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Sample records for identify consistent philosophical

  1. Reply to Lebech or the ontological humility of the lawyer faced with philosophical consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, J C

    1998-10-01

    Replying to the criticisms of Lebech, the author tries, regarding the issue of embryo research, to draw a line between what could be an international legal approach and what is a philosophical ontological quest. It is then up to the reader to decide if, and how far, these two different approaches can be complementary.

  2. Philosophical Prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Amihud Gilead

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This research was needed because some philosophers were subject to a form of blindness concerning prostitution. This blindness was caused mainly by a lack of philosophical insights. The context of the work was that valid arguments without such insights must be blind. In the case of prostitution, I termed such blindness a philosophical prostitution: First of all, this was to indicate that such an opinion on prostitution was a philosophical artifact or fiction, entirely unawa...

  3. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers is a generalist journal of philosophy edited in the Department of Philosophy at Rhodes University. The journal appears three times a year; the November issue of every year is topic-based and guest-edited. The journal is published by Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Information regarding submissions ...

  4. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other minds skeptic supposes there may be no minds other than his. The external world skeptic thinks there could be no world external to him. Some philosophers think a person can refute the skeptic and prove that his world is not the solitary scenario the skeptic supposes his could be. In this paper I examine one ...

  5. BSDB: A New Consistent Designation Scheme for Identifying Objects in Binary and Multiple Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new consistent scheme for designation of objects in binary and multiple systems, BSDB, is described. It was developed in the frame of the Binary star DataBase, BDB (http://www.inasan.ru, due to necessity of a unified and consistent system for designation of objects in the database, and the name of the designation scheme was derived from that of the database. The BSDB scheme covers all types of observational data. Three classes of objects introduced within the BSDB nomenclature provide correct links between objects and data, what is especially important for complex multiple stellar systems. The final stage of establishing the BSDB scheme is compilation of the Identification List of Binaries, ILB, where all known objects in binary and multiple stars are presented with their BSDB identifiers along with identifiers according to major catalogues and lists.

  6. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  7. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consistent interactive segmentation of pulmonary ground glass nodules identified in CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Ming; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Ground glass nodules (GGNs) have proved especially problematic in lung cancer diagnosis, as despite frequently being malignant they characteristically have extremely slow rates of growth. This problem is further magnified by the small size of many of these lesions now being routinely detected following the introduction of multislice CT scanners capable of acquiring contiguous high resolution 1 to 1.25 mm sections throughout the thorax in a single breathhold period. Although segmentation of solid nodules can be used clinically to determine volume doubling times quantitatively, reliable methods for segmentation of pure ground glass nodules have yet to be introduced. Our purpose is to evaluate a newly developed computer-based segmentation method for rapid and reproducible measurements of pure ground glass nodules. 23 pure or mixed ground glass nodules were identified in a total of 8 patients by a radiologist and subsequently segmented by our computer-based method using Markov random field and shape analysis. The computer-based segmentation was initialized by a click point. Methodological consistency was assessed using the overlap ratio between 3 segmentations initialized by 3 different click points for each nodule. The 95% confidence interval on the mean of the overlap ratios proved to be [0.984, 0.998]. The computer-based method failed on two nodules that were difficult to segment even manually either due to especially low contrast or markedly irregular margins. While achieving consistent manual segmentation of ground glass nodules has proven problematic most often due to indistinct boundaries and interobserver variability, our proposed method introduces a powerful new tool for obtaining reproducible quantitative measurements of these lesions. It is our intention to further document the value of this approach with a still larger set of ground glass nodules.

  9. Preserving medical correctness, readability and consistency in de-identified health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Lauesen, Søren; Lippert, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A health record database contains structured data fields that identify the patient, such as patient ID, patient name, e-mail and phone number. These data are fairly easy to de-identify, that is, replace with other identifiers. However, these data also occur in fields with doctors’ free-text notes...... database, ending up with 323,122 patient health records. We had to invent many methods for de-identifying potential identifiers in the free-text notes. The de-identified health records should be used with caution for statistical purposes because we removed health records that were so special...

  10. Philosophical Talent : Empirical investigations into philosophical features of adolescents' discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondhuis, N.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that a philosophical talent exists in thinking patterns, uttered through oral expressions during philosophical discussions. A systematic study on the philosophical quality of thinking patterns was undertaken among youngsters of 10 - 20 years old. 'Philosophical

  11. Philosophic foundations of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Physics concerns direct analysis of the physical world, while philosophy analyzes knowledge about the physical world. This volume combines both disciplines for a philosophical interpretation of quantum physics - an interpretation free from the imprecision of metaphysics, offering a view of the atomic world and its quantum mechanical results as concrete as the visible everyday world.Written by an internationally renowned philosopher who specialized in symbolic logic and the theory of relativity, this approach consists of three parts. The first section, which requires no background in math or p

  12. The geometric preference subtype in ASD: identifying a consistent, early-emerging phenomenon through eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrienne; Wozniak, Madeline; Yousef, Andrew; Barnes, Cindy Carter; Cha, Debra; Courchesne, Eric; Pierce, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The wide range of ability and disability in ASD creates a need for tools that parse the phenotypic heterogeneity into meaningful subtypes. Using eye tracking, our past studies revealed that when presented with social and geometric images, a subset of ASD toddlers preferred viewing geometric images, and these toddlers also had greater symptom severity than ASD toddlers with greater social attention. This study tests whether this "GeoPref test" effect would generalize across different social stimuli. Two hundred and twenty-seven toddlers (76 ASD) watched a 90-s video, the Complex Social GeoPref test, of dynamic geometric images paired with social images of children interacting and moving. Proportion of visual fixation time and number of saccades per second to both images were calculated. To allow for cross-paradigm comparisons, a subset of 126 toddlers also participated in the original GeoPref test. Measures of cognitive and social functioning (MSEL, ADOS, VABS) were collected and related to eye tracking data. To examine utility as a diagnostic indicator to detect ASD toddlers, validation statistics (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, ROC, AUC) were calculated for the Complex Social GeoPref test alone and when combined with the original GeoPref test. ASD toddlers spent a significantly greater amount of time viewing geometric images than any other diagnostic group. Fixation patterns from ASD toddlers who participated in both tests revealed a significant correlation, supporting the idea that these tests identify a phenotypically meaningful ASD subgroup. Combined use of both original and Complex Social GeoPref tests identified a subgroup of about 1 in 3 ASD toddlers from the "GeoPref" subtype (sensitivity 35%, specificity 94%, AUC 0.75.) Replicating our previous studies, more time looking at geometric images was associated with significantly greater ADOS symptom severity. Regardless of the complexity of the social images used (low in the original GeoPref test vs high in

  13. Consistent robustness analysis (CRA) identifies biologically relevant properties of regulatory network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithong, Treenut; Painter, Kevin J; Millar, Andrew J

    2010-12-16

    A number of studies have previously demonstrated that "goodness of fit" is insufficient in reliably classifying the credibility of a biological model. Robustness and/or sensitivity analysis is commonly employed as a secondary method for evaluating the suitability of a particular model. The results of such analyses invariably depend on the particular parameter set tested, yet many parameter values for biological models are uncertain. Here, we propose a novel robustness analysis that aims to determine the "common robustness" of the model with multiple, biologically plausible parameter sets, rather than the local robustness for a particular parameter set. Our method is applied to two published models of the Arabidopsis circadian clock (the one-loop [1] and two-loop [2] models). The results reinforce current findings suggesting the greater reliability of the two-loop model and pinpoint the crucial role of TOC1 in the circadian network. Consistent Robustness Analysis can indicate both the relative plausibility of different models and also the critical components and processes controlling each model.

  14. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  15. Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, V; Räsänen, L; Raitakari, O T; Pietinen, P; Viikari, J

    2005-06-01

    Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h dietary recall method (n 1768, aged 3-18 years). The interviews were repeated after 6 and 21 years (n 1200 and n 1037, respectively). We conducted a principal component analysis to identify major dietary patterns at each study point. A set of two similar patterns was recognised throughout the study. Pattern 1 was positively correlated with consumption of traditional Finnish foods, such as rye, potatoes, milk, butter, sausages and coffee, and negatively correlated with fruit, berries and dairy products other than milk. Pattern 1 type of diet was more common among male subjects, smokers and those living in rural areas. Pattern 2, predominant among female subjects, non-smokers and in urban areas, was characterised by more health-conscious food choices such as vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and also by consumption of alcoholic beverages. Tracking of the pattern scores was observed, particularly among subjects who were adolescents at baseline. Of those originally belonging to the uppermost quintile of pattern 1 and 2 scores, 41 and 38 % respectively, persisted in the same quintile 21 years later. Our results suggest that food behaviour and concrete food choices are established already in childhood or adolescence and may significantly track into adulthood.

  16. Archives: Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 26 of 26 ... Archives: Philosophical Papers. Journal Home > Archives: Philosophical Papers. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 26 of 26 Items. 2008. Vol 37 ...

  17. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  18. Is Proust a philosopher?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Fraisse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different philosophers pondered on Proust’s novel, including those who formulated a subtle hypothesis that philosophical thought that emerged from the novel went beyond the passages of philosophical character that could be found in Proust’s work. It is difficult to determine precisely Proust’s approach towards the novel which he, alternately, favors or disdains. A hypothesis has been formulated that In Search of Lost Time shapes the fiction in the style of Shelling’s and Schopenhauer’s philosophy; it is pointed out that the novelist developed a kind of rivalry between him and his second cousin Bergson. Proust received a thorough education in philosophy yet philosophy is only present in his novel in an anecdotal form. The debate that he starts between idealism and philosophical realism in his prose takes the form of a discussion between symbolism and naturalism. The reconstruction of Proust’s philosophical culture leads to the observation that it is, without a doubt, significantly influenced in different ways by two philosophers: Leibniz and Kant. Still, the writer does not admit to being impacted by any particular thinker; therefore, his narrator’s line of thought is constantly changing in such a way that any school of philosophical thought that appears in the novel is present only for a short while.

  19. Is Proust a philosopher?

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Fraisse

    2015-01-01

    Different philosophers pondered on Proust’s novel, including those who formulated a subtle hypothesis that philosophical thought that emerged from the novel went beyond the passages of philosophical character that could be found in Proust’s work. It is difficult to determine precisely Proust’s approach towards the novel which he, alternately, favors or disdains. A hypothesis has been formulated that In Search of Lost Time shapes the fiction in the style of Shelling’s and Schopenhauer’s philos...

  20. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  1. Is Odysseus a philosopher?

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    Deretić Irina J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to demonstrate that certain philosophical questions are articulated in Homer's Odyssey, especially those that consider the relationship between truth, probability, and falsehood. First, the author discusses the following two assertions: 'Nobody is my name' and 'Nobody will I eat last among his comrades.' When asked by the one-eyed giant Polyphemus what his name really is, Odysseus replies that his name is 'Nobody'. Thereon, Polyphemus says that he will eat 'Nobody', considering 'Nobody' to be 'Somebody'. What appears to be a word-game is in fact an indicator of the necessity to determine the role of negative pronouns in a language, as well as to question their referential status. The negative pronouns like nobody or no one imply the non-existence of someone who can be described as 'nobody' or 'no one'. They can only designate, but they are non-referential. Because Polyphemus does not understand the sense of the negative pronouns, he believes that there is such a man, who is called 'Nobody', and whom he will eat. Therefore, one may claim that Homer's Odysseus discovers the meaning and role of the negative pronouns in a natural language, as well as how the misuse of these words can become a generator in lying and deceiving. Homer distinguishes two types of lies: 1 the absolute falsehoods, which are lies under all circumstances, and 2 the falsehoods which 'seem like the truth'. Most of Homer's Odysseus fantastic tales are of that kind - they are neither true nor false, but they 'seem like the truth'. The truth status of fiction as resembling the truth is one of Homer's discoveries, since he held that his main protagonist's narrations are neither true nor false, but they resemble the truth. The narrations should be as consistent and plausible as possible, in order to describe not what really happened, but 'what could have been happened', as Aristotle would claim. In the course of the paper, the author has

  2. Philosophical theories of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.

  3. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  4. Philosophical Papers: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles should be relevant to the analytic tradition in philosophy, understood broadly and including critiques of that tradition. All submissions are independently refereed. In most cases, decisions are based on reports from at least two referees. Final editorial decisions are made by the Editorial Board of Philosophical Papers.

  5. Philosophical Toys Today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2013), s. 173-196 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : philosophical toys * scientific instruments * modern visual culture Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

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    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a Introduction: the human condition. b Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  7. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-01-01

    In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a) Introduction: the human condition. b) Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c) Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  8. Shakespeare, dramatist-philosopher

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    Armando Pego Puigbó

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay a philosophical approach to the dramatic universe of William Shakespeare is proposed beyond the historic, social or aesthetic interpretations which are usual in some current critical theories. Its aim is not primarily to highlight only the philosophical intuitions which are contained in the Shakespere’s work, but to try to show the close philosophical condition of its literary imagination. Though avoiding the excess of the Bardolatry, it is necessary to reexamine the paradoxical relationship which the tragic model of Shakespeare maintains with some categories —and not the rules— of the Aristotelean Poetics. In putting them in check, it may be observed how the theatrical energy of Shakespeare has unveiled some ambiguous territories that the contemporary philosophy is groping as places of the modern invention of «human». Hamlet will be used as example of this capacity to raise a moral and aesthetic debate in interpretations of authors as C. Schmitt, S. Cavell, F. Ricordi o R. Girard.

  9. INFORMATIZATION: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

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    A. A. Kosolapov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Computerization and informatization in recent decades gave the mankind automated electronic document management systems, automated process of production, Internet and network information resources WWW, expanded the communications capabilities and led to the globalization of the information society. At the same time gives rise to a number of processes of informatization philosophical and anthropological problems, that has become an existential character. It is necessary to identify and understanding of these issues on the basis of the gnoseological model of the evolution informatization paradigms and determine their main characteristics. Methodology. The system-activity approach was used; it allowed identifying and analyzing the impact of the main components of information and communication technologies (ICT for educational activities. And further to present them as a unified system of human activity in conditions computerization/informatization. The philosophical principles: a comprehensive review of the subject, the unity of the logical and historical, ascending from the abstract to the concrete was used. The general scientific principles: unity and development of the system, the decomposition hierarchy, individualization and cooperation, diversity and taxonomy were applied. Findings.The three-stage gnoseological model of the paradigms computerization/informatization evolution was proposed by the author. It is based on three information system characteristics: speed, interface and data access. The seven-bar anthrop-centric model, which is called the architecture of information systems (AIS, which describes the changes in their types of procuring, was proposed for each paradigm. The philosophical-anthropological problems that affect negatively its progress were formulated for each stage of modern information society transformation. Originality. The gnoseological model of development processes of informatization in the form of three

  10. Moral Attention: A Comparative Philosophical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The notion of moral attention allows the recognition of fundamental aspects of ethical life ignored or neglected by mainstream ethical theories. It is central to the theories of several notable female ethicists and many of them identify the French philosopher Simone Weil as the source of the contemporary use of this concept which invites…

  11. Evaluating the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum

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    M. Mardiana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was to: (1 identify the interpretation toward the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum; and (2 evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum. In order to achieve these objectives, the researchers implemented the method of philosophy interpretation, namely a method that might discover an individual’s paradigm through the texts or the articles that he or she composed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum the researchers implemented certain criteria and this effort was supported by the expert interview. The data were analyzed by means of hermeneutic method, namely the presence of a relationship among the three elements namely text, interpreter and reader. The conclusions of the study then were as follows: (1 the interpretation toward the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum contained six points namely: (a establishing and developing the nation’s attitude and civilization or the nation’s character, (b developing the curriculum based on the nation’s culture, (c referring to the fact that education had been a process of developing the learning participants’ potentials, (d referring to the fact that education had been based on the nation’s culture and experience in the past, (e referring to the fact that education had been basis of the nation’s life continuity and (f Referring to the fact that education had been adjusted to the life of the learning participants as an individual, a society member and a citizen; (2 the six philosophical reasons namely: (a perennialism, (b essentialism, (c progressivism, (d pragmatism, (e existentialism and (f reconstructionism; (3 the following evaluation results: (a the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum based on the interpretation results had provided clear educational objectives and functions, (b the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum had been in accordance to facts, (c the philosophical foundation of 2013

  12. [CONSISTENCY OF MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT TO IDENTIFY SARCOPENIA IN OLDER ADULTS IN NURSING HOMES IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Muñoz, Gustavo Alfonso; Cárdenas Zuluaga, Diana María; Mesa Jimenez, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    malnutrition and sarcopenia, which have similar physiological mechanisms and are both responsible for adverse health outcomes, are highly prevalent in the elderly. to measure the consistency of the MNA with the diagnosis of sarcopenia in older adults. cross-sectional study of consistency in four nursing homes in Bogotá. The nutritional screening and nutritional assessment were made with the Mini Nutritional Assessment in its long form; the diagnosis of sarcopenia was done with the algorithm and the breakpoints of the European Consensus (EWGSOP). Pearson Chi2, Mann-Whitney and consistency by Cohen's kappa coefficient. we included 108 patients, 62% women, mean age 80.4 years (SD 7.7). The prevalence of sarcopenia, malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were 38.9%, 33.3% and 2.8% respectively. The concordance of the MNA with the diagnosis of sarcopenia was slight (kappa 0.1908 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.3791, p sarcopenia, suggesting that it is not an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in older institutionalized adults. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Heteroglossia and Philosophers of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2002-01-01

    Accepts the premise of Rene Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" asking how philosophers of education of a Deweyan character can occupy the intermediary position between philosophy and education with their different languages, contexts, and concerns. The essay uses examples from the work of…

  14. Philosophical Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, James T.

    1998-01-01

    Preface; Part I. The Scientific Enterprise: 1. Ways of knowing; 2. Aristotle and Francis Bacon; 3. Science and metaphysics; Part II. Ancient and Modern Models of the Universe: 4. Observational astronomy and the Ptolemaic model; 5. The Copernican model and Kepler's laws; 6. Galileo on motion; Part III. The Newtonian Universe: 7. Newton's Principia; 8. Newton's law of universal gravitation; 9. Some old questions revisited; Part IV. A Perspective: 10. Galileo's Letter to the Grand Duchess; 11. An overarching Newtonian framework; 12. A view of the world based on science: determinism; Part V. Mechanical Versus Electrodynamical World Views: 13. Models of the aether; 14. Maxwell's theory; 15. The Kaufmann experiments; Part VI. The Theory of Relativity: 16. The background to and essentials of special relativity; 17. Further logical consequences of Einstein's postulates; 18. General relativity and the expanding universe; Part VII. The Quantum World and the Completeness of Quantum Mechanics: 19. The road to quantum mechanics; 20. 'Copenhage' quantum mechanics; 21. Is quantum mechanics complete?; Part VIII. Some Philosophical Lessons from Quantum Mechanics: 22. The EPR paper and Bell's theorem; 23. An alternative version of quantum mechanics; 24. An essential role for historical contingency?; Part IX. A Retrospective: 25. The goals of science and the status of its knowledge; Notes; General references; Bibliography; Author index; Subject index.

  15. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF VIOLENCE

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    N. M. Boychenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to consistently distinguish between violence, which is always primarily a destructive force, and the civilized use of force that involves constructive, creative goals, one should explore the main possible philosophical approaches to understand the nature of violence and try to give it a systematic outline. Methodology. This study uses a systematic approach to identify the internal relationship between different forms of violence and, accordingly, the counteraction against violence. Also, the author uses an axiology to identify the values that are the basis for distinguishing violence from its prototypes, as well as for the distinction between violence and coercion, as well as different types of coercion. Originality. This article presents significant clarifications on the classification of types of violence, in particular, it is clearly established that certain types of violence can not have ethical relevance, since they belong to the sphere of biology (expansion, aggression or social anthropology (cultural, institutional coercion. Actually violence or violence in the narrow sense implies the existence of will, consciousness and destructive purpose. Accordingly, counteraction against violence should include the formation of a certain non-violent type of will, non-violent culture and creative, constructive goals. This requires both personal effort and institutional support and the availability of appropriate moral traditions. Ethical theory is intended to clarify and systematize these efforts. In this sense, ethics is the core of practical philosophy. To the extent that the influence of ethics on changes in human culture and sociality in the counterfactual regime is increasing, one should also speak of the anthropological significance of ethics. Conclusions. From the socio-philosophical point of view, it is necessary to specify exactly which social institutions and in which constellation generate violence. The ethical aspect of

  16. La voix du philosophe Laruelle

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    Gilbert Kieffer

    2018-03-01

    (Abstract   What is a voice in the context of the arts and philosophy? In the space of the philosopher's voice, in the complex grammar of his language is played his philosophical timbre, his own space, his particular voice, composed of concepts, articulated by the laws of coherence of the common philosophical language, with hypnotic specificities. These specificities are precisely the fruit of processes formerly called rhetoric, which I call non-hypnotics (of generalized hypnotic space, one of whose functions is just to speak in a double space: the common reference space of the reader or listener, and the conceptual virtual space peculiar to the philosopher. To the extent that the reader must pay increased and permanent attention to this double space, the philosophical trance effect, equivalent to the Ericksonian hypnotic trance, is facilitated. The difficulty of this double reading is the incessant passage from one code to another, which is also a hypnotic fascination. Heidegger prolongs and renews its structures and draws some effects from them, which provoke in the mind of the reader as an over-flow, a saturation effect, which itself favors the philosophical trance. Thus, each voice seeks to captivate the mind by confusing it with concepts, which seem at first sight familiar, but which reveal themselves with the use which is made, like formidable concepts to the power of unaccustomed fascination. One of the pleasures of reading Lareuelle's philosophy is due to this type of fascination with the philosophical voice and its language.

  17. VIRTUAL PHILOSOPHER PROJECT: PHILOSOPHICAL, PEDAGOGICAL AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuchinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes philosophical and pedagogical aspects of an idea of the ‘virtual philosopher’ project developed at creative sessions at Minin University and technically concretized during interaction with the Laboratory of Mobile Services. ‘Virtual philosopher’ is thought to deliver creative automation of routine operations; producing contingent matter for philosophical processing as well as elements of the philosophical artificial intelligence and forms of ‘artificial life’. Project implementation may lead to the creation of an unparalleled educational technology that functions on the principles of flexibility, nonlinearity, affective inclusion and gamification of the educational process. Based on specific character of problems raised, rhizomatic analysis of the philosophical communities’ requests, assessment of their technical feasibility and technical development, provisions are made on the feasibility, prospects and productivity of this project.

  18. The philosopher and the phenomenologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Valli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the relation between philosophy and philosophical practice in the husserlian paradigm of phenomenology. The role and the method that Husserl conceives for the philosopher are related unavoidably to his theoretical system. During his long and hard work, he deals with the question of the genesis of logic in the platonic-aristotelic dichotomy, with the connection between philosophy and objective sciences and with the problem of phenomenology as descriptive practice. Thanks to this reflections, in The crisis of european sciences he conceives the role of the philosopher with a precise historical and ethical function. This new model represents one of the last philosophical systems as a universal theory.

  19. Why Philosophical Pragmatics Needs Clinical Pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Adornetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show how clinical pragmatics (the study of pragmatic deficits can fruitfully inform the classical theoretical models proposed by philosophical pragmatics. In the first part of the paper I argue that theories proposed in the domain of philosophical pragmatics, as those elaborated by Austin and Grice, are not plausible from a cognitive point of view and that for this reason they cannot be useful to understand pragmatic deficits. In the second part, I show that Relevance Theory overcomes this limitation (being consistent with the data about actual mind’s functioning, but I also argue that it offers a restricted view of human communication which has to be integrated with a model of language use that takes into account a central pragmatic property: coherence of discourse.

  20. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. Epicureanism as a Foundation for Philosophical Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the manner and extent to which Epicurean ethics can serve as a general philosophy of life, capable of supporting philosophical practice in the form of philosophical counseling. Unlike the modern age academic philosophy, the philosophical practice movement portrays the philosopher as a personal or corporate advisor, one who helps people make sense of their experiences and find optimum solutions within the context of their values and general preferences. Philosophical counse...

  2. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  3. Joseph Hooker: a philosophical botanist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-24

    Apr 24, 2008 ... The nineteenth-century British botanist, Joseph Dalton Hooker, was one of the people whose career became a model for that of the modern, professional scientist. However, he preferred to refer to himself as a philosophical botanist, rather than a professional. This paper explores the reasons for this choice, ...

  4. Religion as a philosophical matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    with groundbreaking thoughts about culture and a basic human 'conditionality' among interwar philosophers such as Ernst Cassirer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Walter Benjamin, and Martin Heidegger. Finally it draws a line to Jean-Luc Nancy’s deconstruction of Christianity which can also be seen as a deconstruction...

  5. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  6. Special Needs: A Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…

  7. Philosophical explorations on energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Robert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel

  8. THE HOUSES OF PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS IN ATHENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonasin, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first and second parts of the article we look at two archaeological sites excavated in the center of Athens, a building, located on the Southern slope of the Acropolis and now buried under the Dionysiou Areopagitou Street, known as House Chi, or the “House of Proclus”, and Houses A, B and C at the slope of the Areopagus overlooking the Athenian Agora. We outline and illustrate the basic finds and reexamine the principal arguments in favor of identifying these constructions as the houses of philosophical schools and, in the third part of the paper, offer a remark on religious practice in the Neoplatonic school.

  9. The scientist as philosopher philosophical consequences of great scientific discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Friedel

    2005-01-01

    How do major scientific discoveries reshape their originators’, and our own, sense of reality and concept of the physical world? The Scientist as Philosopher explores the interaction between physics and philosophy. Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. Even more dramatically, the quantum theory and special theory of relativity questioned traditional assumptions about causation and the passage of time. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.

  10. MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S BLACK NOTEBOOKS AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karpenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the key strategies of philosophical criticism of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks, whose achievement is realized in the following tasks: 1 to identify the body of texts that represent the discourse of philosophical criticism of Heidegger notes; 2 to reveal the typological features of the different strategies of interpreting Black Notebooks; 3 to reconstruct a thematic horizon of Heidegger studies, opened up by discussion on published notes. The methodology combines elements of discourse analysis with traditional methods of historical and philosophical criticism. Scientific novelty is expressed in the following: 1 philosophical discourse of the Notebooks’ reception includes texts of narrowly specialized character (Gatherings collection of articles, as well as reflections of key philosophers (A. Badiou, J.-L. Nancy 2 basic strategies in philosophical critique of Black Notebooks convey the overall structure of the discourse of interpretation of Heidegger’s legacy, distributed between apologetics and ideological criticism; 3 Black Notebooks have exacerbated the problem of architectonics of Gesammtausgabe and formed the textual basis for the study of "silence" period in philosophical life of Heidegger. Conclusions. The discourse of philosophical critique of Heidegger’s notes proves evidence for ideological charge of philosophizing and justifies socially oriented approaches of historical and philosophical studies examining philosophizing as a special cultural practice, not as a form of sublime creativity.

  11. John Dewey--Philosopher and Educational Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Kandan

    2015-01-01

    John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.

  12. Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...... philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...... to the present day can be applied to give us new perspectives on business ethics and the ethics of organizations....

  13. Con Drury: philosopher and psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John

    2017-12-01

    Maurice O'Connor Drury (1907-76), an Irish psychiatrist, is best known for his accounts of his close friendship with the eminent twentieth-century philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein. His only book, The Danger of Words (1973), was well received by those who had an interest in the relationship between psychiatry, psychology and philosophy. This article concentrates on Drury's experiences, studies and writings in these fields.

  14. Philosophical introduction to set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, set theory forms an essential element of any comprehensive treatment of the philosophy of mathematics. This unique approach to set theory offers a technically informed discussion that covers a variety of philosophical issues. Rather than focusing on intuitionist and constructive alternatives to the Cantorian/Zermelian tradition, the author examines the two most important aspects of the current philosophy of mathematics, mathematical structuralism and mathematical applications of plural reference and plural

  15. IMPLIED AUTHOR IN PHILOSOPHICAL NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Senkāne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article falls within a number of papers about research on specification of philosophical novels. The aim of this article is to analyze author’s function as a narrative category in classical philosophical novels (Franz Kafka "The Trial" (1925, "The Castle" (1926, Jean-Paul Sartre "Nausea" (1938, Hermann Hesse "The Glass Bead Game" (1943, Albert Camus "The Plague" (1947 and a novel of Latvian prose writer Ilze Šķipsna "Neapsolītās zemes" ["Un-Promised Lands"] (1970. The analysis is based on theoretical ideas of structural narratologists Gerard Genette, William Labov, Seymuor Chatman, Wolf Schmid, as well as philosophers Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Ricouer and semioticians Yuri Lotman (Юрий Лотман and Umberto Eco. The real author can ”enter” the text only indirectly—as an image, with the help of the storyteller, and the way how this ”entry” happens is determined by the narration of the real author or narrative (communication skills of the author. Thus, the author and implied author are functionally different concepts: author as a real person develops the concept idea, his intention is to define the concept under his original vision; narrator, in its turn, communicates with the reader, representing the concept, and his aim is to select appropriate means of communication with regard to reader’s perceptual abilities.

  16. Mario Bunge: Physicist and Philosopher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War.He learnt atomic physics and quantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taught himself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised - it is salutary to see the fruits of one person's pursuit of the Big'' scientific and philosophical picture.

  17. Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self

  18. A Philosophical Wish List for Research in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Within a framework provided by the traditional trio consisting of metaphysics, epistemology and ethics, a first stab is made at a wish list for MIR-research from a philosophical point of view. Since the tools of MIR are equipped to study language and its use from a purely sonic standpoint, MIR re...

  19. Why People are Atypical Agents | Ross | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I argue that the traditional philosophical approach of taking cognitively and emotionally competent adult people to be the prototypical instances of agency should be revised in light of current work in the behavioral sciences. Logical consistency in application is better served by taking simple goal-directed and ...

  20. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  1. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  2. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  3. Notion of Identification: A Philosophical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human life should be good life in the real world which is not merely a function of objective facts but also a function of subjective factors like hopes, fears, interests, etc. Goodness, or excellence, is an ethical notion. The factors of good life cannot be identified solely by using the so-called factual (descriptive methods of identification. This means that the identification cannot be fully “objective” or fully “public”. Furthermore, there is a need for other methods of identification that also take into account certain “subjective” aspects of the object of identification. Following Jaakko Hintikka we call these methods contextual (perspectival methods of identification. Here ethics is not a set of ethical rules but rather the practical study of human life. How should we live our unique life? A philosophical-conceptual study is thus practical for this purpose. This is what Aristotle called practical wisdom (phronēsis.

  4. Three Philosophical Pillars That Support Collaborative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    Discusses three philosophical pillars that support collaborative learning: "spaces of appearance," active engagement, and ownership. Describes classroom experiences with collaborative learning supported by these pillars. (PRA)

  5. Failure of anti-T-cell receptor V beta antibodies to consistently identify a malignant T-cell clone in Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, R D; Boselli, C M; Foley, B; Vonderheid, E C

    1996-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with the human T cell receptor (TCR) V beta or V alpha region have been shown to be almost as specific as a private idiotypic MAb in identifying T cell clones. When available, V beta-specific MAbs offer the ease of immunofluorescence analysis to identify and quantitate expanded malignant or nonmalignant T cell populations without requiring polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to evaluate expression of V beta gene families. The V beta expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes from twenty-three consecutive patients with Sézary syndrome has been analyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Ten patients had malignant T cell clones that expressed a TCR V beta corresponding to a commercially available anti-V beta antibody. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-V beta MAbs showed a direct correlation with RT-PCR results in seven of ten patients. No false positive reactivity was noted on immunofluorescence staining with any MAb. Cells from three patients, however, did not react with the corresponding anti-V beta MAb. These three cases expressed a TCR V beta from gene families containing a single member, ie, V beta 14, V beta 18, and V beta 20, yet MAbs reported to be specific for these regions failed to react with the T cell clone from these patients. Sequencing of the PCR product in these cases confirmed the RT-PCR results. Cells from two patients expressed a TCR using V beta 5.1-D beta 1.1 genes with different J-C segments. One patient's cells reacted with an anti-V beta 5.1 MAb (LC4) whereas the other patient's cells bound one-tenth the amount of this same MAb. These results indicate that currently available anti-TCR V region MAbs may not react consistently with T cell clones expressing the corresponding V region or may react with a low affinity making detection difficult. Differences in the J-C junction or in CDR3 may influence the binding of these MAbs. Until the false negative rate is reduced and the fine specificity and

  6. The Philosophical Basis of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  8. Philosophical problems of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1976-01-01

    This book treats the philosophical problems that have arisen in connection with the theories of relativity and quantum theory. The book begins with a discussion of the problems that were raised by the special theory of relativity; questions relating to the structure of space and time, especially the problem of the temporal sequence of events. Subsequently problems are considered that were raised by the general theory of relativity, and which question the validity and applicability of Euclidean geometry to empirical space. The physical results, and in particular the theory of the measuring process in quantum mechanics, are considered. Criticism of the concept of substance and of the law of causality in quantum theory are discussed. Finally, the validity and applicability of classical logic for the domain of quantum-theoretical propositions are dealt with. (B.R.H.)

  9. Husserl and Shestov: philosophical antipodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szepieniec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a general characteristics of the relation between Lev Shestov’s philosophy of existence and transcendental phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The analysis was largely inspired by Cezary Wodziński’s research on Shestov’s writings, including his book published in Polish Wiedza a zbawienie. Studium myśli Lwa Szestowa (1991. In 1931, inspired by Descartes’ Meditationes de prima philosophiae, Husserl began a total transformation of philosophy into a science absolutely founded, assumptionless and developed in the spirit of absolute self-responsibility. Thus, the idea of philosophy as an exact science and Descartes’ idea of a science absolutely founded became the aim. It resulted in a project of universal science which — according to Husserl — has been the aim of European philosophy from the beginning. Ultimately, this philosophy was to rebuild the whole model of European culture. Less than two years after the first edition of Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenchaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie, Lev Shestov published his Athens and Jerusalem (1938 where he agrees with Husserl’s diagnosis that the whole European culture is in a stage of a deep crisis which goes to its very foundations. However, Shestov points at the radically different sources of that crisis. Paradoxically, a remarkable friendship connecting these two thinkers did not affect the similarity of their views. In fact, they are located at the opposite poles of the contemporary philosophical scene. The friendship of Shestov and Husserl was born in the atmosphere of an intense and uncompromising intellectual debate. Both thinkers are strongly convinced that the fate of European culture and European understanding what it is to be man are decided in the realm of philosophy. So, the philosophical projects they offer are two extremely critical visions of culture. At the same time they suggest a way the European culture should be thoroughly reformed

  10. Understanding Philosophical Counseling | Sivil | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophical counseling by exploring its points of convergence to and deviation from its complimentary parts – philosophy and counseling. The practical and applied orientation of philosophical counseling seems worlds apart from what many consider to exemplify philosophy – theoretical, intellectual and abstract concern ...

  11. Two Forms of Philosophical Argument or Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author looks at two forms of philosophical argument or critique. These are derived by himself from the work of the late Kantian scholar, Stephan Korner who, in his book "What is Philosophy?" (1969), draws a number of distinctions between different forms of "philosophical" argument or critique. The two forms of derived argument,…

  12. Human Freedom and the Philosophical Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to describe the essential features of the Western philosophical tradition can often be characterized as "boundary work", that is, the attempt to create, promote, attack, or reinforce specific notions of the 'philosophical' in order to demarcate it as a field of intellectual inquiry. During the last century, the dominant tendency…

  13. A New Philosophical Underpinning of Macromarketing Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2014-01-01

    and concepts: “language is autonomous”, “concept”, “seeing as”, “language-games”, etc. In this paper these philosophical thoughts and concepts combine so that they over time form recursive processes which spiral. These processes are taken as the philosophical foundation for researching the language and actions...... of the social actors in marketing systems. The unit of analysis for marketing systems and macromarketing issues is the idea in the recursive process and spiral. The introduction gives a brief overview of what is understood by macromarketing. Followed by a thorough explanation of many of Wittgenstein......This paper proposes a new philosophical foundation for analyzing macromarketing issues, and for further development of macromarketing theory, building on the language philosophy developed by the German/British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The building blocks are a number philosophical thoughts...

  14. Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

  15. TOWARDS A PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE LOGICS OF FORMAL INCONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALTER CARNIELLI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper we present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language in such a way that consistency may be logically independent of non-contradiction. We defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency may be interpreted as theories of logical consequence of an epistemological character. We also argue that in order to philosophically justify paraconsistency there is no need to endorse dialetheism, the thesis that there are true contradictions. Furthermore, we show that mbC, a logic of formal inconsistency based on classical logic, may be enhanced in order to express the basic ideas of an intuitive interpretation of contradictions as conflicting evidence.

  16. Is Mozi a utilitarian philosopher?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Changchi

    2006-01-01

    In this essay I argue that Mozi's philosophy is anything but utilitarianism by way of analysing four ethical theories.Utilitarianism is an ethics in which the moral subiect is an atomic individual human being,and its concern is how to fulfill the interests of the individual self and the social maiority.Confucian ethics is centered on the notion of the family and its basic question is that of priority in the relationship between the small self and the enlarged or collective self.Opposite to these two moral theories is Mozi's ethics:The interests that Mozi is primarily concerned with are not the interests of my individual self or my collective self,but the interests of the other.The fulfillment of the material needs of the other is my moral obligation.The arguments are centered on the three basic concepts,"the I,""the we,"and"me other."The significance Of Mozi's thought in modern or postmodern context lies in its striking resemblance to the philosophy of a contemporary western philosopher,Levinas.In both Mozi and Levinas,there is a suspension of utilitarianism.

  17. The philosophical aspect of learning inverse problems of mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes specific questions student learning inverse problems of mathematical physics. When teaching inverse problems of mathematical physics to the understanding of the students brought the information that the inverse problems of mathematical physics with a philosophical point of view are the problems of determining the unknown causes of known consequences, and the search for their solutions have great scientific and educational potential. The reasons are specified in the form of unknown coefficients, right side, initial conditions of the mathematical model of inverse problems, and as a consequence are functionals of the solution of this mathematical model. In the process of learning the inverse problems of mathematical physics focuses on the philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of information and identify cause-effect relations. It is emphasized that in the process of logical analysis applied and humanitarian character, students realize that information is always related to the fundamental philosophical questions that the analysis applied and the humanitarian aspects of the obtained results the inverse problem of mathematical physics allows students to make appropriate inferences about the studied process and to, ultimately, new information, to study its properties and understand its value. Philosophical understanding of the notion of information opens up to students a new methodological opportunities to comprehend the world and helps us to reinterpret existing science and philosophy of the theory related to the disclosure of the interrelationship of all phenomena of reality.

  18. Well-being, capabilities and philosophical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention

  19. Whose Ethics? Which Wittgenstein? | Richter | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . I argue that we should distinguish not only between Wittgenstein's personal opinions and his philosophy, but also, within his philosophical work, between broadly methodological remarks and what Wittgenstein might call genuinely ...

  20. Pynchon and Wittgenstein: ethics, relativism and philosophical methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Eve, Martin Paul

    2014-01-01

    This piece presents a tripartite analysis of the relationship between the philosophical works of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the novels of Thomas Pynchon. This is broadly structured around three schools of Wittgenstein scholarship identified by Guy Kahane et al. as the Orthodox Tractatus, the New Wittgenstein, and several strands of the Orthodox Investigations (Kahane et al. 4-14). Moving from the earliest affiliation that Pynchon stages between Wittgenstein and Weissman, the underlying theme lie...

  1. Structure and unity. Trancendence-philosophical interpretation of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Since their beginnings at the begin of the 20th century quantum physics in the ontological and epistemological interpretation of their results is facing persistent difficulties, which could not be satisfactorily solved to this day. Some quantum phenomena are beyond of both our everyday understanding of the world and the classical-physical picture of the world, which is essentially based on the mechanics of Isaac Newton. They exceed our imagination and seem at least partly contradict logical and space-time laws. Transcendence-philosophical thinking, which exhibits a close structural relation to the logics of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and to the philosophical systems analysis, provides a set of methodological instruments, which can help to avoid some problems of quantum-theoretical interpretation, which are in striking contrast to the mathematically consistent formulation of quantum theory. This is paradigmatically shown by selected main themes of the quantum-theoretical discussion.

  2. The Lublin Philosophical School: Founders, Motives, Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław A. Krąpiec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Lublin Philosophical School; it explains its name, presents its founders, reveals the causes of its rise, and introduce the specific character of the School’s philosophy.It starts with stating the fact that in the proper sense, the term “Lublin Philosophical School” describes a way of cultivating realistic (classical philosophy developed in the 1950s by a group of philosophers at the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The Lublin Philosophical School is characterized by cognitive realism (the object of cognition is really existing being, maximalism (taking up all existentially important questions, methodological autonomy (in relation to the natural-mathematical sciences and theology, transcendentalism in its assertions (its assertions refer to all reality, methodological-epistemological unity (the same method applied in objectively cultivated philosophical disciplines, coherence (which guarantees the objective unity of the object, and objectivity (achieved by the verifiability of assertions on their own terms, which is achieved by relating them in each instance to objective evidence. The term is the name of the Polish school of realistic (classical philosophy that arose as a response to the Marxism that was imposed administratively on Polish institutions of learning, and also as a response to other philosophical currents dominant at the time such as phenomenology, existentialism, and logical positivism.

  3. Behavioural repertoire of working donkeys and consistency of behaviour over time, as a preliminary step towards identifying pain-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Fran H; Hockenhull, Jo; Pritchard, Joy C; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Whay, Helen R

    2014-01-01

    The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram. Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males). Instantaneous (scan) and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (Pdonkeys (Pdonkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.

  4. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  5. Behavioural repertoire of working donkeys and consistency of behaviour over time, as a preliminary step towards identifying pain-related behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran H Regan

    Full Text Available The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram.Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males. Instantaneous (scan and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001. Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001. Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001. However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001. Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001 and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies.All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.

  6. [The concept of mania in Greek medical and philosophical literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleto, L M

    1992-01-01

    Coverage of the concept of mania in late archaic Greek culture displays a clear difference between its use in medical and philosophical works. Medical literature uses the terms [Greek] and [Greek] to describe mania, with the condition seen largely associated with physical illness. Specific treatment for this attered psychic state is not advanced. The philosophical view sees mania as a divine folly and thus possessing positive as well as negative aspects. Plate identifies four types of mania and treatment is closely associated with the divinity seen as responsible for that particular type. The radical rationalism found in the medical literature is a counterpoint to moderation as shown by Plato with his interest on regulations of society.

  7. The Philosophical Anthropology of José Manzana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main focus and interest of José Manzana’s philosophical anthropology is centred on the human condition, the sense of man’s action, the possibility of knowledge… and all that refers to «vertical transcendence», towards the Absolute, which finally culminates in God. With his philosophical anthropology, Manzana aims to ground on a transcendental method of reflection the conditions of man and his different options as a human being. The objective of this author is to clarify human existence by identifying his moment of creation. The aforementioned reflection brings us to three main dimensions of the individual: the human being as an inquiring entity, his interpersonal dimension and his awakening to the Transcendental.

  8. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  9. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. God and religion in post-modern philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Queiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an essay on the positions of some post-modern philosophers on religion, with the debate about post-modernity as a background. Its preliminary objective is to situate post-modernity taking a position between plain acceptance and categorical refusal in contemporary society. In this polemical field, the paper focuses on three important post-modern philosophers by pointing their contributions for a new thinking about religion today. The procedure consists in the reading of the authors´ texts looking for an interpretation of their discourses on God, religion and the sacred. The conclusion is that post-modernity is not as new era overcoming modernity, but that it is comprised of new themes  that are on the fringes  or even  in opposite directions of modernity´s parameters . One can find these themes in many fields of human knowledge including theology and science of religion. On Derrida´s position, who is the most focused philosopher, the text is still embryonic as it comes from ongoing research.  

  11. Philosophical conceptions of the self: implications for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher

    2000-01-01

    Several recently developed philosophical approaches to the self promise to enhance the exchange of ideas between the philosophy of the mind and the other cognitive sciences. This review examines two important concepts of self: the 'minimal self', a self devoid of temporal extension, and the 'narrative self', which involves personal identity and continuity across time. The notion of a minimal self is first clarified by drawing a distinction between the sense of self-agency and the sense of self-ownership for actions. This distinction is then explored within the neurological domain with specific reference to schizophrenia, in which the sense of self-agency may be disrupted. The convergence between the philosophical debate and empirical study is extended in a discussion of more primitive aspects of self and how these relate to neonatal experience and robotics. The second concept of self, the narrative self, is discussed in the light of Gazzaniga's left-hemisphere 'interpreter' and episodic memory. Extensions of the idea of a narrative self that are consistent with neurological models are then considered. The review illustrates how the philosophical approach can inform cognitive science and suggests that a two-way collaboration may lead to a more fully developed account of the self.

  12. YHWH and the God of philosophical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J W Gericke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In popular orthodox Christian philosophical theology, it is often taken for granted that the divine philosophised about is none other than the Hebrew deity YHWH himself. Moreover , it is often assumed that the Old� Testament depicts YHWH as being, inter alia, single, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and eternal. Now while it is to be admitted that there are indeed depictions of YHWH in the Old Testament in which his profile might be thought of as corresponding more or less to the popular philosophical ideal, it is also true that there are many representations that contradict it. In this article, the author looks at how the popular profile of� YHWH in the Old Testament as reconstructed by some philosophical theologians claiming to be �biblical�� is deconstructed when it is juxtaposed with alternative renderings of the divine in the same texts.

  13. [On the philosophical genealogy of Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, C T

    1975-06-01

    The origins of psycho-analysis, like those of every other medico-psychological study, have their own particular scientific and specific social, historical and philosophical-theoretical presuppositions. Freud's philosophical genealogy is closely linked to classical german philosophy and subsequent philosophical movements. I. Kant, J.-F. Herbart, A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche, E. v. Hartmann, G. T. Fechner, E. Mach, W. Ostwald, L. Feuerbach and others did not only emphasise the significance of drives and the unconscious in human behaviour, they also described many psychological mechanisms from depth psychology, (for example repression, condensation, substitution, sublimation). Some false theoretical trends in psycho-analysis (biologism, psychologism and simplifying psycho-energetics to simplify) can be explained to some extent by the influences mentioned above.

  14. The philosopher in Plato’s state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s political theory rests on metaphysical principles that are understandable to only a few. It is assumed that only a narrow group of philosophers is able to put this theory into practice, and using repressive measures. The fewer the initiated the greater the repression. It is assumed that those who do not know the truth can neither predict their destiny nor do anything to make it better because they are unable to understand the goal and purpose of the repression. It is demonstrated that, in the imagined use of force, the sophists, who do acknowledge it, resort to repression to a much lesser extent than Plato’s philosopher. At first, Plato’s philosopher rejects the use of force as virtue, but it turns out to be indispensible, and in incomparably more aspects than it was in the sophists’ case. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049

  15. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bosáková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

  16. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  17. Feser on Rothbard as a Philosopher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Casey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In “Rothbard as a philosopher” (Feser 2006 Edward Feser harshly criticises the philosophical abilities of Murray Rothbard. According to Feser, Rothbard seems unable to produce arguments that don’t commit obvious fallacies or produces arguments that fail to address certain obvious objections. His criticism centres on what he regards as Rothbard’s principal argument for the thesis of self-ownership. In this paper, I attempt to show that Feser’s criticism fails of its purpose and that Rothbard is very far from being the epitome of philosophical ineptitude that Feser takes him to be.

  18. Terrorism: some philosophical and ethical dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Trajce; Unsal, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Philosophers weren`t thinking a lot about terrorism before the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001. Or even when they were thinking the main concern was how to deal with terrorism. But after this attack terrorism was high on the philosophical agenda mainly manifested as an ethical problem. The key concern was: can terrorism be morally justified? That is the issue we are dealing in this paper too. But, the answer of this question largely depends on the treatment of t...

  19. Peace Education: Exploring Some Philosophical Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, James S.

    2004-01-01

    Peace education has been recognized as an important aspect of social education for the past three decades. The critical literature as well as official documents, however, have given little attention to its philosophical foundations. This essay explores these foundations in the ethics of (1) virtue, (2) consequentialism, (3) aesthetics, (4) conservative politics and (5) care. Each of these alone composes a significant element of peace education, although ultimately its solid basis can only be established through an integrative approach encouraging a culture of peace. The more complete development and articulation of the philosophical rationale of peace education is yet to be accomplished and remains a task for the future.

  20. THE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF MODERN BIOENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Shogar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the philosophical foundations of modern bioengineering to articulate its ethical framework. Engineering as an ultimate mechanism to transform knowledge into practice is essential for both physical and biological sciences. It reduces data, concepts, and designs to pictorial forms. The integration of engineering with the newly emerging biosciences, has presented a unique opportunity to overcome the major challenges that face the environmental and human health. To harness potentials of bioengineering and establish a sustainable foundation for green technology, modern scientists and engineers need to be acquainted with the normative questions of science. In addition to acquiring the general principles of scientific research and identifying the intrinsic goals of the endeavour, philosophy of bioengineering exposes bioengineers to both the descriptive ‘how’ questions of the physical world as well as the normative ‘why’ questions of values. Such an interdisciplinary approach is significant, not only for inspiring to acquire the genuine knowledge of the existing world, but also to expose the bioengineers to their ethical and social responsibilities. Besides introducing the conceptual framework of bioengineering, this paper has investigated the three major philosophies that have been dominating the theoretical presuppositions of scientific research method in history. Namely, (i Systems biology approach; (ii Evolutionary biology approach; and (iii Mechanical view approach. To establish the ethical foundation of modern bioengineering, the paper, also has conducted an analytical study on various branches of the emerging discipline of bioscience. The paper has concluded that adopting the interdisciplinary approach in research and education is essential to harness potentials of bioengineering and to establish foundations of green technology. To achieve the final objectives of bioengineering, both the practical and theoretical

  1. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  2. Identity in Physics A Historical, Philosophical, and Formal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    French, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Can quantum particles be regarded as individuals, just like books, tables and people? According to the 'received' view - articulated by several physicists in the immediate aftermath of the quantum revolution - quantum physics itself tells us they cannot: quantum particles, unlike their classical counterparts, must be regarded as 'non-individuals' in some sense. However, recent work has indicated that this is not the whole story and that the theory is also consistent with theposition that such particles can be taken to be individuals, albeit at a metaphysical price. Drawing on philosophical acc

  3. A Philosophical Look at the Higgs Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the recent experimental detection of a Higgs-type particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the paper reviews philosophical aspects of the Higgs mechanism as the presently preferred account of the generation of particle masses in the Standard Model of elementary particle

  4. Fiction and Conviction | Blackburn | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I claim that there is nothing so unusual in the interleaving of myth or fiction and history that Williams finds in Herodotus. I also reflect on the difficulty of separating acceptance of truth from acceptance of myth, metaphor, and model, not only in history but also in science. Philosophical Papers Vol.32(3) 2003: 243-260 ...

  5. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  6. Human Being and the Philosophical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we start our approach is the one according to which the philosophicaldiscourse is a specific way of communicating the reality. The base of the philosophical communication issurprise, doubt, uncertainty, anxiety, all generated by the fundamental interrogations of Kantian origin: Howmuch am I able to know? What do I have to do? What am I allowed to hope? The answers to all thesequestions were set up in philosophical concepts and visions, all of them leading to communication, trying toexpress themselves and make themselves understood. Communicability is the very essence of thephilosophical approach. Actually, communication is a fundamental philosophical attitude as I, in my capacityof human being, live only with the other, in full interaction. On my own I am nothing. Throughout this paperwe find arguments for the idea according to which the philosophical discourse subordinates an art ofgenuinely living and communicating about balance and avoidance of excess, about the ability to assume andovercome, about lucidity and wisdom, about credibility, certainty and truth, about freedom and limitation,about the meaning and value of the human condition.

  7. Social space: Philosophical reflections | Strauss | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our analysis of the phrase 'social space' first of all concentrates on the modal or functional nature of the different aspects of reality, including the social and spatial aspects. Subsequently this leads to an analysis of the problem of modal analogies – one way in which an answer is given to the perennial philosophical problem ...

  8. Seneca's theology in its philosophical context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houte, M.S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835862

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at a better understanding of the theological views of the Roman Stoic Seneca and the status of these views in relation to those of the earlier Stoics, and in the context of various other factors, such as the views of other philosophical schools and the purpose of Seneca's work.This

  9. The Philosophical Foundations of Modern Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dr Keekok

    2011-01-01

    An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.

  10. Adam Smith : Systematic Philosopher and Public Thinker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schliesser, E.

    2017-01-01

    This book treats Adam Smith as a systematic philosopher. Smith was a giant of the Scottish Enlightenment with polymath interests. The book explores Smith’s economics and ethics in light of his other commitments on the nature of knowledge, the theory of emotions, the theory of mind, his account of

  11. Creative Understanding Philosophical Reflections on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Torretti, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    "A pleasure to read. Gracefully written by a scholar well grounded in the relevant philosophical, historical, and technical background. . . . a helpfully clarifying review and analysis of some issues of importance to recent philosophy of science and a source of some illuminating insights."—Burke Townsend, Philosophy of Science

  12. Introducing Giovanni Gentile, the "Philosopher of Fascism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…

  13. The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…

  14. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF AESTETICS IN POST-CLASSICAL EPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariia M. Skalska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To understand the dynamics of aesthetic conception as representative of the main directions of philosophical anthropology, identifying their contribution to the development of aesthetics and expand its research field. The condition of the study of the problem is the evolutionary process of adequateness, authenticity and alternativeness in determination of both the phenomenon of "aesthetic" and its role in philosophical and anthropological  convention. Methodology. Both the measurements of aesthetic as a unique, peculiar, specific and aesthetic dimensions of philosophical anthropology /systems of philisophy/ have in sight  the necessity to solve the same problem - the identification of new methodological basis. Theoretical results. The experience of theoretical researches of contemporary domestic and foreign philosophical and aesthetic schools іs generalized. The content of phenomenological and existential breakthrough in  modern age  of aesthetics іs revealed. The essence of "anthropological turn" in European philosophy of 20th century  as philosophical paradigm of the modern age and its impact on development of aesthetic theories of post-classical period was investigated. Conclusion. Philosophical and anthropological studies have amounted the "methodological synthesis" that appeared as the theoretical principles of the understanding of aesthetics due to its polystylistics.

  15. Philosophical biography : some problems of conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the specificity of the genre of philosophical biography and brings to light its conceptual grounds. “Philosophical biography” is defined as an understanding of human life, which has received not only a literary but also a philosophical form of expression. It shows that philosophical biography has a variety of features, which limit the applications of chronology, rubrication and other principles of organizing in a linear manner the material of a biography. In this contex...

  16. Shirakatsi Astronomical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Lilit

    2016-12-01

    Our work is aimed at presenting Shirakatsi astronomical and natural philosophical views. Karl Anania Shirakatsi is classified as one of the world-class intellectual geniuses. He was endowed with exceptional talent and analyzing scientific understanding of natural phenomena. He refers his philosophical works to almost all fields of science, cosmography, mathematics, calendarology, historiography, etc. Shirakatsy's earnings of natural science and natural philosophy in medieval is too big He was the first prominent scholar and thinker of his time, creating a unique, comprehensive gitapilisopayakan system that still feeds the human mind. The scientific value of Shirakatsi has great importance not only for Armenians but also for the whole world of science, history, culture and philosophy. Shirakatsi can be considered not only national but also universal greatness.

  17. Challenges in reading the Greek philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Aghili Dehkordi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Presocratics in 600 B.C founded new research ways in science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific essays, introduced basic conceptions of deduction, and abandoned mythological explanations, all we have of their works is but the fragments in the works of further doxographers, biographers, historians or philosophers who brought their statements between their own words. This would sometimes result in misunderstanding the presocratics’ purposes. Hermann Diels in his Doxographi Graeci raised a new method for dealing with doxography tradition. Diels’ new approach to doxography returned all this tradition to Aristotle’s pupil, Theophrastus. Some scholars like Jaap Mansfield criticized his disregard for the sophists like Gorgias and Hippias, and the successions of philosophers. According to his criticism, some matters like the Sophists’ influence on Plato, Aristotle’s definition of Doxa in the Placita and the influence of the succession and interpretation tradition on doxogtaphy are more noteworthy than Diels has thought.

  18. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  19. A Brief Prehistory of Philosophical Paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. F. Altman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In celebration of Newton da Costa’s place in the history of paraconsistency, this paper considers the use and abuse of deliberate self-contradiction. Beginning with Parmenides, developed by Plato, and continued by Cicero, an ancient philosophical tradition used deliberately paraconsistent discourses to reveal the truth. In modern times, decisionism has used deliberate self-contradiction against Judeo-Christian revelation.

  20. Philosophical Performances in Everyday Life Situations

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    Rüdiger H. Rimpler

    2016-07-01

    Following some of the ideas of Julian Klein and Arno Böhler on the significance of our feelings and on the limits of conceptual thinking I propose a specific form of philosophical performances, which is based on a grounding of emotions within thinking and on postponed deliberations within networking groups of individuals who are sharing a similar background of specific experiences in a given population.

  1. Training and "Abrichtung": Wittgenstein as a Tragic Philosopher of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm

    2017-01-01

    As a landmark philosopher of language and of mind, Ludwig Wittgenstein is also remarkable for having crossed, with apparent ease, the "continental divide" in philosophy. It is consequently not surprising that Wittgenstein's work, particularly in the "Philosophical Investigations," has been taken up by philosophers of education…

  2. Naming Being - or the Philosophical Content of Heidegger's National Socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution discusses the philosophical meaning of the Martin Heidegger’s Rectoral address. First of all, Heidegger’s philosophical basic experience is sketched as the background of his Rectoral address; the being-historical concept of “Anfang”. Then, the philosophical question of the Rectoral

  3. Social-philosophical practices of success

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    S. R. Karpenko

    2017-01-01

    Is social-philosophical experts of success represent the complicated system of various world outlook, speech, mental factors and events in life of the various professional, age and subcultural bunches producing assessments under different visual angles, from positions of various social installations and identity in what the social philosophy of success expresses. In the course of forming social an expert (both in daily, and in an institutional discourse are shaped also theoretical ideas success: instrumental, is social-philosophical, is social-psychological, world outlook, historical and cultural, etc., characterising thereby various systems of a social discourse. Examination is social-philosophical the success expert shows the real complexity and ambiguity of the given appearance. Besides the presented typology constructed as the most approximate abstract plan, in each separate case probably build-up of typological models according to a principle ad hoc. It looks quite justified, considering that circumstance that representations about success and the successful person are constantly transformed and acquire new performances. Efficiency of the further examinations of a discourse and a success expert will depend on accepting of new heuristic approaches, capable to consider multidimensionality and ambiguity of the given phenomenon.

  4. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

  5. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

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    K. M. Alilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to consider the relationship of philosophy and education; the article also reviews the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, a global model for a special educational activity. We also discuss the features of the philosophical approach to the issue of sustainable development. Discussion. In research, we use the method of socio-natural approach, a new educational paradigm that combines the theory and concept of training and education within the anthropocentric approach based on humanistic philosophical ideas which laid the basis for understanding the person as the subject of life, history and culture. We analyzed environmental and educational aspects of sustainable development in the current context. In order to address these challenges, philosophy produces new concepts, theories and paradigms. It is necessary to work on people's motivation and values, develop their cooperation skills, teach civic engagement and democratic by action rather than words. Only a highly educated society can generate environmental paradigm and implement the strategy of sustainable development. Conclusions. We recommend transferring research outcomes into practice in schools starting with elementary school, as well as in vocational schools and universities. Clarifying the essence of the concept of education for sustainable development is possible through philosophical understanding of its genesis and ideas.

  6. PHILOSOPHIC AND CLINICAL DISCOURSE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

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    V. M. Skyrtach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to identify common and distinctive features of concepts and methodology of the problem of subject within different discourses, implicitly or explicitly relevant to the definition of "clinical" mode of human existence. The research methodology combines techniques of discourse analysis and basic principles of historical and philosophical studies. Originality of the research lies in definition of the clinical philosophical discourse as a special communicative process, where utterances not only focus on disease syndromes, and reveal phenomenology of inner experience of a pathological self, but also structure a certain type of sociality. Clinical discourse represents the space where the patient is treated not as a subject but as an object of disease. Ontology of clinical discourse prevails over ontology of disease, since its structures determine the notion of disease as such. Categorization of the disease, the idea of disease as a phenomenon subdued to professional authority leads to the idea of the need for patient’s isolation from the natural environment and removing him to special social institutions. The clinicist doctrines share the intention to reduce the patient’s self to its bodily dimension, while ignoring social determinants of psychological deviations. Conclusions of the study are summarized in the following positions: the current clinical discourse is based on the positivist-biological trend in humanitarian knowledge and it is the basis for the production and reproduction of medical and pharmaceutical repressive ideology; criticism of philosophical clinical discourse opens the possibility of overcoming the dominance of purely clinicist discourse; such a transformation is possible only after a paradigm shift in understanding the category of subject.

  7. Philosophical problems between teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alvim Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to think the relation between teaching and learning, questioning the conception of education as a way to shape the subject involved in this relationship. Thus, introduce some legal bases readings that establish the Brazilian high school in order to consider the importance of discussing philosophically the Philosophy teaching.This way, with the reading of Foucault and Deleuze, rethink the conception of subject present in the parameters that rule the education, as well as the education paradigm as a way to promote the student to a social subject. In this sense, it is necessary to bring official discourse elements to stablish the conception of educating in this curriculum and, together, discuss about the notion of subject present in this documents. We intend to dissolve the comprehension of universal subject in order to treat the subjectivities and rethink the relation between teaching and learning. This relation is designed, most of the time, with a certain homogeneity in the formation of a certain subject and a certain knowledge. Therefore, this proposal aims to question the bases of education that start from a perception of teaching as a product. Discourse about a teaching that does not address only content transmission, but a teaching as philosophical experience. Think with Deleuze that learning is related not only to a rational aspect, but also to a sensitive one. However, starting with some researchers interested in the subject, consider these terms in order to propose possibilities of thinking a philosophical Philosophy teaching in high school. It is noteworthy that this proposal do not intend to deplete the thought of concepts that are so complex, but to raise questions that are still in an investigation process and should be analyzed constantly.

  8. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  9. The Talmudic philosophical conception of business ethics

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    Alexander Maune

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud is considered to be one of the cornerstones of Judaism, Jewish business ethics and Jewish wisdom for business success. The Talmud has been the guide and main nerve center of the Jewish people. This article examines the philosophical conception of business ethics from a Talmudic perspective. The article used a conceptual approach as well as a review of related literature. It was found out that the road of the Talmud led not to philosophy and theology but to ethics, law and justice; it pursued not the abstract but the concrete. This article has therefore business and academic value.

  10. The Philosophical Practitioner and the Curriculum Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Benckendorff, Pierre; Day, Michele

    2014-01-01

    the balance between higher order knowledge in liberal education and skills-based vocational education required by industry; and it builds upon the Philosophic Practitioner Education to conceptualise a curriculum space that is socially constructed, dynamic and flexible. The proposed framework incorporates......This chapter reviews contemporary debates about tourism and hospitality education to conceptualise a curriculum space framework that can be used to facilitate understanding and decision making. The chapter is conceptual and makes two key contributions: it draws together diverse discourses about...

  11. Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel

  12. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  13. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, Santiago; Chhem, Rethy K.; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-01-01

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  14. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  15. Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a useful methodological framework for the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Guzys

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we aim to demonstrate how Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics may provide a sound methodological framework for researchers using the Delphi Technique (Delphi in studies exploring health and well-being. Reporting of the use of Delphi in health and well-being research is increasing, but less attention has been given to covering its methodological underpinnings. In Delphi, a structured anonymous conversation between participants is facilitated, via an iterative survey process. Participants are specifically selected for their knowledge and experience with the topic of interest. The purpose of structuring conversation in this manner is to cultivate collective opinion and highlight areas of disagreement, using a process that minimizes the influence of group dynamics. The underlying premise is that the opinion of a collective is more useful than that of an individual. In designing our study into health literacy, Delphi aligned well with our research focus and would enable us to capture collective views. However, we were interested in the methodology that would inform our study. As researchers, we believe that methodology provides the framework and principles for a study and is integral to research integrity. In assessing the suitability of Delphi for our research purpose, we found little information about underpinning methodology. The absence of a universally recognized or consistent methodology associated with Delphi was highlighted through a scoping review we undertook to assist us in our methodological thinking. This led us to consider alternative methodologies, which might be congruent with the key principles of Delphi. We identified Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a methodology that could provide a supportive framework and principles. We suggest that this methodology may be useful in health and well-being studies utilizing the Delphi method.

  16. Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a useful methodological framework for the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzys, Diana; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda; Threlkeld, Guinever

    2015-01-01

    In this article we aim to demonstrate how Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics may provide a sound methodological framework for researchers using the Delphi Technique (Delphi) in studies exploring health and well-being. Reporting of the use of Delphi in health and well-being research is increasing, but less attention has been given to covering its methodological underpinnings. In Delphi, a structured anonymous conversation between participants is facilitated, via an iterative survey process. Participants are specifically selected for their knowledge and experience with the topic of interest. The purpose of structuring conversation in this manner is to cultivate collective opinion and highlight areas of disagreement, using a process that minimizes the influence of group dynamics. The underlying premise is that the opinion of a collective is more useful than that of an individual. In designing our study into health literacy, Delphi aligned well with our research focus and would enable us to capture collective views. However, we were interested in the methodology that would inform our study. As researchers, we believe that methodology provides the framework and principles for a study and is integral to research integrity. In assessing the suitability of Delphi for our research purpose, we found little information about underpinning methodology. The absence of a universally recognized or consistent methodology associated with Delphi was highlighted through a scoping review we undertook to assist us in our methodological thinking. This led us to consider alternative methodologies, which might be congruent with the key principles of Delphi. We identified Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a methodology that could provide a supportive framework and principles. We suggest that this methodology may be useful in health and well-being studies utilizing the Delphi method.

  17. Why moral philosophers are not and should not be moral experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, David

    2011-03-01

    Professional philosophers are members of bioethical committees and regulatory bodies in areas of interest to bioethicists. This suggests they possess moral expertise even if they do not exercise it directly and without constraint. Moral expertise is defined, and four arguments given in support of scepticism about their possession of such expertise are considered and rejected: the existence of extreme disagreement between moral philosophers about moral matters; the lack of a means clearly to identify moral experts; that expertise cannot be claimed in that which lacks objectivity; and that ordinary people do not follow the advice of moral experts. I offer a better reason for scepticism grounded in the relation between moral philosophy and common-sense morality: namely that modern moral philosophy views even a developed moral theory as ultimately anchored in common-sense morality, that set of basic moral precepts which ordinary individuals have command of and use to regulate their own lives. Even if moral philosophers do nevertheless have a limited moral expertise, in that they alone can fully develop a set of moral judgments, I sketch reasons - grounded in the values of autonomy and of democracy - why moral philosophers should not wish non-philosophers to defer to their putative expertise. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Homo religiosus : philosophical anthropology Viktor Emil Frankl 's .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius da Costa Meireles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, entitled The Homo religiosus: the philosophical anthropology of Viktor Emil Frankl, is rooted in the anthropology of Frankl and aims to understand Frankl’s anthropology and its spiritual dynamic in religious experience. Using theoretical-bibliographical research with these main works—The Ignored Presence of God (1948, The Unconditioned Man (1949, Patient Man (1950, and The Search for God and Questions about the Meaning of Life (1984—this work traverses through Frankl’s anthropology, the spiritual dimension, the search for meaning, and one’s relationship with God. The work is divided into three parts. The first part consists of contextualization and critique. The second part puts forward a proposal, and the third part discusses the experience of the Homo religiosus.

  19. A social-philosophical perspective on Danish prisoners’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    is not associated with crime. By virtue of exactly the linking together of self-perception and education, the focus of my study relates closely to the concept of “transformative learning” in which changes within the learner’s identity constitute a central focus. The empirical methods of this research project......In my ongoing research project, I am looking into whether – and if so then how – education of inmates and former inmates of Danish prisons may contribute in a positive manner to the self-perception of the persons in question. By “positive” I am alluding especially to a self-perception, which...... consists so far of ten qualitative interviews with prisoners and former prisoners who have responded to questions pertaining to the personal, rights-related and social dimensions of their respective educations. The social-philosophical perspective of Axel Honneth theoretically inspires this division...

  20. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  1. Conjoined Twins: Philosophical Problems and Ethical Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    We examine the philosophical and ethical issues associated with conjoined twins and their surgical separation. In cases in which there is an extensive sharing of organs, but nevertheless two distinguishable functioning brains, there are a number of philosophical and ethical challenges. This is because such conjoined twins: 1. give rise to puzzles concerning our identity, about whether we are identical to something psychological or biological; 2. force us to decide whether what matters from an ethical point of view is the biological life of our organisms or the existence of our consciousness or mind; 3. raise questions concerning when, if ever, it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one of us to save another; 4. force us to reflect on the conditions for ownership of organs and the justification of removal of organs for transplantation which causes the death of the donor; 5. raise questions about who should take decisions about life-risking treatments when this cannot be decided by patients themselves. We examine and suggest answers to these questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. How to transform economics? A philosophical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kellecioglu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after the global financial crisis there is hardly any evidence that the theories, teaching and policies of mainstream economics have changed. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the greater understanding of this persistence, but also to the discussion on what the requirements are to materialise a transformation in economics, given the dismal outcomes in the world economy. The analytical approach of the paper is to utilise relevant philosophical accounts that point out attributes of dominant discourses, and methodological requirements to supersede an already dominant discourse. The objective is to contribute to an improved understanding of factors that obstruct or construct transformations in a knowledge field such as economics; and thereby contribute to transformation efforts, preferably for a more pluralist and emancipatory economics. Given the complexities and the tensions between different philosophical positions, the conclusions of this appraisal are summarised into five criteria that appear essential to realise a successful transformation in economics: critical juncture; dissimilarity; scholar validation; sensibility; and external power. It is suggested to revise efforts to fulfil these criteria as much, and as soon as possible, given the importance and urgency of changing the trajectory of our economies and societies.

  3. A Philosophical Treatise of Universal Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rathmanner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results and is based on solid philosophical foundations, the requisite technical knowledge necessary for understanding this framework has caused it to remain largely unknown and unappreciated in the wider scientific community. The main contribution of this article is to convey Solomonoff induction and its related concepts in a generally accessible form with the aim of bridging this current technical gap. In the process we examine the major historical contributions that have led to the formulation of Solomonoff Induction as well as criticisms of Solomonoff and induction in general. In particular we examine how Solomonoff induction addresses many issues that have plagued other inductive systems, such as the black ravens paradox and the confirmation problem, and compare this approach with other recent approaches.

  4. Tolstoy’s Philosophic System and Taoism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Venya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intensive economic growth and consumer society formation, there expands a view that the human life value depends mainly on the material benefits and money; meanwhile, the moral values trail behind leading the humanity towards the spiritual crisis. The author recommends addressing the heritage of our great ancestors and studying both the works of L. N. Tolstoy and Taoism philosophy in order to maintain the spiritual self and revive our faith in human powers. Taoism is the native law of the world’s order demonstrating the natural ways of life, developing the harmonious life style, and teaching the natural control methods in compliance with the laws of nature.For the most Russian and Chinese readers Lev Tolstoy is a great writer and thinker; his philosophic system being one of the most significant in the Russian spirituality and ideology. L. Tolstoy rejected the western rationalism and studied the Chinese philosophic and religious doctrines. The author conducted a comparative analysis of Tolstoy’s concepts (non-resistance to evil by violence, wise non- doing and Taoism key concepts, and makes a conclusion about their organic interrelations, and the influence of the Chinese wisdom on Tolstoy’s works and worldview. 

  5. Fritjof Capra’s holism and the structures of philosophical conceptualisation: The logosemantics of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Visagie

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a field of study that I call logosemantics: the theory of conceptual structures that determine philosophical expressions of ultimate insight. The kind of structures that logosemantics postulates are described with reference to the holistic philosophy of Capra. In particular the conceptualisation of holistic complexity in relation to reductionistic simplicity is thematised. In the course of this analysis the logosemantic place of complexity in the conceptual structure of philosophically foundational expressions is identified, with reference not only to Capra, but also to various philosophical "languages" in the history of Western thought, from Greek metaphysics to systems philosophy and post-structuralism. Attention is also given to some Eastern philosophies. After a purely descriptive analysis of logosemantic form, the possibility of logosemantic criticism is considered. The relation of simplicity and complexity is reviewed again, and an alternative interpretation to the one seemingly favoured by Capra is suggested.

  6. The Joint Philosophical Program of Russell and Wittgenstein and Its Demise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Milkov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Between April and November 1912, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein were engaged in a joint philosophical program. Wittgenstein’s meeting with Gottlob Frege in December 1912 led, however, to its dissolution—the joint program was abandoned. Section 1 of this paper outlines the key points of that program, identifying what Russell and Wittgenstein each contributed to it. The second section determines precisely those features of their collaborative work that Frege criticized. Finally, building upon the evidence developed in the first two sections, section 3 recasts along previously undeveloped lines Wittgensein’s logical–philosophical discoveries in the two years following his encounter with Frege in 1912. The paper concludes, in section 4, with an overview of the dramatic consequences the Frege–Wittgenstein critique had for Russell’s philosophical development.

  7. The enigma of energy: A philosophical inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro-Franceschi, Vidette

    1998-06-01

    A philosophical inquiry was undertaken to examine the enigma of energy in an attempt to clarify and further illuminate the basic ideas of energy. Beginning with the origin of the concept-Aristotle's conceptualization of energeia-and continuing through to the present day with an overview of the historical conceptual development of energy in Western science, an analysis and interpretation of the scientific and philosophic literature was performed. Literature regarding aspects of human sentience was also examined for underlying ideas of energy. And, finally, selected medical and nursing science theoretical frameworks were analyzed with the hope of further grasping the philosophical underpinnings related to the phenomenon of human energy. Certain ideas of energy became evident. Energy can be viewed as a process and this view works well within the physical science domain. When energy is viewed as a process it falls within the mechanistic tradition: things are viewed as particulate, and cause and effect related. However, energy can also be viewed as a phenomenon, a thing. As a phenomenon, energy is continually transforming and actualizing inherent potentials in a communal process. When energy is recognized as the sole phenomenon responsible for everything in existence, it becomes evident that all is essentially one. In addition, when energy is viewed in this manner it becomes increasingly difficult to deny the purposive character underlying all nature. It is argued that the mystery ultimately leads to something far beyond what we know exists. One of the intuitive feelings of this researcher was that there were at least two different ideas of energy in the sciences of medicine and nursing, which, while different, shared some common elements as well. An examination of Hippocrates', Nightingale's, Selye's, Levine's, and Rogers' ideas, as well as the basic tenets of alternative health care, revealed two distinct worldviews regarding human energy which are congruent with the

  8. Philosophical analysis of virtualization educational space problems

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    V. D. Kolomiets

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorical imperative of the new spatial organization of education through its integration in the media space is its virtualization. It is possible in principle, given that both spaces are characterized by adaptability, ease transfer from one semiotic system to another, mobility, functionality, flexibility, allowing for their continuous restructuring. On the philosophical and educational perspective, for us it is important to note that the «idea» of media education space sets the goal of education, understanding of the complex and multi­level organization of information relations of the educational process is a simple link between empirical concepts and ideas about education space as integrity within the information society. Virtual dimension issues of educational space formed within one of the major philosophical and educational issues ­ problems of socio­cultural nature of education as a mechanism of becoming human in man. Today feature virtual philosophical analysis is understanding not just a technical phenomenon, but as a space of human existence, and therefore its educational space. It is in this sense the philosophy of education is important to apply the methodology of media philosophy in the development problems of media education space as a space of life, self­development and self­knowledge of man. Crisis and negative phenomena in postmodern education is not the result of the process of formation of modern electronic media and virtual media space. However, this specific problem requires analysis of education is in the context of new technologies of mass communication. The spread of the crisis of education in terms of media reality should be seen as a crisis of a man who fell into the information system, which is the media model and simulated education and awareness of life. Education in terms of media consumerism acts as a social technology and media culture «escape from thinking.» The transition from education information and

  9. MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE OF RELIGION

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    Jowita Guja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a synthetic overview of main problems of the philosophical critique of religion. In the beginning I identify and characterize three general threads of the critique: the enlightenment, the alienational and the thread which focuses on the problem of theodicy. The greater part of my article is devoted to the alienational critique of religion n its two types: atheistic (Feuerbach, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Sartre and theistic (Barth. The subjects of my analysis are the sources and foundations of the alienational critique of religion and the most important problems implied by it: the essence of religion, the ideal of the irreligious man, the prospect to remove religion. The analysis presents troubles and confusions connected to these subjects: they emerge in atheistic type of alienational critique of religion.

  10. [Origin and thought on the philosophical ideas of acupuncture in Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiumei

    2017-12-12

    Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been a treasure in Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years. It is opposite to many basic theories in modern medicine in dynasties. Different from the cross compatibility and interactions among medical medicines, acupuncture in Chinese medicine has its own consolidation and inherent philosophical ideas. In view of this, how to discuss the philosophical ideas and its development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine becomes of great importance. It is crucial to clearly answer the three theoretical propositions in the development of acupuncture in Chinese medicine. Firstly, the differences in acupuncture should be identified between the ancient time and the modern time. The issues focus on the origin of Huangdi Neijing ( Yellow Emperor's Internal Medicine ) and its philosophical divergence. Secondly, the origin of acupuncture should be identified, whether it is from China or India. Thirdly, the differences in acupuncture should be identified between China and the west, focusing on the explanation and rectification of the interrelationship between the acupuncture in Chinese medicine and the western acupuncture. Hence, the basic features are discussed on the reality of acupuncture in Chinese medicine as well as its diversity. Finally, the proposition is extended on how to holistically grasp the philosophical foundation of acupuncture in Chinese medicine and its future trend.

  11. A philosophical approach to quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2015-01-01

    This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.

  12. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

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    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  13. Philosophical Foundations for Democracy: A Ukrainian Perspective

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    Yuriy Myelkov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to conduct a philosophical analysis of democracy as it is presented by democratization processes in societies under globalization. Turbulent political life or contemporary Ukraine with its recent ‘revolution’ provides an excellent example of such a process. The authors demonstrate that the processes in question could be denoted as rather manipulation and political technologies than democratic transition. They argue that democracy can only be understood correctly as the self-organization of society composed of free and conscious human personalities. They show that personality as the subject of democracy, opposed to crowds led by contemporary demagogues, is the only possibility to achieve real changes for a better society.

  14. Philosophical and methodological analyses in Japanese particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardos, G. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Elmeleti Fizikai Tanszek)

    1984-01-01

    The history and philosophy of the Japanese school of dialectical materialism and its influence on nuclear and particle physicists are discussed. The ideas of main characters of this philosophical school are summerized. Parallel physical and philosophical works of Sakata are analyzed.

  15. Peirce and Rationalism: Is Peirce a Fully Semiotic Philosopher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…

  16. “Sketches of landscapes”: On philosophical poems

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    Troy Jollimore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to do philosophy by writing lyric poems—or reading them? How can a poem be genuinely philosophical, and can a philosophical poem do something that straightforward philosophical writing cannot do? Some have suggested that poems and philosophical writings have different aims and are subject to different and conflicting demands, which would render it difficult if not impossible to write a successful philosophical poem. I suggest that while this is true with respect to the aims of the standard academic philosophical journal essay, there is a different way of doing philosophical work—one that pays close attention to actual thought processes and that dramatizes the interplay of ideas—that lyric poetry is quite well suited to take on. Such work may be significant not only in helping us better understand human consciousness, but in letting us grasp insights and aspects of our experience of the world which the philosophical demand for simple, unified theories might otherwise tempt us to minimize or ignore altogether.

  17. Should Philosophers and Educators Be Speaking to Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    Responds to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" suggesting that philosophers and educators are actually speaking to one another, copiously and productively, though the conversation sometimes takes other, less direct modes. The paper asks whether they should be talking to each other,…

  18. Discussing a Philosophical Background for the Ethnomathematical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Denise Silva

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which Wittgenstein's analytical framework may be relevant to philosophical reflection on ethnomathematics. The discussion develops Bill Barton's suggestion that a philosophical basis for the ethnomathematical program should include and explain culturally different mathematics systems, and the coexistence of…

  19. Philosophical counselling: Towards a 'new approach' in pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian ...

  20. Anarchism and the nature of man: a philosophical appraisal | Ogan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work with the title “Anarchism and the Nature of Man: a Philosophical Appraisal” holds that Anarchism as a belief, movement or school of thought boils down to the age long philosophical problem of the relationship between authority and individuals or put differently, the problem of the justification of constituted authority ...

  1. 'To Philosophize is to Learn How to Die?'

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    Saitya Brata Das

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical thinking, as it is thinking of existence, is essentially finite thinking. This is to say that as thinking of existence, philosophical thinking is essentially also thinking of finitude. This ‘also' is not the accidental relationship between existence and finitude. Rather, to think existence in its finitude, insofar as existence is finite, is to think existence in its existentiality. Philosophy that gives itself the task of thinking the relationship between existence and finitude, must in the same gesture, be concerned with its own finitude: to philosophize is not only to think the finitude of existence, but the very finitude of thinking that thinks finite existence. To philosophize is not only to philosophize the finitude of existence as such, but also in so far as philosophising itself is a task which is essentially in itself finite. To assume as the task of thinking the finitude of existence is to think the very finitude of philosophical thinking: this is the profound relationship that exists between existence and philosophy, which is that philosophizing existence and an existential philosophy are essentially finite. This is perhaps what Socrates says of philosophizing: ‘to philosophize is to learn how to die.' "To philosophize is to learn how to die": this is to say, to philosophize is to learn that philosophy and existence are essentially finite. Philosophy and existence belong to finitude and gifts of finitude; therefore to philosophize is to learn how existence is this gift. To be able to learn how existence is this gift of finitude, to be able to assume this gift that makes existence essentially finite, which is to be able to assume existence at all, is to be able to die.' Learning to die' then comes to signify the ability of dying, which is in the same gesture, the ability of existing: existence, and dying at the end must be this ability, of existing and dying. Philosophizing must provide, then, the learning of this

  2. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

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    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church. Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word

  3. [Different philosophical traditions for knowledge development in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Gendron, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    doctoral studies in nursing engage a critical reflections about philosophical traditions inherent to knowledge development. critical realism, hermeneutics, postmodernism and poststructuralism refer to philosophical traditions that are generally less explored in nursing, although they are attracting greater attention. this paper offers an introductory presentation to these traditions as the authors also reflect upon their contribution to nursing knowledge development in. for each tradition, ontological and epistemological properties are presented to provide an overview of their main features. Contributions to nursing knowledge development are then discussed. ontology refers to stratified, fixed and changing, or multiple realities, depending on the philosophical tradition. Likewise, epistemology emphasizes the explanatory power of knowledge, intersubjectivity, or inherent power dynamics. the diversity of philosophical traditions represents an asset that can significantly contribute to the advancement of the nursing discipline. clarification of the philosophical dimensions that underlie knowledge development is essential for doctoral nursing students in the process of developing their research projects and future programmes of research.

  4. Review of the Book: Yakubovich M.M. Philosophical Thought of the Crimean Khanate

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    R.R. Abduzhemilev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The book “Philosophical Thought of the Crimean Khanate” by Mikhaylo Yakubovich offers a comprehensive study of the religious and philosophical heritage of the Crimean Khanate. It should be mentioned that up to the present there was no such work among the list of available research monographs. There were only some fragmentary works, which did not cover the conceptual essence of the philosophical perspectives and concepts of medieval thinkers whose activity was shaped within the context of the Crimean Khanate. Thus, Mikhaylo Yakubovich’s contribution is obvious and there is no doubt of the work’s significance. The book consists of a preface, an introduction, seven chapters, conclusions, appendixes, list of illustrations (religious sites, libraries and photocopies of manuscripts, and a bibliography. A wide source-base is evident in the work: the bibliography lists manuscripts from various libraries throughout the world. In the first introductory chapter, a review of historiography is carried out and the range of sources within the framework of the study is defined. The prehistory of the formation of philosophical thought of the Crimean khanate, namely the origins of its formation back to the Golden Horde era, is outlined in the second chapter. This section presents the hermeneutical aspects of Sharaf ad-Din al-Kyrymi and Ahmad bin ‘Abd Allah al-Kyrymi’s interpretation of the philosophy of Ibn al-‘Arabi and Sadr al-Din al-Kunavi. The third chapter contains biographical information about Ibrahim al-Kyrymi, the specificity of the Qur’anic hermeneutics in his work, as well as the idea of a spiritual journey as viewed from anthropological and historiosophical perspectives. In the fourth chapter, the creativity of Abu’l-Baka’ al-Kafauvi is considered, while also reflecting on the life and scientific heritage of this philosopher, his work “al-Qulliyyat” in the context of Islamic encyclopedic learning, understanding the divine

  5. THEOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES OF TRUTH

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    Hans-Peter Grosshans

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Examining some theological and philosophical theories of truth, the author concentrates his attention on the experience of giving concrete reality to the Christian discourse about truth and at the same time contrasting this search with the attempts of philosophy to define truth. He draws the reader’s attention to the understanding of truth in language and communication. In his article he discusses the essential theories of truth which are characteristic of western philosophy: classical, correspondent, coherent, pragmatic, communicative and ontic. The author notes the specific traits of a theological understanding of truth and contends that it is based on an ontologically higher level than that of the classic definition of truth viewed simply in relation to reality and the understanding. The knowledge of God given to the Christian faith by the activity of the triune God, is in itself perfect and therefore in no need of further development. It is on this basis that theology develops its knowledge of faith, sweeping aside everything which is not in accord with this fundamental affirmation of faith or with the witness of revealed truth

  6. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielyan, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  7. LEGAL AID IN INDIA: RETUNING PHILOSOPHICAL CHORDS

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    S. Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid in India has evolved over the last few decades since 42nd Amendment to the Indian Constitution. This paper attempts to provide philosophical underpinnings suggesting how legal aid model has evolved over the years and excogitate a newer trajectory for its future evolution. It delves into weighing Kant’s imperfect duty justifying a charity based regime and marks a transition to utilitarian model suggesting requirement of institutional need to address issues of basic liberty of ‘access to justice.’ It also spells out Rawls’ principles of justice and attempts to explore their applicability in the Indian context, to chart out a road map for future. While contrasting different models on legal aids, it makes a finding that, India doesn’t accord priority to liberty of access to justice. The Indian Supreme Court has emerged as a bastion of liberty but the finer details of the enactment has been messed up by the Indian lawmakers. The lower compensation to lawyers and lack of alternative incentives in attracting established litigators, testifies this. There is a convergence in Kantian duty of benevolence and Rawls’ liberty principle but in the world of moral relativism, a fair compensation must precede before imposing any obligation on lawyers to take up pro bono matters, as doing so, is likely to compromise their ‘true needs.’

  8. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  9. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  10. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary; C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physiker, Philosoph, Visionaer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  11. The Philosopher In The Newspaper: Serhiy Krymsky As A Public Intellectual

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    Melnyk Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of philosophical and journalistic spheres, mediatization of philosophy are main problems of this article. Author considers public philosophy of contemporary Ukrainian philosopher Serhiy Krymsky and determines a role of philosophical journalism in modern media discourse.

  12. Specifics of methodology historical and philosophical researh of hesychasm

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    A. B. Klimenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research methodology of  Hesychasm ­ one of the most important schools of the Byzantine philosophy, which played a significant role in the development of modern civilization. However, to date it remains a kind of «terra incognita» for the world historical and philosophical thought. Hesychasm is a kind of Christian mystical worldview that is embodied in a certain spiritual practices that form the basis of Orthodox asceticism. Even half a century ago, history of philosophy left without attention of philosophical and theological teachings of the authors of the late antiquity and the early middle ages, be they Christian thinkers or the neo­Platonists. The era of post­Plotins philosophers Neoplatonists or commentators on Aristotle considered as a period of decline of this philosophy and the time of the rise of irrationality. For the same reason it was considered that the system of Christian thinkers cannot and should not be subject to the historical and philosophical science. This fully relates Hesychasm. However, on the basis of works of the French philosopher P. Ado, the paper argues that philosophy in late antiquity when there is Hesychasm is first of all a way of life, and therefore Hesychasm can be considered as a specific philosophical school of Christian asceticism. The main modern method of historical and philosophical studies is the hermeneutical reconstruction of cultural meaning of the philosophical texts, however, Hesychasm cannot be reduced to the «amount of texts» or rational philosophical discourses. When learning is impossible not to take into account the existing experience, what is behind the lyrics: the experience of the inner purification, «the noetic prayer, which often has verbal reflection. Therefore, along with the use of hermeneutic and semiotic principles of research work with the texts, there is a problem of the analysis of the experience of spiritual practices. This requires the use

  13. Co to znaczy filozofować? (What does Philosophizing Mean?

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    Aldona Pobojewska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A philosophy teacher should constantly raise the question about the form of philosophical education. Following this need I undertook the problem “what is the philosophizing” once again. The results of this reflection are the following paper presented. It has two main parts. In the first – I present the philosophizing as rational reasoning which has to do with science and with common sense thinking even. In thesecond part – I point out a set of properties specific to philosophizing.

  14. Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Systems Thinking

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    Debora Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on more than a decade of research on the social implications of systems thinking, as well as practical experience in integrative, community-based approaches to education, this paper is an inquiry into philosophical and ethical considerations growing out of recent developments in systems thinking. In his foundational work on general system theory, Ludwig von Bertalanffy distinguishes between three general developments in the systems field: systems technology, systems science, and systems philosophy. These three dimensions of systems thinking each nurture distinct and often widely divergent theoretical and practical orientations. In his abstract for this session, Gary Metcalf asks whether the systems approach really has anything to offer. Science is a form of social feedback; it has created an enormous body of knowledge about the world and shaped humanity’s understanding of the nature of our collective reality. Knowledge then informs action. Assumptions built into scientific frameworks condition certain kinds of actions, as Bertalanffy has noted. Systems thinking as science nurtures a way of thinking that engenders a different kind of practice; systems as philosophy cultivates an ethic of integration and collaboration that has the potential to transform the nature of social organization. Although humanity still has a lot to learn about living more harmoniously and sustainably, systems thinking has made significant contributions in this direction in many fields, both theoretical and practical. The challenge is to integrate what we have learned, to communicate these insights to a larger audience, and to nurture institutional practices that honor the ethical principles inherent in the systems view.

  15. Poincaré, philosopher of science problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    DiSalle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers from the Poincaré Project of the Center for the Philosophy of Science, University of Lisbon, bringing together an international group of scholars with new assessments of Henri Poincaré's philosophy of science—both its historical impact on the foundations of science and mathematics, and its relevance to contemporary philosophical inquiry. The work of Poincaré (1854-1912) extends over many fields within mathematics and mathematical physics. But his scientific work was inseparable from his groundbreaking philosophical reflections, and the scientific ferment in which he participated was inseparable from the philosophical controversies in which he played a pre-eminent part. The subsequent history of the mathematical sciences was profoundly influenced by Poincaré’s philosophical analyses of the relations between and among mathematics, logic, and physics, and, more generally, the relations between formal structures and the world of experience. The papers in this col...

  16. Literacy and Technological Development in Nigeria: A Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literacy and Technological Development in Nigeria: A Philosophical ... Many challenges have occurred in society as a result of advances in sciences and technology. ... historical and cultural factors determine if and how, a technology is used.

  17. Latin American Philosophers: Some Recent Challenges to Their Intellectual Character

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    Susana Nuccetelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For Latin American philosophers, the quality of their own philosophy is a recurrent issue. Why hasn’t it produced any internationally recognized figure, tradition, or movement? Why is it mostly unknown inside and outside Latin America? Although skeptical answers to these questions are not new, they have recently shifted to some critical-thinking competences and dispositions deemed necessary for successful philosophical theorizing. Latin American philosophers are said to lack, for example, originality in problem-solving, problem-making, argumentation, and to some extent, interpretation. Or does the problem arise from their vices of “arrogant reasoning?” On my view, all of these answers are incomplete, and some even self-defeating. Yet they cast some light on complex, critical-thinking virtues and vices that play a significant role in philosophical thinking.

  18. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics: Concepts of reading, understanding and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Regan

    2012-01-01

    Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is a popular qualitative research interpretive method aiming to explore the meaning of individual experiences in relation to understanding human interpretation. Gadamer identifies that authentic engagement with reading requires awareness of the inter-subjective nature of understanding in order to promote a reflective engagement with the text. The main concepts of Gadamer’s view of reading and understanding are explored in this paper in relation ...

  19. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  20. The Vienna Roundabout. On the Significance of Philosophical Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hrachovec, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    There are three sentimental centres of 20th-century philosophical geography: Todtnauberg, Frankfurt and Vienna. Their exceptional status results not only from having given rise to decisive philosophical movements but also from the weight of stories about victimization and exile lacking with regard to Paris, Berkeley and Cambridge. Each of these centres is compromised in its own way: the Schwarzwald cottage from which Heidegger emerged to take over the Rektorat of Freiburg University and to wh...

  1. Between Laws and Models: Some Philosophical Morals of Lagrangian Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    I extract some philosophical morals from some aspects of Lagrangian mechanics. (A companion paper will present similar morals from Hamiltonian mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi theory.) One main moral concerns methodology: Lagrangian mechanics provides a level of description of phenomena which has been largely ignored by philosophers, since it falls between their accustomed levels--``laws of nature'' and ``models''. Another main moral concerns ontology: the ontology of Lagrangian mechanics is bot...

  2. Grasping Legal Time : A Legal and Philosophical Analysis of the Role of Time in European Migration Law.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This book is about time, law and migrants. It consists of a legal and philosophical scrutiny into the question: why do migrants receive stronger rights over the course of time in European migration law? That migrants receive stronger rights over time is easily proven, much more difficult is the

  3. Meaningful Human Control over Autonomous Systems: A Philosophical Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Santoni de Sio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debates on lethal autonomous weapon systems have proliferated in the past 5 years. Ethical concerns have been voiced about a possible raise in the number of wrongs and crimes in military operations and about the creation of a “responsibility gap” for harms caused by these systems. To address these concerns, the principle of “meaningful human control” has been introduced in the legal–political debate; according to this principle, humans not computers and their algorithms should ultimately remain in control of, and thus morally responsible for, relevant decisions about (lethal military operations. However, policy-makers and technical designers lack a detailed theory of what “meaningful human control” exactly means. In this paper, we lay the foundation of a philosophical account of meaningful human control, based on the concept of “guidance control” as elaborated in the philosophical debate on free will and moral responsibility. Following the ideals of “Responsible Innovation” and “Value-sensitive Design,” our account of meaningful human control is cast in the form of design requirements. We identify two general necessary conditions to be satisfied for an autonomous system to remain under meaningful human control: first, a “tracking” condition, according to which the system should be able to respond to both the relevant moral reasons of the humans designing and deploying the system and the relevant facts in the environment in which the system operates; second, a “tracing” condition, according to which the system should be designed in such a way as to grant the possibility to always trace back the outcome of its operations to at least one human along the chain of design and operation. As we think that meaningful human control can be one of the central notions in ethics of robotics and AI, in the last part of the paper, we start exploring the implications of our account for the design and use of non

  4. Defining a middle ground for philosophers and production: bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S L; Croney, C C

    2004-03-01

    From the perspective of most animal scientists and producers, animal agriculture has become increasingly contentious over the last 10 to 20 years. Furthermore, our critics seem to be extremists whose views are biased and unreasonable. But guess what? The critics say the same thing about animal producers and scientists (us). So where is the middle ground and how do we get there? Should we even worry about trying to define the middle ground? Are these contentious issues a fad that will go away? Are these "extremist" critics so far outside reason that they will be ignored by society? Ignoring "them" is not likely to work because we have seen society changing its mind (developing a new social ethic) with regard to farm animals, in part because of what these critics are saying. As a result, it is vitally important for us to know and understand what is happening and why. For example, there isn't just one voice among the critics. There is actually a spectrum of opinion among the group which conventional agriculturalists usually call their critics. The WCC-204 committee generally agrees that the key to finding the middle ground between what is perceived as a polarized set of issues between "us" (animal scientists and producers) and "them" (philosopher critics) is for both sides to learn about the reasons why each side says what they do. Only then can all parties rationally begin to identify where the middle ground lies.

  5. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P A

    2000-09-01

    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.

  6. Treatment of uncertainties in the IPCC: a philosophical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeile, J.; Drouet, I.

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC produces scientific reports out of findings on climate and climate change. Because the findings are uncertain in many respects, the production of reports requires aggregating assessments of uncertainties of different kinds. This difficult task is currently regulated by the Guidance note for lead authors of the IPCC fifth assessment report on consistent treatment of uncertainties. The note recommends that two metrics—i.e. confidence and likelihood— be used for communicating the degree of certainty in findings. Confidence is expressed qualitatively "based on the type, amount, quality, and consistency of evidence […] and the degree of agreement", while likelihood is expressed probabilistically "based on statistical analysis of observations or model results, or expert judgment". Therefore, depending on the evidence evaluated, authors have the choice to present either an assigned level of confidence or a quantified measure of likelihood. But aggregating assessments of uncertainties of these two different kinds express distinct and conflicting methodologies. So the question arises whether the treatment of uncertainties in the IPCC is rationally justified. In order to answer the question, it is worth comparing the IPCC procedures with the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality which have been developed by philosophers. These theories—which include contributions to the philosophy of probability and to bayesian probabilistic confirmation theory—are relevant for our purpose because they are commonly used to assess the rationality of common collective jugement formation based on uncertain knowledge. In this paper we make the comparison and pursue the following objectives: i/we determine whether the IPCC confidence and likelihood can be compared with the notions of uncertainty targeted by or underlying the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality; ii/we investigate whether the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality justify

  7. Culture of National Philosophical Communities: the Project Dedicated to the Research of Modern Ukrainian Philosophical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Bogataya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a new Ukrainian research project related to the preparation of a collective monograph. This monograph will highlight the activities of modern Ukrainian philosophical communities. Such communities in their totality constitute a modern national philosophical culture and its study belongs to the category of macro-humanitarian research. The basis for a holistic observation of a culture is, on the one hand, digital technologies that enable technically to take into account practically all the studies that are carried out in a particular field in a certain period of time. On the other hand, new methodological developments are emerging that allow us to quickly process large text arrays. An example of such methodological innovations can be considered the study of American-Italian literary critic Franco Moretti. Moretti examines the opportunities that arise when using “distant reading.” The article emphasizes that the main advantage of “distant reading” is the possibility of taking into account the whole body of texts, and not only its canonical kernel. Introduces the idea of «compression reading» as a special kind of “rapid reading”, which allows you to get the most general idea of the text based on the analysis of the title of the text and its annotation. The development of compression reading technologies along with distant reading technologies will allow efficient and efficient processing of large array of texts. The expediency of actualization of the whole textual array formed in this or that humanitarian field of research is associated with the development of a new ethic. This ethic is the ethic of collective labor. A new understanding of the collective is considered, which is possible only with careful consideration of any manifestation of the individual

  8. Technology, recommendation and design: on being a 'paternalistic' philosopher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak-Hang

    2013-03-01

    Philosophers have talked to each other about moral issues concerning technology, but few of them have talked about issues of technology and the good life, and even fewer have talked about technology and the good life with the public in the form of recommendation. In effect, recommendations for various technologies are often left to technologists and gurus. Given the potential benefits of informing the public on their impacts on the good life, however, this is a curious state of affairs. In the present paper, I will examine why philosophers are seemingly reluctant to offer recommendations to the public. While there are many reasons for philosophers to refrain from offering recommendations, I shall focus on a specific normative reason. More specifically, it appears that, according to a particular definition, offering recommendations can be viewed as paternalistic, and therefore is prima facie wrong to do so. I will provide an argument to show that the worry about paternalism is unfounded, because a form of paternalism engendered by technology is inevitable. Given the inevitability of paternalism, I note that philosophers should accept the duty to offer recommendations to the public. I will then briefly turn to design ethics, which has reconceptualised the role of philosophers and, in my mind, fitted well with the inevitability of paternalism. Finally, I shall argue that design ethics has to be supplemented by the practice of recommendation if it is to sustain its objective.

  9. Simulation and Irrationality | Galgut | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I hope to show how a recent theory in the philosophy of mind concerning how we 'read' the minds of others—namely, Heal's version of simulation theory—is consistent with the view that the kind of understanding we bring to bear on the irrational is different in kind from the way we understand one another in the ...

  10. Sex, Disorder and Perversion | Williamson | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to describe an objective account of sexual perversion. That is, it seeks to characterize sexual perversion as something which is not simply a deviation from a statistical norm but rather as something which violates an objective naturalistic norm. The central point is that perversion consists in the introduction of ...

  11. Responsibilities of supplier states and consumer states in accommodating supply arrangements to changing circumstances and to identify and evaluate alternative mechanisms for improving supply guarantees consistent with non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers by the USA and Australia deal with the responsibility of supplier states and consumer states in accommodating supply arrangements to changing circumstances and with the development of alternative supply guarantees consistent with non-proliferation treaties. A number of theses are evolved for the realisation of these goals; most of them refer to an improvement of bilateral contacts and agreements

  12. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  13. PHILOSOPHICAL COMMUNITARIANISM LIKE THE ACTUAL PARADIGM OF SOCIAL BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Borisovich Davydov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the most pressing areas of social philosophy – communitarianism. Analyzes the basic concepts that operate representatives of the philosophical direction, among them – the community, the common good, virtue ethics. Demonstrates that the issues raised in the social and philosophical discussions that ensued between the liberal and communitarian social philosophy are essential for the social practice, and therefore, can not be solved solely by means of the theoretical. Considrered the main points of communitarian critics of liberal philosophy. Ethical dimensions of philosophy, which is constitutive for the communitarian discourse, also have importance in today’s society, which is accompanied by a deep crisis. Analyzed the concept of virtue, which plays a key role in the socio-philosophical communitarianism.

  14. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  15. A brief philosophical encounter with science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  16. A philosophical examination of Mead's pragmatist constructivism as a referent for adult science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dean Russel

    claims of constructivist learning theories need to be identified and assessed independently of any empirical support that these learning theories might enjoy. This in turn calls for educational experiences for graduate students of education that incorporate philosophical understanding such that future educators might be able to recognize and weigh the philosophically laden claims of adult learning theories.

  17. Status of the human embryo: Philosophical Foundations from Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia de Oliveira Schpallir Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulty in demonstrating the moment of ontogenesis in which personalization takes place, we sought to define, from a philosophic point of view, the nature of the human embryo regarding its individuality, using Phenomenology, specifically reflections of philosophers Bourghet and Merleau-Ponty on the embryo. Although the statement of their individuality does not entail ethical content in itself, from the point of view of ethical responsibility, it is an extremely important fact to be considered in the bioethical reflection about the moment of ontogeny from which human life must (ethical duty be protected.

  18. Philosophical engineering toward a philosophy of the web

    CERN Document Server

    Halpin, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of the philosophical foundations of the Web, a new area of inquiry that has important implications across a range of domains. Contains twelve essays that bridge the fields of philosophy, cognitive science, and phenomenologyTackles questions such as the impact of Google on intelligence and epistemology, the philosophical status of digital objects, ethics on the Web, semantic and ontological changes caused by the Web, and the potential of the Web to serve as a genuine cognitive extensionBrings together insightful new scholarship from well-known an

  19. Researching pharmacist managerial capability: philosophical perspectives and paradigms of inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    In successful community pharmacy business enterprises suitably responsive actions to meet ever-increasing change require capable pharmacy managers who readily learn and adapt. Capability as a concept is generally understood to be the ability of a manager to identify and act to solve unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar situations. Capability is characterized by adaptability and flexibility. However, different understandings of the concept 'capability' and what it means to be 'capable' are indirect and incomplete. This paper aims to clarify current theories regarding the concept of 'capability' at the level of the individual, and through this to make more explicit what is known about the phenomenon, but more particularly, how we know what we know. The analysis includes the concept of 'competence' because explanations of capability include competence, and the two concepts are not clearly separated in the literature. By probing the epistemological origins of current theory concerning both concepts, the limiting taken for granted assumptions are revealed. Assumptions about context and time, and the psychological theory through which individuals are assumed to perceive, know and learn, are illuminated. The analysis, in connection with the literature, shows how the interpretive philosophic research approach may reveal a different and useful theoretical perspective for explaining capability as a dynamic performance. It is suggested that such a perspective may narrow the gap between the theory of capability and its practice. The interpretive perspective holds potential to reveal how capability, as performed by successful community pharmacy managers, might be further researched and strengthened. This paper supports the challenging suggestion that pharmacy social research needs to rebalance the dominance of purely empirical research by exploring interpretive methodologies to better understand human actions and relations in the context of pharmacy. Crown Copyright © 2015

  20. A philosophical assessment of decision theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    modern axiomatic decision theory is an instance of fundamental measurement theory. This is then followed by a thorough introduction to Savage’s version of modern axiomatic decision theory. Turning to the interpretation of the theory, the maxim “maximize expected utility,” which stems from classical...... assignments. In the modern approach, the action guidance is to conform to the axioms. Analyzing decision theory as a theory of good, the maxim “maximize expected goodness” repeats the misunderstanding. Moreover, it implies risk neutrality about good and a cardinal measure of good, and both are problematic......The significance of decision theory consists of giving an account of rational decision making under circumstances of uncertainty. This question is important both from the point of view of what is in our personal interest and from the point of view of what is ethically right. But decision theory...

  1. The philosophical implications of Russian conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualism identifies itself as a predominantly Russian-Soviet mode of thinking. In the West, the correlation between ideological signs and observable reality has been persistently validated through scientific and economic practice; while in Russia, traditionally, reality itself has been constructed from ideological signs generated by its ruling minds as a kind of hyper-reality. Thus, Russian Conceptualism sees itself not as a mere replica of Western postmodernism, but as a reflection of the underlying structures of Russian history, where the signs of reality have always been subject to ideological manipulation.

  2. Philosophical Thinking and the Concept of Security in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper seeks to unpack the essentially contested concept of security, exposing its deep philosophical bases, for a better understanding of the concept by theorists involved in its interrogation. Relying on analytic and reflectively interrogative methods of social inquiry, the study has two inter-related objectives. First ...

  3. Higher education and general studies in Nigeria: A philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education and general studies in Nigeria: A philosophical investigation. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... national policy on education on tertiary or higher education reveals a startling chasm of gap between the goals of the policy through General Studies Programme and their expected actualizations.

  4. Philosophizing about Teacher Dissatisfaction: A Multidisciplinary Hermeneutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological reflection, I describe the multidisciplinary hermeneutic process of philosophizing about teacher dissatisfaction. I discuss how philosophy serves as a starting point for interpretive work based on interviews with former teachers and readings of qualitative and quantitative research on teacher attrition and dissatisfaction.…

  5. A Philosophical View of Research in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four interrelated questions are addressed: What counts as research? What are some present challenges to music education research? What should be the relationship between theory and empirical data? What ought to be the distinctive features of music education research? The purpose is to elucidate how philosophical inquiry can be…

  6. Grey Wisdom? : Philosophical Reflections on Conformity and Opposition between Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Ernst; Goor, van Roel

    2006-01-01

    Should 'new' generations act in conformity with, or in opposition to 'older' generations? This can be regarded as a central question in the philosophical study of education. This question has practical implications. Should it be our main concern to initiate children into our traditions, or should we

  7. Ethics in the Light Of Wittgenstein | Mulhall | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines a number of ways in which Wittgenstein's later philosophical method has been appropriated for moral philosophy. The work of Paul Johnston, Sabina Lovibond and Cora Diamond is discussed in relation to the following questions. Is there a sustainable distinction between ethics and meta-ethics (in the ...

  8. Philosophic Processes and the Study of Human Moving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Elizabeth S.; Pieter, Willy

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework describing second-order philosophical processes that can be productive for human movement studies is presented. The processes of edification and theory building can clarify issues, expand viewpoints, and establish systematic ways of dealing with a phenomenon, leading to the more mature forms of dialogues and theories. (MT)

  9. Lipman, Dewey, and Philosophical Inquiry in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses Matthew Lipman's approach to inquiry as shaped and fashioned by John Dewey's model of scientific inquiry. Although Lipman's program adopted the major aspects of Dewey's pedagogy, at least two characteristics of that program stand out as radically different--his use of relatively free-form philosophical discussions to teach…

  10. A discourse on moderation as a philosophical concept | Airoboman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a contemporary attempt to revivify interest in the ancient philosophical concept of moderation. It attempts a conceptual analysis of the concept of moderation as virtue. It examined this concept hand in hand with sensual desire and holds that appetites and passions need not be eradicated completely, but instead, ...

  11. Oral tradition in African philosophical discourse: a critique of Sophie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to discuss the place of oral tradition in African philosophical discourse. In doing this, the nature of oral tradition as well as its forms is critically discussed taking into cognizance Sophie Oluwole‟s scholarship on oral tradition in African philosophy. Oluwole defends the thesis that oral tradition almost ...

  12. Differentially Positioned Language Games: Ethnomathematics from a Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnik, Gelsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new philosophical perspective for ethnomathematics which articulates Ludwig Wittgenstein's and Michel Foucault's theoretical notions. It is conceived as a theoretical toolbox which allows the analysis of, on the one hand, the mathematical language games of different forms of life and their family resemblances and, on the…

  13. Prisoners' Right to Education: A Philosophical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhaus, John

    2014-01-01

    Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares: "Everyone has the right to education." This implies that the right to education and training applies to all persons, including all persons in prison. This position is considered here from a philosophical point of view and it will receive some support. Yet it is not obvious…

  14. Technology, recommendation and design: on being a 'Paternalistic philosopher'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Pak-Hang

    2013-01-01

    Philosophers have talked to each other about moral issues concerning technology, but few of them have talked about issues of technology and the good life, and even fewer have talked about technology and the good life with the public in the form of recommendation. In effect, recommendations for

  15. Use of Information Science Techniques by a Philosopher at Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremmins, Ed; Trachtman, Marji

    This paper recounts the use of the information science techniques of subject indexing and annotation in the extensive writings and publications of the philosopher Mortimer J. Adler. A content analysis of Adler's "intellectual autobiography" is described, Adler's efforts as an indexer are reviewed, and some of Adler's thoughts on the…

  16. Cultural Difference and Human Rights : A Philosophical-Anthropological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kloeg (Julien)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn ‘Cultural Difference and Human Rights’, Julien Kloeg claims, with Pablo Gilabert, that theoretical attempts to justify human rights should move beyond the dichotomy of providing either a humanist or a political justification. Kloeg demonstrates how philosophical anthropology could

  17. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns

    2014-09-01

    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  18. a critical analysis of some modern igbo philosophical and satirical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs NK

    theory of innate ideas as held by rationalist philosophers. .... belief in the dignity and potentiality of the black race do not find expression only in his dramatic ..... The poet used the symbol of “osisi nwere uji” – a tree that has a hole, to describe.

  19. 10. Chigbo J. Ekwealo Contextualising Philosophic Sagacity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekwealo

    on Chinua Achebe's epic novel, Things Fall Apart, set among the Igbo of South-. Eastern ... because they chose to deny philosophic status to Africans in order to be compliant with the ..... condemned for seven years to live in a strange land.

  20. Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Community music is a successful concept in the world of music and music education. Based on ethnomusicological research, community music tries to implement the notion of music for all that transforms societies and people. While celebrating informal learning and the musical amateur, community music has never really been philosophically challenged…

  1. Reflecting on the philosophical implications of evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. Horn

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolution as paradigm is a prescribed topic in contemporary South African education. This means that macro-evolution – the idea that life evolved progressively from inert matter to humankind’s coming into being – must form the foundation of South African education. The aim of this article is to reflect, in a spirit of respectful yet critical enquiry, on three issues with regard to macro-evolution: First, the theory of macro-evolution is placed in its historical context which indicates that although this theory owes its widespread acceptance to Charles Darwin, it did not originate with him. Second, the scientific status of the theory of macro-evolution is scrutinised. Karl Popper’s view of this theory as a metaphysical framework for research is given, accompanied by a brief discussion. Third, three evolutionary worldviews are identified and discussed.

  2. The Philosophical Worth of Liberal Peacebuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waffaa Kharisma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Liberal Peacebuilding is often associated with the failure of pushing liberalisation in war-torn failed states: the practice of liberal peacebuilding as a liberal project instead of a peacebuilding effort. The essay starts with breaking down the basic premises of a liberal peacebuilding and its ideological drive. Then, it identifies and evaluates the critics and alternatives to liberal peacebuilding. The essay sees that the implementation of fixed standard peacebuilding packages in vastly different scenarios and countries is the consequence of practicing liberal peacebuilding as a liberal project. This essay argues that liberal peacebuilding is worth saving if it recognises itself as an unfinished project, and instead advocates peacebuilding efforts that are more concentrated as a (and in showing technical solution rather than an ideological impulse. As such, the essay proposes the prioritisation of maintaining stability in a post-conflict state, through concentrating on ensuring the specific case-per-case technical solutions, often which is attributed to institutional foundation to ensure the deliveries of collective aims and interests of local society.

  3. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  4. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  5. The Philosophical Genealogy of Taylor's Social Imaginaries: A Complex History of Ideas and Predecessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheeswijck, Guido M

    2017-01-01

    The deepest sources of Charles Taylor's use of the concept "social imaginaries" are often related to political philosophy or social anthropology (Anderson, Castoriadis). The purpose of this article is to show that they also form part of Taylor's struggle to overcome the epistemological construal in modern philosophy and culture. Taylor locates the concept "social imaginaries" in the Kantian tradition, identifying their role to that of transcendental schemes. However, there remains a central difference between Kant's transcendental schemes and Taylor's social imaginaries. To elucidate that difference, this article will track the philosophical genealogy of Taylor's concept of "social imaginaries" in three steps.

  6. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  7. THE RECEPTION OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITION AS A WAY OF FORMING AMERICAN PERSONALISM: THE POST-SECULAR VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Patsan

    2016-06-01

    reconstruction of its genesis oriented towards the meta-ontological dimension of the personality. The scientific novelty of the study consists in initiating the reflection of the way of defining the inner experience of the self as the all-sufficient criterion of cognition which was paved by the personalist thought of the USA in the course of revising the classical rationalist models of the subjectivity and broke the ground for constructing “the personal world” in the space of rational consciousness formed in North America. On the base of analyzing Bowne's revision of Kant's transcendental idealism aimed at the explication of the immediacy of self-experience the author reveals that such argumentation for its cognitive primacy transforms into affirming the mediation of the inner appeal of the human personality to living God by the outer interpersonal experience of rational cognition. The revealed regression to the rationally mediated relationship of the created person with Creator is connected with the restriction of the research for “personal beginning of all speculation” which resulted in the personal metaphysics of B. P. Bowne by the rationalistic tools of the personal self-reflection.  The study proves that it was predetermined by the philosopher's confessional belonging to the Methodist Church detached from patristic Trinitology and Christology forming the arsenal of trinitarian meta-logic intended to expound the personhood as the ultimate principle of being. Conclusions define the resource of Bowne's idea of the “personal interpretation of experience” which inspired the subsequent “personalized” ontological constructions in the personalistic domain established on the North American continent. They form the dialogic space of the personalist philosophy of the USA predetermining the accumulation of its potential in the interaction with other philosophical currents.  Manifesting itself as the personalistic inspiration of the emerging trends of thought this

  8. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  9. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  10. Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes : the Ukrainian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Skalatskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to consider the prospects of social and philosophical analysis of the product (clothes of fashion brand. In social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes, its fashion shows there is a range of discursive questions: the use and the definition of the concepts «designer» and «brand»; thematic focus of the brand (fabrics, colors, prints, shapes its semantics; format of representation of fashion collection in dependence; and a number of other structural elements. In the analysis of fashion trends or seasonal collections the concepts designer or brand are used. The concept «brand» contains an economic component, certain calculations, and intangible assets (goodwill; design work is subject to market needs and the interests of consumers (for analysis of the individual designer the biographical method is used. Theoretical analysis of fashion cannot be made apart from empirical material. A performative approach of K. Wolfe can be the methodology of the social and philosophical research of fashion show. The advantages of this method of the research are to determine fashion as performative space, staging ideas of the designer in the fashion show and making clothes. Implementation of performative approach allowed considering thematic focus of the brand of clothes and format of its representation in seasonal fashion shows on the example of Ukrainian brand «Domanoff». Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes can be divided into the following main components, excluding aesthetic and economic aspects: the use of the concepts designer and brand (a set of aesthetic, economic, social and subjective components and design`s view; review of the semantics of clothes and staging (by providing clothes in the form of seasonal fashion shows of collections. For complex social and socio­philosophical analysis of fashion brand it necessary to have: the press release (description, designer`s interview (disclosure of early

  11. Cosmos of science philosophical problems of the internal and external worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Earman, John

    1998-01-01

    The inaugural volume of the series, devoted to the work of philosopher Adolf Grünbaum, encompasses the philosophical problems of space, time, and cosmology, the nature of scientific methodology, and the foundations of psychoanalysis.

  12. Bayesians versus frequentists a philosophical debate on statistical reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Vallverdú, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes the origins of statistical thinking as well as its related philosophical questions, such as causality, determinism or chance. Bayesian and frequentist approaches are subjected to a historical, cognitive and epistemological analysis, making it possible to not only compare the two competing theories, but to also find a potential solution. The work pursues a naturalistic approach, proceeding from the existence of numerosity in natural environments to the existence of contemporary formulas and methodologies to heuristic pragmatism, a concept introduced in the book’s final section. This monograph will be of interest to philosophers and historians of science and students in related fields. Despite the mathematical nature of the topic, no statistical background is required, making the book a valuable read for anyone interested in the history of statistics and human cognition.

  13. The quantum world philosophical debates on quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirn, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    In this largely nontechnical book, eminent physicists and philosophers address the philosophical impact of recent advances in quantum physics. These are shown to shed new light on profound questions about realism, determinism, causality or locality. The participants contribute in the spirit of an open and honest discussion, reminiscent of the time when science and philosophy were inseparable. After the editors’ introduction, the next chapter reveals the strangeness of quantum mechanics and the subsequent discussions examine our notion of reality. The spotlight is then turned to the topic of decoherence. Bohm’s theory is critically examined in two chapters, and the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics is likewise described and discussed. The penultimate chapter presents a proposal for resolving the measurement problem, and finally the topic of loop quantum gravity is presented by one of its founding fathers, Carlo Rovelli. The original presentations and discussions on which this volume is based t...

  14. Realistic Humanism. Luc Dardenne as a Philosopher and Filmmaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lesch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luc Dardenne is not only a successful filmmaker together with his brother Jean-Pierre. He is also a stimulating philosopher who has reflected on the influence of Emmanuel Levinas on the brothers’ cinematic work. This article shows typical constellations of film and philosophy and focuses on the special contribution of a Levinasian perspec¬tive on face-to-face encounters, violence and compassion as central topics in the films of the Dardennes. Luc Dardenne has developed his philosophical approach in his dia¬ries and in the essay The Human Affair, published in 2012. This text can be used as a key for an understanding of the film Le gamin au vélo (The Kid with a Bike, Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, FR/BE/IT 2011.

  15. Wiittgensteins's contributions to a Philosophical reflection on technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Dôres Armendane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Wittgenstein’s cultural pessimism on the progress of Western techno-scientific civilization in the first half of the twentieth century, as well as the contributions of the Austrian thinker for a philosophical reflection on technology. We will also show that Wittgenstein’s philosophical position was based on a deep and intense activity of thought and language. The text is divided on in three parts: the first shows Wittgenstein’s cultural pessimism on the technological civilization progress; the second shows Wittgenstein's relationship with science and his strong opposition to the scientist ideology; the third presents Wittgenstein’s conception of philosophy therapy including for the uses of technological civilization. Finally, we conclude by showing that Wittgenstein's philosophy avoids the use of the "ladder" dealing with problems in the contemporary world.

  16. Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. G.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics plays a very important multi-faceted role in Vedic Hinduism. Vedas, that is an infinitely large collection of chants (mantras) in ancient Sanskrit language, form the foundational literature of Vedic Hinduism. The Vedic chants have specific acoustical qualities and intonations. The Vedic literature describes the various aspects of acoustics, namely, philosophical, spiritual, and cultural. The use of sounds from conch-shell, bells, cymbal in addition to the Vedic chants in rituals shows the spiritual aspects. Vedic literature discusses the role of sound in the philosophical understanding of our world. Music, both vocal and instrumental, plays an important role in the cultural aspects of Vedic Hinduism. It can be seen that certain musical instruments such as ``mridangam,'' a percussion drum, reflect scientific principles underlying in their design. This paper presents an overview of the various important and interesting roles of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism.

  17. The literary and philosophical conceptions of Laza Kostić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Slađana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laza Kostić, in the early seventies of the XIX century, opposed the utilitarianism of Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Svetozar Markovié, and advocated the idea of aestheticism in poetry and art. In his study about Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Kostić had discovered two opposing processes in the poet, which he symbolically named the battle between the dragon and the nightingale. Kostić's conception about the origin of poetry is at the intersection of romanticist poetics about creation from divine inspiration, and a philosophical concept of the interference as a basic principle. The paper sheds light on the correspondence among the philosophical and literary views of Laza Kostić and his artistic work.

  18. THE ROLE OF PHILOSOPHICAL MINDSET IN EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Talebian; Shahram Salavati

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of innovation is a cultural and managerial challenge for the modern educational systems. In the educational systems, managers/principals play significant roles to a successful innovation adoption. This paper evaluates the relation between philosophical mindset (comprehensiveness, introspection and flexibility) and motivation of educational innovation adoption. Through a survey, the data were gathered from 213 secondary school principals. Testing of hypotheses, using Spearman corr...

  19. The relevance of philosophical hermeneutics in qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Procter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Within a framework informed by the rhetoric of contemporary ethnography, philosophical hermeneutics, and nursing scholarship, this article focuses on the way data could be interpreted in qualitative health research. Opsomming Binne 'n raamwerk, omvorm deur die retoriek van kontemporere etnografie; filosofiese hermeneutiek en verpleegkundige vakkunde, fokus hierdie artikel op die wyse waarop data binne kwalitatiewe gesondheidsnavorsing, geinterpreteer kan word. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. The Transcendence in Lucian Blaga’s Philosophical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Manolache

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the conference on Transcendence and Immanence - a topic buiding on the dialogue between philosophy and theology in the modern and post-modern time -, among the produced subjects, a discussion was held on the role played in respect with this dailogue by the inter-war famous philosophers, such as Lucian Blaga and Dumitru Stăniloaie. Below, we will present the issue of Transcendence according the the philosopher-poet Lucian Blaga’s vision; his vision is tructured into a Trilogy in his work: The Trilogy of Knowledge - The Dogmatic Aeon, The Luciferic Knowledge, The Transcendental Censorship - The Trilogy of the Culture - Horizon and Style; The Mioritic Space; The Genesis of the Metaphor and The Meaning of Culture - and The Trilogy of Values - Science and Creation; Magic Thinking and Religion; Art and Value. In these trilogies, the philosopher - poet elaborates, from an original metaphysical point of view, on the dimension of the knowledge of Transcendence - which he would define in in The Horizon of Mystery and Revelation. His vision will be addressed in a new theory of knowledge, which the philosopherpoet Lucian Blaga would distinguish as Paradisiac knowledge and Lucifer knowledge, within a new Metaphysics that would allow access to Transcendence and to the wonders beyond. Postulating the existence of certain faculties of Conscience, his Metaphysics would become, according to the Theory of Transcendence, a must for the human spirit; a proof for his approach would be the great philosophical systems of the world, from the antique to the modern.

  1. Art and Perspicuous Vision in Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Giacomo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available If today a decidedly analytical interpretation of Wittgenstein’s thought seems to be dominant in many ways, there are, in my opinion, countless reasons that lead instead to reintroduce the possibility, and even the opportunity, of a different reading: a proper philosophical-aesthetic reading – where “philosophical” is equivalent to “transcendental” in the Kantian sense – which certainly seems to me more productive in theoretical terms.

  2. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics: Confessions of a philosopher

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Weideman

    2011-01-01

    When we undertake academic, disciplinary work, we rely on philosophical starting points. Several straightforward illustrations of this can be found in the history of applied linguistics. It is evident from the history of our field that various historically influential approaches to our discipline base themselves upon different academic confessions. This paper examines the effects of basing our applied linguistic work on the idea that applied linguistics is a discipline concerned with design. ...

  3. Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Colyvan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development of improved models of ecological hypothesis testing and theory choice. Philosophy can also help ecologists understand the role and limitations of mathematical models in ecology. On the other side, philosophy of science will be advanced by having ecological case studies as part of the stock of examples. Ecological case studies can shed light on old philosophical topics as well as raise novel issues for the philosophy of science. For example, understanding theoretical terms such as "biodiversity" is important for scientific reasons, but such terms also carry political importance. Formulating appropriate definitions for such terms is thus not a purely scientific matter, and this may prompt a reevaluation of philosophical accounts of defining theoretical terms. We consider some of the topics currently receiving attention in the philosophy of ecology and other topics in need of attention. Our aim is to prompt further exchange between ecology and philosophy of science and to help set the agenda for future work in the philosophy of ecology. The topics covered include: the role of mathematical models, environmental problem formulation, biodiversity, and environmental ethics.

  4. Spirituality in the Philosophical Thought of Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Khunaeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality for Seyyed Hossen Nasr is an inner reality that becomes a religious central in Islam. It is the esoteric dimension hidden in the reality of exoteric Islam. That view on spirituality brings Nasr to the philosophical thought that cannot be separated from religious metaphysical doctrine. Nasr argues that philosophy is more than just a ratio but also the activity of intellect that can reach the meta-cosmic nature to find the essence of truth namely the universal and eternal truth that lies behind the physical and relative truth. The philosophical efforts to find this truth are a combination of the optimizing potential of reason and intellectual intuition. Nasr refers to ḥikmah or wisdom as a kind of philosophy that combines logic and intellectual intuition. That philosophical view brings Nasr on a dualistic view of nature which not only has a cosmic dimension as such but also has a meta-cosmic dimension. This dualistic view is his fundamental reason in formulating the concept of metaphysical cosmology as a solution to the crisis of modern science that has caused a variety of ecological damage due to the secular vision.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.812

  5. Mario Bunge: Physicist, philosopher and defender of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Matthews

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War. He learnt atomic physics andquantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taughthimself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first SouthAmerican philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology,sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise onPhilosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of theEnlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planksof the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect forindividuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy ofscience, educational research and science teaching are recognised – it is salutary to see the fruits of one person’spursuit of the ‘Big’ scientific and philosophical picture.

  6. Revisiting Mary Daly: Towards a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I was a tenderfoot in feminist discourse when I started my research on patriarchy, feminism, and Mary Daly. In my thesis, one aspect I engaged was Daly’s battle with gender issues in Christian theology. From the beginning I was troubled by Mary Daly’s views on God, men, and women in her discourse on Christianity. Daly undoubtedly contributed to the discussion on gender issues in the Christian faith, but her focus on androcentrism and her interpretations of Scripture led her to abandon the Christian faith. Mary Daly has written extensively on patriarchy as it is found in religion – particularly in the Christian faith – and how it filters through society. In her critique of patriarchy she set her course to dismantle the facade of a patriarchal and misogynistic God as the root of patriarchy. Daly did not see any positive qualities of the Christian faith and completely rejected other interpretations of a God whose person embraces both male and female qualities. Against this background I will evaluate Daly’s post-Christian feminist theological and philosophical paradigm. I propose that Daly has a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm wherein there are four main players. The ‘Who is who’ in Daly’s quadripartite patriarchal theological and philosophical paradigm are the patriarchal male, the patriarchal female, the patriarchal God and the biophilic woman.

  7. Self-knowledge in the process of interpreting philosophical texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kulik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern philosophical researches pay attention to various aspects of self-knowledge investigation. For instance, there are works on historical concepts of self-knowledge (e.g. ones by C. Moore, or articles about the place of self-knowledge in the phenomenon of rationality (e.g. ones by J. Roessler, or articles about epistemological lacks of self-knowledge (e.g. ones by J. Fernández. However, our paper is about the aspect that is not in the researchers’ centre of attention. Our study shows that practicing of book reading can be a source of information not only about the content of the books, but also about their readers. We investigate a phenomenon of incompatible interpretations, Ludwig Wittgenstein’s ideas about understanding his texts, Merab Mamardashvili’s concept of ‘novel as a machine’, Ludwig Feuerbach’s theory of specifics of human cognition, and Philosophical Hermeneutics thinkers’ concepts about problems of understanding. The purpose of our paper is to describe possibilities of getting self-knowledge by analyzing the information about the results of philosophical texts reading. The research holds that these results give information about the content of the text as well as a reader’s ideas. A reader can use word forms from the texts to express his own implicit thoughts. Philosophical texts are the most effective tool for doing that because their content and ways of text organization stimulate such an activity. We illustrate these statements by examples from history of philosophy. For instance, we investigate the creation of the theory on the genealogy of morality by Friedrich Nietzsche. Analyzing phrases, which were important for him in the text, a person can estimate his own ideas. If one uses this theoretical model for getting self-knowledge he takes a new source of information about his own implicit ideas. The interpretation of this information will be effective. As a result of analyzing of Friedrich Schleiermacher

  8. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  9. On 'Consistent' Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Hick

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of poverty as ‘consistent’ poverty offers a solution to one of the primary problems of poverty measurement within Social Policy of the last three decades. Often treated as if they were synonymous, ‘indirect’ measures of poverty, such as low income measures, and ‘direct’ measures, such as indices of material deprivation, identify surprisingly different people as being poor. In response to this mismatch, a team of Irish researchers put forward a measure which identified responde...

  10. Philosophical inquiry and the goals of nursing: a critical approach for disciplinary knowledge development and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Pamela J; Perry, Donna J

    2013-01-01

    Philosophical inquiry remains critically important for nursing education, practice, and knowledge development. We propose a 3-level taxonomy of philosophical inquiry to guide nursing curricula and research development. Important background information about philosophy and the development of philosophical methods is given. Then philosophical inquiry is linked to the goals of nursing using our proposed taxonomy: level I-cultivating an attitude of "critical consciousness" related to all nursing situations and actions, level II-analysis and application of philosophical perspectives to nursing problems and level III-generating new knowledge for nursing purposes including new theories of practice and research.

  11. To be Excellent Society: Comparative Analysis between Western and Muslim Philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaidi Hum AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The western philosophers like Karl Marx believe that society is ontologically understood in terms of physical dimension only while the Muslim philosophers such as al-Fārābī, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Murtaḍā Muṭahharī argue that it consists of physical and metaphysical or spiritual aspects. The structure of a society along with its development and orientation can be seen and explained by its physical and metaphysical aspects. Moreover, the perfection of a society is not only based on the fulfilment of its physical needs but also on the establishment of intellectual and spiritual needs. This article aims to discuss society through Islamic philosophy’s perspective with the elaboration of social science, the reality of a society, the structure of an ideal society and its development and orientation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i1.823

  12. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  13. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  14. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  15. Ethics and Medicine: Philosophical Guidelines for a Responsible Use of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelluchon, Corine

    Ethics is not an isolated discipline, standing aloof from science, economics, and politics. And neither is it an authority devoted to censure, for it is not the philosopher's role to set up as an authority of any kind, nor to dictate to others what is good or bad in itself on the basis of some personal morality. Ethics is that part of philosophy that allows us to acquire the tools that serve to elucidate actions and assess them critically. The aim is to identify principles, that is, notions that are taken as fundamental and must guide our actions in medicine, in business, or in the application of biotechnology. However, these principles are not empty of content, and part of the philosopher's work in the field of applied ethics is to elucidate the values underlying the notion of autonomy and distributive justice, and to determine the relationship between the latter and the notion of equality. Likewise, the ethicist must consider the implicit and explicit norms belonging to some narrowly defined community (a group of professionals) or a broader community (a country), or even the international community.

  16. A Mythological, Philosophical and Astronomical approach of our solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivas, Sotirios; Kastanidou, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Geography in the first Class of Gymnasium - secondary education we will focus in Solar System: Astronomical approach: Students will look and find the astronomical data of the planets, they will make comparisons between the sizes of their radius, they will find the distance from the Sun, they will search the relative motion, they will calculate the gravity on each planet, etc. Mythological approach: We will search the names and meanings of the planets based on Greek mythological origin. Philosophical approach: Regarding the philosophical approach of the "solar system" we will look and find: • Why planets are called so? • How did planets get their names? • What are the periods of Greek astronomy? • What were the astronomical instruments of ancient Greeks and who did built them? • What were the Greek philosophers and astronomers? When did they live and what did they discover? • Which method did Eratosthenes of Cyrene apply about 206B.C. to serve a real measurement of the earth's radius? • What was the relationship between science and religion in ancient Greece? Literature approach: At the end of the program students will write their opinion in subject "Having a friend from another planet" based on the book of Antoine de Saint - Exupéry "The little prince". Law approach: A jurist working in Secondary Education will visits our school and engages students in the Space Law. Artistic approach: Students will create their own posters of our planetary system. The best posters will be posted on the school bulletin board to display their work. Visit: Students and teachers will visit the Observatory of Larissa where they will see how observatory works and talk with scientists about their job. They will look through telescopes and observe the sun.

  17. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  18. On a Philosophical Motivation for Mutilating Truth Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons colours, or better the conceptual organisation of the colour system, could be relevant to the philosophy of logic is that they necessitate some mutilation of truth tables by restricting truth functionality. This paper argues that the so-called ‘Colour Exclusion Problem’, the first great challenge for Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, is a legitimate philosophical motivation for a systematic mutilation of truth tables. It shows how one can express, through these mutilations, some intensional logical relations usually expressed by the Aristotelian Square of Oppositions, as contrariety and subcontrariety.

  19. The theme revenge in the cinema: a literary philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio José de Queiroz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the focus is revenge, taking as a starting point two cinematographic works –Once upon a time in this article is revenge, taking as a starting point two cinematographic works­ once upon a time in West, by Sergio Leone, and also colors: White by Krzysztof Kieslowsk. Without the direct influence of a purely artistic appreciation of both movies, this is about a study of literary­ philosophical lineage by relying on classical seeks to provide an theoretical analyze of the theme, avoiding falling into an empiricist interpretation, trivial and shallow of the object.

  20. A Philosophical vs. a Psychological Perspective on Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2016-03-01

    This paper questions to what extent borders are to be understood from a philosophical or a psychological perspective. This is done by investigating the distinction between philosophy and psychology that comes up as a result of Immanuel Kant's investigation of the pure reason. Ontology is found as a demarcation criterion between the two fields in the sense that it is of crucial importance in philosophy, but not of certain interest from a psychological point of view. An investigation of three assumptions in the perspective of affective loading follows this up, which confirms the efficiency of borders in psychological meaning production.

  1. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  2. Philosophical and methodological aspects of the Schroedinger paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juha, L.; Krajca, R.; Smatera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the foundations of quantum theory are dealt with in relation to the quantum description of macroscopic systems, biological in particular. Attention is paid to the philosophical content of the problems of 1) the logical status of the reduction postulate in quantum mechanics, and 2) the paradox of Schroedinger's cat, whose physical solution has not yet been attained. The problem of the quantum description of complex macroscopic systems is also treated, as is Herbert Froehlich's important concept of the excitation of dominant modes in biological systems. (author). 61 refs

  3. Philosophical behaviorism: a review of things that happen because they should: a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1999-09-01

    Mentalistic terms such as belief and desire have been rejected by behavior analysts because they are traditionally held to refer to unobservable events inside the organism. Behavior analysis has consequently been viewed by philosophers to be at best irrelevant to psychology, understood as a science of the mind. In this book, the philosopher Rowland Stout argues cogently that beliefs and desires (like operants such as rats' lever presses) are best understood in terms of an interaction over time between overt behavior and its overt consequences (a viewpoint called teleological behaviorism). This book is important because it identifies the science of the mind with the science of overt behavior and implies that the psychologists best equipped to study mental life are not those who purport to do so but those who focus on the experimental analysis of behavior.

  4. The Influence of Philosophical Perspectives in Integrative Research: a Conservation Case Study in the Cairngorms National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Evely

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of increasing the contribution of the social sciences in the fields of environmental and conservation science disciplines are increasingly recognized. However, integration between the social and natural sciences has been limited, in part because of the barrier caused by major philosophical differences in the perspectives between these research areas. This paper aims to contribute to more effective interdisciplinary integration by explaining some of the philosophical views underpinning social research and how these views influence research methods and outcomes. We use a project investigating the motivation of volunteers working in an adaptive co-management project to eradicate American Mink from the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland as a case study to illustrate the impact of philosophical perspectives on research. Consideration of different perspectives promoted explicit reflection of the contributing researcher's assumptions, and the implications of his or her perspectives on the outcomes of the research. We suggest a framework to assist conservation research projects by: (1 assisting formulation of research questions; (2 focusing dialogue between managers and researchers, making underlying worldviews explicit; and (3 helping researchers and managers improve longer-term strategies by helping identify overall goals and objectives and by identifying immediate research needs.

  5. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Explaining homosexuality: philosophical issues, and who cares anyhow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppe, F

    1994-01-01

    Standard behavioral and biological attempts to explain the etiology of homosexuality are surveyed. These include genetic, physiological (e.g., hormonal), constitutional (e.g., wrong pubic hair configurations), childhood experience, parenting, and psychoanalytic accounts. These are criticized from a number of perspectives, including inadequate conceptualization of homosexuality and heterosexuality. The use of path analysis to assess etiological accounts is examined, with particular attention being paid to the Kinsey Institute's Sexual Preference efforts. Drawing from the sociology of science, recent philosophical work on the growth of scientific knowledge, and historical considerations, the legitimacy of homosexual etiology as a scientific research question is examined. It is argued that homosexual etiology is a degenerative research program. The research program's conceptual crudity with respect to sexual identity and sexual orientation precludes it from making any scientific contribution. Thus the claim that homosexual etiology is a legitimate scientific issue is plausible only against the background of a set of late Victorian normative assumptions about "normal love," some surrogate thereof, or a political agenda. Implications of the homosexuality etiology case study for more general philosophical treatments of explanation are considered briefly.

  7. The Dialogue of Heidegger with Pre-Socratic Philosophers

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    Antonio M. Martín Morillas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1898-1976 attempted to outline in his second philosophy a hermeneutics of the thought of some philosophers (Anaximander, Parmenides and Heracleitus prior to the metaphysical development of Western thought. In several of his second work’s writings, Heidegger delimits, examines and reinterprets certain primitive Greek notions, which were especially appropriate for the jump from the «first beginning» of philosophy in Greece to the «other beginning» (not a metaphysical one of a «thinking of being» (Seinsdenken as «appropriating event» (Er-eignis. They are the pre-Socratic notions of Chreón (necessity, Lógos (thought-word, Móira (fate, Alétheia (truth y Ph?sis (nature-reality. Within the context of his long ontological research on the «essencing of being» (Seinswesen, Heidegger offers a reading in terms of an overcoming (Überwindung of metaphysical thought in general, understood as onto-theo-logy and marked by its «forgetfulness of being».

  8. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

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    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  9. Philosophical conception of music in O. Losev’s works

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    Olena O. Karpenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O. Losev’s philosophical views should be analized as a whole system, which is his conception of philosophy of music. Going beyond strictly musicological dimension of theory and philosophical dogmatism, O. Losev attempted to grasp the multidimensionality of music and sound, considering various aspects of life of music itself as symbolic expression to the doctrine of the harmony of spheres. The basis of music as an art of time is becoming, which is a constant rise and fall together, so music is a continuous turnover, on the one hand, and the tension and explosiveness on the other. Being in the music is a synthesis of unity and conscious and unconscious, cognitive and objective. Music is a unique phenomenon, an ideal substance, it is time in which there is a number that permeates the universe and human existence. The research reveals that syncretic nature of understanding the phenomenon of music in the work of O. Losev was defined by temporal ontology of music. Music opposition has directed her mind as she seeks to fill the intentionality of consciousness. O. Losev tried to find the true form of dialectics, understanding where music reached to the level of the music thinking.

  10. The oblique perspective: philosophical diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2017-12-01

    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices). Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, under the sway of automation, ICT and big machines. Finally, I further elaborate the specificity of the oblique perspective with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Philosophical reflections on contemporary life sciences concur neither with a Master's discourse (which aims to strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of canonical sources), nor with university discourse (which aims to establish professional expertise), nor with what Lacan refers to as hysterical discourse (which aims to challenge representatives of the power establishment), but rather with the discourse of the analyst, listening with evenly-poised attention to the scientific files in order to bring to the fore the cupido sciendi (i.e. the will to know, but also to optimise and to control) which both inspires and disrupts contemporary life sciences discourse.

  11. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  12. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

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    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  13. Euthanasia in South Africa: Philosophical and theological considerations

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    Mojalefa L.J. Koenane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates on euthanasia (or �mercy killing� have been a concern in moral, philosophical, legal, theological, cultural and sociological discourse for centuries. The topic of euthanasia inspires a variety of strong views of which the �slippery slope� argument is one. The latter warns that the principle(s underlying any ethical issue (including euthanasia may be distorted. Scholars� views on euthanasia are influenced mainly by cultural, personal, political and religious convictions. In South Africa, the issue of euthanasia has arisen from time to time, but the question of whether it should be legalised was not seriously considered until it recently attracted attention because of a particular case, that of Cape Town advocate Robin StranshamFord. Although euthanasia is still illegal (this is because the Stransham-Ford ruling is confined to this particular case only, as stated in the ratio decidendi by Judge Hans Fabricius of the High Court in Pretoria, the Court granted leave to appeal its April 2015 judgement regarding euthanasia in the application lodged by Stransham-Ford. In considering the contentious nature of the issue of euthanasia, this article adopts a multidisciplinary approach which includes historical, legal, theological, philosophical, theoretical and analytic frameworks, discussing euthanasia from philosophical and theological perspectives, in particular. We conclude by recommending that the subject of applied ethics, which helps to educate citizens about contemporary moral problems such as euthanasia, be introduced at school level. Exposing young people to the debates around thorny issues such as this would familiarise them with the discourse, encourage them to engage with it and empower them as mature citizens to make informed, reasonable decisions, obviating confusion and conflict which might otherwise arise. The problems surrounding the issue of euthanasia are multidimensional and have the capacity to polarise the nation and

  14. Mood, definiteness and specificity: a linguistic and a philosophical account of their similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Seibt, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    In this article we give a linguistic and a philosophical account of the relationship between some grammatical categories of the clause (realis) and the noun phrase (definiteness, specificity) that relate to the occurrence of an entity (thing, event) in the world of discourse. Our treatment differs...... in three important ways from previous work in this area. Firstly, we offer an explanation for both the symmetrical and the anti-symmetrical relations that appear to hold between (ir)realis mood and (in)definiteness. Secondly, we argue that any attempt to explain these relationships must make crucial...... reference to the grammatical category of specificity. Last but not least, we consider whether the identified linguistic symmetries and anti-symmetries are ontologically relevant and show that they are apparently best accounted for within an ontological theory that allows for dynamic and indeterminately...

  15. The Use of Philosophical Practice in Lifelong and Self-Directed Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2001-01-01

    In this article I invite the reader to reconsider philosophical counselling and practice first of all as a pedagogical practice. Recent research in adult education and especially in the area of "self-directed learning" reveals a growing interest in the existential and philosophical dimensions...... of learning and guidance in the adult education setting. I suggest that we use philosophical counselling to strengthen the adult´s capacity for lifelong and self-directed learning and that philosophical practice in general could be connected to a new kind of "existential adult pedagogy"....

  16. Space Weather Research in the Equatorial Region: A Philosophical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Victor; Odunaike, Rasaki; Laoye, John

    Investigations using radio waves reflected from the ionosphere, at high-and mid-latitudes indicate that ionospheric absorption can strongly increase following geomagnetic storms; which appears to suggest some definite relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storms at these latitudes. However, corresponding earlier studies in the equatorial region did not appear to show any explicit relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storm activity. This position appeared acceptable to the existing scientific paradigm, until in an act of paradigm shift, by a change of storm selection criteria, some more recent space weather investigations in the low latitudes showed that ionospheric radio wave absorption in the equatorial region clearly increases after intense storms. Given that these results in the equatorial region stood against the earlier results, this paper presently attempts to highlight their philosophical underpinning and posit that they constitute a scientific statement.

  17. Teaching of social and philosophical background to atomic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühl, Jutta

    1992-06-01

    The history of atomic theory is outlined from earliest times up to the orbital model, and a corresponding teaching method described. The first, historical part of the paper emphasizes social and philosophical aspects in the development of atomic theory. The following milestones are dealt with: the development of the concept of matter from Greek mythology up to the atom; the spreading of Arab philosophy to the Occident during the Middle Ages; the conflict between the church and its opponents in the Middle Ages about the nature of the individual and society; and the status of atomic theory at the time of Newton, and its final acceptance after Dalton. The second part of the paper describes a method for teaching this material at secondary level, in which students are encouraged to make their own conclusions from the range of material offered.

  18. Philosophers assess randomized clinical trials: the need for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miké, V

    1989-09-01

    In recent years a growing number of professional philosophers have joined in the controversy over ethical aspects of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Morally questionable in their utilitarian approach, RCTs are claimed by some to be in direct violation of the second form of Kant's Categorical Imperative. But the arguments used in these critiques at times derive from a lack of insight into basic statistical procedures and the realities of the biomedical research process. Presented to physicians and other nonspecialists, including the lay public, such distortions can be harmful. Given the great complexity of statistical methodology and the anomalous nature of concepts of evidence, more sustained input into the interdisciplinary dialogue is needed from the statistical profession.

  19. Boscovich's philosophical meditations in the history of contemporary thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.

    The content of Boscovich's Theoria philosophiae naturalis was well-known to his contemporaries, but both scientists and philosophers chiefly discussed it during the 19th century. The observations that Boscovich presented in this text, and that he himself defined as ``philosophicas metitationes", soon showed their being a good programme for the forthcoming atomic physics, and contributed to get rid of the mechanistic paradigm in science. In this paper I will go back to some meaningful moments of the history of Boscovich's reception in the era of contemporary philosophy, by referring to what authors such as Popper, Cassirer, Nietzsche and Fechner wrote about him. These thinkers, indeed, particularly stressed the importance of the Theoria in the history of Western thought, and showed that it can easily be evaluated beyond the plane of a pure scientific investigation.

  20. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  1. Philosophical Reflections made explicit as a Tool for Mathematical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sune; Andresen, Mette

    2009-01-01

        A new construct, ‘multidiciplinarity', is prescribed in the curricula of Danish Upper Secondary Schools by governmental regulations since 2006. Multidisciplinarity offers a good chance to introduce philosophical tools or methods in mathematics with the aim to improve the students' learning...... of both subjects, and to study the students' reactions and signs of progressive mathematizing. Based on realistic mathematics education (RME) which is rooted in Hans Freudenthal's idea of mathematics as a human activity, we decided to centre our work on the concept of reflection and to build a model...... for making students reflections in the mathematics class explicit to themselves. In our paper, we present a combination of two stratifications of reflections which were developed recently in works by other authors. The paper outlines our model and exemplifies its use on the teaching of mathematical models...

  2. Sameness and the Self: Philosophical and Psychological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan eKlein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the concept of cross-temporal personal identity (diachronicity. This particular form of identity has vexed theorists for centuries – e.g., how can a person maintain a belief in the sameness of self over time in the face of continual psychological and physical change? I first discuss various forms of the sameness relation and the criteria that justify their application. I then examine philosophical and psychological treatments of personal diachronicity (for example, Locke’s psychological connectedness theory; the role of episodic memory and find each lacking on logical grounds, empirical grounds or both. I conclude that to achieve a successful resolution of the issue of the self as a temporal continuant we need to draw a sharp distinction between the feeling of the sameness of one’s self and the evidence marshaled in support of that feeling.

  3. The quantum universe: philosophical foundations and oriental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas C; Yang, Keun-Hang

    2016-12-01

    The existence of universal principles in both science and medicine implies that one can explore their common applicability. Here we explore what we have learned from quantum mechanics, phenomena such as entanglement and nonlocality, the role of participation of the observer, and how these may apply to oriental medicine. The universal principles of integrated polarity, recursion, and creative interactivity apply to all levels of existence and all human activities, including healing and medicine. This review examines the possibility that what we have learned from quantum mechanics may provide clues to better understand the operational principles of oriental medicine in an integrated way. Common to both is the assertion that Consciousness is at the foundation of the universe and the inner core of all human beings. This view goes beyond both science and medicine and has strong philosophical foundations in Western philosophy as well as monistic systems of the East.

  4. PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS VALUE LEVEL OF PERCEPTION OF THE WORLD

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    S. I. Nekrasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the philosophical understanding of the problem of perception of values and antivalues. Beliefs, recognized among the people regarding the purposes to which it is important to strive for life, named values. They are the Foundation for moral principles and provide people with their human existence despite the fact that different cultures hold different principles. In the tribe Yanomami cruelty is considered a value. The expectation that men will defend their honor in combat, is to be the norm corresponding to this value. Anyway, the principles followed by the personality, are accounted for morality. Principles justify the norms and standards that support human being in his desire to be honest and sincere for that society in which he lives, and be worthy of its representative.

  5. A Review of "The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives"

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    José Goldemberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about sustainable development are not a recent phenomenon. Societal problem-solving efforts within this realm have focused on concrete problems such as the preservation of fisheries, forests and national reserves. 'The Politics of Sustainability' has been discussed extensively in  literature, particularly after the publication of the Brundtland Commission's 'Our Common Future' report in 1987 [1] emphasizing inter-generational responsibilities involving economic, environmental and social aspects. Among other areas, the authors of the report highlighted the challenge of global climate change resulting from, amongst other things, unsustainable patterns of consumption. 'The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives', edited by Dieter Birnhacher and May Thorseth, brings  a new angle into the discussion of the politics of sustainable development: ethical considerations.

  6. Reassembling mathematical practices: a philosophical-anthropological approach

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    Karen François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first explore h ow Wittgenstein ’ s philosophy provides a conceptual tools to discuss the possibility of the simultaneous existence of culturally different mathematical practices. We will argue that Wittgenstein ’ s later work will be a fruitful framework to serve as a philosophical background to investigate ethnomathematics ( Wittgenstein 1973 . W e will give an overview of Wittgenstein’s later work which is referred to by many researchers in the field of ethnomathematics . The central philosophical investigation concerns Wittgenstein’s shift to abandon ing the essentialist concept of language and therefore deny ing the existence of a universal language. Languages — or ‘language games’ as Wittgenstein calls them — are immersed in a form of life, in a cultural or social formation and are embedded in the totality o f communal activities. This gives rise to the idea of rationality as an invention or as a construct that emerges in specific local contexts. In the second part of the paper we introduce, analyse and compare the mathematical aspects of two activities known as string figure - making and sand drawing, to illustrate Wittgenstein ’s ideas . Base d on an ethnomathematical comparative analysis , we will argue that there is evidence of invariant and distinguishing features of a mathematical rationality , as expressed in both string figure - making and sand drawing practices, from one society to another . Finally, w e suggest that a philosop hical - anthropological approach to mathematical practices may allow us to better understand the interrelations between mathematics and cul tures. Philoso phical investigations may help the reflection on the possibility of culturally determined ethnomathematics, while an anthropological approach, using ethnographical methods, may afford new materials for the analysis of ethnomathematics and its links to the cultural context. This combined approach will help us to better

  7. Diego Velázquez's Kings, Buffoons and Philosophers in the Context of His Religious Paintings: the View from Russia (Philosophical-Anthropological Analysis

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    Margarita Silantieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of philosophic anthropology of the great Spanish artist of the 17th century Diego Velazquez. This anthropology is considered through the prism of the problems that set the life of contemporary Russia and its "reflections" in the present-day Russian artists' works. At that Velazquez's philosophical anthropology is reconstructed on the basis of his works. As a consequence, significant part of attention is paid to the method that allows performing such reconstruction. The author proceeds from the belief according to which not only written texts can be considered philosophically. The visual "texts" connected with certain world outlook component of art creative work undoubtedly possess definite semantics. Expressed by the language of art, such image lines contain intelligible sense component reconstruction of which can be subjected to strict scientific and philosophical analysis and corrected with its help. At that one should not think that the images are "translated" into "the text of words" - on the contrary, philosophical reconstruction implies not as "verbalization" of visual line as coherent to it logical mastering of the picture's sense (in this case against the background of historical and historical-philosophical "scenery". The urgency of turning to this problem is brought about by the fact that a number of questions that found vivid and coherent (as philosophical-anthropological research shows embodiment in Velazquez's creative work are extremely interesting for contemporary thinkers speaking the language of contemporary fine arts. "The topic of mirror" is among such questions and it deals with correlation of intellectual and rational in a person's consciousness, and, finally, there is the issue of the man as a bearer of moral principles. Comparison of attitudes shown by contemporary painting with Velazquez's ideas enables to trace the development of philosophical anthropology and in the area of its

  8. Measuring Music Education: A Philosophical Investigation of the Model Cornerstone Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial attention to measurement and assessment in contemporary education and music education policy and practice, the process of measurement has gone largely undiscussed in music education philosophy. Using the work of physicist and philosopher Karen Barad, in this philosophical inquiry, I investigated the nature of measurement in…

  9. Toward a New Philosophical Anthropology of Education: Fuller Considerations of Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Stephen; Garrison, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical anthropology is philosophical inquiry into human nature that seeks to answer the fundamental question of what generally characterizes human beings and differentiates them from other creatures and things. Political theories considerably influence educational theories. We call attention to the fact that the three main political…

  10. Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to Each Other? Some Reasons for Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Responds to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" noting complexities that complicate the answer and suggesting that they are indeed communicating if one accepts a broader definition of philosophers and educators. The essay asserts that little educational research and theory has had much…

  11. Critics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers: A Discourse on Human Beings in Reality

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    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper. 

  12. Can a Rabbit Be a Scientist? Stimulating Philosophical Dialogue in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; de Schrijver, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    Philosophical dialogue requires an approach to teaching and learning in science that is focused on problem posing and provides space for meaning making, finding new ways of thinking and understanding and for linking science with broader human experiences. This article explores the role that philosophical dialogue can play in science lessons and…

  13. The Role of Historical-Philosophical Controversies in Teaching Sciences: The Debate between Biot and Ampere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, Jose Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the viability of using controversies in teaching. An educational project has been elaborated in which some historical-philosophical clashes were introduced into the classical syllabus of physics. The historical-philosophical controversy dealt with here, took place between the French physicists Biot and Ampere in the 19th…

  14. Étienne Gilson’s Philosophical Realism / Realizm filozoficzny w ujęciu Étienne Gilsona

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    Natalia Kunat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze realist philosophy as the way of knowing reality in the thought of Étienne Gilson. The French Philosopher was a defender of philosophical realism who rationally justified the thesis about knowing things existing in the world independently of the knowing subject. Philosophical inquiry, carried out in a realist way, should start with the being which really exists. The basic philosophical method aims to rationally understand reality as well as explain the multifaceted cognition of reality. Gilson’s contribution to the development of philosophical realism includes the promotion of a realist philosophical awareness and the opposition to idealistic philosophies (Cartesianism, Kantianism.

  15. Platón ako Pseudo-Sókratés? Niekoľko poznámok k problematike autorstva filozofického textu v antike ( “Plato as Pseudo-Socrates? Some Remarks on the Problems Related to the Autorship of a Philosophical Text in Antiquity“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Škvrnda ml.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the problematic category of authorship in ancient philosophical literature. Philosophers are divided into two groups: the first consist of non-writing protagonists (e. g. Socrates, Ammonius of Saccas, while the second category includes writing authors (e. g. Plato, Aristotle. Paper argues that with regard to their „historicity“, between these two groups of philosophers is no substantial difference. Philosophical texts were often written in co-authorship. Many students and later adherents passed their own doctrines off as teacherʼs originals. Moreover, due to the fact that the very texts were transcribed countless times, there is no certainty about original phrasing of the documents that came down to our modern or renaissance era. The „historicity“ of philosophersʼ attitudes and ideas therefore can not be deduced from the existence of authorized text, written by some particular author.

  16. Historical-Philosophical Components of Policy and Mo-Rality Relations

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    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To analyze comprehensively the policy as a way of human being, as well as the important today’s criteria of legitimacy of the government and the nature of political morality through a consistent reconstruction of the relations between morality and politics in the contemporary and classic historical and philosophical discourses. Methodology. The methods of historical reconstruction, hermeneutic, social and transcendental ones, which allowed to involve actively into understanding the important problems of modern life, conceptual apparatus of political and moral philosophy and to explore the relationships between politics and morality through the idea of social agreement, justice and freedom are used for coherent and consistent understanding of the measurements and definitions of relations policy and morality. Scientific novelty. The used in the article methodological principles made it possible to create actual for today (especially for controversial burdened by totalitarian past and uncertain future of a controversial, local realities version of political ethics. It is proved that the development of moral and ethical principles, their consistent adherence by not only politicians, but by all the citizens are able to hinder the pragmatic interests of statesmen, who, under cover of the idea of the common good, protect primarily not the public but narrow corporate interests. A true freedom and justice based on the relationship of rights and duties, respect for them, which is more significant than conventional or compulsory recognition of them. Not only classic but also modern philosophical arguments for the combination of morality, ethics and politics were reconstructed. The thoughts of E. Tuhendhat about the nature of morality as a special regulatory system, and the basic principles of justification of moral standards in a modern philosophy were analyzed. It is shown that the landscape of contemporary crisis of social being, moral

  17. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPONENTS OF POLICY AND MO-RALITY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To analyze comprehensively the policy as a way of human being, as well as the important today’s criteria of legitimacy of the government and the nature of political morality through a consistent reconstruction of the relations between morality and politics in the contemporary and classic historical and philosophical discourses. Methodology. The methods of historical reconstruction, hermeneutic, social and transcendental ones, which allowed to involve actively into understanding the important problems of modern life, conceptual apparatus of political and moral philosophy and to explore the relationships between politics and morality through the idea of social agreement, justice and freedom are used for coherent and consistent understanding of the measurements and definitions of relations policy and morality. Scientific novelty. The used in the article methodological principles made it possible to create actual for today (especially for controversial burdened by totalitarian past and uncertain future of a controversial, local realities version of political ethics. It is proved that the development of moral and ethical principles, their consistent adherence by not only politicians, but by all the citizens are able to hinder the pragmatic interests of statesmen, who, under cover of the idea of the common good, protect primarily not the public but narrow corporate interests. A true freedom and justice based on the relationship of rights and duties, respect for them, which is more significant than conventional or compulsory recognition of them. Not only classic but also modern philosophical arguments for the combination of morality, ethics and politics were reconstructed. The thoughts of E. Tuhendhat about the nature of morality as a special regulatory system, and the basic principles of justification of moral standards in a modern philosophy were analyzed. It is shown that the landscape of contemporary crisis of social being, moral

  18. SPIRITUALITY AS PHILOSOPHICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DE-VELOPMENT PROBLEM

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    V. E. Gromov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to regard the essence and phenomenon of spirituality in connection with ontological foundation of human being existence. The author suggests the concept of new cosmo-theocentric paradigm of human world outlook, as a ground of perspective transformation of social life activity on the contrary to anthropocentric view, which dominates in present society consciousness. The author gives the characteristics of the ideal sage and underlines the importance of spiritual teachers in cultural development of society. Methodology. The method of philosophizing is connected with the unity of mind, sensuality, belief, will in integral body and mental organization of a man. Such point of view takes into consideration not only aspects of objective determination, but includes senses of existence and world outlook ideas in culture on particular and universal levels of social experience. The author considers a special ontological disposition of the human being in the world as a “transcendent project” with “metaphysic responsibility”. Scientific novelty. In the history of social culture the problem of its spiritual attitude towards reality is a basic problem, but now it becomes especially up-to-date and important. Now the survival of the civilization depends on the development of spirituality. From metaphysical point of view it means how spiritual the human being may be. The author connects the consideration of spirituality with particular human being ontological status in the world and provides his reflection with speculative character. Conclusions. The transition of modern civilized society to the cosmo-theocentric paradigm is prepared by contradictions of its technological and cultural development. In historical circumstances when the conscious influence of society on itself is growing, the realization of this process depends on spiritual trend of human beings cultural activity and mental quality of social leaders

  19. Strategy of Media Education: Philosophical and Pedagogical Aspects

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    Evgeniya Mikhailovna Nikolaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern requirements for educational activities have a binary nature. Thus, on the one hand, educational practice established in the form of a social institution is one of the most conservative areas of social space. On the other hand, comfortable adaptation of a person to the processes occurring in the modern world is impossible without taking into account the phenomena of digital nature. The article provides a philosophical and pedagogical strategy aimed at the development of critical and creative thinking skills and competent reasoning, which can act as a basis for media education. The paper shows that the community of researchers is an interactive form of lesson organization, which makes it possible to develop rationality and ethical-and-democratic behaviour and, thus, to promote information and media literacy among students. The article also presents theoretical justification of the strategy, as well as techniques and materials for its empirical assessment. These can help arrange a lesson according to the principle of research community, which will contribute to the development of both cognitive and ethical-and-social skills in students.

  20. Escaping the flybottle: solipsism and method in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Remarks

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    Jônadas Techio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper supports a dialectical interpretation of Wittgenstein's method focusing on the analysis of the conditions of experience presented in his Philosophical Remarks. By means of a close reading of some key passages dealing with solipsism I will try to lay bare their self-subverting character: the fact that they amount to miniature dialectical exercises offering specific directions to pass from particular pieces of disguised nonsense to corresponding pieces of patent nonsense. Yet, in order to follow those directions one needs to allow oneself to become simultaneously tempted by and suspicious of their all-too-evident "metaphysical tone" - a tone which, as we shall see, is particularly manifest in those claims purporting to state what can or cannot be the case, and, still more particularly, those purporting to state what can or cannot be done in language or thought, thus leading to the view that there are some (determinate things which are ineffable or unthinkable. I conclude by suggesting that in writing those remarks Wittgenstein was still moved by an ethical project, which gets conspicuously displayed in these reiterations of his attempts to cure the readers (and himself from some of the temptations expressed by solipsism.

  1. Dualism and its place in a philosophical structure for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Hane Htut

    2018-05-19

    It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers. I argue that while the neuroscientific research underpinning biological psychiatry challenges the traditional dualism of René Descartes, it does not pose any problem for the more modern dualism of David Chalmers. It is possible to take seriously the scientific claims of biological psychiatry while holding that this latter form of dualism is true. This has implications for the positioning of the mind-body problem in psychiatry. While the "easy" problem of explaining psychological processes is relevant to the aims of biological psychiatry, psychiatrists need not worry about the "hard" problem of consciousness.

  2. Head Transplants and Personal Identity: A Philosophical and Literary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    The criterion of personal identity is clearly called into question by the project to perform a human head transplant. Is identity provided by psychological continuity alone, or does it depend on bodily continuity as well? And how do these different perspectives interface with our notion of mind and mind-body relationship? The reader will be provided with a discussion concerning these problems, together with a philosophical and literary survey about the conception of body-mind relationship from the Greek thought to contemporary philosophy. The analysis will conclude with a discussion concerning the possibility to consider the issue of personal identity from a statistic point of view, which privileges the general perception of identity, so as it has been shaped by the cultural trends of the last four centuries. It could hence be argued that personal identity is not something which can be defined once and for all. On the contrary, the general perception of identity is subject to significant alterations resulting from one's cultural environment. However, the cultural environment itself can be changed by particularly notable events, such as, hypothetically, the successful outcome of a human head transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-06-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  4. Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics: Confessions of a philosopher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When we undertake academic, disciplinary work, we rely on philosophical starting points. Several straightforward illustrations of this can be found in the history of applied linguistics. It is evident from the history of our field that various historically influential approaches to our discipline base themselves upon different academic confessions. This paper examines the effects of basing our applied linguistic work on the idea that applied linguistics is a discipline concerned with design. Such a characterisation does justice to both modernist and postmodernist emphases in applied linguistics. Conceptualisations of applied linguistics that came with the proposals for communicative language teaching (CLT some thirty to forty years ago propelled the discipline squarely into postmodern times. To account for this, we need to develop a theory of applied linguistics which shows what constitutive and regulative conditions exist for doing applied linguistic designs. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics today has as its first responsibility to free the users of its designs from toil and drudgery, as well as from becoming victims of fashion, ideology or theory. Secondly, it should design solutions to language problems in such a way that the technical imagination of the designer is not restricted but supported by theory and empirical investigation, and that the productive pedagogical fantasy of the implementers of such plans is set free. Thirdly, it must seek to become accountable by designing theoretically and socially defensible solutions to language problems, solutions that relieve some of the suffering, pain, poverty and injustice in our world.

  6. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  7. Philosophical origins of the social rate of discount in cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1990-01-01

    The social rate of discount--that is, the way decision makers today evaluate future consequences of collective activity--raises difficult issues of intergenerational justice. When benefits are discounted at the present rate the United States government requires, serious efforts to promote public health over the long term will fail cost-benefit tests. No consensus exists among theorists to establish fair rates; philosophers support discounting with economic arguments that economists reject, while economists no less paradoxically support the concept using philosophical arguments that philosophers disavow. A new emphasis on the role of consumers' and citizens' time preferences, however, will keep open rather than close debates on the social discount rate.

  8. ON TRANSLATION OF SOME PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS IN KARL MARX’S WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Pyotr N. Kondrashov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, that in Russian-speaking editions of K. Marx's works some philosophical concepts (produktiv, erzeugen, Erzeugung, Äußerung, Aneignung, Genuß, Arbeit, Verkehr, Gebrauchswert were translated as words with the productive and economic sense while Marx put philosophical, anthropological and existential connotations into these words in various contexts. It led to incorrect understanding of Marx's philosophy. The author of the article draws a conclusion about indispensability of new adequate translation of Marx's works and about radical reconsideration of its philosophical system.

  9. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field - Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of 'Common Morality', 'Specific Morality', 'Specification', 'Balancing' and 'Double Effects'. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts.

  11. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of ‘Common Morality’, ‘Specific Morality’, ‘Specification’, ‘Balancing’ and ‘Double Effects’. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts. PMID:28031624

  12. Aufklärung and Eternal Peace: Problems of Kantian Philosophical Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir-Adrian Costea

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically analyze the major projects of Kantian philosophy in relation to the ideal of Aufklärung and the establishment of Eternal Peace. The main objective of the research is to analyze the originality and boundaries of Kantian projects both at the level of the practical (moral rationale and at the level of the relations of power and interests of the state actors on the international political scene. We aim to identify the boundaries of the Kantian approach in order to establish Eternal Peace, applying the logic of the power relations existing on the international political scene. The secondary objective of the research is to identify how the individual and the state are projected into Kantian philosophy. The original aspect of this article is the decoding of Kantian critical thinking in relation to the project of Aufklärung and the establishment of Eternal Peace. The main result of the research is that the tension of reasoning applied by philosopher Immanuel Kant regarding the definition of human nature and the relationship of forces on the international political scene. Applying the practical (moral rationale used to define the individual’s inclination to get out of the minority state (by knowledge becomes problematic at the time of the Kantian approach to justify the (political necessity of Eternal Peace.

  13. Kierkegaard - le Philosophe, le Juge et le Droit (Kierkegaard – the Philosopher, the Judge and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le fameux théologien et philosophe Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 dans son oeuvre souvnt utilize expressions et metaphors pris du monde judiciare. Il pare, quíl est bien au courant quant´au monde des jurists de son age et place. La plupart des expressions sont pris du droit penal et de la procédure pénale. Le criminel comme individu ou l’objet de línterrogation et comme coupable es tun des ses images favorites. Dans ses oeuvres Ou-bien … Ou bien et Etapes su la chemin de la vie nous encontrons un juge danois avec la possibilité de suivre ses reflections sur son travail et l’éthique d’un repésentant de la justice locale. Le juge est une des masques sous lesquelles Kierkegaard s’adresse a nous. Les oeuvres de Kierkegaard et l’utilisation des expressions prises du monde du droit sont ici présentées dans un contexte contemporaire du doit et vie á Copenhague dans les années entre 1840 et 1855 en contrastant les différances entre le narrative de Kierkegaard selon lequel le doit peut server comme example et sur l’autre côté son concept transcendental de l’être coupable. The famous Danish theologian and existentialist philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 in his work often used expressions or metaphors taken from judicial life, which reveals him as familiar with the legal world of his time and place. Most expressions are taken from penal law and penal procedure. The criminal as individual or the object of interrogation and guilt is one of his favorite images. In his Enten-Eller (Either/or and Stadier paa Livets Vej (Stages on Life’s Way we even meet a Danish judge and follow his reflections on his work and the ethics of a representative of local Justice. The judge is one of the masks under which Kierkegaard presents his thinking. Kierkegaard’s works and his use of expressions taken from the legal world are presented in the contemporary context of law and life in Copenhagen in the 1840ies however contrasting the

  14. Evolutionary systems biology: historical and philosophical perspectives on an emerging synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2012-01-01

    Systems biology (SB) is at least a decade old now and maturing rapidly. A more recent field, evolutionary systems biology (ESB), is in the process of further developing system-level approaches through the expansion of their explanatory and potentially predictive scope. This chapter will outline the varieties of ESB existing today by tracing the diverse roots and fusions that make up this integrative project. My approach is philosophical and historical. As well as examining the recent origins of ESB, I will reflect on its central features and the different clusters of research it comprises. In its broadest interpretation, ESB consists of five overlapping approaches: comparative and correlational ESB; network architecture ESB; network property ESB; population genetics ESB; and finally, standard evolutionary questions answered with SB methods. After outlining each approach with examples, I will examine some strong general claims about ESB, particularly that it can be viewed as the next step toward a fuller modern synthesis of evolutionary biology (EB), and that it is also the way forward for evolutionary and systems medicine. I will conclude with a discussion of whether the emerging field of ESB has the capacity to combine an even broader scope of research aims and efforts than it presently does.

  15. 3. EI Ani Critique of Nkrumah's Philosophical Materialism pp1-30

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    pillars of Nkrumah's theory of emergentism (which he calls “philosophical materialism”), namely ... conversion, dialectical change, self motion of matter .... be verified, because the verification has to be carried out by someone who is outside the.

  16. Identifying a K-10 Developmental Framework for Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to identify predictable opportunities for teachers to scaffold middle year students' philosophical learning. Such opportunities were identified in terms of students' readiness to learn certain behaviours in the context of a "community of inquiry". Thus it was hoped that the project would provide a useful…

  17. The ethical issues regarding consent to clinical trials with pre-term or sick neonates: a systematic review (framework synthesis) of the analytical (theoretical/philosophical) research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megone, Christopher; Wilman, Eleanor; Oliver, Sandy; Duley, Lelia; Gyte, Gill; Wright, Judy

    2016-09-09

    Conducting clinical trials with pre-term or sick infants is important if care for this population is to be underpinned by sound evidence. Yet, approaching the parents of these infants at such a difficult time raises challenges to obtaining valid informed consent for such research. In this study, we asked, What light does the analytical literature cast on an ethically defensible approach to obtaining informed consent in perinatal clinical trials? In a systematic search, we identified 30 studies. We began our analysis by applying philosophical frameworks, which were then refined as concepts emerged from the analytical studies, to present a coherent picture of a broad literature. Between them, the studies addressed four themes. The first three were the ethical basis for parental informed consent for neonatal and/or perinatal research, the validity of parental consent in this context, and the range of possible options in methods for gaining consent. The last was the issue of risk and the possibility of a double-standard or asymmetry in the current approaches to the requirement for consent for research and consent for clinical treatment. In addressing these issues, the analysed studies showed that, whilst there are a variety of possible defences for seeking parental 'consent' to neonatal and/or perinatal clinical trials, these are all consistent with the strongly and widely held view that it is important that parents do give (or decline) consent for such research. So far as the method of obtaining consent is concerned, none of the existing consent processes reviewed by the research is satisfactory, and there are philosophical reasons for supposing that at least some parents will fail to give valid consent in a neonatal context. Furthermore, in giving parental 'consent' in a perinatal context, parents are authorising infant participation, not giving 'proxy consent'. Finally, there are reasons for giving weight to both parental 'consent' and the infant's best interests in

  18. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  19. Qualitative research in multicultural psychology: philosophical underpinnings, popular approaches, and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the current and emerging status of qualitative research in psychology. The particular value of diverse philosophical paradigms and varied inquiry approaches to the advancement of psychology generally, and multicultural psychology specifically, is emphasized. Three specific qualitative inquiry approaches anchored in diverse philosophical research paradigms are highlighted: consensual qualitative research, grounded theory, and participatory action research. The article concludes by highlighting important ethical considerations in multicultural qualitative research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Philosophic-educational intelligence analysis as a subject of marketing management

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Litvinenko

    2014-01-01

    The highest value for the philosophical problems of education should consider introducing within the philosophical foundations of marketing management methodology for systematic consideration of education as a social subject­object process, which is based on needs. Philosophy of Education in the face of marketing philosophy and management philosophy got a good theoretical and methodological framework for the synthesis of market interpretations educational development and the development of fu...

  1. Biomedicine or Holistic Medicine for Treating Mentally Ill Patients? A Philosophical and Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-01-01

    Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from p...

  2. The nature of delusion: psychologically explicable? psychologically inexplicable? philosophically explicable? Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J; Musalek, M

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this article dealt with the extant formulations of delusion, psychiatric and psychological, suggestions which, respectively, regard delusion as psychologically inexplicable or explicable. All this was subjected to critique. This second part puts forward informed philosophical thesis whereby delusion can be explained within the philosophical movement known as phenomenology and, in particular, Max Scheler's version of this. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A Philosophical reflection on European integration : Aristotelian subsidiarity versus Kantian universalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bielskis, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to show how contemporary Aristotelian political philosophy can be utilised in our reflections on European integration. It argues that changes in international relations after the end of the Cold War and a growing cultural divide between Europe and the US makes Europe's Western identity untenable. Through a brief philosophical sketch of the history of 'the West' it argues that Europe needs to return to its European rather than Western roots. The philosophical emphasis on nation...

  4. VULNERABILITY, AUTHENTICITY, AND INTER-SUBJECTIVE CONTACT: PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Grantham, UK, July 11-14, 2013.

  5. VULNERABILITY, AUTHENTICITY, AND INTER-SUBJECTIVE CONTACT: PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-01-01

    The Philosophical principles of a relationally focused Integrative Psychotherapy are described through the concepts of vulnerability, authenticity, and inter-subjective contact. Eight principles or therapist attitudes are outlined with clinical examples that illustrate the philosophy. These philosophical principles provide the foundation for a theory of methods. This article is based on a keynote address given at the 6th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, Granth...

  6. Is a new version of philosophical pragmatism necessary? A reply to Barnes-Holmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Barnes-Holmes (2000) discussed certain issues regarding philosophy, pragmatism, and behavior analysis, and offered a “behavioral pragmatism” based on or derived from behavior-analytic perspectives. In a comparison of certain philosophical views, Quine's concept of observation sentences was employed for representing pragmatism, but this concept is not sufficiently representative of the literature of philosophical pragmatism to warrant the broad conclusions drawn by Barnes-Holmes. Further, although the extensive and diverse literature of philosophical pragmatism has been shown by a number of writers to have various themes and perspectives in common with Skinner's radical behaviorism, it is unnecessary to extract a limited, generic version of pragmatism because (a) the latter cannot match the range and depth of the various extant versions and (b) the problems raised by Barnes-Holmes in justification for the new version yield readily to the current versions in philosophy. A set of philosophical views may provide additional verbal support for a given system of science, and the science of behavior analysis may eventually contribute to philosophical discourse. The latter, however, will not be achieved by proposing new versions of old philosophy, but rather by approaching established philosophical issues in new ways. PMID:22478409

  7. Chronic Pain as a Hypothetical Construct: A Practical and Philosophical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Doleys

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain has been defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.” Chronic pain is usually described as pain that has persisted for 3–6 months and/or beyond the expected time of healing. The numerical pain rating (NPR is the customary metric and often considered as a proxy for the subjective experience of chronic pain. This definition of pain (chronic has been of significant heuristic value. However, the definition and the models it has spawned tend to encourage the interpretation of pain as a measurable entity and implies that the patient’s experience of pain can be fully comprehended by someone other than the person in pain. Several major models of pain have been scrutinized and found to propagate the notion of pain as a ‘thing’ and fall prey to biomedical reductionism and Cartesian (mind-body dualism. Furthermore, the NPR does not appear to capture the complexity of chronic pain and correlates poorly with other clinically meaningful outcomes. It, and other aspects of the current notion of chronic pain, appear to be an extension of our reliance on the philosophical principles of reductionism and materialism. These and other shortcomings identified in the IASP definition have resulted in an increased interest in a reexamination and possible updating of our view of pain (chronic and its definition. The present paper describes an alternative view of pain, in particular chronic pain. It argues that chronic pain should be understood as a separate phenomenon from, rather than an extension of, acute pain and interpreted as a hypothetical construct (HC. HCs are contrasted to intervening variables (IV and the use of HCs in science is illustrated. The acceptance of the principles of nonlinearity and emergence are seen as important characteristics. The practical implications and barriers

  8. Public political thought: bridging the sociological-philosophical divide in the study of legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulof, Uriel

    2016-06-01

    The study of political legitimacy is divided between prescriptive and descriptive approaches. Political philosophy regards legitimacy as principled justification, sociology regards legitimacy as public support. However, all people can, and occasionally do engage in morally reasoning their political life. This paper thus submits that in studying socio-political legitimation - the legitimacy-making process - the philosophical ought and the sociological is can be bridged. I call this construct 'public political thought' (PPT), signifying the public's principled moral reasoning of politics, which need not be democratic or liberal. The paper lays PPT's foundations and identifies its 'builders' and 'building blocks'. I propose that the edifice of PPT is built by moral agents constructing and construing socio-moral order (nomization). PPT's building blocks are justificatory common beliefs (doxa) and the deliberative language of legitimation. I illustrate the merits of this groundwork through two empirical puzzles: the end of apartheid and the emergence of Québécois identity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  9. Measuring health: a practical challenge with a philosophical solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroufi, Amir; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Aston, Louise M; Pashayan, Nora; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-03-01

    With the current demographic shift being experienced by populations globally, almost linear increases in life expectancy have been seen and can be expected. However, increases in healthy life expectancy may not keep pace. Among older populations the proportion of time spent in less than full health tends to increase. As a result, the accurate valuation of life spent in states less than full health will become increasingly important. Different techniques and approaches have been used to measure health in populations. The use of summary measures of population health such as DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) has become common, and is widely used to compare health between populations and to evaluate the potential impact of interventions in economic analyses. Most of the commonly used summary measures of health express some measure of life lived in full health and life lived with disability or in a state of sub-optimal health. Critical to the construction of summary health measures are values assigned to health states. Current tools used in determining these values include the standard gamble, time trade off, person trade off, and the visual analogue scale. However, these techniques all have the disadvantage of incorporating individual biases (derived from particular characteristics specific to individuals or populations) into the process through which health state valuations are derived. As a consequence health states are often not directly comparable between populations, since characteristics such as nationality and ethnicity can influence how health states are valued. Furthermore, health can be judged differently by those of different ages, with the young often assigning a lower value to life lived at less than full health compared to older people. The challenge of obtaining opinions which are not influenced by an individual's own circumstances is not new. This issue was encountered and described by the American philosopher John Rawls in 'A Theory of Justice

  10. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  11. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  12. Evolution of Scientific Management Towards Performance Measurement and Managing Systems for Sustainable Performance in Industrial Assets: Philosophical Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Chandima Ratnayake

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though remarkable progress has been made over recent years in the design of performance measurement frameworks and systems, many companies are still primarily relying on traditional financial performance measures. This paper presents an overview of modern descendents and historical antecedents of performance measurement and attempts to give philosophical definition, in fact addressed the evolution of traditional ways of measuring performance. The paper suggests that modern frameworks have indeed addressed the organizations external to them while satisfying the conditions internal to them and providing an analogy of the notion of kuhn’s scientific paradigm. This analogy is consistent with the fundamental proposition of Kuhnian philosophy of science, that progress only happens thorough successive and abrupt shifts of paradigm.

  13. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  14. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  15. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  16. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  17. About social and cultural aspects of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the approaches to socio­cultural understanding of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology, analyzes the essence of human nature contradictions inherent in the contradiction between biological and social components; author focuses attention on the concept of «identity» in the context of philosophical anthropology and characterization of the status of human life; put forward a reasoned statement that outlook, as the level of philosophical understanding of the world, combining both biological and social components of human nature. It is emphasized that universal principle transistorychnym public attitudes towards human life is the recognition of its absolute value in different dimensions ­ religious, philosophical, scientific. The author notes that religious, especially biblical doctrine emphasizes the value of human life that flows from dignity of man, created in God’s image, a rational being who comes to Earth as, in a sense, a representative of God. The article stresses the urgency of a new philosophical paradigm as an important ideological guideline that requires perceive and understand the biological basis of man is not as indispensable, but neutral background of social life, but as a basis upon which and through which a person is transformed into a cultural and civilized being.

  18. Does Prigogine’s Non-linear Thermodynamics Support Popular Philosophical Discussions of Self-Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pechenkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the philosophical talks which became popular in the 1980s and have kept their popularity till now–the philosophical essays about self-organization. The author attempts to find out as to which extent are these essays founded on the scientific theory to which they regularly refer, that is, Ilya Prigogine’s non-linear thermodynamics. The author insists that the equivalent of self-organization in Prigogine’s theoretical physics is the concept of dissipative structure. The concept of selforganization, as it is used in philosophical literature, presupposes a sequence of extrapolations, the first extrapolation being conducted by Prigogine and his coauthors. They became to use the concept of dissipative structure beyond the rigorous theory of this phenomenon. The subsequent step was that the scientific term “dissipative structure” was replaced by the vague concept “self-organization” in many popular and semi-popular books and papers. The author also emphasizes that by placing the concept of self-organization into the framework of philosophical concepts (the picture of the world, the ideals of scientific thought, the contemporary scientific revolution, etc. a philosopher conducts the extrapolation of extrapolation and comes to a kind of what Edmund Husserl called Weltanschauung (‘worldview’ philosophy.

  19. Dwie (antyfilozoficzne „gramatyki” Wittgensteina [Two (anti philosophical grammars of Ludwig Wittgenstein

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    Adam Nowaczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein is the author of two conceptions of “grammar”, that were meant to be tools of reaching the same goal: discrediting of the traditional, i.e. “metaphysical” questions of philosophy. His early conception concerns logical grammar being the language of logic notation, which is devoid of logical constants. This idea was supported by the ontological thesis that there are no logical objects. In fact, it was not indispensable for achieving the intended purpose, since the elimination of philosophical problems was provided by the semantic argument that the only sensible statements are those of the natural sciences. The second concept of grammar, presented in the writings of the later Wittgenstein, seems more ambiguous. Grammar is a set of rules of the language game, having a status of grammatical statements. Examples of such statements are diverse, and desirable, according to the authors, reformulation of them all into concrete orders or prohibitions seems problematic. In the Investigations Wittgenstein distinguishes between deep and surface grammar, which serves to determine the proper task of philosophy as description of the deep grammar (especially the grammar of philosophically relevant words. In this sense New Philosophy is a kind of philosophical grammar. Wittgensteinian grammar is also anti-philosophical, as it aims at the elimination of erroneous (pseudometaphysical claims derived from misleading forms of surface grammar. Despite the differences in the concepts of language and grammar in the early and late Wittgenstein, he has not changed his critical approach to the traditional philosophical questions.

  20. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  1. RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL CRITICISM OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH TO EKZEGETICS OF DREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyacheslav Alekseevich Ermakov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available n this article the author reconstructed and generalized the religious and philosophical aspects of Christian criticism of psychoanalytic methodology of dreams interpretation. The research opens an occult specifics of a psychoanalytic oneurocritics. There is a consideration of a concept how such factors as «cocaine promotion» affects Freudian theory of dreams, a freemasonry and cabalism. The article reveals that Christian ekzegetics of dreams is essentially opposite to psychoanalytic interpretation of dreaming experience. The author makes a hypothesis of before-Freud unity of psychiatric and Christian approaches to interpretation of dreams and an orientation of psychoanalysis on destruction of this unity. The assumption of spiritual and psychological danger of application of psychoanalytic approach of dreams interpretation in psychological work is reasonable. The author comes to a conclusion that the Freudian methodology of dreams interpretation has been developed with the purposes of introduction of anti-Christian occult psychology in the theory and practice of medical and psychiatric activity and elimination of Christian vicarial psychotherapy.Purpose. The research objective consists of retrospective reconstruction of the main critical aspects of the psychoanalytic concept of dreams presented in Christian approach to ekzegetics of dreams.Methodology. Method of this research is a comparative analysis of Christian and psychoanalytic approaches of understanding the nature and essence of dreaming process and its interpretation.Results. Results of research can be used as in the scientific purposes of critical genera-lization and studying of the theoretical model of a dream developed by psychoanalysis and in educational activity where students can compare Christian and psychoanalytic approaches.Practical implementation: psychology, philosophy history, sociology, theological researches.

  2. A philosophical perspective on the relation between cortical midline structures and the self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eMusholt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing evidence that an area in the brain called the cortical midline structures (CMS is implicated in what has been termed self-related processing. This article will discuss recent evidence for the relation between CMS and self-consciousness in light of several important philosophical distinctions. First, we should distinguish between being a self (i.e., being a subject of conscious experience and being aware of being a self (i.e., being able to think about oneself as such. While the former consists in having a first-person perspective on the world, the latter requires the ability to explicitly represent one’s own perspective as such. Further, we should distinguish between being aware of oneself 'as subject' and being aware of oneself 'as object'. The focus of existing studies investigating the relation between CMS and self has been predominantly on the ability to think about oneself (and in particular thinking of oneself 'as object', while the more basic aspects involved in being a self have been neglected. However, it is important to widen the scope of the cognitive neuroscience to include the latter, not least because this might have important implications for a better understanding of disorders of the self, such as those involved in schizophrenia. In order to do so, cognitive neuroscience should work together with philosophy, including phenomenology. Second, we need to distinguish between personal and subpersonal level explanations. It will be argued that although it is important to respect this distinction, in principle, some subpersonal facts can enter into constitutive conditions of personal level phenomena. However, in order for this to be possible, one needs both careful conceptual analysis and knowledge about relevant cognitive mechanisms.

  3. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  4. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  5. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  6. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  7. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  8. Journeying from the philosophical contemplation of constructivism to the methodological pragmatics of health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; King, Lindy

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents our journey through a contemplation of the philosophical origins of constructivism to consider its role as an active methodology in qualitative research. The first part of the paper summarizes the philosophical background of constructivism and the five principles underpinning this paradigm as described through the works of Guba and Lincoln. The philosophical roots of constructivism are then compared with postpositivism, critical realism and participatory inquiry. The paper moves on to consider their common methodological steps, before examining how the constructivist research strategy is being adopted and adapted within the pragmatics of health service research. Recent studies will be drawn upon to illustrate the use of constructivist methodology. Questions are raised about the role of philosophy and the extent to which it should or does underpin or influence qualitative research strategies. We believe that if researchers gain an understanding of both philosophy and methodology a richer and more robust study is likely to result.

  9. How cool is Nietzsche – an aid to remove the fear of great philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ester

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900 is far more accessible than many of his contemporaries. He has a tremendous sense of humour, plays with words and expressions,and he is not scared of attacking other philosophers like Hegel and Schopenhauer. Nietzsche’s use of figures is very significant thanks to the variations of these figures. The result of his style is a sort of inclusiveness towards the reader. Nietzsche seduces the reader to become a member of the select group of chosen thinkers. His central work “Thus spoke Zarathustra”, shows this strategy of conquering the reader or listener in a clear way. Nietzsche’s courage to ask other philosophers or “Geisteswissenschaftler” what their essence is can encourage us to ask essential questions. However, Nietzsche’s central value of life is too vague to be acceptable and caused a lot of political confusion during the previous century.

  10. CONSERVATIVE ATTITUDES TO OLD-ESTABLISHED ORGANS: OLIVER LODGE AND PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen; Mussell, James

    2015-09-20

    In 1921 Oliver Lodge defended Philosophical Magazine against charges of mismanagement from the National Union of Scientific Workers. They alleged that its editors performed little editorial work, the bulk being done by the publishers, Taylor & Francis. Lodge reassured Nature's readers that the journal did consult its editors, and suggested 'a conservative attitude towards old-established organs is wise; and that it is possible to over-organise things into lifelessness.' The paper explores Lodge's response by considering the editorial arrangements at Philosophical Magazine. Founded in 1798, it remained remarkably unchanged and so appeared old-fashioned when compared with its closest rivals, Proceedings of the Royal Society and Proceedings of the Physical Society. We argue that for Lodge the management of Philosophical Magazine gave it the flexibility and independence required to sustain the kind of physics, also open to accusations of obsolescence, in which he believed.

  11. How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat? In this article I conclude that it can be difficult to reconcile the two roles. One involves understanding, and reconciling, the conflicting views of citizens, and the other requires the pursuit of truth through reason. Nevertheless, an important function of philosophy and ethics is to inform and improve policy. If done effectively, we could expect better, and more just, laws and policies, thereby benefiting many lives. So applying philosophical thinking to policy is an important job. However, it comes with substantial difficulties, not least in reconciling, or choosing between, competing philosophical theories. Despite the importance of the task, and the apparent obstacles, there is relatively little literature on how to apply ethics to real-world policy-making. Democracies need ethicists who can engage in democratic debate and bridge the gap between philosophy and public policy. I offer some tactics here.

  12. Gordon Baker, Wittgensteinian Philosophical Conceptions and Perspicuous Representation: the Possibility of Multidimensional Logical Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskari Kuusela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Gordon Baker’s interpretation of the later Wittgenstein, in particular his interpretation of the notion of Wittgensteinian philosophical conceptions (Auffassungen and the notions of non-exclusivity, local incompatibility, non-additivity and global pluralism which Baker uses to characterize Wittgensteinian conceptions. On the basis of this discussion, and a critique of certain features of Baker’s interpretation of Wittgensteinian conceptions, I introduce the notion of a multidimensional logical description of language use, explaining how this notion, which Baker’s interpretation excludes, constitutes and important element of the later Wittgenstein’s philosophical method of clarification and perspicuous representation. I conclude by explaining how Baker’s problematic notions of local incompatibility and non-additivity, if they are seen in the light of Wittgenstein’s criticisms of certain views of the completeness of philosophical or logical accounts, nevertheless point in the right direction.

  13. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  14. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  15. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  16. Philosophical Perspectives of Skill Development in Teacher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... communication, management, and critical thinking, as well as the skill to identify, compare, and contrast qualities, perform analyses, and appropriately interpret the meaning of signs. Educator must possess these skills so as to have the capability to develop them in students; and this is the crucial task of teacher education.

  17. Critique of Nkrumah's Philosophical Materialism | Ani | Thought and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kwame Nkrumah invokes the doctrine of emergentism in the hope of reconciling theism - a tenacious part of the African worldview - with materialism. However, in this article I seek to show that this reconciliation is not only ultimately unsuccessful, but is actually impossible. Towards this end, I identify weaknesses in what I ...

  18. The concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible � A comparative-philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief comparative philosophical clarification of the concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible. Utilising the format of a presentation presented by Ryan (2008, four philosophical definitions of wisdom were compared with similar sentiments in ancient Israelite religion: (1 wisdom as epistemic humility, (2 wisdom as factual knowledge, (3 wisdom as useful knowledge, and (4 wisdom as successful living. Cumulatively the four criteria might approximate a functional list of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for instantiating the property of being wise.

  19. María Zambrano: a woman, a republican and a philosopher in exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA PALOMAR GALDÓN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this presentation is an attempt to understand the concept of exile in terms of the works of Spanish philosopher María Zambrano, a woman who left her country after the Spanish civil war and lived the life of an exile. This work focuses on the difficulties encountered by thinkers when they try to reflect on the experience of exile, and it aims to bring Zambrano’s thought on exile closer to her main philosophical concepts.

  20. Cinema-debate like a space of philosophical approach: Towards the possibility of a teaching methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Vázquez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between philosophy and film from the film production linkages with the debate surrounding from its interpretation by a group of subjects. It explores the ways of understanding the philosophical activity to suggest a conception of it as a conscious and deliberate exercise of a way of looking that results in an individual and collective transformation. The conditions of possibility to think about a teaching methodology cinema - debate based on certain guidelines aimed at guiding a conversational exchange in both philosophical dialogue arise.

  1. Socio-philosophical preconditions of formation of the concept of security in protosociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kalashnikova

    2016-08-01

    The development of the theory of security is impossible without taking into account the foundations of social and philosophical heritage in this area, which is often out of sight of researchers. Socio-philosophical prerequisites of security concept creates the necessary conditions for the formation of general ideas about it as an objective reality, the study of which with the use of scientific and special methods of knowledge allows us to formulate the basic laws, scientific system of safety management principles that will ensure the safe existence of the person, the effective functioning of society and the state.

  2. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  3. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  4. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  5. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  6. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  7. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  8. An Investigation Concerning the Philosophical Foundations of “Sabean Mandaean” Religion and their Educational Teachin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Sawari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this article is to study the philosophical foundations of the "Sabean Mandaean" religion in order to extract their educational teachings. The research method is analytical and deductive. Using this method, the anthropological, epistemological, and axiological foundations of this religion have been studied. The main sources in this study are the Mandaean holy books, especially Genza Rabba and Drasha ed Yaḥya.  Sabean Mandaean is a religious ethnic living peacefully alongside of Karoun, Dejla and Fourat rivers. For more than two thousand years ago, due the tension with Jews, they migrated from their main homeland, Palestine, to Mesopotamia and Khouzestan.  The holy Quran has included them three times as the third great Devine Religion. Some of the Islamic scientists know them as ahlol-kitab, namely persons having a holly religious book. Their holiest religion book is Ganza Rabba which means the great treasure and that has written in Mandaean.  In this religion, the existence is superior to the nature that created by God (Hai Rabbi. The most important characteristics of Hai Rabbi are the unity, Greatness and Creativity. The highest level of existence is called Alma Denhora (the world of light or the heaven, and the lowest level is called Alma Dehshokha (a world of darkness or hell. Human is consisted of two parts; Material (peghra or body and immaterial (Roha and Neshmetha. The truth of human is his Neshmetha or the spirit which is on the contrary to the peghra which is immortal and eternal. The human is dignitary, free and responsible and has a Devine nature.  Knowledge in Mandaean religion is important and has priority over faith and action. Manda, in its origin, means knowledge or cognition. Illiteracy is a great damage. Human being has miscellaneous tools to gain the knowledge. Feeling, heart and wisdom (Mana are the tools that God has given the human beings. The origin of the Mandaean values is God (Hai Rabbi. And

  9. Using Philosophical Liberalism and Philosophical Conservatism as an Organizing Theme in the First Half of the American History Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Since approximately 1970, many historians have been seeking a unifying theme for the American History Survey. Early in the twentieth century, Progressive historians identified class conflict as the main theme in American History, but during the 1950s and 1960s, this view was challenged by the Consensus Schools' assertion that Americans have always…

  10. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The philosophical premises of the second King Report on corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the philosophical presuppositions of the second King Report on corporate governance for South Africa (hereafter referred to as the King II Report. Especially in the “Introduction and Background” section of the King II Report it is clear that the Report is premised upon a specific understanding of the present-day corporation and its moral obligations. The purpose of this article is to commit what Charles Taylor called “an act of retrieval” in which the philosophical premises of the King II Report will be unearthed and exposed. It will be argued that the view of the present-day corporation that underlies the King II Report could be related back to a number of debates on the notion of the comtemporary corporation and its moral responsibilities that have been played out since the 1970s. It will be indicated how these debates provide the philosophical foundations for the view of the comtemporary corporation and its moral obligations that is espoused in the King II Report. The claim made in the Report that the African world view and culture influenced the Report’s notion of corporate governance will also be critically reviewed. Finally it will be attempted to evaluate to what extent the recommendations of the King II Report live up to its own philosophical premises.

  12. The Rehearsal and Performance of Holiday Music: Philosophical Issues in "Stratechuk v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, William M.

    2016-01-01

    This philosophical study addresses the implications of the legal case "Stratechuk v. Board of Education" ruling that a policy prohibiting the performance of religious-themed holiday music did not violate the United States Constitution. Two questions are investigated: the differences between the classroom study and public performance of…

  13. Transformative Education? A Philosophic-Augustinian Response to the 2010 Albertan Reform Initiatives in "Inspiring Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta Government's 2010 "Inspiring Education" reform proposals claim to be "transformational" in nature. This paper examines these proposals in light of ancient philosophy and various among the world's wisdom traditions. Drawing particularly on the philosophic reflections of St. Augustine in his "Confessions",…

  14. The Philosopher and the Lecturer: John Dewey, Everett Dean Martin, and Reflective Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael; Harbour, Clifford P.

    2013-01-01

    Adult education scholars have not yet examined the connections between the philosopher, John Dewey, and the lecturer on adult education, Everett Dean Martin. These scholars generally portray Dewey as indifferent to their field. However, Dewey's correspondence with a New York newspaper editor in 1928, recommending Martin's The Meaning of…

  15. Contesting the African Public Sphere: A Philosophical Re-imaging of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Crow is to situate them within broader analytical frameworks. By adopting the basic methods of philosophical inquiry – exposition, critical analysis and reconstruction – the issues are lifted from the domain of fiction to the space of systematized knowledge directed at presenting a comprehensive notion of the African public ...

  16. Biomedicine or Holistic Medicine for Treating Mentally Ill Patients? A Philosophical and Economical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from psychoanalysis and the old, holistic tradition of Hippocratic medicine. Holistic medicine during the last decade has developed its philosophical positions and is today an independent, medical system seemingly capable of curing mentally ill patients at the cost of a few thousand Euros with no side effects and with lasting value for the patient. The problem is that very few studies have tested the effect of holistic medicine on mentally ill patients. Another problem is that the effect of holistic medicine must be documented in a way that respects this school's philosophical integrity, allowing for subjective assessment of patient benefit and using the patient as his/her own control, as placebo control cannot be used in placebo-only treatment. As the existing data are strongly in favor of using holistic medicine, which seems to be safer, more efficient, and cheaper, it is recommended that clinical holistic medicine also be used as treatment for mental illness. More research and funding is needed to develop scientific holistic medicine.

  17. On Harold's "Translucent Reality": A Philosophical and Religious Interpretation of "Harold and the Purple Crayon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most popular children's picture books, Harold and the Purple Crayon, is examined in terms of philosophical and religious viewpoints. Harold, a young inquisitive boy, seemingly travels in his world in which he finds himself dealing with various situations. Harold's adventure with his purple crayon reminds us the…

  18. Philosophic-educational intelligence analysis as a subject of marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Litvinenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of Education creates conceptual and methodological prerequisites for distribution to the field of marketing management in education as a portion of the general laws of development of scientific knowledge. Marketing management education facilitates the implementation of a sociologically principles, adapting to their needs sociocentrical priorities developed within the philosophy of education. The most significant factor in social development has been the ability of society to the creation and innovation through the use of their intellectual potential. The concept of intellectual capacity within the philosophical and educational research marketing management should be used primarily in view of its importance for personal development needs analysis in the context of the needs of social and economic development, that is a combination of the characteristics of carrier capacity (human and its socio­cultural environment. For marketing management education is most important composition of individual intellectual potential. The most heuristic value for philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management has its creative cognitive component that directs people to the practical application of knowledge and mental abilities. Intellectual potential can be seen within the philosophical and educational analysis of marketing management is quite close to the economic category of «human capital» and the philosophical category of «personal capacity».

  19. Confucian "Creatio in Situ"--Philosophical Resource for a Theory of Creativity in Instrumental Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical essay, I propose a theory of creativity for instrumental music education inspired by Confucian "creatio in situ" ("situational creativity"). Through an analysis of three major texts from classical Confucianism--the "Analects," the "Zhongyong" ("Doctrine of the Mean"), and the…

  20. Biomedicine or holistic medicine for treating mentally ill patients? A philosophical and economical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-12-18

    Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from psychoanalysis and the old, holistic tradition of Hippocratic medicine. Holistic medicine during the last decade has developed its philosophical positions and is today an independent, medical system seemingly capable of curing mentally ill patients at the cost of a few thousand Euros with no side effects and with lasting value for the patient. The problem is that very few studies have tested the effect of holistic medicine on mentally ill patients. Another problem is that the effect of holistic medicine must be documented in a way that respects this school's philosophical integrity, allowing for subjective assessment of patient benefit and using the patient as his/her own control, as placebo control cannot be used in placebo-only treatment. As the existing data are strongly in favor of using holistic medicine, which seems to be safer, more efficient, and cheaper, it is recommended that clinical holistic medicine also be used as treatment for mental illness. More research and funding is needed to develop scientific holistic medicine.

  1. Johannes Kinker. A Kantian Philosopher Teaching Dutch Language, Literature and Eloquence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der M.J.

    2018-01-01

    The cosmopolitan citizen and Kantian philosopher Johannes Kinker, who had played a leading role in many institutions and societies of the northern Netherlands, held the newly founded Dutch chair in Liège for more than a decade. The present chapter addresses the questions why he accepted this post,

  2. Between Religion and Science: Integrating Psychological and Philosophical Accounts of Explanatory Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Christine H.; Visala, Aku

    2011-01-01

    Examining the relationship between religion and science has until recently been considered a philosophical exercise and, as a consequence, theories of how natural and supernatural explanations are related tend to be highly abstract and operate at the level of ideal rationality rather than in the psychological reality of actual believers. Although…

  3. Social Justice and the Philosophical Foundations of Critical Peace Education: Exploring Nussbaum, Sen, and Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to philosophically explore a "realization-focused" capabilities theory of social justice, as articulated by AmartyaSen and Martha Nussbaum, as foundational to a theory of critical peace education. Paulo Freire's philosophy of critical pedagogy has had and continues to have a profound influence on the theory and…

  4. Understanding the "Other": Rethinking Multiculturalism in South Korea through Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; So, Kyunghee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we interrogate the current state of multiculturalism and multicultural education in South Korea and offer a possible theoretical framework that is lacking in the field of multicultural education. We provide three principles of multicultural understanding grounded in Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to inform multiculturalism in…

  5. What Can Be Known and How People Grow: The Philosophical Stakes of the Assessment Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Fierce debates over standardized assessments in teacher preparation have revolved around flaws in implementation and the politics of privatization. While important, this focus obscures the philosophical divide between proponents and opponents of standardized assessments. This article examines how faculty in New York State argue for and against a…

  6. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  7. The Humanistic Psychology-Positive Psychology Divide: Contrasts in Philosophical Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which…

  8. Philosophical Presentation in Ptolemy’s Harmonics: The Timaeus as a Model for Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tolsa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ptolemy’s self-representation as philosopher is conventional in the Almagest but not so in Harmonics, which emulates Plato’s Timaeus and makes philosophy the result  of understanding harmonics rather than the premise.

  9. Belief in the Spirits of the Dead in Africa: A Philosophical Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... view that in this rapidly changing world, philosophy should inquire not only in to theoretical problems, but also into practical ones. Plato and Aristotle's theories of the soul being some of the most carefully discussed philosophical theories on immortality or lack of it, will provide the background of deliberation in this paper.

  10. Transformation of philosophical and educational resources in the context of a globalized and internationalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Nevmerzhitska

    2015-04-01

    Taking into account that the Ukrainian philosophy study period is poorly understood, poring over the source of modern philosophical thought in Ukraine, the author concludes that the life of the Ukrainian people most subordinated pursuit of beauty, which covers all spheres of Ukrainian man as in material and spiritual dimensions of life.

  11. Head and Heart: the Pauline Corpus and its Medical and Philosophical Backdrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I examine what exactly is implied by (deutero-)Pauline references to the head as well as the heart in well-known statements from the Graeco-Roman background, i.e. the brain versus heart controversy as it arose and developed among medical scientists and philosophers. Two key passages

  12. [Terhi Kiiskinen. Sigfrid Aronus Forsius : Astronomer and Philosopher of Nature] / Liivi Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarma, Liivi, 1948-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Kiiskinen, Terhi. Sigfrid Aronus Forsius : Astronomer and Philosopher of Nature. Europäische Studien zur Ideen- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte / Europaen Studies in the History of Science and Ideas. Hrsg. von / edited by Georg Gimpi und Juha Manninen. Frankfurt am Main, 2007. Sigfrid Aronus Forsius on tuntuim Põhjamaade renesanssi aegne Rootsi kuningriigi teadlane

  13. Redefining Perinatal Experience: A Philosophical Exploration of a Hypothetical Case of Gender-Diversity in Labour and Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brianna; Price, Sheri; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    2018-05-18

    Using a queer phenomenological approach, the objective of this philosophical analysis is to explore the transgender experience in highly gendered clinical areas, such as the birth unit, and make recommendations on how to provide perinatal care that is inclusive of gender diversity within these areas. This paper aims to describes a hypothetical clinical experience to provide insight on the institutional barriers that currently exist and to provide nurses and midwives with pragmatic strategies to enhance gender-diverse care in general and gendered clinical areas. Currently, general healthcare providers are not sufficiently educated on how to care for and meet the needs of people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, queer or questioning and other communities (LGBTQ+). This vulnerable population continually faces stigma, discrimination, and marginalization, which act as barriers to accessing healthcare services. Although transgender people often have difficulty accessing healthcare in general settings, they experience an even greater challenge within traditionally gendered clinical care areas. Queer Phenomenology was used to guide a critical philosophical analysis of hypothetical case reflecting a clinical scenario regarding a transgender man's experience in labour and birth. Healthcare professionals often provide insufficient care to transgender persons, inadvertently leading to further marginalization of this vulnerable population. Special consideration to provide gender-diverse care throughout the perinatal period is needed. Structures and supports are essential to enhance the care from providers in attending to the unique needs of transgender individuals and reduce oppressive effects from heteronormative environments. Nurses and midwives are leading exemplars of providing person-centered care and are capable of advocating for equitable care amongst all populations to influence systemic change. Strategies for implementing changes that address LGBTQ

  14. Sexual modification therapies: ethical controversies, philosophical disputes, and theological reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howsepian, A A

    2004-01-01

    Knowing, either by the light of natural reason or by the light of Christian revelation, that homosexuality is a disordered condition is not sufficient for its being ethically permissible to direct self-identified homosexual persons toward just any treatment that aims to modify sexual orientation. For example, such an undertaking would be morally impermissible in cases where the available "treatments" are known to be both futile and potentially damaging to persons undertaking them. I, therefore, introduce this edition of Christian Bioethics by reflecting on (a) the position of homosexuality in our current psychiatric nosology, (b) problems with drawing causal inferences from the outcomes of psychotherapy studies, and (c) the advantages and disadvantages of appealing to traditional categories of sexual orientation in this discussion, all with an eye toward more deeply elucidating core ethical concerns involving the intentional psychotherapeutic modification of sexual orientation.

  15. CONTEXT PROBLEMS: PHILOSOPHICAL AND TEACHING OF SOCIOFORMACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silvano Hernández-Mosqueda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Importance: To identify the key characteristics of the problems of context and establish its methodological axis. Materials and methods: A documentary analysis based on the conceptual cartography through eight axes was performed. Results and conclusions: the problems of context include the establishment of needs, gaps or difficulties in a particular area of knowledge (real situation and involve establishing a challenge or purpose to overcome to achieve innovation and improvement criteria (ideal situation. They are characterized by interdisciplinarity, collaboration, co-creation of knowledge and metacognition. They differ from other concepts such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL and Cognitive Conflict, and that transcend the disciplinary boundaries of knowledge and cognitive processes as they focus on the overall performance of the people in the web of relationships and meanings that context in its multiple dimensions.

  16. On the Educational Value of Philosophical Ethics for Teacher Education: The Practice of Ethical Inquiry as Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and ways in which philosophical ethics can make an educational contribution to teachers' understanding of their practice as a distinct moral domain. Philosophical ethics is argued to facilitate two necessary features of teachers' moral understanding of their practice. First, it promotes awareness of the…

  17. Legal Culture as the Determinant of Value Orientations in Youth in the Society of the Transition Period (Philosophical Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulzhanova, Zhuldizay T.; Kulzhanova, Gulbaram T.

    2016-01-01

    This research is devoted to the philosophical analysis of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in the transition period society. The purpose of the study is to discover the essence and specificity of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in a transition society from the philosophical perspective. In accordance with…

  18. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  19. PHILOSOPHEME OF SYMBOL AND CONCEPT OF THE MEANING: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kretov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to find out the meaning of the symbolic nature of the philosophical and anthropological knowledge deployment, as well as symbolic forms of correlation between artificial and natural in the consciousness of human identity and their fixation in the language and also in the forms and structures of culture. The research is based on the methodology of historical and philosophical analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, principles of hermeneutic understanding and reconstruction and phenomenological descriptions. Scientific novelty is represented by the postulating such predications of symbolic structures of language and consciousness as multipanorama and transfinite, justification of the ontological status of symbol and symbolism. The symbolic functioning character of language metaphor in scientific discourse and especially the symbolic dimension of semantic field of language and culture, as well as their symbolic association was fixed. The author proves the thesis about the symbolic nature of a holistic, means forming, philosophical knowledge of man, and the relation between the underlying symbolic and metaphorical structures of language and the mechanisms of consciousness, which finds its expression, in particular, in the language of science. The symbolic design that transmits the philosophical aspects of meaning that go beyond definition and formal-logic descriptions is used. In the comparison of the concepts of spiral dynamics, memetics and autopoiesis the existence of a specific symbolic dimension of the semantic field of language, culture and consciousness is postulated. Conclusions of the article define the role of symbol and symbolic and metaphorical constructions and structures of language in forming the discourse of modern philosophical anthropology, which would include the whole thesaurus of language and culture.

  20. Ecstasy – a way to religious knowledge: some remarks to Paul Tillich as theologian and philosopher

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    Tage Kurtén

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research examines ecstasy from the point of view of psychology, history or sociology, but a philosophical reflection on ecstasy is missing. Here, some points in the philosophical and theological thinking of Paul Tillich are presented. He can be looked upon as a religious thinker. In this case he is of interest for religiology mainly as historical material. Then he can be seen as a Christian who in modern time has tried theoretically to reflect upon his own religious faith and the place of ecstasy in that faith. He can also be regarded as a philosopher of religion, who tries to reflect universally and critically upon the phenomena of religion and ecstasy. In that case his main contribution to religiology is to help religiology to reflect upon the question of what possible meaning the concept of "religious ecstasy" can have in a modern scientific context. When looking at Tillich's ideas, it is very important to remember that he strives to be both a philosopher of religion and a Christian theologian, and that these two roles are different, according to Tillich. In any analysis of his thinking it is therefore necessary to discriminate between Tillich's philosophical and his theological statement. For Tillich's treatment of revelation and knowledge of revelation there are three central concepts: mystery, ecstasy and miracle. Every revelation has a subjective and an objective side, and they are both necessary for the revelation. Someone must be seized by the manifestation of the mystery and something must occur through which the mystery of revelation seizes someone, says Tillich. The subjective side is called ecstasy, the objective miracle.

  1. [The anti-philosophical anthropology in the Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine) has been the focus of attention among classical scholars and historians of medicine. The author attacks in ch. 20 doctors and sophists who base their own medical theories and methods on philosophical anthropology taken from the contemporary natural philosophers. Many attempts have been made to elucidate, as opposed to their philosophical inquiry into human nature, the author's way of understanding it, which still remains unclear. I draw attention to the following points to make it clear that the conceptual framework of the author's medical anthropology is different from theirs. Their philosophical inquiry into human nature has its starting point in fundamental element(s), from which human beings were originally formed. The author focuses on human beings as existent in their present states, whose conditions and functions must be investigated through interrelations between them and their external factors, such as foods and drinks. A medical investigation into the interrelations will give us a scientific idea about human body, whose constituents are taken to be a large number of humors, reacting against some external factors and accordingly making us feel pain. This may presuppose that, in the author's medical anthropology, human body is conceptually demarcated as the physical or material aspect of human being, within which all physiological events depending on external factors and the humors take place. In their philosophical anthropology, however, human body doesn't seem to have been clearly conceptualized as such, because our experience of feeling pain should be judged to take place within the actions of the fundamental element(s), which must be supposed to constitute our cognitive self.

  2. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIALLY CREATED INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS

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    Yu. D. Gensitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Understanding the philosophical and anthropological importance of the development the artificial intelligence systems requires the analysis of the socio and anthropological content of intercomputer problems of interaction in the context of media philosophical praxis, anthropological maintenance of intellect nature, considering the specifics of the concept of artificial intelligence systems in the environment of M2M development of socio-cognitive practices of intercomputer interaction of social and humanitarian potential. Methodology. The implementation target is seen in the use of scientific and theoretical basis of the media philosophical, philosophical anthropology, the media philosophical approach to understanding society, science and technology, the use of publications on selected topics of research. Scientific novelty. The concept of artificial intelligence systems in the aspect of social and humanitarian potential of their formation and development in the environment of M2M was considered. The problems of machine learning as technology transformation M2M were analysed. The anthropological threats to the development of artificially created intelligent systems were defined. Conclusions. From the global risks point of view, one of the most critical circumstances due to the artificial intelligent system can strengthen its intelligence very quickly. The obvious reason for suspecting such an opportunity – a recursive self-improvement. Such system becomes smarter, including the intelligent writing of internal cognitive function, that the ability to rewrite their existing cognitive function to make it work better. This will make such systems more intelligent, and smarter in terms of the processing itself. The success of artificial intelligence may be the beginning of the end of the human race. Almost any technology falling into malicious hands reveals the potential for harm, but when it comes to artificial intelligent system, there is a

  3. Consistent Quantum Histories: Towards a Universal Language of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    The consistent histories interpretation of quantum mechanics is a reformulation of the standard Copenhagen interpretation that aims at incorporating quantum probabilities as part of the axiomatic foundations of the theory. It is not only supposed to equip quantum mechanics with clear criteria of its own experimental verification but, first and foremost, to alleviate one of the stumbling blocks of the theory - the measurement problem. Since the consistent histories interpretation operates with a series of quantum events integrated into one quantum history, the measurement problem is naturally absorbed as one of the events that build up a history. The interpretation rests upon the two following assumptions, proposed already by J. von Neumann: (1) both the microscopic and macroscopic regimes are subject to the same set of quantum laws and (2) a projector operator that is assigned to each event within a history permits to transcribe the history into a set of propositions that relate the entire course of quantum events. Based on this, a universal language of physics is expected to emerge that will bring the quantum apparatus back to common sense propositional logic. The basic philosophical issue raised this study is whether one should justify quantum mechanics by means of what emerges from it, that is, the properties of the macroscopic world, or use the axioms of quantum mechanics to demonstrate the mechanisms how the macroscopic world comes about from the quantum regime. (author)

  4. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  5. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMIFICATION WORKING WITH HUMAN RESOURCES: PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

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    A. V. Babaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper examines the current situation with companies in the market and examines the need for such companies to make a qualitative leap in competitive strategy, because the dynamics of social processes requires continuous technological and ideological development of the HR departments are responsible for dealing with personnel problems in the organization. The modern concept of "lifelong learning" represents necessitaty of including in the process the development of postgraduate educational path specialist.Materials and methods: For better understanding, the role of gamification is needed to be defined, so the article also analyses the current state of the theory of gamification and main approaches to its interpretation. The article provides an overview of the discussions that unfolded in the last two decades around the phenomenon of gamification and the legality of its inclusion into scientific use. The authors insist on the distinction between the concepts "game" and "gamification". Gamification is treated as a special principle of social practices in contrast to "pure" game as self-contained, offline activity. Regardless of extra features, the game itself is not peculiar to the pragmatic, utilitarian character. In other words, the goal of the game lies within the game itself and could not exist outside it, while the goal of a gamified activity is always set to practical goals.Results: Such a leap could be made possible in human resources by introducing gamification, which is proven to provide a significant improvement in performance with HR services in the enterprise. We conducted research to see the connection between gamification and the four types of games considered by the theorist R. Caillois such as «agon», «mimicry», «illinx», «alea». These four applications of gamification both have advantages and disadvantages which have been identified.Discussion and Conclusions:  The findings make a conclusion on the

  7. The John Rawls Theory of Justice Applied to Bennet Omalu Story: Thoughts on a Current Case and its Disconnection to Rawls’ Philosophic Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Hutten de Camargo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, was launched the movie Concussion which tells the true story of Bennet Omalu - a medical examiner who worked in the city of Pittsburgh. When performing the autopsy of an idol of football, Omalu identified a never before diagnosed disease that can be caused by football practice and started a battle against the most powerful football league in the world, the National Football League. The story is reviewed in this study based on the John Rawls’ Theory of Justice, with reflections on why, even in a developed society, there are cases of absolute disconnection of his philosophical ideal.

  8. Information, optoelectronics, and information technologies (historic, philosophical, and logical aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhaliashvili, Zurab O.; Suhorukova, Marina V.

    2001-06-01

    For a civilization of the post-industrial society which is defined as 'informational civilization,' the heightened interest to new technological expedients of any interaction with the information is characteristic. Now concept 'information' is defined as an independent category. The organization, storage, transmission and displaying of information, in essence, is one of the ways of its self- organization for a civilization of such type. Therefore branches bound with generating and support of information highways, are in the center of attention those who tries to capture strategic favorable positions in world community. The reasons of the geopolitical and economic strategy in this case are direct, 'easy-to-see' mechanisms of creation of the structures in investigation activity and industry, 'Easy-to- see,' analyzable, even predictable -- but not defining. The modern science knows the physical laws of composite system's self-organization, and, as clear now, the unclosed nonequilibrium system, which one is a World Net, is subject to the laws of such system's self-organization. Nowadays the fractal nature of all Webs' infrastructures as super complex self-organizing transport-information system is established. Besides, in a row of its performances we observe an openness, coherence, nonlinearly, that together with other aspects allows to identify it as physical fractal structure living on the laws of self-organization. The interest to this phenomenon is quite clear. We have to know the laws of behavior of a Web because it is one of the sides of appearance of Noosphere, and we must adequately interact with it. There are numerous important problems, bound with a Web, and attempts to resolve them are the first task of human community, as nevertheless the human person creates the Web (or nature by hand of the person?) It's very interesting to analyze the previous history of occurrence of such phenomenon, as a Web, and to do the attempts of the prognoses on the future. For

  9. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  10. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker......: 1984, Academy of Management Journal27(1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993, Journal of Business Ethics12, 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004, Journal of Business Ethics52, 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality......This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...

  11. Fuzzy pictures as philosophical problem and scientific practice a study of visual vagueness

    CERN Document Server

    Cat, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive discussion on the characterization of vagueness in pictures. It reports on how the problem of representation of images has been approached in scientific practice, highlighting the role of mathematical methods and the philosophical background relevant for issues such as representation, categorization and reasoning. Without delving too much into the technical details, the book examines and defends different kinds of values of fuzziness based on a complex approach to categorization as a practice, adopting conceptual and empirical suggestions from different fields including the arts. It subsequently advances criticisms and provides suggestions for interpretation and application. By describing a cognitive framework based on fuzzy, rough and near sets, and discussing all of the relevant mathematical and philosophical theories for the representation and processing of vagueness in images, the book offers a practice-oriented guide to fuzzy visual reasoning, along with novel insights ...

  12. Drawings as imaginative expressions of philosophical ideas in a Grade 2 South African literacy classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S. Murris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a philosophy for children (P4C literacy project in a South African foundation phase classroom that introduces an important new focus in the P4C classroom: the visualisation of philosophical ideas provoked by the picture book The Big Ugly Monster and the Little Stone Rabbit (2004 by Chris Wormell, giving voice to young children’s own imaginative ideas and beliefs (in this case about death. This research shows how a particular use of the community of philosophical enquiry pedagogy combined with the making of drawings necessitates a rethinking of what ‘voice’ means. We conclude that the children’s drawings bring something new into existence, thereby offering unique material and discursive opportunities for all children, including those who otherwise might not have expressed their ideas. Keywords: Comprehension; emergent literacy; visual research; community of enquiry; philosophy with children; picturebooks; death; voice; inclusion; participation

  13. The role of Philosophical Hermeneutics in contributing to an understanding of physiotherapy practice: a reflexive illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Rob; Mitchell, Theresa; Palmer, Shea

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of Philosophical Hermeneutics based on the work of German philosopher Hans Georg Gadamer. The concepts of the 'hermeneutic circle' as a vehicle for interpretation, management of the researcher's pre-understandings (prejudices), and the 'fusion of horizons' are introduced and illustrated by examples from the first author's research, before considering how rigour can be achieved in this type of research. The actual research study which aimed to explore how shared decision making and patient partnership are addressed by physiotherapists in the process of exercise prescription for patients with low back pain (LBP) is not the focus of this paper. However short descriptions of the study are used to explore issues surrounding a hermeneutic inquiry. For physiotherapists interested in research or considering undertaking an interpretive phenomenological inquiry, this theoretical discussion paper explores how Gadamer's philosophy offers a credible framework for undertaking such research. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  15. Quantum theory and the flight from realism philosophical responses to quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    This book is a critical introduction to the long-standing debate concerning the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics and the problems it has posed for physicists and philosophers from Einstein to the present. Quantum theory has been a major infulence on postmodernism, and presents significant problems for realists. Keeping his own realist position in check, Christopher Norris subjects a wide range of key opponents and supporters of realism to a high and equal level of scrutiny. With a characteristic combination of rigour and intellectual generosity, he draws out the merits and weaknesses from opposing arguments. In a sequence of closely argued chapters, Norris examines the premises of orthodox quantum theory, as developed most influentially by Bohr and Heisenberg, and its impact on varous philosophical developments. These include the ideas developed by W.V Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Michael Dummett, Bas van Fraassen, and Hilary Puttnam. In each case, Norris argues, these thinkers have been influenced by the...

  16. What are we to make of the concept of race? Thoughts of a philosopher-scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    Discussions about the biological bases (or lack thereof) of the concept of race in the human species seem to be never ending. One of the latest rounds is represented by a paper by Neven Sesardic, which attempts to build a strong scientific case for the existence of human races, based on genetic, morphometric and behavioral characteristics, as well as on a thorough critique of opposing positions. In this paper I show that Sesardic's critique falls far short of the goal, and that his positive case is exceedingly thin. I do this through a combination of analysis of the actual scientific findings invoked by Sesardic and of some philosophical unpacking of his conceptual analysis, drawing on a dual professional background as an evolutionary biologist and a philosopher of science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PHILOSOPHICAL BASICS OF FORMATION OF FUTURE PHILOLOGISTS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE BY MEANS OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES

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    Serhiy S. Danylyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the article is in studying social-philosophic basics of computerization in the field of education and, consequently, Internet technologies usage in the process of formation of future philologists’ professional competence. The aim of this paper is defining of philosophical basics of formation of future philologists’ professional competence by means of Internet technologies. The article deals with highlighting of basic items of interaction “man-computer”, which helps to form future philologists’ professional competence in the aspect of humanization of the educational process. In particular, the essence of both learning-and-cognitive and learning-and-research activities in the aspect of usage of Internet technologies in teaching future linguists is described. Attention is also focused on the description of informational culture as one of the most important factors of informatization of the educational process.

  18. How to make the best decision. Philosophical aspects of clinical decision theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, H R

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to discuss some of the philosophical implications of the use of decision-analytic techniques. The probabilities of a decision analysis are subjective measures of belief, and it is concluded that clinicians base their subjective beliefs on both recorded observations and theoretical knowledge. The clinical decision maker also evaluates the consequences of his actions, and therefore clinical decision theory transcends medical science. A number of different schools of normative ethics are mentioned to illustrate the complexity of everyday decision making. The philosophical terminology is useful for the analysis of clinical problems, and it is argued that clinical decision making has both a teleological and a deontological component. The results of decision-analytic studies depend on such factors as the wealth of the country, the organization of the health service, and cultural norms.

  19. Philosophical Anthropology, Ethics and Political Philosophy in an Age of Impending Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper it is argued that philosophical anthropology is central to ethics and politics. The denial of this has facilitated the triumph of debased notions of humans developed by Hobbes which has facilitated the enslavement of people to the logic of the global market, a logic which is now destroying the ecological conditions for civilization and most life on Earth. Reviving the classical understanding of the central place of philosophical anthropology to ethics and politics, the early work of Hegel and Marx is explicated, defended and further developed by interpreting this through developments in post-mechanistic science. Overcoming the opposition between the sciences and the humanities, it is suggested that the conception of humans developed in this way can orient people in their struggle for the liberty to avert a global ecological catastrophe.

  20. Care of the spirit that transcends religious, ideological and philosophical boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegarty Meg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirit and spirituality are human universals, which are understood, expressed and lived out in different ways. Care of the spirit is an integral component of holistic palliative care, respecting the individual spirituality and experience of the person for whom we care. Whatever be the religious, ideological or philosophical background of the patient and the clinician/carer, certain skills, knowledge and attitudes are essential in providing effective care of the spirit. Rather than using a single perspective, such as either a secular or a religious approach, to meet the needs of all in a pluralistic setting, effective, patient-centered spiritual care draws on the (often shared wisdoms of the great spiritual and philosophical traditions and of the evolving understandings of these, science and art. Carers need both an awareness of their own spirituality and spiritual practice and an ability to ′bracket′ this in focusing on the needs and care of the patient′s spirit.

  1. The grand leap of the whale up the Niagara Falls: converting philosophical conclusions into policy prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-04-01

    This article analyzes a neat conjuring trick employed in bioethics, that is, the immediate conversion of a philosophical conclusion into a policy prescription, and compares it to the "grand leap of the whale up the Niagara Falls" mentioned by Benjamin Franklin. It is shown that there is no simple and easy way to achieve the conversion, by considering arguments falling under four headings: (1) reasonable disagreement about values and theories, (2) general jurisprudential arguments, (3) the differences between policymaking and philosophy, and (4) the messy world of implementation. The particular issue used to illustrate the difficulties in moving from philosophical conclusion to policy description is infanticide of healthy infants, but the analysis is general, and the conclusion that the immediate move to policy is illegitimate is quite general.

  2. The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: contrasts in philosophical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which human nature is conceptualized regarding human potentials and well-being; (b) epistemology, specifically, the choice of research strategies for the empirical study of these concepts; and (c) practical philosophy, particularly the goals and strategies adopted when conducting therapy or undertaking counseling interventions. Because of this philosophical divide, adherents of the two perspectives may best be advised to pursue separately their shared desire to understand and promote human potentials and well-being.

  3. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  4. Philosophical counselling: Towards a ‘new approach’ in pastoral care and counselling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The practice of pastoral counselling was dominated for several decades by the Rogerian techniques of empathetic listening. To a large extent, healing was predominately related to the realm of feelings (the affective dimension. Rational Emotive Therapy opened up other avenues. However, besides Logotherapy, the realm of meaning and its connectedness to world views and ideas (Plato: forms remained uncharted in many theories for pastoral care and counselling. In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian spiritual schema of interpretation on the dynamics of existential networking.

  5. How to put your darlings on a diet. Philosophical practice as an epistemological practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Today, health care organizations are changing in several ways. New technologies, new audit regimes and new relationships with clients of various kinds all contribute to altering what it takes to perform in health care organizations. Consequently, one of the characteristics of health care organiza......Today, health care organizations are changing in several ways. New technologies, new audit regimes and new relationships with clients of various kinds all contribute to altering what it takes to perform in health care organizations. Consequently, one of the characteristics of health care...... that is spreading, but also ways of engaging with knowledge, historically associated with research communities. This contribution to the 5th Nordic Conference on Philosophical Practice describes how Philosophical Practice can enter the epistemic practices in health care organizations by inviting an open...

  6. Philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline in academic education: A critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Maria Luisa; Telaretti, Fabia; Alvaro, Rosaria; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2017-10-01

    Nursing as clinical practice, management and research are based on nursing philosophy and theory. Thus, the philosophical and theoretical content is required to be incorporated in academic education in order to enable nurses' skills for reflection, analysis, and thinking about the profession. The aim of this review was to describe what is known of the philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline within academic education. A critical interpretive synthesis (CIS). Electronic searches were performed across four databases, CINAHL, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science, for papers published in English from 1980 to 2016. The selection of original articles was based on stages, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were used. Quality of the selected papers were evaluated by method sensitive appraisal criteria. The five phases of CIS were used to combine the selected data. The searches resulted 9148 titles, whereas 13 were selected. Nurses need philosophical and theoretical education in order to be aware of human health and explain the complexity of the human experience of illness. The philosophy of science, the philosophy of care, and theory development were highlighted as the key contents in nursing academic education as these subjects are central to the discipline that ensures that nurses acquire advanced skills. A model was developed that linked disciplinary issues the progression nursing science through the influence of advanced skills. Based on the findings in this study the philosophical and theoretical content of nursing discipline crates a basis for the academic education and enables a professional and exclusive vision for nurses. It provides an overall understanding of people's lives and support nurses to achieve deeper awareness of the meaning of illness and health in a person lifespan what is needed on the evidence-based decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Historical and philosophical foundation of the interdependence of gender and environmental ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Karpenko

    2016-03-01

    Consequently, the gender approach to contemporary environmental issues demonstrates the innovative interpretation of classical historical and philosophical foundation. Gender explanation is based on such values as cooperation, empathy and education, stemming from a relational perspective that elevates the role of the feminine principle in culture. It pays tribute to intuition and spontaneity in the processes of social changes, because they expand the creative space for finding the new solutions to environmental problems.

  8. Calculating the Philosophical Significance of the Concept of Religious Freedom in Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Roswantoro, Alim

    2014-01-01

    The writing attemps to explore the philosophical meaning of the theological messages of Islam on religious freedom. The article do not study the empirical facts of religious freedom practiced by muslims today, but it scrutinizes the theological messages as written in the Qur'an and as showed by the real examples of the God's Messenger. Through understanding some Qur'anic verses, we will find that Islam strongly encourages the life of different religious people based on the value of freedom. F...

  9. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  10. Operational Ethics in Coalition Warfare: Whose Ethics Will Prevail? A Philosophical/Theological Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-13

    34choices freely made and the rational principle employed." 25 There are three "fathers" of Utilitarianism , Jeremy Bentham, James Mill , and his son John ... Stuart Mill who refined and expanded upon his father’s work. This ethical position states that the...Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and the indigenous religions of Africa; Western and Eastern philosophers, Aristotle, Mill , Confucius, Storer, and Rand to

  11. A Yanomami Shaman against the philosophical-sociological discourse of modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Leno Francisco; Peres, Julie Stéfane Dorrico

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, which intends to establish a dialogue between literature and philosophy-sociology, we develop a double argument. Based on  the discussion of Davi Kopenawa’s and Bruce Albert’s The falling sky: words of a Yanomami Shaman and Jürgen Habermas’ philosophical-sociological theory of modernity the essay discusses: i) the distinctive characteristic of Indigenous literature. We maintain that this distinction lies in the conjunction between its self-biographical style, and the fundamenta...

  12. PHILOSOPHICAL-ANTROPOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A PROBLEM OF SEARCH EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL OF CIVILIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Tshedrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The fears express, that «METI-projects», which testify to existence of mankind as technicalgeneous of a civilization for highly advanced ETC of a Galaxy, can have the extremely negative consequences, and «SETI-projects» and received radiosignals can become the information weapon aggressive ETC. The analysis of these fears as complete sociocultural of a phenomenon, them philosophical-anthropological of measurement, sociocultural of the basis, the forms of their display are the purpose of clause. Methodology. Author used the social-communicative approach, methods of system and cluster analyses. Scientific innovation. Are opened philosophical-anthropological of measurement of a problem of life extra-terrestrial intelligents (ETI, the factors of statement of a problem of contacts with ETC in the modern form connected with spacing of scientific and technical activity of mankind, influence of processes globalization on philosophical-anthropological aspects of a problem ETC, connected with changes in the fundamental relation «the Man - World» are investigated. These processes conduct to growth of fears concerning unpredictable intervention in terrestrial sociocultural system of alien reason. The persuasive fears, connected with possible consequences of contacts with ETC, take the form of hypotheses rather extra-terrestrial of artificial intelligence (ETAI as potential subject of space contact. The positive and negative scripts of dialogue with ETAI, problem «of high quality of a signal» and «SETI-hacker», connected with ETAI as by the subject of space dialogue are considered. Conclusions. The further development of a problem of search ETC and establishment of contacts with it will be connected, on the one hand to success in overcoming civilization of impasse, in which there was a mankind on a boundary ХХ – ХХI of centuries, and with another - deepening of revolution in cosmology, progress of observant astronomy, philosophical

  13. Behaviorism to humanism: the case for philosophical transformations in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, S E

    1998-01-01

    Collaborative learning processes and problem-based learning methods facilitate critical thinking capabilities for nurses practicing in multidisciplinary settings. Nursing education, as well as that of other healthcare providers, traditionally has been based on behaviorist educational theory. Massive economic and cultural shifts, and the nationwide movement toward community-based healthcare environments will mandate broad changes for structuring the philosophical framework for nursing education. Humanistic collaborative learning methods are proposed to meet the needs of preparing the next century of nursing care professionals.

  14. Causality in cancer research: a journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vineis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking back. We thus aim at making different traditions of thought compatible: (a causality in epidemiology and in philosophical theorizing—notably, the “sufficient-component-cause framework” and the “mark transmission” approach; (b new acquisitions about disease pathogenesis, e.g. the “branched model” in cancer, and the role of biomarkers in this process; (c the burgeoning of omics research, with a large number of “signals” and of associations that need to be interpreted. In the paper we summarize first the current views on carcinogenesis, and then explore the relevance of current philosophical interpretations of “cancer causes”. We try to offer a unifying framework to incorporate biomarkers and omic data into causal models, referring to a position called “evidential pluralism”. According to this view, causal reasoning is based on both “evidence of difference-making” (e.g. associations and on “evidence of underlying biological mechanisms”. We conceptualize the way scientists detect and trace signals in terms of information transmission, which is a generalization of the mark transmission theory developed by philosopher Wesley Salmon. Our approach is capable of helping us conceptualize how heterogeneous factors such as micro and macro-biological and psycho-social—are causally linked. This is important not only to understand cancer etiology, but also to design public health policies that target the right causal factors at the macro-level.

  15. The Relation Between Policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Claus S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...

  16. Beyond imagination : the moral versus the aesthetic : philosophical and literary influences in John Banville's Frames trilogy

    OpenAIRE

    Monsen, Maria Kristine

    2007-01-01

    The main focus for my thesis will be on John Banville’s Frames trilogy (2001) and the author's rendering of the limitations and possibilities of the aesthetic individual. In order to show how the tension between the aesthetic and the moral existence is illustrated by Banville’s protagonists, I have also included in my analysis certain literary and philosophical influences that I have found relevant. In chapter one I am going through central points in Søren Kierkegaard's and Friedric...

  17. A philosophical approach to Emotions: understanding Love’s Knowledge through a Frog in Love

    OpenAIRE

    Murris, Karin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I offer a philosophical approach to the emotion ‘love’, as a response to more psychological approaches presupposed in ‘emotional intelligence’, ‘emotional literacy’ programmes, or how some Philosophy for Children practitioners interpret ‘caring thinking’. Martha Nussbaum’s philosophy of emotions expressed in her book Love’s Knowledge, and the complex arguments contained within it have been given a narrative context: the picturebook Frog in Love by Max Velthuijs. The narrative co...

  18. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  19. [Feelings as considered by preplatonic and contemporary philosophers--coincidence or influence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowski, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Feelings' role in ancient Greek conceptions up till now has not become clear. As far as the researchers of antiquity are interested in Aristotle's and Hellenistic philosophers, Plato's and his predecessors has not been analysed from this point of view yet. It is often connected with a fact that Preplatonic philosophy is so-called philosophy of physis, and/or its nature is exclusively rationalistic. Thanks to the analysis of three passages (Heraclitus fr. B 85, Parmenides fr. B 3 and Democritus fr. B 31), and multilevel interpretation of Plato's conception one can indicate--if focus one's attention on the elements concerning the affectivity--the similarities to contemporary philosophers' outlooks. Among others, they concern 1) Heraclitus (and Parmenides fr. B 1, 1) versus Hume, Pascal, Ribot, Brentano, Bergson, 2) Parmenides versus Descartes, 3) Democritus versus Ribot, 4) Plato versus Scheler and Hartmann. Such analyses and interpretations let conquer conventional thinking of the Greek emotionality issue, because on the one hand they reveal a kind of deformations and misconstructions in searches, and on the other show a current importance of ancient conceptions. In support of the statement it is worth reminding of the formulation emotional intelligence that recently has enjoyed great popularity. His origins can be found already in Greek philosophers' thought.

  20. Hamlet - little known piece by Enriko Josif: Literary-theoretical, philosophical and musicological views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamlet is well-known as the most famous tragedy written by William Shakespeare. This dramatic work has, throughout the centuries, lead numerous writers, poets, literary-critics and philosophers to think about universal issues of life, human nature, love, loyalty and friendship. Hamlet has not just been the subject of discussion from the point of view of the theory of literature and human psychology and philosophy, it has also directly inspired the creation of many artistic works. One of those works which forms the main subject-matter of this paper is the almost unknown music for Hamlet by Enriko Josif. Enriko Josif was an extraordinary figure, a versatile artist and thinker, almost a kind of philosopher. In his opinion and in accordance with his inner feeling, art was a matter of divine creation first of all. He admired those artists who dealt with difficult issues of life in their works of art and William Shakespeare was to him one of the most prominent among them. In general terms, we have highlighted certain general points about Josif’s views on an artist’s life and work and have presented our notions about his piece. Specifically, we have tried to point out personal views that Josif held about Hamlet, as well as the most important features of Josif’s music, which are broadly in accordance with the literary, ethical, philosophical and theological critical tradition surrounding this masterpiece.

  1. Harmonies of disorder Norbert Wiener : a mathematician-philosopher of our time

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, Leone

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the entire body of thought of Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), knowledge of which is essential if one wishes to understand and correctly interpret the age in which we live. The focus is in particular on the philosophical and sociological aspects of Wiener’s thought, but these aspects are carefully framed within the context of his scientific journey. Important biographical events, including some that were previously unknown, are also highlighted, but while the book has a biographical structure, it is not only a biography. The book is divided into four chronological sections, the first two of which explore Wiener’s development as a philosopher and logician and his brilliant interwar career as a mathematician, supported by his philosophical background. The third section considers his research during World War II, which drew upon his previous scientific work and reflections and led to the birth of cybernetics. Finally, the radical post-war shift in Wiener’s intellectual path is considered, e...

  2. Intellectual and Cognitive Effects of Plotinus on the Mystic Philosophical Opinions of Attar and Rumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Pourfaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects and synergies of intellectual and cultural influence are the features undeniable in various nations and civilizations from ancient times until the present day. Schools of thought, ideas and theories of philosophical and mystical in human life, have seen many changes and passed through a development and evolution. Plotinus, one of the philosophers of ancient Greece and founder of the Neo-Platonic philosophy, expressed intellectual and philosophical statements about the existence of human and relationship between man and the Creator of man and the universe. In the culture of Persian mysticism, the thinkers were inspired by the ideas of this Greek scholar and created many works. In this regard, Attar and Rumi as two figures in Islamic-Iranian mysticism affected by the ideas of this outstanding thinker. In this article, we are to distinguish similarities and differences of these three thoughtful ideas with each other in eleven categories: celibacy of spirit, spiritualism, world-aversion and so on.

  3. Philosophic analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    Tresmontant,C

    L'Association du Personel du Cern présente le Prof. Tresmontant, qui a étudié les sciences et la philosophie (univers biblique dans sa reflexion). Il est aussi écrivain et a publié plusieurs livres, entre autre un essai sur la pensée hébraique et a fait en 1955 des études métaphysique biblique. "Avec les sciences expérimentales, l'humanité apprend à penser correctement et à distinguer la pensée rationnelle, qui est la pensée controlée par l'expérience, de la pensée mythique."

  4. Philosophical counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2007-01-01

    I artiklen giver jeg en beskrivelse af en front inden for canadisk vejledningsforskning, der arbejder med den eksistentielle dimension i karrierevejledning. Jeg kalder det "det tredje skridt" i vejledningsforskningen, idet vi ser en bevægelse fra en empirisk-analytisk tilgang over en socialkonstr...

  5. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, however, I argue for a different kind of approach, one which holds that there is a useful distinction to be drawn between the metaphysical and epistemological aspects of singular terms. This approach not only avoids the problems faced by alternative accounts but also coheres well with how ordinary speakers ...

  6. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  7. Philosophical skepticism not relativism is the problem with the Strong Programme in Science Studies and with Educational Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayannakos, Dimitris P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of David’s Bloor argument for the Strong Programme (SP) in Science Studies is criticized from the philosophical perspective of anti-skeptical, scientific realism. The paper transforms the common criticism of SP—that the symmetry principle of SP implies an untenable form of cognitive relativism—into the clear philosophical issue of naturalism versus Platonism. It is also argued that the concrete patterns of SP’s interest-explanations and its sociological definition of knowledge involve philosophical skepticism. It is claimed, then, that the most problematic elements of SP reside primarily in philosophical skepticism. It is also claimed that this sort of criticism can be directed against other more radical, versions of constructivism in science and science education studies.

  8. Arboriculture in clinical ethics: using philosophical critical appraisal to clear away underbrush in ethical analysis and argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-02-01

    This paper introduces the 2011 number of the Journal on Clinical Ethics. Philosophical critical appraisal is essential for the success of philosophical analysis and argument in clinical ethics. To clear away conceptual underbrush, papers in this Clinical Ethics number of the Journal address genetic engineering, conscience-based objections to forms of health care, placebos, and preventing exploitation of patients to be recruited to become research subjects.

  9. The Context-Dependency of the Experience of Auditory Succession and Prospects for Embodying Philosophical Models of Temporal Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kon

    2015-01-01

    Recent philosophical work on temporal experience offers generic models that are often assumed to apply to all sensory modalities. I show that the models serve as broad frameworks in which different aspects of cognitive science can be slotted and, thus, are beneficial to furthering research programs in embodied music cognition. Here I discuss a particular feature of temporal experience that plays a key role in such philosophical work: a distinction between the experience of succession and the ...

  10. Approaches to the Question, ‘What is Life?’: Reconciling Theoretical Biology with Philosophical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available !--[if gte mso 9]xml w:WordDocument w:ViewNormal/w:View w:Zoom0/w:Zoom w:Compatibility w:BreakWrappedTables/ w:SnapToGridInCell/ w:WrapTextWithPunct/ w:UseAsianBreakRules/ /w:Compatibility w:BrowserLevelMicrosoftInternetExplorer4/w:BrowserLevel /w:WordDocument /xml![endif]-- !-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-AU;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} -- !--[if gte mso 10] style /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} /style ![endif]-- p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"spanPhilosophical biologists have attempted to define the distinction between life and non-life to more adequately define what it is to be human. They are reacting against idealism, but idealism is their point of departure, and they have embraced the reaction by idealists against the mechanistic notion of humans developed by the scientific materialists. Theoretical biologists also have attempted to develop a more adequate conception of life, but their point of departure has been within science itself. In their case, it has involved efforts to overcome the reductionism of scientific materialism to develop a form of science able to identify and explain the distinctive characteristics of living beings. So, while both philosophical biologists and theoretical biologists are struggling to overcome scientific materialism

  11. Postmodernism: A Reaction to the Terrorism of the Modernist Philosophical Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manzoor A. Khalidi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the concluding part of a series of two papers exploring and explaining the concept of postmodernism. The approach adopted for examining the postmodern phenomenon was to picture it as a collage incorporating three distinct but interrelated concepts/themes: one, postmodernism as an epoch; two, postmodernism as a signifier of the problematical features or the limits of modernity; and three, postmodernism as a reaction to the terrorism of the modernist philosophical thought. The first two of these were discussed in the paper published in the pervious issue of the Market Forces. This paper involves an examination of the third theme: postmodernism as a reaction to the terrorism of the modernist philosophical thought which has been described as positivistic, technocentric, and rationalistic, and the belief in linear progress, absolute truths, the rational planning of ideal social orders, and the standardization of knowledge and production. The approach adopted for this paper involves the use of the term ‘post’ as a counter concept and a broad-gauged cultural and intellectual movement that is re-conceptualizing the way we experience and understand the world around us. It involves a re-examination of eight areas of our knowledge base that form the basis of our conceptual foundations. These are: the concept of truth; the concept of theory; the concept of representation; the concept and the relationship between the author, the text, and the reader; the concept of subject; the problematic of disciplinary research; the concept of space; and the concept of history. The discussion involves an examination of the normally accepted definitions of these concepts and the counter-concepts or the alternative definitions offered within the realm of postmodern philosophical thought. Investigation into the counter-concepts is aimed as understanding how postmodernism represents a departure in our way of thinking regarding the best strategy for

  12. PHILOSOPHICAL-CULTURAL CONCEPTION OF TELEVISION AS A VISUAL PRACTICES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Tormakhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to analyze the philosophical and cultural ideas about television, which is a leading visual practice of XX century. It does not lose its relevance in the beginning of the XXI. The role of television lies in visual presentation and formation of the basic norms of taste and traditions of different social groups. Television is the leading communicative practice, which consideration is represented differently in modern science. Research methodology involves an appeal to the philosophical and cultural concepts, representing different approaches to the understanding of television. The paper considers the views of Western scholars, such as R. Arnheim, M. Wolff, A. Kroker, G. Lipovetsky, M. McLuhan, D. Mulvin, J. Mittell, N. Postman, L. Saffhil, J. Sterne, E. Thompson, J. Fiske, S. Shapiro. During analysis of the issue of the specific nature of television content the works of Russian scientists – T. Savitskaya, N. Samutina and Polish contemporary author – R. Sapenko were used. Originality lies in the depiction of the main approaches to the study of television as a visual communicative practice. Deployment of the author's position within the designated issues is presented as a historical digression – from the first attempts at understanding the phenomenon of television to the newest scientific theories that have found expression in contemporary American philosophical and cultural thought. Results of the study can be used in the training course "Visual communication and practices." Conclusions indicated that the majority of contemporary visual practices based on certain patterns, embedded TV. Despite the emergence of new media practices, TV does not lose relevance, everywhere present in the culture, which means that his research will allow a better understanding of the specificity of cultural creativity process.

  13. Further Questions: A Way Out of the Present Philosophical Situation (via Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Lawlor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Let us begin by assembling some signs of the present philosophical situation. On the one hand, the most important living French philosopher, Alain Badiou, calls for a “return to Plato,” despite the movement of anti-Platonism that dominated French and German thought in the 20th century. On the other hand, the present moment sees a resurgence of naturalism in philosophy in general (including and especially Anglophone analytic philosophy, despite the criticisms of naturalism that have appeared throughout the 20th century. Phenomenology seems to be at the center of both of these movements. On the one hand, it is the idea of a mathematized ontology that requires the return to Plato, a mathematized ontology constructed without a reflection on its transcendental grounds. On the other, the resurgence of naturalism is so strong that a book could be imagined and published with the bastard name of Naturalizing Phenomenology, as if the transcendental moment of phenomenology did not transform the very meaning of nature. These signs seem to indicate that we have entered into a phase of regression or even decline in philosophical thinking. If this interpretation of the signs is correct, if we have indeed entered into a phase of regression -- a twofold regression toward Platonism and toward naturalism -- we must ask the following question: is it possible for us to define something like a project or even a research agenda that would allow us to define a way of thinking that might lead us out of the present situation, a situation, it must be said, that seems dire for philosophy in general? If we can determine such a research agenda, perhaps we can also begin to understand what the tradition of “continental philosophy” has stood for.

  14. Encyclopedia of cosmology historical, philosophical, and scientific foundations of modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Norriss S

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, first published in 1993, recounts the history, philosophical assumptions, methodological ambiguities, and human struggles that have influenced the various responses to the basic questions of cosmology through the ages, as well as referencing important scientific theories.Just as the recognition of social conventions in other cultures can lead to a more productive perspective on our own behaviour, so too a study of the cosmologies of other times and places can enable us recognise elements of our own cosmology that might otherwise pass as inevitable developments.Ap

  15. Literary Practice according to Michel Henry: A Philosophical Introduction to his Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Dussert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the author of four novels, Michel Henry never produced an aesthetics of literature. The purpose of this article is, after a presentation of his philosophy of immanence and his concept of life, to locate where the literary practice takes place in his system. In this study, we are not interested in the poetic quality of his works, but in the possibility to base his singular creativity on his philosophical reflection. This leads us to insert literature in the vast phenomenon of culture and ethics, and to grasp the function of poetics in the struggle against barbarism.

  16. The Collected Works of Eugene Paul Wigner Historical, Philosophical, and Socio-Political Papers

    CERN Document Server

    Wigner, Eugene Paul

    2001-01-01

    Not only was EP Wigner one of the most active creators of 20th century physics, he was also always interested in expressing his opinion in philosophical, political or sociological matters This volume of his collected works covers a wide selection of his essays about science and society, about himself and his colleagues Annotated by J Mehra, this volume will become an important source of reference for historians of science, and it will be pleasant reading for every physicist interested in forming ideas in modern physics

  17. The Philosophical and Mathematical Context of two Gerbert's Musical Letters to Constantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otisk, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The paper deals with two letters written by Gerbert of Aurillac to Constantine of Fleury. In these letters Gerbert points out some passages from Boethius’s Introduction to Music (II, 10; respectively IV, 2 and II, 21) concerning mathematical operations (multiplication and subtraction) with superparticular ratios i.e. ratios of the type (n+1) : n. The musical harmonies rule the Cosmos and the Celestial Spheres according to Martianus Capella De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii; Music is the basis for understanting Astronomy. This paper follows two main aims: philosophical importance of music as liberal art and mathematical basis of the Pythagorean tuning.

  18. Space, Time, and Spacetime Physical and Philosophical Implications of Minkowski's Unification of Space and Time

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, Vesselin

    2010-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to the centennial anniversary of Minkowski's discovery of spacetime. It contains selected papers by physicists and philosophers on the Nature and Ontology of Spacetime. The first six papers, comprising Part I of the book, provide examples of the impact of Minkowski's spacetime representation of special relativity on the twentieth century physics. Part II also contains six papers which deal with implications of Minkowski's ideas for the philosophy of space and time. The last part is represented by two papers which explore the influence of Minkowski's ideas beyond the philosophy of space and time.

  19. Psychoanalysis as a Philosophical Revolution: Freud's Divergence From the Philosophy of Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jason

    2016-08-01

    In his classic, The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche described a philosophical worldview that has many similarities to Freudian metapsychology. This paper uses Freud's theories to analyze The Birth of Tragedy, discussing the similarities and differences between Nietzsche's philosophy and Freudian metapsychology. The author suggests that while psychoanalysis was born from the spirit of German philosophy, in that it based itself on a similar concept of the unconscious, Freud diverged from his predecessors to create a new worldview, based on the acceptance and integration of unconscious desire. This revolutionary theory provided a new approach to humanity's moral and existential issues.

  20. Bodies in skin: a philosophical and theological approach to genetic skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Angelika

    2010-03-01

    This contribution evolved from my work in a European network and is dedicated to the rare genetic skin diseases. To gain a deeper knowledge about the question, what it means to suffer from a genetic skin disease, I have discussed the concepts of skin in philosophical and theological anthropology. Presuming that ancient interpretations of skin diseases (moral and cultical impurity) are still relevant today, feminist Christian theology shows the ways of deconstructing stigmatizing paradigma by using the body as a hermeneutic category. Skin becomes the "open borderline" of the human being, pointing out both the social vulnerability and the transcendent capacity of the human person.

  1. Pourquoi la philosophie indienne ne doit pas être laissée aux seuls philosophes

    OpenAIRE

    Bronkhorst, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Des historiens de l’astronomie, de la linguistique ou de la médecine indiennes anciennes, on attend généralement qu’ils soient familiers des contreparties occidentales modernes de ces disciplines. Mais qu’en est-il de la philosophie ? Et tout d’abord, existe-t-il en Inde ancienne quelque chose comme une philosophie dont on pourrait faire l’histoire ? Et si oui, qui en sera le meilleur exégète ? Le philosophe attentif aux enjeux systématiques, ou l’historien sensible aux contextes de productio...

  2. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes,…

  3. Time machine tales the science fiction adventures and philosophical puzzles of time travel

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a broad overview of time travel in science fiction, along with a detailed examination of the philosophical implications of time travel. The emphasis of this book is now on the philosophical and on science fiction, rather than on physics, as in the author's earlier books on the subject. In that spirit there are, for example, no Tech Notes filled with algebra, integrals, and differential equations, as there are in the first and second editions of TIME MACHINES. Writing about time travel is, today, a respectable business. It hasn’t always been so. After all, time travel, prima facie, appears to violate a fundamental law of nature; every effect has a cause, with the cause occurring before the effect. Time travel to the past, however, seems to allow, indeed to demand, backwards causation, with an effect (the time traveler emerging into the past as he exits from his time machine) occurring before its cause (the time traveler pushing the start button on his machine’s control panel to start his...

  4. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A. Popescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  5. ROLE OF MEGALOPOLISES IN SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPREHENSION OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistarova Anna Aleksandrovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author tries to establish linkage between the events that took place at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the aspiration of some countries for negating or limiting their jurisdiction with respect to international law due to the international bipolar system disintegration. It should be noted that the globalization, regionalization and glocalization processes are detected as new phenomenon that arouse as a result of international relations system evolution. The article reveals socio-philosophical content of globalization phenomenon in the nature of both spatial and civilization development of the modern world. The author highlights the necessity of theoretical basis generation so that to favour scientific discourse on the globalization issues in the light of new actors (megalopolises in the international relations system. Laying stress on the major cities as the international activity centers, the author emphasizes the requirement for comprehensive analysis of their involvement into the transformation processes. The intensification of local against global actors’ position is indicated by the author in the article. It points to the research of their social and political role as a new not yet generated investigation form within the bounds of philosophical science, and it favors preservation of peace integrity.

  6. ROLE OF MEGALOPOLISES IN SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPREHENSION OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Нистарова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author tries to establish linkage between the events that took place at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the aspiration of some countries for negating or limiting their jurisdiction with respect to international law due to the international bipolar system disintegration. It should be noted that the globalization, regionalization and glocalization processes are detected as new phenomenon that arouse as a result of international relations system evolution. The article reveals socio-philosophical content of globalization phenomenon in the nature of both spatial and civilization development of the modern world. The author highlights the necessity of theoretical basis generation so that to favour scientific discourse on the globalization issues in the light of new actors (megalopolises in the international relations system. Laying stress on the major cities as the international activity centers, the author emphasizes the requirement for comprehensive analysis of their involvement into the transformation processes. The intensification of local against global actors’ position is indicated by the author in the article. It points to the research of their social and political role as a new not yet generated investigation form within the bounds of philosophical science, and it favors preservation of peace integrity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-4

  7. The point of view of religious authorities and philosophers on nuclear energy - Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the reporting of an interview made with Jacques Arnould, a science historian and philosopher. The philosopher thinks that the main problem of sciences and technologies is the lack of questioning about the real purpose of developing new technologies. Are they developed for the well-being and comfort of mankind or for the sole business and economical aspects? The response to this basic question is fundamental for the long-term acceptance of controversial technologies. In 2009 in the strong debate that took place on nano-technologies, the question of 'why this technology' was never asked and the debate was bogged down in technical issues. The consequences: 10 years later we are still at the same point. For nuclear technologies the ethical aspect is even more important because we engage future generations through the disposal of radioactive wastes. The nuclear risk should be balanced by the response to the why question: do we accept this risk because we want to provide humanity with plentiful non-carbon energy or because we want to develop an industrial sector? the ethical aspect is fundamental to deal with in terms of public acceptance. (A.C.)

  8. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Philosophical Aspects and Historical Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the conceptual and clinical similarities that exist between the principles of positive psychology and those underlying rehabilitation counseling and psychology, occupational rehabilitation, and those espoused by the field of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID). Three themes were selected for review. These included the historical contributions of early scholars in the area of psychosocial adaptation to CID that later were indirectly infused into mainstream positive psychology; state and trait constructs that constitute much of the infrastructure of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID; and, finally, the philosophical congruencies between positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. The existing literature indicates that there is a substantial philosophical and conceptual overlap between the fields of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. Since theoreticians and researchers, from both fields, often use differing terminology and definitions to describe similar concepts, as well as seek similar research goals, it would behoove both fields to seek a closer partnership in order to establish a meaningful dialogue that focuses on human strengths and virtues in the lives of people with CID.

  9. Can Artificial Intelligences Suffer from Mental Illness? A Philosophical Matter to Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2017-04-01

    The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, but may also offer a platform on which to examine the mechanisms of biological or artificially intelligent psychiatric disease. The possibility of mental illnesses occurring in artificially intelligent individuals necessitates the consideration that at some level, they may have achieved a mental capability of consciousness, sentience and rationality such that they can subsequently become dysfunctional. The deeper philosophical understanding of these conditions in mankind and artificial intelligences might therefore offer reciprocal insights into mental health and mechanisms that may lead to the prevention of mental dysfunction.

  10. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Beatrice A

    2015-08-01

    This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  11. The philosophical and educational potential ecopsychology as means of forming ecological culture of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kisyel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current ecological crisis is largely caused by the dominance of anthropocentric environmental awareness. To overcome it and move humanity to a model of sustainable social and environmental development required the establishment of environmental consciousness ecocentric type, which is the aim of environmental education, namely, the formation of personality type ecocentric environmental awareness. The purpose of the article is to study the philosophical and educational potential environmental psychology as a means of transformation of personal values and attitudes toward nature. Analysis of the concepts of subjective attitude to nature, subjective perception of the natural world, environmental knowledge, empaurment-method pedagogy. Education for Sustainable Development aims to develop such knowledge, skills and values that will enable people to make individual and collective decisions of local and global nature to improve the quality of life without endangering future generations. The basic methodological principle of environmental psyhopedahohiky is in strict accordance with the environmental education teaching psychological process of environmental awareness. Interaction with nature is a great psychological and pedagogical potential that should be used in the environmental education that will allow him to become a factor in the overall development and personality development. So effectively targeted formation ekospozhyvchoyi culture of all populations requires training of qualified specialists in the field of eco-educational activities and environmental education and its philosophical and educational foundation.

  12. Philosophical and ethical perspectives on cardiovascular disease risk in low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju

    2011-01-01

    One of the overriding goals of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the health disparities observed among Americans. Because workers in small businesses tend to have little or no access to health screening or preventive health education programs, they may be unaware of their unique risk factors and are thus more at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, occupational health nurses are more likely to be available in health programs to employees in large rather than small businesses. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how nursing values and philosophy might influence public health nurses' thinking about nursing science and ethical issues relating to the risk of CVD among low-wage workers. The following questions will guide the exploration of health disparities among low-wage workers: (a) What are the health disparities observed among low-wage workers with CVD risk? (b) What are the philosophical and ethical perspectives on the issues presented? (c) Based on these findings, how should limited resources be allocated? and (d) How does this affect nursing? These approaches will provide the foundation for developing a culturally sensitive ethical and philosophical perspective to prevent CVD and promote cardiovascular health among low-wage workers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Philosophical Topography of Place and Non-Place: Lithuanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Žukauskienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on French anthropologist Marc Augé and his seminal book Non-Places (1995 the author pays attention to the transformation of contemporary urban landscapes. In thinking trough the dialectic of place and non-place, this paper aims to account for the apparent sense of placelesness in our cultural landscapes and in increasingly globalised world. If we want to ask fundamental questions about what has happened to our urban landscape and to the spirit of cities during the last decades then the concepts of place and non-place help us to describe the actual changes. Besides, Augé’s work gives us the methodological tools to address philosophical questions about the nature of supermodernity and the relationship between modernity and postmodernity moving toward new conditions of globality. This article will attempt to apply anthropological and philosophical concepts of place and space to the context of Lithuania, comparing the ways of spreading of non-places (non-lieu in the Soviet modernity and contemporary global, hyper-visual and liquid cultural landscape.

  14. Primary health care as a philosophical and practical framework for nursing education: rhetoric or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sandra; Hatcher, Deborah; Happell, Brenda; Cleary, Michelle

    2013-08-01

    At least three decades after primary health care (PHC) took nursing by storm it is time to re-examine the philosophical shift to a PHC framework in pre-registration nursing curricula and overview factors which may hinder or promote full integration of PHC as a course philosophy and a contemporary approach to professional practice. Whilst nurse education has traditionally focused on preparing graduates for practice in the acute care setting, there is continuing emphasis on preparing nurses for community based primary health roles, with a focus on illness prevention and health promotion. This is driven by growing evidence that health systems are not responding adequately to the needs and challenges of diverse populations, as well as economic imperatives to reduce the burden of disease associated with the growth of chronic and complex diseases and to reduce the costs associated with the provision of health care. Nursing pre-registration programs in Australia and internationally have philosophically adopted PHC as a curriculum model for preparing graduates with the necessary competencies to function effectively across a range of settings. Anecdotal evidence, however, suggests that when adopted as a program philosophy PHC is not always well integrated across the curriculum. In order to develop a strong and resilient contemporary nursing workforce prepared for practice in both acute and community settings, pre-registration nursing programs need to comprehensively consider and address the factors impacting on the curricula integration of PHC philosophy.

  15. Husserl and the Fact of Practical Reason – Phenomenological Claims toward a Philosophical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Loidolt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this paper is that Husserl, in his later ethics, reinterprets the philosophical content that discloses itself in the Kantian conception of a “fact of practical reason”. From 1917/18 on, Husserl increasingly ceases to pursue his initial idea of a scientific ethics. The reason for this move lies precisely in the phenomenological analysis of “Gemütsakte”, through which two main features of the fact of practical reason impose themselves more and more on Husserls thought: the personal concernment/obligation and the primacy of the practical with the coeval call for universal validity. Husserl recognizes that the form of ethical facticity or entanglement cannot be grasped by a science of evidence, which speaks objectively and non-personally (apersonal of acts of willing, valuing or preferring. Husserl thus gets to a reinterpretation of the fact of practical reason as the philosophical nucleus of his ethics, which is now a personal and affective ethics. He bestows a texture on this fact, however not as he would have thought in the first place: not as evident laws of a material apriori of “Gemüt”. In the person and her ethical experience as absolute affection Husserl rather discovers that which is per se not objectifiable and not to be made rationally evident. By this, Husserl captures and phenomenologically explains the non-objectifiable source of obligation and the possibility of complying with it.  

  16. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  17. Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Marie Stronach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants’ perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.

  18. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  19. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  20. THE MORAL FOUNDATION OF THE RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL CURRENTS OF RUSSIAN COSMISM (THE TEACHINGS OF V. SOLOVYOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nekrasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors considered the religious - philosophical component of Russian cosmism, its moral Foundation. A brief philosophical analysis of the problem of good and evil in the teaching of one of the representatives of religious branches cosmism - Solovyov. At the core of his philosophy is the concept of unity, Solovyov considers the question of the relationship of the two worlds - the ideal and the real. The author's vision approaches to the study of the divine in the world, the problem of the third start - Sofia as the transformation of the world and the person, which occurs under the influence of cosmic, Divine energies is given. Man acts as the connecting link between God, the cosmos, man. He is an active creative artist of the highest will of God. Based on the Solovyov shows the role and place of religious-philosophical movement in the Russian cosmism.

  1. Development of the Philosophical Thought in Crimea during the Golden Horde Period: Sharaf al-Qrimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Yakubovych

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most of contemporary studies on Islamic Philosophy, the main attention is concerned with the Classical Age (from the eighth up to the thirteenth century. It is worthy to mention that many late medieval Arabic sources still remain out of the real scholarly interest. In turn, the author of this article emphasizes that the philosophical and scientific heritage of the Crimean Khanate represents now a vital interest to researchers, above all, due to the fact that there was a significant flourishing of cultural life on the territory of Crimea and other regions of the Northern Black Sea in the 15th–17th centuries. Among other things, it should be paid special attention to the study of the development of “rational sciences”, including philosophical knowledge. In this context, the author refers to the heritage of the scholar from the Golden Horde, namely Sharaf al-Qrimi (d. 1440. His life falls on a very interesting and, in general, poorly studied period in the history of the Crimea, namely, at a time when the Crimean Yurt (Qırım Yurtu had not yet been an independent State and was a part of the Golden Horde. Creative heyday of this scientist coincided with the age of the weakening of the Golden Horde power in the Crimean yurt, which stood out in an independent State (“Khanate”, hanlığı only in 1441, during the reign of Haji Giray (d. 1466. The works of Sharaf al-Qrimi dedicated to the hermeneutics, provides a clear picture not only of some issues of Post-Classical Islamic thought, but also the development of Islamic knowledge in the Eastern European lands (in particular, in Crimea, which experienced the intensive inter-cultural transmission during the Golden Horde times. It is argued, that Sharaf al-Qrimi was under the influence of the Central Asian and Persian philosophical theology, inspired by the works of Abu ‘Ali ibn Sina and his followers. It is showed that in Crimean (and also early Ottoman context Islamic Philosophy continued

  2. ROMANTIC SELF IN SEARCH OF GOD: PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS IDEAS OF S. T. COLERIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Zykova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with spiritual progress of S.T. Coleridge from his youthful interest in the followers of Locke (his direct predecessors in English intellectual tradition to his fascination with pantheism, to his study of Kant and Shelling, and to his final embracing of Christian faith in its Anglican version. Coleridge viewed himself as a poet-philosopher, whose intuitive faith should be founded on philosophical premises and should find its expression both in his works and his life, and should correspond to his existential experience. His spiritual growth took place in the last decades of the 18 th century, in the atmosphere of decline of Anglican faith and of intensive development of natural sciences and empirical rationalist philosophy, which influenced both religion and aesthetics (including new conception of imagination. In England it were the Romantics of the Lake School, and Coleridge first of all, who transformed 18 th century theory of imagination regarding it as an instrument of knowledge, as a means of penetrating into the spiritual world. Another line of continuity linked Coleridge to the religious thought of that age: he was interested in Methodism and Unitarianism. Being disillusioned in Unitarianism, Coleridge was fascinated for some time by Spinoza’s pantheism (expressed in his poem “Aeolian Harp”, but soon he felt that this system takes off man’s responsibility, and consequently, his moral liberty. He found the antidote from pantheism in Kantian philosophy, but the fact that for Kant, God and freedom were regulative and not absolute notions impelled the poet to continue his search and turn to Shelling. Coleridge craved for the vindication of man’s spiritual freedom but he also needed the proof that the world we live in, as it is created by God, is somehow spiritualized, and this he found in the philosophy of Shelling. But soon the philosophical synthesis achieved by Shelling appeared too formal to Coleridge. It is in

  3. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  4. Maslaha as the Philosophical, Political, and Legal Basis on the Islamic Banking Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghofur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on the Islamic Banking Acts in Indonesia is inseparable from the condition of national politics and global economics that continues to develop. In this paper, the main issue to be discussed is whether the formation of the Islamic Banking Act in Indonesia is based on political interests, or if there is also a legal value associated with economic development of this act. The findings suggest that the legislation on the Islamic Banking Act in Indonesia has relevance to the political and legal foundation that developed at that time; and the legislation on the Islamic Banking Act is based not only on the political but also the philosophical aspects of law that emphasize principles of the common good or maṣlaha and/ an alignment with national goals.

  5. The «Philosophical Bible» and the Reformation: the case of John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Herrero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition of Sacred Scripture from a supernatural text to a mere secular text can be related to the Reformation, but we cannot say that it was the work of the protestant Reformation. Moreover it was the result of the enlightened biblical criticism practiced by some philosophers, as is the case of John Locke. Locke’s work contributes to the construction of the «Academic Bible» as opposed to the «Biblical Scripture». In his writings we can detect a kind of dialectic between the supernatural character of the Sacred Scriptures and the consideration of reason as natural revelation that leads to some paradoxes. Because of that the literature has considered Locke’s position, as been alternatively Calvinist, Arminian, Socinian, Latitudinarian or Unitarian. This article deals with these paradoxes and evaluates the original Lockean thesis on Biblical interpretation, which is inseparable of his faith, his epistemology and his theory of language.

  6. The Philosophical Background and Scientific Legacy of E. B. Titchener's Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beenfeldt, Christian

    , this book reopens and rewrites the chapter in the history of early scientific psychology pertaining to the nature of E. B. Titchener’s psychological system. Arguing against the view that Titchener’s system was undone by an overreliance on introspection, the author explains how this idea was first introduced......This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion...... in defiance of introspection, not because of introspection. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, British associationism is examined thoroughly. The author here discusses the psychology of influential empiricist philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, David Hartley, James Mill...

  7. Between Hobbes and Spinoza. Research on the Philosophical Matrix of Ferdinand Tönnies’ Sociological Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Ferraresi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay reconstructs the main lines of Ferdinand Tönnies’ (1855-1936 critical approach to the thought of Hobbes and Spinoza. Specifically it shows the role played by the two philosophers in developing the categories of community (Spinoza and society (Hobbes. From the stand point of political thought, the essay reveals how Tönnies’ on going interpretation of Hobbes focuses more and more on the constitutive moment of the modern form of State. In this area it draws on Spinoza’s reflections on democracy as an absolutum omnino imperium. Tönnies is thus able to distinguish conceptually between the Hobbesian State, as a “society” that absorbs all natural law, and its natural law origin (the «original assembly», where we find a “common” element that can never be entirely neutralized by the State.

  8. The Bildungsroman Tradition: The Philosophical Maturation of Jack Burden in All the King’s Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam M. Al-Shraah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to sketch out the transformation that Jack Burden—the main character in the novel—had gone through. With all the political leanings in Warren’s All the king’s Men, Jack burden seems to have had developed his own theories of dealing with life and people all through his life. He has always suffered an inferiority complex, rendering himself unworthy of being a real human being. This paper claims that Jack’s philosophical transformation has passed through three distinct phases; he had changed from a carefree idealist to a man of moral responsibility much similar to a Bildungsroman style of character maturation. Difficult times that Jack Burden has gone through caused his awakening at the end of the novel ushering his maturation

  9. A philosophical experiment: empirical study of knowledge production at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    How is new knowledge produced in the natural sciences? This question has long been an issue of central relevance for philosophers, historians and sociologists of science, who have fiercely debated whether and how the emergence of new scientific knowledge can be described as following regular patterns, for example as far as the interplay of theory and experiment is concerned. To this aim, more or less recent historical examples have been used as empirical case studies, and widely diverging conclusions have at times been drawn from the same material. The interdisciplinary, DFG-funded project-cluster "Epistemology of the LHC" (University of Wuppertal, Germany) has in the past three years attempted to investigate knowledge production "in real time" by following the interplay of theory and experiment unfold during the first phase of LHC activity and how the knowledge landscape of high energy physics accordingly did (or did not) change. To try and reconstruct some aspects of this epistemic dynamics, the project ...

  10. Looking Inward: Philosophical and Methodological Perspectives on Phenomenological Self-Reflection.

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    Pool, Natalie M

    2018-07-01

    Engaging in early and ongoing self-reflection during interpretive phenomenological research is critical for ensuring trustworthiness or rigor. However, the lack of guidelines and clarity about the role of self-reflection in this methodology creates both theoretical and procedural confusion. The purpose of this article is to describe key philosophical underpinnings, characteristics, and hallmarks of the process of self-reflection in interpretive phenomenological investigation and to provide a list of guidelines that facilitate this process. Excerpts from an interpretive phenomenological study are used to illustrate characteristics of quality self-reflection. The guidelines are intended to be particularly beneficial for novice researchers who may find self-reflective writing to be daunting and unclear. Facilitating use of self-reflection may strengthen both the interpretive phenomenological body of work as well as that of all qualitative research.

  11. Physical frailty, sarcopenia, and the enablement of autonomy: philosophical issues in geriatric medicine.

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    Blasimme, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Physical frailty and loss of muscular mass (sarcopenia) are believed to be predictors of age-related conditions, such as disability and loss of autonomy. In this paper, I show that what in political and moral philosophy has come to be known as "the capability approach" may indeed provide much needed conceptual clarification in the area of frailty research. Other than being useful at the theoretical level, the capability approach can definitely help in the implementation of clinical guidelines and public health measures aimed at translating the results that are accumulating from frailty research. I will first briefly review the main philosophical tenets of the capability approach, and then analyze how they relate to current debates about frailty and sarcopenia by introducing the notion of "enablement". Finally, I will show how my analysis bears on both clinical research in this domain and public policy aimed at tackling some of the age-related issues in an aging society.

  12. Ethics and values in health care practice: philosophical, educational, and political considerations.

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    Carvalho, Vilma de

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents philosophical, pedagogical and political considerations on Ethics and Values in Professional Health Care Practice. The current changes and crises in the world, intensified by economic turmoil, have affected social justice issues affecting health and education. to clarify nurses' role in the context of the art to take care of clients both as individuals and community; to urge nurses for attention to laws and codes/norms as established in the profession; and to suggest the application of basic laws of the Philosophy of Art to nursing care. The study presents critical analysis on ethics and values involved in nursing actions and may affect the art of learning-to-be and becoming an expert professional in nursing care. The author's epistemological position is presented to build competencies in the nursing as a health science.

  13. Ambivalences of creating life societal and philosophical dimensions of synthetic biology

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhard, Margret; Toepfer, Georg

    2016-01-01

    "Synthetic biology" is the label of a new technoscientific field with many different facets and agendas. One common aim is to "create life", primarily by using engineering principles to design and modify biological systems for human use. In a wider context, the topic has become one of the big cases in the legitimization processes associated with the political agenda to solve global problems with the aid of (bio-)technological innovation. Conceptual-level and meta-level analyses are needed: we should sort out conceptual ambiguities to agree on what we talk about, and we need to spell out agendas to see the disagreements clearly. The book is based on the interdisciplinary summer school "Analyzing the societal dimensions of synthetic biology", which took place in Berlin in September 2014. The contributions address controversial discussions around the philosophical examination, public perception, moral evaluation and governance of synthetic biology.

  14. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Justin

    2012-03-01

    Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation This article starts by considering the differences within the positivist tradition and then it moves on to compare two of the most prominent schools of postpositivism, namely critical realism and social constructionism. Critical realists hold, with positivism, that knowledge should be positively applied, but reject the positivist method for doing this, arguing that causal explanations have to be based not on empirical regularities but on references to unobservable structures. Social constructionists take a different approach to postpositivism and endorse a relativist rejection of truth and hold that the task of research is to foster a scepticism that undermines any positive truth claim made. It is argued that social constructionism is a contradictory position. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Achromatic ‘Philosophical Zombie', a Syndrome of Cerebral Achromatopsia with Color Anopsognosia

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    Antonio Carota

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002. The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001. These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors and recall the theoretic figure of the ‘philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood.

  17. Kant on mental disorder. Part 2: philosophical implications of Kant's account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This paper considers various philosophical problems arising from Kant's account of mental disorder. Starting with the reasons why Kant considered his theory of mental disorder important, I then turn to the implications of this theory of Kant's metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. Given Kant's account of insanity as 'a totally different standpoint... from which one sees all objects differently' (7: 216), the Critique of Pure Reason should be read as offering a more social epistemology than typically recognized. Also, mental disorders that seem to undermine human freedom and rationality raise problems for Kant's moral philosophy that his pragmatic anthropology helps to mitigate. Finally, I propose some implications of Kant's account of mental disorder for contemporary work on mental illness.

  18. A legal and philosophical perspective on the in loco parentis position of teachers

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    I.J. Oosthuizen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The in loco parentis position of the teacher implies that he/she is regarded as acting in the place of the parent. This principle is embedded in South African common law and in many respects confirmed by statutory law. In the South African legal context, it implies that the teacher is obliged to take care of the physical and mental safety of the pupil and has the right to maintain discipline. It is a legal instrument for bringing about order in the educative duties of teachers. A more philosophical line of reasoning, centring on sphere sovereignty, reveals why jurists tend to compare the duties of teachers with those of parents, but do not equate them with each other or regard these duties as synonymous.

  19. Sacred Torrents in Modernity: German Jewish Philosophers and the Legacy of Secularization

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    Roemer Nils

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ongoing interaction between the Jewish sacred past and its modern interpreters. Jewish thinkers from the eighteenth century reclaimed these ideals instead of dismissing them. Sacred traditions and modern secular thought existed in their mutual constitutive interdependence and not in opposition. When the optimism in historical progress and faith in reason unraveled in the fin de siècle, it engendered a new critical response by Jewish historians and philosophers of the twentieth century. These critical voices emerged within the fault lines of nineteenth and early twentieth century Jewish anti-historicist responses. What separated twentieth-century Jewish thinkers such as Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Gershom Scholem from their nineteenth-century forerunners was not their embrace of religion but their critical stance toward reason and their crumbling faith in historical progress.

  20. Awakening – Transformation, agency and virtue from three contemporary philosophical inspirations: Bhaskar, Segal and Slote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Schreiber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For some, ‘transformation’ is the new non-reductive and non-normative ‘development’, attracting attention from interdisciplinary array, but of particular theoretical and practical interest to Spirituality scholars. In philosophical context, transformation theory has suffered greatly from ’agency-structure’ dualism and suspension of ontology in body-mind dualism and rationalist virtue controversy. Drawing on the work of Bhaskar, Segal and Slote, a renegotiated and more meaningful sense of transformation emerges from their cumulative analytical and conceptual enrichment. In the complexity of possible relations between self, self-concept and society, lies the traditionally neglected transformative middle of sui-generis human depth. In redress, arguably, Bhaskar’s meta-philosophy accommodates Segal’s experiential depth analysis and Slote’s understanding of empathy and receptivity as valuable insights for ’awakening’ to transformative process.