navigation resulted in lower levels of usability for the indirect device. This information will be useful in informing the design of new IVIS, with improved usability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper examines the use of empirical methods for distinguishing between direct and indirect IVIS input devices and identifying usability issues. Results have shown that the characteristics of indirect input devices produce more serious usability issues, compared with direct devices and can have a negative effect on the driver-vehicle interaction.

  8. Status of hospital infection control measures at seven major tertiary care hospitals of northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, A.; Shah, S.I.H.; Naseem, S.; Absar, S.A.; Safi-Ullah; Ambreen, T.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the availability and implementation of various hospital infection control measures at tertiary care hospitals. Study Design: Survey. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from June through August 2008. Methodology: Seven tertiary care very busy hospitals were selected; one from Islamabad, 5 from Rawalpindi, and one from Lahore. A detailed proforma was designed addressing all the issues pertaining to hospital infection control measures. Air sampling was done and growth yielded was identified by standard methods. Results: Analyses revealed that all of the hospitals had an Infection Control Committee. Microbiological diagnostic facilities were adequate at all the hospitals and overall microorganism yield was very high. Antibiotic policy was claimed by most, not available on ground. Majority of the operation theatres were without proper air flow system and autoclaves were not being regularly monitored. There was no proper disposal for sharps and needles. Incineration was not the usual mode for infectious waste. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply availability of proper hospital infection control policies with need of strict implementation of such measures. (author)

  9. Measuring and Controlling the Energy Spread in CEBAF

    CERN Document Server

    Krafft, G A; Dickson, R W; Kazimi, R; Lebedev, V A; Tiefenback, M G

    2000-01-01

    As compared to electron storage rings, one advantage of recirculating linear accelerators is that the beam properties at target are no longer dominated by the equilibrium between quantum radiative diffusion and radiation damping because new beam is continually injected into the accelerator. This allows the energy spread from a CEBAF-type machine to be relatively small; the measured energy spread from CEBAF at 4 GeV is less than 100 parts per million accumulated over times of order several days. In this paper, the various subsystems contributing to the energy spread of a CEBAF-type accelerator are reviewed, as well as the machine diagnostics and controls that are used in CEBAF to ensure that a small energy spread is provided during routine running. Examples of relevant developments are (1) stable short bunches emerging from the injector, (2) precision timing and phasing of the linacs with respect to the centroid of the beam bunches on all passes, (3) implementing 2 kHz sampling rate feedback systems for final ...

  10. Control and Measurement of an Xmon with the Quantum Socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, T. G.; Bejanin, J. H.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. R. H.; Rinehart, J. R.; Weides, M.; Mariantoni, M.

    The implementation of superconducting quantum processors is rapidly reaching scalability limitations. Extensible electronics and wiring solutions for superconducting quantum bits (qubits) are among the most imminent issues to be tackled. The necessity to substitute planar electrical interconnects (e.g., wire bonds) with three-dimensional wires is emerging as a fundamental pillar towards scalability. In a previous work, we have shown that three-dimensional wires housed in a suitable package, named the quantum socket, can be utilized to measure high-quality superconducting resonators. In this work, we set out to test the quantum socket with actual superconducting qubits to verify its suitability as a wiring solution in the development of an extensible quantum computing architecture. To this end, we have designed and fabricated a series of Xmon qubits. The qubits range in frequency from about 6 to 7 GHz with anharmonicity of 200 MHz and can be tuned by means of Z pulses. Controlling tunable Xmons will allow us to verify whether the three-dimensional wires contact resistance is low enough for qubit operation. Qubit T1 and T2 times and single qubit gate fidelities are compared against current standards in the field.

  11. Methods and Measures: Growth Mixture Modeling--A Method for Identifying Differences in Longitudinal Change among Unobserved Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) is a method for identifying multiple unobserved sub-populations, describing longitudinal change within each unobserved sub-population, and examining differences in change among unobserved sub-populations. We provide a practical primer that may be useful for researchers beginning to incorporate GMM analysis into their…

  12. Developing Predictive Models for Algal Bloom Occurrence and Identifying Factors Controlling their Occurrence in the Charlotte County and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Chouinard, K.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous occurrences of harmful algal blooms (Karenia Brevis) were reported from Southwest Florida along the coast of Charlotte County, Florida. We are developing data-driven (remote sensing, field, and meteorological data) models to accomplish the following: (1) identify the factors controlling bloom development, (2) forecast bloom occurrences, and (3) make recommendations for monitoring variables that are found to be most indicative of algal bloom occurrences and for identifying optimum locations for monitoring stations. To accomplish these three tasks we completed/are working on the following steps. Firstly, we developed an automatic system for downloading and processing of ocean color data acquired through MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software. Examples of extracted variables include: chlorophyll a (OC3M), chlorophyll a Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP), chlorophyll a Garver-Siegel- Maritorena (GSM), sea surface temperature (SST), Secchi disk depth, euphotic depth, turbidity index, wind direction and speed, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM). Secondly we are developing a GIS database and a web-based GIS to host the generated remote sensing-based products in addition to relevant meteorological and field data. Examples of the meteorological and field inputs include: precipitation amount and rates, concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, fecal coliform and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Thirdly, we are constructing and validating a multivariate regression model and an artificial neural network model to simulate past algal bloom occurrences using the compiled archival remote sensing, meteorological, and field data. The validated model will then be used to predict the timing and location of algal bloom occurrences. The developed system, upon completion, could enhance the decision making process, improve the citizen's quality of life, and strengthen the local economy.

  13. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by

  14. Functional measurements based on feature tracking of cine magnetic resonance images identify left ventricular segments with myocardial scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Eva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to perform a feature tracking analysis on cine magnetic resonance (MR images to elucidate if functional measurements of the motion of the left ventricular wall may detect scar defined with gadolinium enhanced MR. Myocardial contraction can be measured in terms of the velocity, displacement and local deformation (strain of a particular myocardial segment. Contraction of the myocardial wall will be reduced in the presence of scar and as a consequence of reduced myocardial blood flow. Methods Thirty patients (3 women and 27 men were selected based on the presence or absence of extensive scar in the anteroseptal area of the left ventricle. The patients were investigated in stable clinical condition, 4-8 weeks post ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Seventeen had a scar area >75% in at least one anteroseptal segment (scar and thirteen had scar area Results In the scar patients, segments with scar showed lower functional measurements than remote segments. Radial measurements of velocity, displacement and strain performed better in terms of receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC than the corresponding longitudinal measurements. The best area-under-curve was for radial strain, 0.89, where a cut-off value of 38.8% had 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity for the detection of a segment with scar area >50%. As a percentage of the mean, intraobserver variability was 16-14-26% for radial measurements of displacement-velocity-strain and corresponding interobserver variability was 13-12-18%. Conclusion Feature tracking analysis of cine-MR displays velocity, displacement and strain in the radial and longitudinal direction and may be used for the detection of transmural scar. The accuracy and repeatability of the radial functional measurements is satisfactory and global measures agree.

  15. Control, protection and measuring switchboards; Tableros de control, proteccion y medicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marron Pena, Gustavo A. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Basically a switchboard is a cabinet or panel that contains equipment for protection of measuring and control high tension electric power components of high tension, such as: transmission power lines, power station generators or power plants, power transformers, and distribution feeders. In this paper the importance of control, Protection and Measuring Switchboards is discussed and the power installations of the national electric system is analyzed and finally, a description is made of the quality system applied in the manufacture of switchboards at Luz y Fuerza del Centro in accordance with ISO-9000 and NMX-CC Standards [Espanol] Un tablero basicamente es un gabinete o panel que contiene equipos que sirven para proteger, medir y controlar componentes electricos de potencia en alta tension, como son: lineas de transmision, generadores de centrales o plantas electricas, transformadores de potencia y alimentadores de distribucion. En este documento se analiza la importancia de los tableros de control, la proteccion y medicion en las instalaciones de potencia del sistema electrico nacional y por ultimo se describe el sistema de calidad aplicado en la fabricacion de tableros de Luz y Fuerza del Centro de acuerdo con las normas ISO-9000 y NMX-CC

  16. A data-driven approach to identify controls on global fire activity from satellite and climate observations (SOFIA V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forkel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation fires affect human infrastructures, ecosystems, global vegetation distribution, and atmospheric composition. However, the climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that control global fire activity in vegetation are only poorly understood, and in various complexities and formulations are represented in global process-oriented vegetation-fire models. Data-driven model approaches such as machine learning algorithms have successfully been used to identify and better understand controlling factors for fire activity. However, such machine learning models cannot be easily adapted or even implemented within process-oriented global vegetation-fire models. To overcome this gap between machine learning-based approaches and process-oriented global fire models, we introduce a new flexible data-driven fire modelling approach here (Satellite Observations to predict FIre Activity, SOFIA approach version 1. SOFIA models can use several predictor variables and functional relationships to estimate burned area that can be easily adapted with more complex process-oriented vegetation-fire models. We created an ensemble of SOFIA models to test the importance of several predictor variables. SOFIA models result in the highest performance in predicting burned area if they account for a direct restriction of fire activity under wet conditions and if they include a land cover-dependent restriction or allowance of fire activity by vegetation density and biomass. The use of vegetation optical depth data from microwave satellite observations, a proxy for vegetation biomass and water content, reaches higher model performance than commonly used vegetation variables from optical sensors. We further analyse spatial patterns of the sensitivity between anthropogenic, climate, and vegetation predictor variables and burned area. We finally discuss how multiple observational datasets on climate, hydrological, vegetation, and socioeconomic variables together with

  17. A case-control study to identify risk factors for totally implantable central venous port-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guk Jin; Hong, Sook Hee; Roh, Sang Young; Park, Sa Rah; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Hong, Young Seon; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Youn Jeong; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk

    2014-07-01

    To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer. A total of 1,642 patients with solid cancer received an implantable central venous port for delivery of chemotherapy between October 2008 and December 2011 in a single center. CVP-BSI was diagnosed in 66 patients (4%). We selected a control group of 130 patients, who were individually matched with respect to age, sex, and catheter insertion time. CVP-BSI occurred most frequently between September and November (37.9%). The most common pathogen was gram-positive cocci (n=35, 53.0%), followed by fungus (n=14, 21.2%). Multivariate analysis identified monthly catheter-stay as a risk factor for CVP-BSI (p=0.000), however, its risk was lower in primary gastrointestinal cancer than in other cancer (p=0.002). Initial metastatic disease and long catheter-stay were statistically significant factors affecting catheter life span (p=0.005 and p=0.000). Results of multivariate analysis showed that recent transfusion was a risk factor for mortality in patients with CVP-BSI (p=0.047). In analysis of the results with respect to risk factors, prolonged catheter-stay should be avoided as much as possible. It is necessary to be cautious of CVP-BSI in metastatic solid cancer, especially non-gastrointestinal cancer. In addition, avoidance of unnecessary transfusion is essential in order to reduce the mortality of CVP-BSI. Finally, considering the fact that confounding factors may have affected the results, conduct of a well-designed prospective controlled study is warranted.

  18. A data-driven approach to identify controls on global fire activity from satellite and climate observations (SOFIA V1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Matthias; Dorigo, Wouter; Lasslop, Gitta; Teubner, Irene; Chuvieco, Emilio; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation fires affect human infrastructures, ecosystems, global vegetation distribution, and atmospheric composition. However, the climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that control global fire activity in vegetation are only poorly understood, and in various complexities and formulations are represented in global process-oriented vegetation-fire models. Data-driven model approaches such as machine learning algorithms have successfully been used to identify and better understand controlling factors for fire activity. However, such machine learning models cannot be easily adapted or even implemented within process-oriented global vegetation-fire models. To overcome this gap between machine learning-based approaches and process-oriented global fire models, we introduce a new flexible data-driven fire modelling approach here (Satellite Observations to predict FIre Activity, SOFIA approach version 1). SOFIA models can use several predictor variables and functional relationships to estimate burned area that can be easily adapted with more complex process-oriented vegetation-fire models. We created an ensemble of SOFIA models to test the importance of several predictor variables. SOFIA models result in the highest performance in predicting burned area if they account for a direct restriction of fire activity under wet conditions and if they include a land cover-dependent restriction or allowance of fire activity by vegetation density and biomass. The use of vegetation optical depth data from microwave satellite observations, a proxy for vegetation biomass and water content, reaches higher model performance than commonly used vegetation variables from optical sensors. We further analyse spatial patterns of the sensitivity between anthropogenic, climate, and vegetation predictor variables and burned area. We finally discuss how multiple observational datasets on climate, hydrological, vegetation, and socioeconomic variables together with data

  19. The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss--researcher perspective. Part I: Systematic review of outcome measures identified in audiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Sarah; Dahlström, Jennie; Möller, Claes; Kähäri, Kim; Danermark, Berth

    2014-02-01

    To review the literature in order to identify outcome measures used in research on adults with hearing loss (HL) as part of the ICF Core Sets development project, and to describe study and population characteristics of the reviewed studies. A systematic review methodology was applied using multiple databases. A comprehensive search was conducted and two search pools were created, pool I and pool II. The study population included adults (≥ 18 years of age) with HL and oral language as the primary mode of communication. 122 studies were included. Outcome measures were distinguished by 'instrument type', and 10 types were identified. In total, 246 (pool I) and 122 (pool II) different measures were identified, and only approximately 20% were extracted twice or more. Most measures were related to speech recognition. Fifty-one different questionnaires were identified. Many studies used small sample sizes, and the sex of participants was not revealed in several studies. The low prevalence of identified measures reflects a lack of consensus regarding the optimal outcome measures to use in audiology. Reflections and discussions are made in relation to small sample sizes and the lack of sex differentiation/descriptions within the included articles.

  20. Numerical simulation and analysis of fuzzy PID and PSD control methodologies as dynamic energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardehali, M.M.; Saboori, M.; Teshnelab, M.

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency enhancement is achieved by utilizing control algorithms that reduce overshoots and undershoots as well as unnecessary fluctuations in the amount of energy input to energy consuming systems during transient operation periods. It is hypothesized that application of control methodologies with characteristics that change with time and according to the system dynamics, identified as dynamic energy efficiency measures (DEEM), achieves the desired enhancement. The objective of this study is to simulate and analyze the effects of fuzzy logic based tuning of proportional integral derivative (F-PID) and proportional sum derivative (F-PSD) controllers for a heating and cooling energy system while accounting for the dynamics of the major system components. The procedure to achieve the objective includes utilization of fuzzy logic rules to determine the PID and PSD controllers gain coefficients so that the control laws for regulating the heat exchangers heating or cooling energy inputs are determined in each time step of the operation period. The performances of the F-PID and F-PSD controllers are measured by means of two cost functions that are based on quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a set point temperature. It is found that application of the F-PID control algorithm, as a DEEM, results in lower costs for energy input and deviation from a set point temperature by 24% and 17% as compared to a PID and 13% and 8% as compared to a PSD, respectively. It is also shown that the F-PSD performance is better than that of the F-PID controller

  1. Utilizing measure-based feedback in control-mastery theory: A clinical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John; Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie

    2016-09-01

    Clinical errors and ruptures are an inevitable part of clinical practice. Often times, therapists are unaware that a clinical error or rupture has occurred, leaving no space for repair, and potentially leading to patient dropout and/or less effective treatment. One way to overcome our blind spots is by frequently and systematically collecting measure-based feedback from the patient. Patient feedback measures that focus on the process of psychotherapy such as the Patient's Experience of Attunement and Responsiveness scale (PEAR) can be used in conjunction with treatment outcome measures such as the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45.2) to monitor the patient's therapeutic experience and progress. The regular use of these types of measures can aid clinicians in the identification of clinical errors and the associated patient deterioration that might otherwise go unnoticed and unaddressed. The current case study describes an instance of clinical error that occurred during the 2-year treatment of a highly traumatized young woman. The clinical error was identified using measure-based feedback and subsequently understood and addressed from the theoretical standpoint of the control-mastery theory of psychotherapy. An alternative hypothetical response is also presented and explained using control-mastery theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Lipid ratio as a suitable tool to identify individuals with MetS risk: A case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Delvarianzadeh, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Khosravi, Farideh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the serum lipids ratio in staff with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were working in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. This case-control study was conducted in 2015 on 499 personnel aged 30-60 years old. ATP III criteria were used to diagnose patients with MetS. The data were analyzed by using logistic regression and ROC curve. Mean lipid ratio was higher in individuals having the MetS in both sexes compared with those without. In addition, the mean levels of lipid ratios significantly increased with increasing number of MetS components in both sexes. Also it could be concluded that TG/HDL-C ratio is the best marker for the diagnosis of MetS in men and women. Moreover, the cut-off point for the TG/HDL-C was 2.86 in women and 4.03 in men. It was found that for any unit of increases in the TG/HDL-C, the risk of developing the MetS will increase by 2.12 times. TG/HDL-C ratio is found to be the best clinical marker for the diagnosis of MetS compare with other lipid ratios, therefore it is recommended to be used as a feasible tool to identify individuals with MetS risk. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A brief measure of social media self-control failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Jie; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.; Kerkhof, Peter

    People often fail in controlling their social media use when it conflicts with other goals and obligations. To facilitate research on understanding social media self-control failures, we constructed a brief social media self-control failure (SMSCF)-scale to assess how often social media users give

  4. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components “received smoking cessation training” and “raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking”. Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%, believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%, and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96% and using other tobacco products (94%. Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%. Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.

  5. Identifying deliberate attempts to fake memory impairment through the combined use of reaction time and event-related potential measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, Johanna C.; Sargeant, Elizabeth; Foster, Jonathan K.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to evaluate the value of reaction time (RT) measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) for the assessment of simulated memory impairment. In two identical experiments (N = 24), healthy volunteers carried out an adapted version of the Amsterdam Short-Term Memory

  6. COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

  7. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  8. On the control of irrigation through soil moisture measurement using a neutron depth probe in horizontal subsurface measuring circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaecke, B.; Schaecke, E.

    1977-01-01

    An outline is given of the advantages inherent in soil moisture measurement by means of a neutron probe in horizontal subsurface measuring circuits for irrigation control. Preliminary experience for the setting up of a field calibration curve and for practical measurement are submitted. This technique includes the following advantages: almost complete covering of the upper soil range which is of interest to irrigation control; good measuring density; suitable distribution of measuring points per unit area; possibility of continuous probe passage; optimal repeatability of measurements; exploration of a unit area with but few measuring circuits; no obstacles to tillage, drilling, intercultivation and harvest operations; and complete conservation of crop and plot which is not reached with any other soil moisture measurement technique so far available. Making use of the above advantages, the new technique allows automatic irrigation control with only one neutron depth probe. (author)

  9. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  11. Reversal of Long-Term Trends in Ethane Identified from the Global Atmosphere Watch Reactive Gases Measurement Network

    OpenAIRE

    Helmig, Detlev; Buchmann, Brigitte; Carpenter, Lucy; Claude, Anja; Emmons, Louisa; Flocke, Frank; Franco, Bruno; Galbally, Ian; Hannigan, James; Hueber, Jacques; Koide, Hiroshi; Lewis, Alastair; Masarie, Ken; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Montzka, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive gases play an important role in climate and air pollution issues. They control the self-cleansing capability of the troposphere, contribute to air pollution and acid deposition, regulate the lifetimes and provide tracers for deciphering sources and sinks for greenhouse gases. Within GAW, the focus is placed on long-term, high-quality observations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). More than 100 stati...

  12. Material Control and Accountability Measurements for FB-Line Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides an overview of FB-Line processes and nuclear material accountability measurements. Flow diagrams for the product, waste, and packaging and stabilization processes are given along with the accountability measurements done before and after each of these processes. Brief descriptions of these measurements are provided. This information provides a better understanding of the general FB-Line processes and how MC and A measurements are used to keep track of the accountable material inventory

  13. Mini-DIAL system measurements coupled with multivariate data analysis to identify TIC and TIM simulants: preliminary absorption database analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, P; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Poggi, L.A.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.; Bellecci, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays Toxic Industrial Components (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) are one of the most dangerous and diffuse vehicle of contamination in urban and industrial areas. The academic world together with the industrial and military one are working on innovative solutions to monitor the diffusion in atmosphere of such pollutants. In this phase the most common commercial sensors are based on “point detection” technology but it is clear that such instruments cannot satisfy the needs of the smart cities. The new challenge is developing stand-off systems to continuously monitor the atmosphere. Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) research group has a long experience in laser system development and has built two demonstrators based on DIAL (Differential Absorption of Light) technology could be able to identify chemical agents in atmosphere. In this work the authors will present one of those DIAL system, the miniaturized one, together with the preliminary results of an experimental campaign conducted on TICs and TIMs simulants in cell with aim of use the absorption database for the further atmospheric an analysis using the same DIAL system. The experimental results are analysed with standard multivariate data analysis technique as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to develop a classification model aimed at identifying organic chemical compound in atmosphere. The preliminary results of absorption coefficients of some chemical compound are shown together pre PCA analysis. (paper)

  14. Ethical issues in pragmatic randomized controlled trials: a review of the recent literature identifies gaps in ethical argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Cory E; Weijer, Charles; Brehaut, Jamie C; Fergusson, Dean A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Horn, Austin R; Taljaard, Monica

    2018-02-27

    Pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in real-world clinical conditions. However, these studies raise ethical issues for researchers and regulators. Our objective is to identify a list of key ethical issues in pragmatic RCTs and highlight gaps in the ethics literature. We conducted a scoping review of articles addressing ethical aspects of pragmatic RCTs. After applying the search strategy and eligibility criteria, 36 articles were included and reviewed using content analysis. Our review identified four major themes: 1) the research-practice distinction; 2) the need for consent; 3) elements that must be disclosed in the consent process; and 4) appropriate oversight by research ethics committees. 1) Most authors reject the need for a research-practice distinction in pragmatic RCTs. They argue that the distinction rests on the presumptions that research participation offers patients less benefit and greater risk than clinical practice, but neither is true in the case of pragmatic RCTs. 2) Most authors further conclude that pragmatic RCTs may proceed without informed consent or with simplified consent procedures when risks are low and consent is infeasible. 3) Authors who endorse the need for consent assert that information need only be disclosed when research participation poses incremental risks compared to clinical practice. Authors disagree as to whether randomization must be disclosed. 4) Finally, all authors view regulatory oversight as burdensome and a practical impediment to the conduct of pragmatic RCTs, and argue that oversight procedures ought to be streamlined when risks to participants are low. The current ethical discussion is framed by the assumption that the function of research oversight is to protect participants from risk. As pragmatic RCTs commonly involve usual care interventions, the risks may be minimal. This leads many to reject the research-practice distinction and question

  15. Measuring Life Satisfaction in Parkinson's Disease and Healthy Controls Using the Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvereide, Lise; Hagell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The 5-item Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was designed to measure general life satisfaction (LS). Here we examined the psychometric properties of the SWLS in a cohort of persons with Parkinson`s disease (PwPD) and age and gender matched individuals without PD. The SWLS was administered to PwPD and controls from the Norwegian ParkWest study at 5 and 7 years after the time of diagnosis. Data were analysed according to classical test theory (CTT) and Rasch measurement theory. CTT scaling assumptions for computation of a SWLS total score were met (corrected item-total correlations >0.58). The SWLS was reasonably well targeted to the sample and had good reliability (ordinal alpha, 0.92). The scale exhibited good fit to the Rasch model and successfully separated between 5 statistically distinct strata of people (levels of SWLS). The seven response categories did not work as intended and the scale may benefit from reduction to five response categories. There was no clinically significant differential item functioning. Separate analyses in PwPD and controls yielded very similar results to those from the pooled analysis. This study supports the SWLS as a valid instrument for measuring LS in PD and controls. However, Rasch analyses provided new insights into the performance and validity of the SWLS and identified areas for future revisions in order to further improve the scale.

  16. Identifying the Impact of Individual Differences on the Basis of Affect Intensity Measure on Consumers Response to Advertising Appeals

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study aims (i) to find out the individuals scoring on Larsen Affect intensity measurement Scale (AIM) for emotional ads and (ii) to know whether the individual differences of response diminishes when they are exposed to the nonemotional (rational) advertisements, (iii) to know whether the cultural differences among other countries and Pakistan mediate the applicability and implications of AIM scale in the field of advertising research. Variety of researchers including consumers behavior,...

  17. Measuring outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review to identify current strengths, weaknesses and gaps in patient-reported outcome measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraj, S.S.; Hooff, M.L. Van; Holewijn, R.M.; Polly, D.W.; Haanstra, T.M.; Kleuver, M. de

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported

  18. Assessment of border control measures and community containment measures used in Japan during the early stages of Pandemic (H1N1 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sakaguchi

    Full Text Available In the early stages of Pandemic (H1N1 2009, border control measures were taken by quarantine stations to block the entry of infected individuals into Japan and community containment measures were implemented to prevent the spreading. The objectives of this study were to describe these measures and the characteristics of infected individuals, and to assess the measures' effectiveness.Border control and community containment measures implemented from April to June (Period I: April 28-May 21, Period II: May 22-June 18 2009 were described. Number of individuals identified and disease characteristics were analyzed. For entry screening, a health declaration form and an infrared thermoscanner were used to detect symptomatic passengers. Passengers indicated for the rapid influenza test underwent the test followed by RT-PCR. Patients positive for H1N1 were isolated, and close contacts were quarantined. Entry cards were handed out to all asymptomatic passengers informing them about how to contact a health center in case they developed symptoms. Nine individuals were identified by entry screening and 1 during quarantine to have Pandemic (H1N1 2009. Health monitoring by health centers was performed in period I for passengers arriving from affected countries and in period II for those who had come into contact with the individuals identified by entry screening. Health monitoring identified 3 infected individuals among 129,546 in Period I and 5 among 746 in Period II. Enhanced surveillance, which included mandatory reporting of details of the infected individuals, identified 812 individuals, 141 (18% of whom had a history of international travel. Twenty-four of these 141 passengers picked up by enhanced surveillance had been developing symptoms on entry and were missed at screening.Symptomatic passengers were detected by the various entry screening measures put in place. Enhanced surveillance provided data for the improvement of public health measures in

  19. A electric parameters measurement and control system for NBIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zhongjun; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng

    2010-01-01

    It presents a data acquisition and control system for neutral beam injection system by LabVIEW, PLC, sensors and PXI. Through the RS232, the communication between PLC and IPC, as well as the underlying data acquisition and control was achieved. The system integrated of a variety of techniques, providing a good platform, can also be applied to the industrial field data acquisition and control. (authors)

  20. Torque Measurement of 3-DOF Haptic Master Operated by Controllable Electrorheological Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jong-Seok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a torque measurement method of 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF haptic master featuring controllable electrorheological (ER fluid. In order to reflect the sense of an organ for a surgeon, the ER haptic master which can generate the repulsive torque of an organ is utilized as a remote controller for a surgery robot. Since accurate representation of organ feeling is essential for the success of the robot-assisted surgery, it is indispensable to develop a proper torque measurement method of 3-DOF ER haptic master. After describing the structural configuration of the haptic master, the torque models of ER spherical joint are mathematically derived based on the Bingham model of ER fluid. A new type of haptic device which has pitching, rolling, and yawing motions is then designed and manufactured using a spherical joint mechanism. Subsequently, the field-dependent parameters of the Bingham model are identified and generating repulsive torque according to applied electric field is measured. In addition, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque model, a comparative work between simulated and measured torques is undertaken.

  1. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, N W [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 49 Herenstraat, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Medical Physics, Level B, St Luke' s Wing, The Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Trust, Egerton Road, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Honey, I D, E-mail: nicholas.marshall@uz.kuleuven.ac.be [Department of Medical Physics, Floor 3, Henriette Raphael House, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 {mu}Gy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 {mu}Gy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm{sup -1} {+-} 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 {mu}Gy {+-} 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2} (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm{sup -1}, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm{sup -1}, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm{sup -1} for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found

  2. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports

  3. The postgraduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM questionnaire identifies quality of instruction as a key factor predicting academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Edson Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents' perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS: The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach's alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS: The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%. Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%. Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology. Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire.

  4. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  5. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes' doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Wolff, Wanja; Thieme, Detlef

    2014-09-10

    Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes' real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping-dislike/like-[health food]). Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges's g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. This study demonstrates that athletes' attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of

  6. The development of digital oscilloscope control software in nuclear measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Minghui; Tian Geng; Li Xianyou

    2004-01-01

    This essay presents the development of an all-purpose digital oscilloscope control software on Windows 95/98 OS. The background and method are discussed in detail, together with the function and characteristics of the software. With the use of this software, a single PC can control several digital oscilloscopes. Solution of main problems encountered in the development is also discussed. (authors)

  7. Power control of water reactors using nitrogen 16 activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariod, R.; Merchie, F.; O'byrne, G.

    1964-01-01

    At the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre, the open-core swimming pool reactors Melusine (2 MW) and Siloe (15 MW) are controlled at a constant overall power using nitrogen-16 channels. The conventional linear control channels react instantaneously to the rapid power fluctuations, this being necessary for the safety of the reactors, but their power indications are erroneous since they are affected by local deformations of the thermal flux caused by the compensation movements of the control rods. The nitrogen-16 channels on the other hand give an indication of the overall power proportional to the mean fission flux and independent of the rod movements, but their response time is 15 seconds, A constant overall power control is thus possible by a slow correction of the reference signal given by the automatic control governed by thu linear channels by means of a correction term given by the 'N-16' channels: This is done automatically in Melusine and manually in Siloe. (authors) [fr

  8. An objective measure to identify pediatric liver transplant recipients at risk for late allograft rejection related to non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Veena L; Nick, Todd G; Wang, Yu; Bucuvalas, John C

    2008-02-01

    Non-adherence to a prescribed immunosuppressive regimen increases risk for late allograft rejection (LAR). We implemented a protocol for immunosuppression management which decreased variation in calcineurin inhibitor blood levels in pediatric liver transplant recipients by controlling for confounders such as physician practice variability. We hypothesized that patients with increased variation in tacrolimus blood levels despite implementation of the immunosuppression management protocol were at increased risk for LAR. We conducted a single center retrospective cohort study of 101 pediatric liver transplant recipients who were at least one year post liver transplantation and receiving tacrolimus for immunosuppression. The primary outcome variable was biopsy proven allograft rejection. Primary candidate predictor variables were the standard deviation (SD) of tacrolimus blood levels (a marker of drug level variability), mean tacrolimus blood level, age, and insurance type. SD of tacrolimus blood levels was determined for each patient from a minimum of four outpatient levels during the study period. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine the prognostic value of candidate predictors. The median and interquartile range of the SD of tacrolimus blood levels was 1.6 (1.1, 2.1). Eleven episodes of LAR occurred during the study period. Ten of the 11 episodes occurred in patients with tacrolimus blood level SD > 2. Insurance type, mean tacrolimus blood level and SD of tacrolimus blood levels were significantly related to LAR in the unadjusted analyses (ptype, mean and SD of tacrolimus blood levels was significantly associated with LAR (validated C-statistic = 0.88, p = 0.012). The adjusted odds of rejection for a one unit increase in the SD of tacrolimus blood level was 3.49 (95% CI 1.31 to 9.29). Effects of age and insurance status on LAR did not provide independent prognostic value after controlling for SD. Variation in tacrolimus blood

  9. Measuring Appetite with the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire Identifies Hospitalised Older People at Risk of Worse Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, A L; Baylis, D; Jameson, K A; Cooper, C; Sayer, A A; Robinson, S M; Roberts, H C

    2016-01-01

    Poor appetite is commonly reported by older people but is rarely measured. The Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) was validated to predict weight loss in community dwelling older adults but has been little used in hospitals. We evaluated it in older women on admission to hospital and examined associations with healthcare outcomes. Longitudinal observational with follow-up at six months. Female acute Medicine for Older People wards at a University hospital in England. 179 female inpatients. Age, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), grip strength, SNAQ, Barthel Index Score, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form (GDS-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), category of domicile and receipt of care were measured soon after admission and repeated at six month follow-up. The length of hospital stay (LOS), hospital acquired infection, readmissions and deaths by follow-up were recorded. 179 female participants mean age 87 (SD 4.7) years were recruited. 42% of participants had a low SNAQ score (appetite). A low SNAQ score was associated with an increased risk of hospital acquired infection (OR 3.53; 95% CI: 1.48, 8.41; p=0.004) and with risk of death (HR 2.29; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.68; p = 0.023) by follow-up. Poor appetite was common among the older hospitalised women studied, and was associated with higher risk of poor healthcare outcomes.

  10. Improving Measures of Sexual and Gender Identity in English and Spanish to Identify LGBT Older Adults in Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Stuart; Milesi, Carolina; Stern, Michael; Viox, Melissa Heim; Morrison, Heather; Guerino, Paul; Dragon, Christina N; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this research is to advance the study of health disparities faced by older sexual and gender minorities by assessing comprehension of and improving measures of sexual and gender identity in surveys. Cognitive interviews were conducted by expert interviewers with 48 non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (non-LGBT) and 9 LGBT older English and Spanish speakers. All respondents were able to answer questions about their sex assigned at birth and current gender identity successfully despite some cisgender respondents' lack of clear understanding of the transgender response option. On the contrary, while the vast majority of English speakers could answer the question about their sexual identity successfully, almost 60% of the non-LGBT Spanish speakers did not select the "heterosexual, that is, not gay (or lesbian)" response category. Qualitative probing of their response process pointed mainly to difficulties understanding the term "heterosexual," leading to their choosing "something else" or saying that they didn't know how to answer. A second round of testing of alternative response categories for the sexual identity question with Spanish speakers found a marked improvement when offered "not gay (or lesbian), that is, heterosexual" instead of beginning with the term "heterosexual." This research adds to our understanding of gender and sexual identity questions appropriate for population surveys with older adults. Inclusion of these measures in surveys is a crucial step in advancing insights into the needs of and disparities faced by LGBT older adults.

  11. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Conclusions/significance Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future. PMID:25782019

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for human adult stature identifies novel Loci and associations with measures of skeletal frame size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Soranzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide (GW scans have identified several independent loci affecting human stature, but their contribution through the different skeletal components of height is still poorly understood. We carried out a genome-wide scan in 12,611 participants, followed by replication in an additional 7,187 individuals, and identified 17 genomic regions with GW-significant association with height. Of these, two are entirely novel (rs11809207 in CATSPER4, combined P-value = 6.1x10(-8 and rs910316 in TMED10, P-value = 1.4x10(-7 and two had previously been described with weak statistical support (rs10472828 in NPR3, P-value = 3x10(-7 and rs849141 in JAZF1, P-value = 3.2x10(-11. One locus (rs1182188 at GNA12 identifies the first height eQTL. We also assessed the contribution of height loci to the upper- (trunk and lower-body (hip axis and femur skeletal components of height. We find evidence for several loci associated with trunk length (including rs6570507 in GPR126, P-value = 4x10(-5 and rs6817306 in LCORL, P-value = 4x10(-4, hip axis length (including rs6830062 at LCORL, P-value = 4.8x10(-4 and rs4911494 at UQCC, P-value = 1.9x10(-4, and femur length (including rs710841 at PRKG2, P-value = 2.4x10(-5 and rs10946808 at HIST1H1D, P-value = 6.4x10(-6. Finally, we used conditional analyses to explore a possible differential contribution of the height loci to these different skeletal size measurements. In addition to validating four novel loci controlling adult stature, our study represents the first effort to assess the contribution of genetic loci to three skeletal components of height. Further statistical tests in larger numbers of individuals will be required to verify if the height loci affect height preferentially through these subcomponents of height.

  13. Process control measurements in the SRP fuel separations plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.M.; Pickett, C.E.; Dickert, H.D.

    1982-02-01

    Programs were started to develop new in-line and at-line analytical techniques. Among the more promising techniques being investigated are: (1) an in-line instrument to analyze for percent tributyl phosphate in process solvent, (2) remote laser optrode techniques (using lazer light transmitted to and from the sample cell via light pipes) for a variety of possible analyses, and (3) sonic techniques for concentration analyses in two component systems. A subcommittee was also formed to investigate state-of-the-technology for process control. The final recommendation was to use a distributed control approach to upgrade the process control sytem. The system selected should be modular, easy to expand, and simple to change control strategies. A distributed system using microprocessorbased controllers would allow installation of the control intelligence near the process, thereby simplifying field wiring. Process information collected and stored in the controllers will be transmitted to operating consoles, via a data highway, for process management and display. The overall program has a number of distinct benefits. There are a number of cost savings that will be realized. Excellent annual return on investment - up to 110% - has been predicted for several of the projects in this program that are already funded. In addition, many of the instrument modifications will improve safety performance and production throughput in the specific ways shown

  14. Is There a Correlation Between Infection Control Performance and Other Hospital Quality Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Morgan, Daniel J; Pineles, Lisa; Li, Shanshan; Sulis, Carol; Bowling, Jason; Drees, Marci; Jacob, Jesse T; Anderson, Deverick J; Warren, David K; Harris, Anthony D

    2017-06-01

    Quality measures are increasingly reported by hospitals to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), yet there may be tradeoffs in performance between infection control (IC) and other quality measures. Hospitals that performed best on IC measures did not perform well on most CMS non-IC quality measures. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:736-739.

  15. Required accuracy of tune measurement and parametrization of chromaticity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, R.

    1991-02-01

    The betatron tunes v x and v y will be measured by Fourier-analyzing a BPM signal generated by a beam which received a fast ( kick /f rev ) equals the fractional part of the tune, a beam blow-up can be observed. In this note the required accuracy of such a tune measurement is discussed. (author). 6 schemes

  16. The interprocess NIR sampling as an alternative approach to multivariate statistical process control for identifying sources of product-quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana; Kerč, Janez; Horvat, Matej

    2017-03-01

    We are presenting a new approach of identifying sources of variability within a manufacturing process by NIR measurements of samples of intermediate material after each consecutive unit operation (interprocess NIR sampling technique). In addition, we summarize the development of a multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model for the production of enteric-coated pellet product of the proton-pump inhibitor class. By developing provisional NIR calibration models, the identification of critical process points yields comparable results to the established MSPC modeling procedure. Both approaches are shown to lead to the same conclusion, identifying parameters of extrusion/spheronization and characteristics of lactose that have the greatest influence on the end-product's enteric coating performance. The proposed approach enables quicker and easier identification of variability sources during manufacturing process, especially in cases when historical process data is not straightforwardly available. In the presented case the changes of lactose characteristics are influencing the performance of the extrusion/spheronization process step. The pellet cores produced by using one (considered as less suitable) lactose source were on average larger and more fragile, leading to consequent breakage of the cores during subsequent fluid bed operations. These results were confirmed by additional experimental analyses illuminating the underlying mechanism of fracture of oblong pellets during the pellet coating process leading to compromised film coating.

  17. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  18. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  19. DTI measures identify mild and moderate TBI cases among patients with complex health problems: A receiver operating characteristic analysis of U.S. veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Keith L; Soman, Salil; Pestilli, Franco; Furst, Ansgar; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Kong, Jennifer; Cheng, Jauhtai; Fairchild, Jennifer K; Taylor, Joy; Yesavage, Jerome; Wesson Ashford, J; Kraemer, Helena; Adamson, Maheen M

    2017-01-01

    Standard MRI methods are often inadequate for identifying mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Advances in diffusion tensor imaging now provide potential biomarkers of TBI among white matter fascicles (tracts). However, it is still unclear which tracts are most pertinent to TBI diagnosis. This study ranked fiber tracts on their ability to discriminate patients with and without TBI. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from military veterans admitted to a polytrauma clinic (Overall n  = 109; Age: M  = 47.2, SD  = 11.3; Male: 88%; TBI: 67%). TBI diagnosis was based on self-report and neurological examination. Fiber tractography analysis produced 20 fiber tracts per patient. Each tract yielded four clinically relevant measures (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity). We applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to identify the most diagnostic tract for each measure. The analyses produced an optimal cutpoint for each tract. We then used kappa coefficients to rate the agreement of each cutpoint with the neurologist's diagnosis. The tract with the highest kappa was most diagnostic. As a check on the ROC results, we performed a stepwise logistic regression on each measure using all 20 tracts as predictors. We also bootstrapped the ROC analyses to compute the 95% confidence intervals for sensitivity, specificity, and the highest kappa coefficients. The ROC analyses identified two fiber tracts as most diagnostic of TBI: the left cingulum (LCG) and the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (LIF). Like ROC, logistic regression identified LCG as most predictive for the FA measure but identified the right anterior thalamic tract (RAT) for the MD, RD, and AD measures. These findings are potentially relevant to the development of TBI biomarkers. Our methods also demonstrate how ROC analysis may be used to identify clinically relevant variables in the TBI population.

  20. Combining field performance with controlled environment plant imaging to identify the genetic control of growth and transpiration underlying yield response to water-deficit stress in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Boris; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Maphosa, Lance; Berger, Bettina; Rabie, Huwaida; Chalmers, Ken; Kovalchuk, Alex; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2015-09-01

    Crop yield in low-rainfall environments is a complex trait under multigenic control that shows significant genotype×environment (G×E) interaction. One way to understand and track this trait is to link physiological studies to genetics by using imaging platforms to phenotype large segregating populations. A wheat population developed from parental lines contrasting in their mechanisms of yield maintenance under water deficit was studied in both an imaging platform and in the field. We combined phenotyping methods in a common analysis pipeline to estimate biomass and leaf area from images and then inferred growth and relative growth rate, transpiration, and water-use efficiency, and applied these to genetic analysis. From the 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) found for several traits in the platform, some showed strong effects, accounting for between 26 and 43% of the variation on chromosomes 1A and 1B, indicating that the G×E interaction could be reduced in a controlled environment and by using dynamic variables. Co-location of QTLs identified in the platform and in the field showed a possible common genetic basis at some loci. Co-located QTLs were found for average growth rate, leaf expansion rate, transpiration rate, and water-use efficiency from the platform with yield, spike number, grain weight, grain number, and harvest index in the field. These results demonstrated that imaging platforms are a suitable alternative to field-based screening and may be used to phenotype recombinant lines for positional cloning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Identifying Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa Attacked by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae Using Spectral Measurements of the Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Cook

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Balsam woolly adelgid is an invasive pest of firs in the United States. Aerial surveys are conducted for detection of adelgid infestations but other remotely sensed data may also be useful. Our objective was to determine if high spectral resolution, branch-level data can be used to distinguish infested from noninfested trees. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a three-variable model (the red-green index and two narrow-bands (one at 670 nm and the other at 1912 nm that classified infested versus non-infested trees with 94% accuracy compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model. The response of trees in narrow spectral bands was integrated across wavebands to simulate measurements from the multispectral SPOT5-HRVIR sensor. Stepwise discriminant analysis again yielded a three-variable model (simple ratio, the SPOT5-HRVIR band in the SWIR region and NDVI with similar accuracy (93% at discriminating infested from non-infested trees compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model.

  2. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarannum Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  3. Identifying Important Gaps in Randomized Controlled Trials of Adult Cardiac Arrest Treatments: A Systematic Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shashank S.; Sukul, Devraj; Lazarus, John J.; Polavarapu, Vivek; Chan, Paul S.; Neumar, Robert W.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrests are a major public health concern worldwide. The extent and types of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) – our most reliable source of clinical evidence – conducted in these high-risk patients over recent years are largely unknown. Methods and Results We performed a systematic review, identifying all RCTs published in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from 1995 to 2014 that focused on acute treatment of non-traumatic cardiac arrest in adults. We then extracted data on the setting of study populations, types and timing of interventions studied, risk of bias, outcomes reported and how these factors have changed over time. Over this twenty-year period, 92 RCTs were published containing 64,309 patients (median, 225.5 per trial). Of these, 81 RCTs (88.0%) involved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest whereas 4 (4.3%) involved in-hospital cardiac arrest and 7 (7.6%) included both. Eighteen RCTs (19.6%) were performed in the U.S., 68 (73.9%) were performed outside the U.S., and 6 (6.5%) were performed in both settings. Thirty-eight RCTs (41.3%) evaluated drug therapy, 39 (42.4%) evaluated device therapy, and 15 (16.3%) evaluated protocol improvements. Seventy-four RCTs (80.4%) examined interventions during the cardiac arrest, 15 (16.3%) examined post-cardiac arrest treatment, and 3 (3.3%) studied both. Overall, reporting of risk of bias was limited. The most common outcome reported was ROSC: 86 (93.5%) with only 22 (23.9%) reporting survival beyond 6 months. Fifty-three RCTs (57.6%) reported global ordinal outcomes whereas 15 (16.3%) reported quality-of-life. RCTs in the last 5 years were more likely to be focused on protocol improvement and post-cardiac arrest care. Conclusions Important gaps in RCTs of cardiac arrest treatments exist, especially those examining in-hospital cardiac arrest, protocol improvement, post-cardiac arrest care, and long-term or quality-of-life outcomes. PMID:27756794

  4. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  5. Measurement and control of radioactive material transport in FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, H.P.; Brehm, W.F.; Moore, F.S.; Stinson, W.P.; Bunch, W.L.; Anantatmula, R.P.; McGuire, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques and equipment have been developed for measuring radionuclide buildup in FFTF. To date, only 54 Mn and 22 Na have been found in significant quantities. Radiation levels of up to 115 mR/h from 54 Mn and 121 mR/h from 22 Na have been measured in the cells, in reasonable agreement with predicted values. No fission products have been found, since no significant operation with breached fuel has yet been experienced. The buildup of corrosion product and fission product radionuclides is not expected to cause severe maintenance problems in FFTF; should problems arise, corrective measures are being developed

  6. Identifying and Measuring the Lifelong Human Capital of “Unskilled” Migrants in the Mexico-US Migratory Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most human capital and migration studies classify migrants with limited formal education as “unskilled,” despite substantial skills developed through job and life experiences.  Drawing on a binational multi-stage research project that involved interviews with 320 Mexican migrants and return migrants in North Carolina and Guanajuato, Mexico, we identify the lifelong human capital they acquired and transferred throughout their careers and discover that these include not only basic education and English, but also technical and social skills and competences acquired informally on and off the job throughout the course of one’s life.  We further find that the learning and transfer of skills is a lifelong, gendered process, reflecting the different social contexts and jobs in which men and women learn. In this paper we document several mobility pathways associated with the acquisition and transfer of skills across the migratory circuit, including reskilling, occupational mobility, job jumping, and entrepreneurship.Our study has broad implications for the migration policies of both the US and Mexico.  US immigration policy confers preference to “skilled” immigrants who rank high on traditional human capital characteristics, such as education levels and other formal credentials, but limits the entry of “unskilled” migrants, a categorization that ignores the substantial informal skills they bring to US labor markets.  Instead of focusing only on the continued expansion of immigration policy preferences for narrowly defined skilled migrants, the US government needs to consider more carefully what we mean by skilled workers and design fairer and more effective immigration policies that match their abilities to the specific needs of US industry and thereby recognize the economic contributions of all migrants within a lifelong human capital framework. Mexico can also learn from our findings. Between 2005 and 2010 an estimated 1.4 million

  7. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2017-01-01

    To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking. Determinar o grau de concordância com medidas eficazes de controle do tabaco

  8. Measuring self-control problems: a structural estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a structural estimation of the preference parameters in a buffer-stock consumption model augmented with temptation disutility. We adopt a two-stage Method of Simulated Moments methodology to match our simulated moments with those observed in the US Survey of Consumer Finances. To identify

  9. Biological control and surveillance measures for hospital radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.H.; Mehra, K.S.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    1997-01-01

    The principles and procedures for the surveillance measures and the care required to be observed in hospital radiopharmacy, though much of the aspects are quite valid for centralized and industrial radiopharmacies, are described. 1 tab

  10. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  11. Measuring Effectiveness of Persuasive Games Using an Informative Control Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Soekarjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effectiveness of persuasive games is still emerging. This article presents a literature review of studies that empirically evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive games. The review concluded that limited empirical evidence is currently available to prove their effectiveness in attitude change. It further revealed that almost no study employed an informative control condition, making it difficult to conclude that the game was more effective than a control condition. Next, in a pretest-posttest design an empirical study tested whether change in attitude was different for people playing the persuasive game "EnerCities" compared to a control condition where participants read a document with highly similar information. No significant differences in increase of attitude or knowledge between participants that played the game and participants in the informative control condition were found. Based on the results of the literature review and the empirical study presented, it hence cannot be concluded that playing a game leads to a greater change in attitude or knowledge acquisition than experiencing conventional media would. Future work should employ designs with proper control conditions and focus on which game features lead to significant effects.

  12. Influence of the Ambient Electric Field on Measurements of the Actively Controlled Spacecraft Potential by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Giles, B. L.; Jeszenszky, H.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Space missions with sophisticated plasma instrumentation such as Magnetospheric Multiscale, which employs four satellites to explore near-Earth space benefit from a low electric potential of the spacecraft, to improve the plasma measurements and therefore carry instruments to actively control the potential by means of ion beams. Without control, the potential varies in anticorrelation with plasma density and temperature to maintain an equilibrium between the plasma current and the one of photoelectrons produced at the surface and overcoming the potential barrier. A drawback of the controlled, almost constant potential is the difficulty to use it as convenient estimator for plasma density. This paper identifies a correlation between the spacecraft potential and the ambient electric field, both measured by double probes mounted at the end of wire booms, as the main responsible for artifacts in the potential data besides the known effect of the variable photoelectron production due to changing illumination of the surface. It is shown that the effect of density variations is too weak to explain the observed correlation with the electric field and that a correction of the artifacts can be achieved to enable the reconstruction of the uncontrolled potential and plasma density in turn. Two possible mechanisms are discussed: the asymmetry of the current-voltage characteristic determining the probe to plasma potential and the fact that a large equipotential structure embedded in an electric field results in asymmetries of both the emission and spatial distribution of photoelectrons, which results in an increase of the spacecraft potential.

  13. Measurement of the Top Quark Pair Production Cross-Section in the Dilepton Channel Using Lepton Plus Track Selection and Identified B-Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreitzer, Teresa [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Using 1.0 fb-1 of data collected by the collider detector at fermilab (CDF) from run II of the fermilab tevatron, we measure the t$\\bar{t}$ production cross-section in events with two leptons, significant missing transverse energy, and ≥ 2 jets, at least one of which is identified as a b-jet.

  14. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis using annual measurements of diameter at breast height and gamma ray densitometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique was developed to identify annual growth rings in E. grandis using a combination of annual measurements of diameter at breast height (DBH) from permanent sample plot (PSP) datasets and bark-pith density profiles. By assessing the pattern...

  15. Identifying risk factors for blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma by race: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Huang, Wei; Muir, Kelly W; Stinnett, Sandra S; Stone, Jordan S; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2018-01-01

    To examine the factors associated with blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) among black and white patients at our institution. For this retrospective, case-control study, patients legally blind from POAG ("cases") were matched on age, race, and gender with non-blind POAG patients ("controls"). Thirty-seven black case-control pairs and 19 white case-control pairs were included in this study. Clinical variables were compared at initial presentation and over the course of follow-up. Black case-control pairs and white case-control pairs had similar characteristics at presentation, including cup-to-disc ratio and number of glaucoma medications. However, over the course of follow-up, black cases underwent significantly more glaucoma surgeries than matched controls (2.4 versus 1.2, p =0.001), whereas white cases and controls had no significant difference in glaucoma operations (0.9 versus 0.6, p =0.139). Our analysis found that glaucoma surgery is associated with blindness in black patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) but not in white patients (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.2). Black and white case-control pairs with POAG shared similar risk factors for blindness at presentation. However, over the follow-up period, black cases required significantly more glaucoma surgeries compared to black controls, whereas there was no significant difference in surgery between white cases and controls. There was no difference in medication changes in either case-control set.

  16. Measurements and controls implementation for the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Raju; Bhandarkar, Manisha; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the diagnostics implemented on WEST and gives more details on the infra-red system which is one of the main systems used to analyze the heat loads and ensure the machine protection. The modification of the CODAC and communications networks is also discussed. The new functionalities and architecture of the WEST PCS are detailed; especially it ensures the orchestration of many subsystems such as diagnostics, actuators and allows handling asynchronous off-normal events during the plasma discharge. In correlation the plasma discharge is now seen as a set of elementary pieces (called segments) joints together. Development of new plasma controllers will be addressed. An overview of the first wall monitoring activity and development is provided. Finally preparing the plasma restart requires control oriented modelling and simulations devoted to the control of the plasma shape will be presented

  17. Production of identified particles in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV measured with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles have been measured in several multiplicity classes in p-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 5.02 TeV. This measurement can shed light on the understanding of possible collective effects in high multiplicity events. Furthermore p-Pb collisions bridge the charged multiplicity gap between pp and low multiplicity Pb–Pb collisions. Studying the particle production in this region can improve the understanding of the underlying production mechanisms. Particles are reconstructed with the central barrel detectors over a wide transverse momentum range (from 0 up to 15 GeV/c), exploiting different identification techniques.   Primary charged particles (pions, kaons, protons, antiprotons, deuterons and anti-deuterons) are identified by their specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight. Weakly decaying particles are identified by their characteristic decay topology. Particle-production yields, spectral shapes and particle ratios have been m...

  18. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ''Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ''Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points

  19. Measuring Instruments Control Methodology Performance for Analog Electronics Remote Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Hernandez-Jayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the work that has been developed in parallel to the VISIR project. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the validations processes that have been carried out to check the control methodology. This method has been developed with the aim of being independent of the instruments of the labs.

  20. Evaluating transit preferential measures : Priority lanes, boarding and control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of bus service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors and headway-based holding control ideally requires a simulation model that combines features of both classical analytical models and microscopic simulation. However, as the usage of such models has been

  1. Impacts of cement industries on environment and control measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, H.N.; Malik, H.N.; Naushad, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of cement as building material is gaining more importance. Cement industries around the world are contributing in global and as well as local pollution. In Pakistan most of the cement industries are constructed in remote areas without any proper environmental impact assessment. Unawareness of peoples toward sustainable environment and due to lack of job opportunities, dwellers are demanding employment rather than clean environment from title-holder of the industry. Air pollution caused by cement industries is harmful to the human's health, spoils and erodes building surface, corrodes metals, weakens textiles, deteriorates atmospheric visibility, affects plant life and leads to ecological imbalances. To investigate environmental impact of cement industries in Pakistan, environmental conditions around and inside the five cement industries in the vicinity of Taxila city are studied. To inspect the whole scenario, air pollution control devices in these industries were also examined in detail. These industries are using Electrostatic Precipitators and Baghouses to control air pollution (dust particulates). Proper caring of these equipment is necessary for better results. Detailed study shows that emissions from their stacks and dust particulates are causing problems. Health consultants in study area are much worry about the health of workers and environmental degradation in the vicinity of these industries. The comparison of air pollution control devices shows that Baghouses are environmental friendly. Considering the field conditions it is also concluded that involvement of government and environmental pollution control agencies is much more necessary. (author)

  2. Mathematical Modelling of Bacterial Meningitis Transmission Dynamics with Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kiddy K. Asamoah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination and treatment are the most effective ways of controlling the transmission of most infectious diseases. While vaccination helps susceptible individuals to build either a long-term immunity or short-term immunity, treatment reduces the number of disease-induced deaths and the number of infectious individuals in a community/nation. In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model with time-dependent controls has been proposed to describe the dynamics of bacterial meningitis in a population. The model is shown to exhibit a unique globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium E0, when the effective reproduction number RVT≤1, and a globally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium E1, when RVT>1; and it exhibits a transcritical bifurcation at RVT=1. Carriers have been shown (by Tornado plot to have a higher chance of spreading the infection than those with clinical symptoms who will sometimes be bound to bed during the acute phase of the infection. In order to find the best strategy for minimizing the number of carriers and ill individuals and the cost of control implementation, an optimal control problem is set up by defining a Lagrangian function L to be minimized subject to the proposed model. Numerical simulation of the optimal problem demonstrates that the best strategy to control bacterial meningitis is to combine vaccination with other interventions (such as treatment and public health education. Additionally, this research suggests that stakeholders should press hard for the production of existing/new vaccines and antibiotics and their disbursement to areas that are most affected by bacterial meningitis, especially Sub-Saharan Africa; furthermore, individuals who live in communities where the environment is relatively warm (hot/moisture are advised to go for vaccination against bacterial meningitis.

  3. Computer controlled scanning systems for quantitative track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The status of three computer cntrolled systems for quantitative track measurements is described. Two systems, an automated optical track scanner (AOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third system, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Recent advances achieved with these systems are presented, with emphasis placed upon the current limitation of these systems for reactor neutron dosimetry

  4. Measurement and control in solution mining of copper and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.H.; Huff, R.V.; Sonstelie, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    The solution mining of deep-lying mineral deposits requires an integration of oilfield and extractive mineral technology. Although instrumentation is available to measure parameters relating to the oilfield components such as permeability, porosity and flow-logging, only limited services exist for monitoring leaching performance. This paper discusses the history of copper leaching, the need for solution mining development, and solution mining process descriptions. It discusses measurement requirements for deposit evaluation and the injection and production wellfields. It is concluded with a listing of desirable but unavailable instrumentation for further development of this technology

  5. Trabecular bone score as an assessment tool to identify the risk of osteoporosis in axial spondyloarthritis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwi Young; Goo, Hye Yeon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Hong, Yeon Sik

    2018-03-01

    To compare the trabecular bone score (TBS) between patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and matched normal controls and identify risk factors associated with a low TBS. TBS and BMD were assessed in the two groups (axSpA and control) using DXA. Osteoporosis risk factors and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Disease activity and radiographic progression in the sacroiliac joint and spine were evaluated in the axSpA group. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with TBS. In the axSpA group, 248 subjects were enrolled; an equal number of age- and sex-matched subjects comprised the control group. The mean TBS was 1.43 (0.08) and 1.38 (0.12) in the control and axSpA groups, respectively (P tool to identify the risk of osteoporosis in patients with axSpA.

  6. Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kaur Sekhon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children’s observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  7. A set of portable radioisotopic control and measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospeev, V.V.; Sidorov, V.N.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Uleksin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems and perspectives are examined of the portable radioisotope instruments application in agriculture, building industry, engeeniring and geological survay and in melioration. Principles are given of creation a series of radioisotopic instruments based on the principle of ganging. The series described consists of radioisotopic densimeters and moisture gages of the portable type, based on the ganging principle. The instruments differ in the measuring converters and have unified information processing and power supply devices. Criteria are stated for the ganging principle estimation, in particular, estimation of the technical means' compatibility. Four different types of compatibility are distinguished: an information compatibility; a metrological compatibility; structural and operational compatibility. Description is given of the unified information processing device - the unified pulse counter of the SIP-1M type and description of a row of radioisotopic measuring converters, which provides a possibility for completing the portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-2 type, intended for measuring densities of concrets and soils in the surface layer up to 30 cm and the density range from 1000 to 2500 kg/m 3 ; portable radioisotope densimeter of the RPP-1 type having measuring range from 600 to 1500 kg/m 3 ; surface-depth radioisotopic densimeter of the PPGR-1 type and surface-depth radioisotopic moisture gage of the VPGR-1 type [ru

  8. Control device intended for a gamma radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a monitoring device for a gamma radiation measuring instrument or radiation meter, in which the radiation to be measured brings about, inter alia, the ionisation of a gas and the generation of current pulses. The dial of this meter is generally calibrated in roentgens per hour, i.e. in radiation rate units. This instrument of very simple design is remarkable for its operating reliability. Preferably placed at the inlet to a radioactive area, it enables every user of a ratemeter to check, over the entire measuring range of this instrument, its proper operation prior to entering the area. To this effect, the monitoring device in question has a thick wall lead castle, having an internal cavity in which is mounted a radioactive source delivering a gamma radiation with given constant characteristics, through a measurement window closed by a calibrated plug. Lead doors articulated on the castle can be superimposed on this window to bring about a given attenuation of the radiation coming from the source and delivered to the exterior of the castle [fr

  9. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, Luis Guillermo; Badilla, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author) [es

  10. Measurement and control of cement set times in waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; d'Entremont, P.D.

    1976-09-01

    Fixation of radioactive waste in concrete was investigated on laboratory scale. Some cement formulations containing simulated or actual sludges from the Savannah River Plant had set times that would be too short for reliable handling in plant equipment. Set times could be controlled by use of excess water, but the concrete forms produced had inferior strength. A commercial organic retarder was found to be effective for increasing set times of cement-sludge formulations. However, the dosage of retarder required to control set times of high-alumina cement formulations was 1.0 to 1.5 wt percent of dry solids, which is 5 to 10 times the normal dosage for Portland cements. Data were obtained to predict the optimum content of retarder and water

  11. Vector-valued measure and the necessary conditions for the optimal control problems of linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunjing, L.

    1981-12-01

    The vector-valued measure defined by the well-posed linear boundary value problems is discussed. The maximum principle of the optimal control problem with non-convex constraint is proved by using the vector-valued measure. Especially, the necessary conditions of the optimal control of elliptic systems is derived without the convexity of the control domain and the cost function. (author)

  12. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  13. A new data-driven controllability measure with application in intelligent buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    and instrumentation within today's intelligent buildings enable collecting high quality data which could be used directly in data-based analysis and control methods. The area of data-based systems analysis and control is concentrating on developing analysis and control methods that rely on data collected from meters...... and sensors, and information obtained by data processing. This differs from the traditional model-based approaches that are based on mathematical models of systems. We propose and describe a data-driven controllability measure for discrete-time linear systems. The concept is developed within a data......-based system analysis and control framework. Therefore, only measured data is used to obtain the proposed controllability measure. The proposed controllability measure not only shows if the system is controllable or not, but also reveals the level of controllability, which is the information its previous...

  14. Identifying representative symbology for low visibility operations/surface movement guidance and control system (LVO/SMGCS) paper charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The Volpe Center developed a questionnaire to examine the representativeness of symbol shapes and the usefulness of information depicted on Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (LVO/SMGCS) paper charts. One-hundred f...

  15. Radiotomography Based on Monostatic Interference Measurements with Controlled Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of three-dimensional tomography based on radioholography measurements with the reference signal transmitted by the transmitter in the near zone and the receiver near zone. We solve the problem of repairing the object signal phase due to the reference signal in the near field in a wide frequency band and the consideration of analytical signals. Here are presented results of experimental studies on application of a tunable YIG (yttrium iron garnet oscillator in the frequency range from 6.5 to 10.7 GHz for radio tomography of metal objects in air. Holographic principle is applied on the basis of measuring of the interference field amplitude by the detector diode. The interference occurs with the direct wave and waves scattered by the object. To restore the radio images the method of aperture synthesis and extraction of quadrature components at all frequencies sensing are applied. Experimental study on test object shows resolution about 15 mm.

  16. Pollution control and environmental management measures in NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Modern industrial activities have severely interfered with the natural environment either through deforestation or through discharge of solid and liquid effluents and gaseous emissions. Power generation, though important in achievement economic self-reliance, has interface with the natural surroundings with serious impacts the world over. National Thermal Power Corporation shares the concern for environmental issues for sustainable growth of power sectors and has been incorporating various environmental protection measures in all its business decisions and activities

  17. LHC train control system for autonomous inspections and measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Di Castro, Mario; Baiguera Tambutti, Maria Laura; Gilardoni, Simone; Losito, Roberto; Lunghi, Giacomo; Masi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Intelligent robotic systems are becoming essential for inspection and measurements in harsh environments, such as the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerators complex. Aiming at increasing safety and machine availability, robots can help to perform repetitive or dangerous tasks, reducing the risk for the personnel as the exposure to radiation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel at CERN has been equipped with fail-safe trains on monorail able to perform autonomously d...

  18. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J; Reuter, U [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1996-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  19. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  20. Legionella species colonization in cooling towers: risk factors and assessment of control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Goutziana, Georgia; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-02-01

    Cooling towers can be colonized by Legionella spp, and inhalation of aerosols generated by their operation may cause Legionnaires' disease in susceptible hosts. Environmental investigations of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks linked with cooling towers have revealed poorly maintained systems, lack of control measures, and failure of system equipment. The purpose of this study was to identify Legionella-contaminated cooling towers, identify risk factors for contamination, and assess the effectiveness of control measures. A total of 96 cooling towers of public buildings were registered and inspected, and 130 samples were collected and microbiologically tested. Microbiological test results were associated with characteristics of cooling towers, water samples, inspection results, and maintenance practices. Of the total 96 cooling towers examined, 47 (48.9%) were colonized by Legionella spp, and 22 (22.9%) required remedial action. A total of 65 samples (50.0%) were positive (> or = 500 cfu L(-1)), and 30 (23%) were heavily contaminated (> or = 10(4) cfu L(-1)). Of the 69 isolates identified, 55 strains (79.7.%) were L pneumophila. Legionella colonization was positively associated with the absence of training on Legionella control (relative risk [RR] = 1.66; P = .02), absence of regular Legionella testing (RR = 2.07: P = .002), absence of sunlight protection (RR = 1.63: P = .02), with samples in which the free residual chlorine level in the water sample was cooling towers (median, 17 years; interquartile range [IQR] =5.0 to 26.0 years) compared with noncolonized cooling towers (median age, 6 years; IQR =1.0 to 13.5 years). After the 22 legionellae-positive cooling towers were disinfected with chlorine, 2 (9%) of them remained positive for Legionella spp with a concentration > or = 1000 cfu L(-1). Cooling towers can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp and thus present a potential risk for infection. This study demonstrates the importance of a risk assessment and

  1. INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF SLURRIES USING RADIOISOTOPE GAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jr., H. L.

    1963-09-15

    Radioactivity gages are available in a variety of configurations to suit the problem of process measurement. The placement of any gage configuration must be selected carefully so that the process material flowing past the gage is representative of actual process conditions. The initial calibration of a gage is relatively simple but when the gage reading is compared with the existing manual sample measurement, confusion can result if the manual measurement is not basically accurate or subject to human error. Routine mechanical and electrical maintenance of the gage is relatively simple, because modern gages use solidstate circuitry with modular plug-in construction. Thus, routine maintenance of the gage is usually limited to restandardization to compensate for source decay. Two types of zero suppression are available, via. fixed and reductionwith-time. If reduction-with-time suppression is used the re-standardization period is about ten times longer than that required for fixed-zero suppression. Routine maintenance of the process piping and machinery is necessary to assure that a representative process material sample continues to flow through the gage. (auth)

  2. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  3. Improved FPGA controlled artificial vascular system for plethysmographic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fetal oxygen saturation is an important parameter to determine the health status of a fetus, which is until now mostly acquired invasively. The transabdominal, fetal pulse oximetry is a promising approach to measure this non-invasively and continuously. The fetal pulse curve has to be extracted from the mixed signal of mother and fetus to determine its oxygen saturation. For this purpose efficient algorithms are necessary, which have to be evaluated under constant and reproducable test conditions. This paper presents the improved version of a phantom which can generate artificial pulse waves in a synthetic tissue phantom. The tissue phantom consists of several layers that mimic the different optical properties of the fetal and maternal tissue layers. Additionally an artificial vascular system and a dome, which mimics the bending of the belly of a pregnant woman, are incorporated. To obtain data on the pulse waves, several measurement methods are included, to help understand the behavior of the signals gained from the pulse waves. Besides pressure sensors and a transmissive method we integrated a capacitive approach, that makes use of the so called “Pin Oscillator” method. Apart from the enhancements in the tissue phantom and the measurements, we also improved the used blood substitute, which reproduces the different absorption characteristics of fetal and maternal blood. The results show that the phantom can generate pulse waves similar to the natural ones. Furthermore, the phantom represents a reference that can be used to evaluate the algorithms for transabdominal, fetal pulse oximetry.

  4. A measurement control program for plutonium isotopic gamma-ray systems at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A sound measurement control (MC) program should be an integral part of every nondestructive assay measurement system used for the assay of special nuclear materials. This paper describes a measurement control program for plutonium isotopic composition measurements, using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, that has been implemented in the Analytical Laboratories and the Chemistry Standards Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant. This MC program emphasizes the standardization of data collection procedures along with the implementation of internal and external measurement control checks to provide the requisite measurement quality assurance

  5. Recent advances in cross-cultural measurement in psychiatric epidemiology: utilizing 'what matters most' to identify culture-specific aspects of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Thornicroft, Graham; Alvarado, Ruben; Vega, Eduardo; Link, Bruce George

    2014-04-01

    While stigma measurement across cultures has assumed growing importance in psychiatric epidemiology, it is unknown to what extent concepts arising from culture have been incorporated. We utilize a formulation of culture-as the everyday interactions that 'matter most' to individuals within a cultural group-to identify culturally-specific stigma dynamics relevant to measurement. A systematic literature review from January 1990 to September 2012 was conducted using PsycINFO, Medline and Google Scholar to identify articles studying: (i) mental health stigma-related concepts; (ii) ≥ 1 non-Western European cultural group. From 5292 abstracts, 196 empirical articles were located. The vast majority of studies (77%) utilized adaptations of existing Western-developed stigma measures to new cultural groups. Extremely few studies (2.0%) featured quantitative stigma measures derived within a non-Western European cultural group. A sizeable amount (16.8%) of studies employed qualitative methods to identify culture-specific stigma processes. The 'what matters most' perspective identified cultural ideals of the everyday activities that comprise 'personhood' of 'preserving lineage' among specific Asian groups, 'fighting hard to overcome problems and taking advantage of immigration opportunities' among specific Latino-American groups, and 'establishing trust among religious institutions due to institutional discrimination' among African-American groups. These essential cultural interactions shaped culture-specific stigma manifestations. Mixed method studies (3.6%) corroborated these qualitative results. Quantitatively-derived, culturally-specific stigma measures were lacking. Further, the vast majority of qualitative studies on stigma were conducted without using stigma-specific frameworks. We propose the 'what matters most' approach to address this key issue in future research.

  6. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have

  7. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  8. Dose management as a measurable criteria into the quality control programme of an imaging diagnostic clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, G.; Georgiev, E.; Zasheva, C.; Georgiev, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the Radiology Department of Tokuda Hospital Sofia, a strong control over the radiation dose for all patients was accepted with the implementation of the Dose Watch software. The system allows bad practices to be discovered and improves the efficiency and quality of the CT procedures performed in the department. The article will briefly demonstrate the main steps, which have been done, and the results, which have been achieved. The purpose is to identify the challenges, the available tools, and the opportunities for improving the patients' dose in the CT sector of a general Radiology Department. Collected data was based on the information concerning the radiation dose absorbed by individual patients undergoing MDCT examinations in a general radiology department with an overall annual rate of around 7000 MDCT examinations. All of them were carried out using a single 64row MDCT system. The hospital logbook was used to identify the number of CT examinations and dose levels associated with some typical diagnostic procedures in order to make an analysis. The information was taken form the PACS and Dose Watch software and was analyzed. The article draws some measures towards improving the organization and reducing the dose, keeping the quality of the performed exams. Thanks to the supportive software for dose tracking, analyzing and reporting, some problems have been solved and some reasonable measures have been implemented into the daily practice. (authors) Key words: RADIATION DOSE. MDCT. DOSE REDUCTION. REFERRAL GUIDELINES.CTDI. DLP

  9. Measurement and reproduction accuracy of computer-controlled grand pianos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    The recording and reproducing capabilities of a Yamaha Disklavier grand piano and a Bösendorfer SE290 computer-controlled grand piano were tested, with the goal of examining their reliability for performance research. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the acoustic signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``staccato'' and ``legato''). Timing and dynamic differences between the original performance, the corresponding MIDI file recorded by the computer-controlled pianos, and its reproduction were analyzed. The two devices performed quite differently with respect to timing and dynamic accuracy. The Disklavier's onset capturing was slightly more precise (+/-10 ms) than its reproduction (-20 to +30 ms); the Bösendorfer performed generally better, but its timing accuracy was slightly less precise for recording (-10 to 3 ms) than for reproduction (+/-2 ms). Both devices exhibited a systematic (linear) error in recording over time. In the dynamic dimension, the Bösendorfer showed higher consistency over the whole dynamic range, while the Disklavier performed well only in a wide middle range. Neither device was able to capture or reproduce different types of touch.

  10. Analytical estimation of control rod shadowing effect for excess reactivity measurement of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masaaki; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    1999-01-01

    The fuel addition method is generally used for the excess reactivity measurement of the initial core. The control rod shadowing effect for the excess reactivity measurement has been estimated analytically for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). 3-dimensional whole core analyses were carried out. The movements of control rods in measurements were simulated in the calculation. It was made clear that the value of excess reactivity strongly depend on combinations of measuring control rods and compensating control rods. The differences in excess reactivity between combinations come from the control rod shadowing effect. The shadowing effect is reduced by the use of plural number of measuring and compensating control rods to prevent deep insertion of them into the core. The measured excess reactivity in the experiments is, however, smaller than the estimated value with shadowing effect. (author)

  11. [Hand hygiene: first measure to control nosocomial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, G; Barbier, C; Mutsers, J; Warnotte, J; De Mol, P; Bouffioux, C

    2006-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross infection in hospi tals, however adherence to guidelines is commonly poor. The hand-hygiene promotion programme started on May 2004 at the University Hospital of Liège after a baseline survey of compliance. We attempted to promote hand hygiene and most par ticularly alcohol-based hand disinfection. We measured MRSA transmission rates and consumption of alcohol-based handrub solution and soap in parallel. During the campaign, consump tion of alcohol-based handrub solution and soap increased by 56% and 24% respectively and MRSA transmission rates decreased from 11,04 to 7,07 cases per 1000 admissions.

  12. [Safety evaluation and risk control measures of Cassiae Semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Meng; Wu, Li; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xue-Min; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Chun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed domestic and foreign literatures, conducted the textual research on origin and development of Cassia Semen, studied records in ancient books and ancient and modern literatures, clinical adverse reactions and relevant experimental studies in recent years, and summarized the clinical features and influencing factors related to the safety of Cassiae Semen. According to the findings,Cassia Semen's safety risks are mainly liver and kidney system damages, with the main clinical features of fatigue, anorexia, disgusting of oil, yellow urine and gray stool; digestive system injury, with the main clinical features of diarrhea, abdominal distension, nausea and loose stool; reproductive system damage, with the main clinical features of vaginal bleeding. Allergic reactions and clinical adverse events, with the main clinical features for numb mouth, itching skin, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing and lip cyanosis were also reported. The toxicological studies on toxic components of Cassiae Semen obtusifolia were carried out through acute toxicity test, subacute toxicity test, subchronic toxicity test and chronic toxicity test. Risk factors might include patients, compatibility and physicians. Physicians should strictly abide by the medication requirements in the Pharmacopoeia, pay attention to rational compatibility, appropriate dosage,correct usage and appropriate processing, control the dosage below 15 g to avoid excessive intake, strictly control the course of treatment to avoid accumulated poisoning caused by long-term administration. At the same time, clinicians should pay attention to the latest research progress, update the knowledge structure, quickly find the latest and useful materials from clinical practice, scientific research and drug information and other literatures, make evaluation and judgment for the materials, establish a traditional Chinese medicine intelligence information library, and strengthen the control over

  13. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  14. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; hide

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  15. Measurement and control of quasiparticle dynamics in a superconducting qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Gao, Y Y; Pop, I M; Vool, U; Axline, C; Brecht, T; Heeres, R W; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Catelani, G; Glazman, L I; Schoelkopf, R J

    2014-12-18

    Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic fields to protect the integrity of the superconductivity. Here we show vortices can improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Using a contactless injection technique with unprecedented dynamic range, we quantitatively distinguish between recombination and trapping mechanisms in controlling the dynamics of residual quasiparticle, and show quantized changes in quasiparticle trapping rate because of individual vortices. These results highlight the prominent role of quasiparticle trapping in future development of superconducting qubits, and provide a powerful characterization tool along the way.

  16. Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Hatcher, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force.

  17. Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Hatcher, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force

  18. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements

  19. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine: a twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany; Prasad, Narasimha; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-03-11

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in twins whose structural appearance was discordant, peak frequency was significantly different between twin pairs while in concordant twins, no outcomes were significantly different. From these results, we conclude that structural changes within the spine can alter its vibration response. As such, further investigation of SHM to identify spinal abnormalities in larger human populations is warranted.

  20. A preliminary evaluation of the generalized likelihood ratio for detecting and identifying control element failures in a transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundick, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the Generalized Likelihood Ratio technique to the detection and identification of aircraft control element failures has been evaluated in a linear digital simulation of the longitudinal dynamics of a B-737 aircraft. Simulation results show that the technique has potential but that the effects of wind turbulence and Kalman filter model errors are problems which must be overcome.