WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify compliant layers

  1. Compliant Interfacial Layers in Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A. (Inventor); Li, Billy Chun-Yip (Inventor); Ravi, Vilupanur A. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Anjunyan, Harut (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generation device is disclosed using one or more mechanically compliant and thermally and electrically conductive layers at the thermoelectric material interfaces to accommodate high temperature differentials and stresses induced thereby. The compliant material may be metal foam or metal graphite composite (e.g. using nickel) and is particularly beneficial in high temperature thermoelectric generators employing Zintl thermoelectric materials. The compliant material may be disposed between the thermoelectric segments of the device or between a thermoelectric segment and the hot or cold side interconnect of the device.

  2. Identifying links between origami and compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Greenberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Origami is the art of folding paper. In the context of engineering, orimimetics is the application of folding to solve problems. Kinetic origami behavior can be modeled with the pseudo-rigid-body model since the origami are compliant mechanisms. These compliant mechanisms, when having a flat initial state and motion emerging out of the fabrication plane, are classified as lamina emergent mechanisms (LEMs. To demonstrate the feasibility of identifying links between origami and compliant mechanism analysis and design methods, four flat folding paper mechanisms are presented with their corresponding kinematic and graph models. Principles from graph theory are used to abstract the mechanisms to show them as coupled, or inter-connected, mechanisms. It is anticipated that this work lays a foundation for exploring methods for LEM synthesis based on the analogy between flat-folding origami models and linkage assembly.

  3. Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabacak, Tansel; Picu, Catalin R.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Wang, G.-C.; Lu, T.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The residual stress in thin films is a major limiting factor for obtaining high quality films. We present a strategy for stress reduction in sputter deposited films by using a nanostructured compliant layer obtained by the oblique angle deposition technique, sandwiched between the film and the substrate. The technique is all in situ, does not require any lithography steps, and the nanostructured layer is made from the same material as the deposited thin film. By using this approach we were able to reduce stress values by approximately one order of magnitude in sputter deposited tungsten films. These lower stress thin films also exhibit stronger adhesion to the substrate, which retards delamination buckling. This technique allows the growth of much thicker films and has enhanced structural stability. A model is developed to explain the stress relief mechanism and the stronger adhesion associated with the presence of the nanostructured compliant layer

  4. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell,; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay, A [Oviedo, FL

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  5. Effect of Compliant Walls on Secondary Instabilities in Boundary-Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    For aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles, it is highly desirable to reduce drag and noise levels. A reduction in drag leads to fuel savings. In particular for submersible vehicles, a decrease in noise levels inhibits detection. A suggested means to obtain these reduction goals is by delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in external boundary layers. For hydrodynamic applications, a passive device which shows promise for transition delays is the compliant coating. In previous studies with a simple mechanical model representing the compliant wall, coatings were found that provided transition delays as predicted from the semi-empirical e(sup n) method. Those studies were concerned with the linear stage of transition where the instability of concern is referred to as the primary instability. For the flat-plate boundary layer, the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is the primary instability. In one of those studies, it was shown that three-dimensional (3-D) primary instabilities, or oblique waves, could dominate transition over the coatings considered. From the primary instability, the stretching and tilting of vorticity in the shear flow leads to a secondary instability mechanism. This has been theoretical described by Herbert based on Floquet theory. In the present study, Herbert's theory is used to predict the development of secondary instabilities over isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls. Since oblique waves may be dominant over compliant walls, a secondary theory extention is made to allow for these 3-D primary instabilities. The effect of variations in primary amplitude, spanwise wavenumber, and Reynolds number on the secondary instabilities are examined. As in the rigid wall case, over compliant walls the subharmonic mode of secondary instability dominates for low-amplitude primary disturbances. Both isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls lead to reduced secondary growth rates compared to the rigid wall results. For high frequencies

  6. Stability characteristics of compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transition prediction at hypersonic flight conditions continues to be a challenge and results in conservative safety factors that increase vehicle weight. The weight and thus cost reduction of the outer skin panels promises significant impact; however, fluid-structure interaction due to unsteady perturbations in the laminar boundary layer regime has not been systematically studied at conditions relevant for reusable, hypersonic flight. In this talk, we develop and apply convective and global stability analyses for compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant panels. This compliance is shown to change the convective stability of the boundary layer modes, with both stabilization and destabilization observed. Finite panel lengths are shown to affect the global stability properties of the boundary layer.

  7. A study on compliant layers and its influence on dynamic response of a hydrodynamic journal bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2011-01-01

    For some hydrodynamic bearing applications polymer-lined bearings are chosen over traditional metal alloy bearings due to their better wear and friction properties when operating at very thin films, e.g. in the mixed lubrication region. The introduction of a compliant layer also affects the dynamic...... used to evaluate hydrodynamic bearing designs: dynamic response, maximum pressure, minimum film thickness, wear, power loss and temperature response. The primary findings are that the maximum pressures are reduced significantly and this comes at the expense of slightly higher eccentricity ratios during...

  8. Experimental Investigation of Compliant Wall Surface Deformation in Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    On-going research integrates Tomographic PIV (TPIV) with Mach-Zehnder Interferometry (MZI) to measure the correlations between deformation of a compliant wall and a turbulent channel flow or a boundary layer. Aiming to extend the scope to two-way coupling, in the present experiment the wall properties have been designed, based on a theoretical analysis, to increase the amplitude of deformation to several μm, achieving the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer wall unit (5-10 μm). It requires higher speeds and a softer surface that has a Young's modulus of 0.1MPa (vs. 1Mpa before), as well as proper thickness (5 mm) that maximize the wall response to excitation at scales that fall within the temporal and spatial resolution of the instruments. The experiments are performed in a water tunnel extension to the JHU refractive index matched facility. The transparent compliant surface is made of PDMS molded on the tunnel window, and measurements are performed at friction velocity Reynolds numbers in the 1000-7000 range. MZI measures the 2D surface deformation as several magnifications. The time-resolved 3D pressure distribution is determined by calculating to spatial distribution of material acceleration from the TPIV data and integrating it using a GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration method. ONR.

  9. Interfacial stresses in a bi-material assembly with a compliant bonding layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhir, E; Vujosevic, M

    2008-01-01

    We examine an elongated bi-material adhesively bonded or soldered assembly with a continuous compliant attachment (bonding layer). The assembly is subjected to external tensile forces or to bending moments applied to one of the assembly components. We develop simple predictive analytical ('mathematical') models for the evaluation of interfacial shearing (in the case of external tensile forces) and peeling (in the case of external bending moments) stresses and strains in the bonding material. The developed models can be helpful in stress-strain analyses of assemblies of the type in question and particularly for printed-circuit-board (PCB)/surface-mounted-device (SMD) assemblies employed in electronic packaging. These models enable one to particularly evaluate the maximum interfacial stresses in the bonding material from the predicted or measured strains in the PCB in the vicinity of but still outside the surface-mounted package

  10. Handbook of compliant mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Larry L; Olsen, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    A fully illustrated reference book giving an easy-to-understand introduction to compliant mechanisms A broad compilation of compliant mechanisms to give inspiration and guidance to those interested in using compliant mechanisms in their designs, the Handbook of Compliant Mechanisms includes graphics and descriptions of many compliant mechanisms. It comprises an extensive categorization of devices that can be used to help readers identify compliant mechanisms related to their application. It also provides chapters on the basic background in compliant mechanisms, the categories o

  11. Interaction Between Aerothermally Compliant Structures and Boundary-Layer Transition in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary Bryce

    The use of thin-gauge, light-weight structures in combination with the severe aero-thermodynamic loading makes reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles prone to fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These interactions result in surface perturbations in the form of temperature changes and deformations that alter the stability and eventual transition of the boundary layer. The state of the boundary layer has a significant effect on the aerothermodynamic loads acting on a hypersonic vehicle. The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerothermodynamic loading, and surface conditions make the interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important area of study in high-speed flows. The goal of this dissertation is to examine the interaction between boundary layer transition and the response of aerothermally compliant structures. This is carried out by first examining the uncoupled problems of: (1) structural deformation and temperature changes altering boundary-layer stability and (2) the boundary layer state affecting structural response. For the former, the stability of boundary layers developing over geometries that typify the response of surface panels subject to combined aerodynamic and thermal loading is numerically assessed using linear stability theory and the linear parabolized stability equations. Numerous parameters are examined including: deformation direction, deformation location, multiple deformations in series, structural boundary condition, surface temperature, the combined effect of Mach number and altitude, and deformation mode shape. The deformation-induced pressure gradient alters the boundary-layer thickness, which changes the frequency of the most-unstable disturbance. In regions of small boundary-layer growth, the disturbance frequency modulation resulting from a single or multiple panels deformed into the flowfield is found to improve boundary-layer stability and potentially delay transition. For the

  12. Elastic/plastic analyses of advanced composites investigating the use of the compliant layer concept in reducing residual stresses resulting from processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Arya, Vinod K.; Melis, Matthew E.

    1990-01-01

    High residual stresses within intermetallic and metal matrix composite systems can develop upon cooling from the processing temperature to room temperature due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the fiber and matrix. As a result, within certain composite systems, radial, circumferential, and/or longitudinal cracks have been observed to form at the fiber-matrix interface. The compliant layer concept (insertion of a compensating interface material between the fiber and matrix) was proposed to reduce or eliminate the residual stress buildup during cooling and thus minimize cracking. The viability of the proposed compliant layer concept is investigated both elastically and elastoplastically. A detailed parametric study was conducted using a unit cell model consisting of three concentric cylinders to determine the required character (i.e., thickness and material properties) of the compliant layer as well as its applicability. The unknown compliant layer mechanical properties were expressed as ratios of the corresponding temperature dependent Ti-24Al-11Nb (a/o) matrix properties. The fiber properties taken were those corresponding to SCS-6 (SiC). Results indicate that the compliant layer can be used to reduce, if not eliminate, radial and circumferential residual stresses within the fiber and matrix and therefore also reduce or eliminate the radial cracking. However, with this decrease in in-plane stresses, one obtains an increase in longitudinal stress, thus potentially initiating longitudinal cracking. Guidelines are given for the selection of a specific compliant material, given a perfectly bonded system.

  13. Characterization of a compliant multi-layer system for tactile sensing with enhanced sensitivity and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Miao; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2018-06-01

    To allow robots to interact with humans via touch, new sensing concepts are needed that can detect a wide range of potential interactions and cover the body of a robot. In this paper, a skin-inspired multi-layer tactile sensing architecture is presented and characterized. The structure consists of stretchable piezoresistive strain-sensing layers over foam layers of different stiffness, allowing for both sufficient sensitivity and pressure range for human contacts. Strip-shaped sensors were used in this architecture to produce a deformation response proportional to pressure. The roles of the foam layers were elucidated by changing their stiffness and thickness, allowing the development of a geometric model to account for indenter interactions with the structure. The advantage of this architecture over other approaches is the ability to easily tune performance by adjusting the stiffness or thickness of the foams to tailor the response for different applications. Since viscoelastic materials were used, the temporal effects were also investigated.

  14. Convective and global stability analysis of a Mach 5.8 boundary layer grazing a compliant surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Boundary layer transition on high-speed vehicles is expected to be affected by unsteady surface compliance. The stability properties of a Mach 5.8 zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer grazing a nominally-flat thermo-mechanically compliant panel is considered. The linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations describe small amplitude disturbances in the fluid while the panel deformations are described by the Kirchhoff-Love plate equation and its thermal state by the transient heat equation. Compatibility conditions that couple disturbances in the fluid to those in the solid yield simple algebraic and robin boundary conditions for the velocity and thermal states, respectively. A local convective stability analysis shows that the panel can modify both the first and second Mack modes when, for metallic-like panels, the panel thickness exceeds the lengthscale δ99 Rex- 0 . 5 . A global stability analysis, which permits finite panel lengths with clamped-clamped boundary conditions, shows a rich eigenvalue spectrum with several branches. Unstable modes are found with streamwise-growing panel deformations leading to Mach wave-type radiation. Stable global modes are also found and have distinctly different panel modes but similar radiation patterns. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  15. Mechanics of brazed joints and compliant layers in high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Chaumat, G.; Cailletaud, G.; Pilvin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Soft layers are of great interest for the joining of dissimilar materials like beryllium, tungsten or carbone base refractory tiles for plasma interface and cooled structures made of copper or molybdenum. Soft layers reduce the residual and in-service stress/strain level without reducing the thermal capability. Thin soft layers interfaces are produced during the brazing or HIP bonding cycles. However, the numerical modelling of the mechanical effect of such soft layers remains largely inaccurate. The camber of [CFC tiles (A05, N11, N112)/Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal/OFHC or TZM substrate] assemblies is recorded during the whole brazing thermal cycle and subsequent thermal fatigue cycles using a special vertical dilatometer. An inverse method based on Finite Element modelling of the samples is used to determine the joint constitutive law. Then, by comparing experiments and FEM calculations, the effects of distributed damage of the CFC and of the strain hardening and thermal softening of OFHC on the in-service stress/strain state of the component are observed. (orig.)

  16. Mechanics of brazed joints and compliant layers in high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Chaumat, G.

    1994-01-01

    Soft layers are of great interest for the joining of dissimilar materials like beryllium, tungsten or carbon base refractory tiles for plasma interface and cooled structures made of copper or molybdenum. Soft layers reduce the residual and in-service stress/strain level without reducing the thermal capability. Thin soft layers interfaces are produced during the brazing or HIP bonding cycles. However, the numerical modelling of the mechanical effect of such soft layers remains largely inaccurate. The camber of [CFC tiles (A05, N11, N112)/Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal/OFHC or TZM substrate] assemblies is recorded during the whole brazing thermal cycle and subsequent thermal fatigue cycles using a special vertical dilatometer. An inverse method based on Finite Element modelling of the samples is used to determine the joint constitutive law. Then, by comparing experiments and FEM calculations, the effects of distributed damage of the CFC and of the strain hardening and thermal softening of OFHC on the in-service stress/strain state of the component are observed. (authors). 5 refs., 7 figs

  17. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  18. Compliant walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Crane, J. Allen (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A compliant walker is provided for humans having limited use of their legs and lower back. It includes an upright wheel frame which at least partially surrounds an upright user wearing a partial body harness. It is attached to the frame by means of cable compliant apparatus consisting of sets of cable segments and angle bracket members connected between opposite side members of the frame and adjacent side portions of the harness. Novelty is believed to exist in the combination of a wheeled frame including a side support structure, a body harness, and compliance means connecting the body harness to the side support structure for flexibility holding and supporting a person in a substantially upright position when the user sags in the frame when taking weight off the lower extremities.

  19. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  20. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  1. Effect of a hard coat layer on buckle delamination of thin ITO layers on a compliant elasto-plastic substrate: an experimental–numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der O.; Abdallah, Amir; Bouten, P.C.P.; Timmermans, P.H.M.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; With, de G.

    2011-01-01

    Layer buckling and delamination is a common interfacial failure phenomenon in thin film multi-layer structures that are used in flexible display applications. Typically, the substrate is coated on both sides with a hybrid coating, calleda hard coat (HC), which acts as a gas barrier and also

  2. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in accordance...

  3. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  4. Compliant seal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  5. Compliant electro-thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes design, microfabrication and characterisation of topology optimised compliant electro-thermal microactuators. The actuators are fabricated by a fast prototyping process using laser micromachining and electroplating. Actuators are characterised with respect to displacement...

  6. Compliant Tactile Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are currently being designed to sense interactions with human hands or pen-like interfaces. They are generally embedded in screens, keyboards, mousepads, and pushbuttons. However, they are not well fitted to sense interactions with all kinds of objects. A novel sensor was originally designed to investigate robotics manipulation where not only the contact with an object needs to be detected, but also where the object needs to be held and manipulated. This tactile sensor has been designed with features that allow it to sense a large variety of objects in human environments. The sensor is capable of detecting forces coming from any direction. As a result, this sensor delivers a force vector with three components. In contrast to most of the tactile sensors that are flat, this one sticks out from the surface so that it is likely to come in contact with objects. The sensor conforms to the object with which it interacts. This augments the contact's surface, consequently reducing the stress applied to the object. This feature makes the sensor ideal for grabbing objects and other applications that require compliance with objects. The operational range of the sensor allows it to operate well with objects found in peoples' daily life. The fabrication of this sensor is simple and inexpensive because of its compact mechanical configuration and reduced electronics. These features are convenient for mass production of individual sensors as well as dense arrays. The biologically inspired tactile sensor is sensitive to both normal and lateral forces, providing better feedback to the host robot about the object to be grabbed. It has a high sensitivity, enabling its use in manipulation fingers, which typically have low mechanical impedance in order to be very compliant. The construction of the sensor is simple, using inexpensive technologies like silicon rubber molding and standard stock electronics.

  7. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  8. Identifying Opportunities for Exploiting Cross-Layer Interactions in Adaptive Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Weingart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of cognitive and software-defined radio heralds an opportunity for researchers to reexamine how network protocol layers operate with respect to providing quality of service aware transmission among wireless nodes. This opportunity is enhanced by the continued development of spectrally responsive devices—ones that can detect and respond to changes in the radio frequency environment. Present wireless network protocols define reliability and other performance-related tasks narrowly within layers. For example, the frame size employed on 802.11 can substantially influence the throughput, delay, and jitter experienced by an application, but there is no simple way to adapt this parameter. Furthermore, while the data link layer of 802.11 provides error detection capabilities across a link, it does not specify additional features, such as forward error correction schemes, nor does it provide a means for throttling retransmissions at the transport layer (currently, the data link and transport layer can function counterproductively with respect to reliability. This paper presents an analysis of the interaction of physical, data link, and network layer parameters with respect to throughput, bit error rate, delay, and jitter. The goal of this analysis is to identify opportunities where system designers might exploit cross-layer interactions to improve the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP, instant messaging (IM, and file transfer applications.

  9. Compliant actuation of rehabilitation robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallery, Heike; Veneman, J.F.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; Buss, Martin; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of compliant actuation for rehabilitation robots on the example of LOPES, focusing on the cons. After illustrating the bandwidth limitations, a new result has been derived: if stability in terms of passivity of the haptic device is desired, the renderable

  10. Potential of Sharia-compliant investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ishuayed, Mohamed; Ruiz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Islamic finance and Sharia-compliant investing has seen substantial growth over the years. As more investors are interested in becoming fully Sharia-compliant, the question of what may they be giving up in exchange arises. This has led us to analyze the potential of Sharia-compliant investments. It is well known that having a Sharia-compliant investment portfolio could be rather restrictive as some sectors and investment instruments are forbidden such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, pork produ...

  11. IT Consumerization and Compliant Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüker, Nele; Winkler, Till J.; Kude, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ground’) on the policy-related attitudes of employees and their level of policy-compliant device usage (voice, email, and data) at two higher education institutions. Based on hypotheses derived from two theories – i.e., procedural justice theory and transaction cost theory – and mixed methods interviews....... Extending the procedural justice view, we conclude that transaction cost theory serves as a complementary lens to explain policy compliance....

  12. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  13. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  14. Highly efficient computer algorithm for identifying layer thickness of atomically thin 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jekwan; Cho, Seungwan; Park, Soohyun; Bae, Hyemin; Noh, Minji; Kim, Beom; In, Chihun; Yang, Seunghoon; Lee, Sooun; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Jehyun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Shim, Woo-Young; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kim, Dohun; Choi, Hyunyong

    2018-03-01

    The fields of layered material research, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have demonstrated that the optical, electrical and mechanical properties strongly depend on the layer number N. Thus, efficient and accurate determination of N is the most crucial step before the associated device fabrication. An existing experimental technique using an optical microscope is the most widely used one to identify N. However, a critical drawback of this approach is that it relies on extensive laboratory experiences to estimate N; it requires a very time-consuming image-searching task assisted by human eyes and secondary measurements such as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which are necessary to ensure N. In this work, we introduce a computer algorithm based on the image analysis of a quantized optical contrast. We show that our algorithm can apply to a wide variety of layered materials, including graphene, MoS2, and WS2 regardless of substrates. The algorithm largely consists of two parts. First, it sets up an appropriate boundary between target flakes and substrate. Second, to compute N, it automatically calculates the optical contrast using an adaptive RGB estimation process between each target, which results in a matrix with different integer Ns and returns a matrix map of Ns onto the target flake position. Using a conventional desktop computational power, the time taken to display the final N matrix was 1.8 s on average for the image size of 1280 pixels by 960 pixels and obtained a high accuracy of 90% (six estimation errors among 62 samples) when compared to the other methods. To show the effectiveness of our algorithm, we also apply it to TMD flakes transferred on optically transparent c-axis sapphire substrates and obtain a similar result of the accuracy of 94% (two estimation errors among 34 samples).

  15. Active compliant wall for skin friction reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pätzold, A.; Peltzer, I.; Nitsche, W.; Goldin, N.; King, R.; Haller, D.; Woias, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Objective: Delay of laminar-turbulent transition on a wing by active wall actuation. • Natural, convective TS-instabilities are damped by travelling counter waves. • Piezo driven active wall and model predictive controller were developed. • TS amplitudes were damped by 83.6% (equals 15.7 dB within instability band). • Significant effect on skin friction distribution. -- Abstract: In order to reduce skin friction drag, an active laminarisation method is developed. Laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition caused by Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves is delayed by attenuation of these convective instabilities. An actively driven compliant wall is integrated as part of a wing’s surface. Different configurations of piezo-based actuators are combined with an array of sensitive surface flow sensors. Wall-normal actuation as well as inclined wall displacement are investigated. Together with a realtime-control strategy, transition onset is shifted downstream by six average TS-wave lengths. Using the example of flow velocity, the influence of variable flow conditions on TS-damping rates was investigated. Besides, the boundary layer flow downstream of the active wall area as well as required wall deflections and the global damping effect on skin friction are presented in this paper

  16. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR) by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank). The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different...

  18. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  19. Sharia-compliant hotels in Egypt: Concept and chanllenges

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Hesham Ezzat; Ali, Badran Nabil; ABDEL-ATI, Abdel- aleem Magdy

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide greater clearness for the meaning of the ShariaCompliant Hotel (SCH) and identify the challenges facing the development of this type of hotels in Egypt. To fulfill these objectives, Delphi technique, as a method of refining group opinions, was used. The study used two rounds e-mailed questionnaires. Findings indicated that the most important defining features of SCH were; no alcohol or pork allowed, gender segregation was significant and halal food product...

  20. Dividend policies of shariah-compliant and non-shariah-compliant firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Tbeur, Oumkeltoum

    2013-01-01

    Do shariah-compliant firms pay higher dividends than other firms? Using data from the MENA (Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain) region, this paper shows that shariah-compliant firms not only have higher payout ratios but also have higher likelihood...

  1. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  2. Compliant Electrode and Composite Material for Piezoelectric Wind and Mechanical Energy Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thin film device for harvesting energy from wind. The thin film device includes one or more layers of a compliant piezoelectric material formed from a composite of a polymer and an inorganic material, such as a ceramic. Electrodes are disposed on a first side and a second side of the piezoelectric material. The electrodes are formed from a compliant material, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene. The thin film device exhibits improved resistance to structural fatigue upon application of large strains and repeated cyclic loadings.

  3. Direct evidence of strain transfer for InAs island growth on compliant Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marçal, L. A. B.; Magalhães-Paniago, R.; Malachias, Angelo, E-mail: angeloms@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Richard, M.-I. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP-CNRS, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille (France); Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lagally, M. G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schülli, T. Ü. [European Synchrotron (ESRF), ID01 beamline, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Deneke, Ch. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia (LNNano/CNPEM), C.P. 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-04-13

    Semiconductor heteroepitaxy on top of thin compliant layers has been explored as a path to make inorganic electronics mechanically flexible as well as to integrate materials that cannot be grown directly on rigid substrates. Here, we show direct evidences of strain transfer for InAs islands on freestanding Si thin films (7 nm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using a beam size of 300 × 700 nm{sup 2} can directly probe the strain status of the compliant substrate underneath deposited islands. Using a recently developed diffraction mapping technique, three-dimensional reciprocal space maps were reconstructed around the Si (004) peak for specific illuminated positions of the sample. The strain retrieved was analyzed using continuous elasticity theory via Finite-element simulations. The comparison of experiment and simulations yields the amount of strain from the InAs islands, which is transferred to the compliant Si thin film.

  4. Design of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, Alexander; Campanile, Lucio Flavio

    2009-01-01

    Conventional mechanisms provide a defined mobility, which expresses the number of degrees of freedom of the mechanism. This allows the system to be driven by a low number of control outputs. This property is virtually retained in the case of compliant mechanisms with lumped compliance, which are obtained by replacing the conventional hinges by solid-state ones. Compliant mechanisms with distributed compliance have, in general, an infinite number of degrees of freedom and therefore cannot guarantee defined kinematics. In this paper the concept of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance is introduced. This special class of compliant mechanisms combines the advantages of distributed compliance with the easy controllability of systems with defined kinematics. The task is accomplished by introducing a new design criterion based on a modal formulation. After this design criterion has been implemented in an optimization formulation for a formal optimization procedure, mechanisms are obtained in which a freely chosen deformation pattern is associated with a low deformation energy while other deformation patterns are considerably stiffer. Besides the description of the modal design criterion and the associated objective function, the sensitivity analysis of the objective function is presented and an application example is shown

  5. Altered lipid metabolism in the aging kidney identified by three layered omic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Fabian; Rinschen, Markus M; Bartels, Valerie; Frommolt, Peter; Habermann, Bianca; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Schumacher, Björn; Dollé, Martijn E T; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Kurschat, Christine E

    2016-03-01

    Aging-associated diseases and their comorbidities affect the life of a constantly growing proportion of the population in developed countries. At the center of these comorbidities are changes of kidney structure and function as age-related chronic kidney disease predisposes to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction or heart failure. To detect molecular mechanisms involved in kidney aging, we analyzed gene expression profiles of kidneys from adult and aged wild-type mice by transcriptomic, proteomic and targeted lipidomic methodologies. Interestingly, transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed differential expression of genes primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immune response. Additional lipidomic analyses uncovered significant age-related differences in the total amount of phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins as well as in subspecies of phosphatidylserines and ceramides with age. By integration of these datasets we identified Aldh1a1, a key enzyme in vitamin A metabolism specifically expressed in the medullary ascending limb, as one of the most prominent upregulated proteins in old kidneys. Moreover, ceramidase Asah1 was highly expressed in aged kidneys, consistent with a decrease in ceramide C16. In summary, our data suggest that changes in lipid metabolism are involved in the process of kidney aging and in the development of chronic kidney disease.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Compliant Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavatskih S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of the compliant tilting pad journal bearings subjected to synchronous excitation. Bearing compliance is affected by the properties of pad liner and pad support geometry. Different unbalance eccentricities are considered. It is shown that bearing dynamic response is non-linear. Journal orbit complexity increases with pad compliance though the orbit amplitudes are marginally affected at low loads. At high loads, the journal is forced to operate outside the bearing clearance. The polymer liner reduces the maximum oil film pressure by a factor of 2 when compared to the white metal liner. The nonlinear dynamic response of compliant tilting pad journal bearings is thoroughly discussed.

  7. Control of compliant anthropomimetic robot joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetozarević Bratislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a control strategy for a robot joint which fully mimics the typical human joint structure. The joint drive is based on two actuators (dc motors, agonist and antagonist, acting through compliant tendons and forming a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO system. At any time, we consider one actuator, the puller, as being responsible for motion control, while the role of the other is to keep its tendon force at some appropriate low level. This human-like and energetically efficient approach requires the control of 'switching', or exchanging roles between actuators. Moreover, an algorithm based on adaptive force reference is used to solve a problem of slacken tendons during the switching and to increase the energy efficiency. This approach was developed and evaluated on increasingly complex robot joint configurations, starting with simple and noncompliant system, and finishing with nonlinear and compliant system.

  8. Nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of compliant airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwapiah, G; Campanile, L F

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of aviation and up to the present time, airfoils have always been built as rigid structures. They are designed to fly under their divergence speed in order to avoid static aeroelastic instabilities and the resulting large deformations, which are not compatible with the typically low compliance of such airfoils. In recent years, research on airfoil morphing has generated interest in innovative ideas like the use of compliant systems, i.e. systems built to allow for large deformations without failure, in airfoil construction. Such systems can operate in the neighborhood of divergence and take advantage of large aeroelastic servo-effects. This, in turn, allows compact, advanced actuators to control the airfoil's deformation and loads, and hence complement or even replace conventional flaps. In order to analyze and design such compliant, active aeroelastic structures a nonlinear approach to static aeroelasticity is needed, which takes into account the effect of large deformations on aerodynamics and structure. Such an analytical approach is presented in this paper and applied to a compliant passive airfoil as the preliminary step in the realization of a piezoelectrically driven, active aeroelastic airfoil. Wind tunnel test results are also presented and compared with the analytic prediction. The good agreement and the observed behavior in the wind tunnel give confidence in the potential of this innovative idea

  9. Nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of compliant airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwapiah, G.; Campanile, L. F.

    2010-03-01

    Since the beginning of aviation and up to the present time, airfoils have always been built as rigid structures. They are designed to fly under their divergence speed in order to avoid static aeroelastic instabilities and the resulting large deformations, which are not compatible with the typically low compliance of such airfoils. In recent years, research on airfoil morphing has generated interest in innovative ideas like the use of compliant systems, i.e. systems built to allow for large deformations without failure, in airfoil construction. Such systems can operate in the neighborhood of divergence and take advantage of large aeroelastic servo-effects. This, in turn, allows compact, advanced actuators to control the airfoil's deformation and loads, and hence complement or even replace conventional flaps. In order to analyze and design such compliant, active aeroelastic structures a nonlinear approach to static aeroelasticity is needed, which takes into account the effect of large deformations on aerodynamics and structure. Such an analytical approach is presented in this paper and applied to a compliant passive airfoil as the preliminary step in the realization of a piezoelectrically driven, active aeroelastic airfoil. Wind tunnel test results are also presented and compared with the analytic prediction. The good agreement and the observed behavior in the wind tunnel give confidence in the potential of this innovative idea.

  10. Identifying the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of modeling the stability of overhanging, multi-layered, river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, A.; Amiri-Tokaldany, E.; Davoudi, M. H.; Darby, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    Composite river banks consist of a basal layer of non-cohesive material overlain by a cohesive layer of fine-grained material. In such banks, fluvial erosion of the lower, non-cohesive, layer typically occurs at a much higher rate than erosion of the upper part of the bank. Consequently, such banks normally develop a cantilevered bank profile, with bank retreat of the upper part of the bank taking place predominantly by the failure of these cantilevers. To predict the undesirable impacts of this type of bank retreat, a number of bank stability models have been presented in the literature. These models typically express bank stability by defining a factor of safety as the ratio of resisting and driving forces acting on the incipient failure block. These forces are affected by a range of controlling factors that include such aspects as the overhanging block geometry, and the geotechnical properties of the bank materials. In this paper, we introduce a new bank stability relation (for shear-type cantilever failures) that considers the hydrological status of cantilevered riverbanks, while beam-type failures are analyzed using a previously proposed relation. We employ these stability models to evaluate the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of riverbank stability modeling of overhanging banks. This is achieved by employing a simple model of overhanging failure with respect to shear and beam failure mechanisms in a series of sensitivity tests and Monte Carlo analyses to identify, for each model parameter, the range of values that induce significant changes in the simulated factor of safety. The results show that care is required in parameterising (i) the geometrical shape of the overhanging-block and (ii) the bank material cohesion and unit weight, as predictions of bank stability are sensitive to variations of these factors.

  11. A HIPAA-compliant architecture for securing clinical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Zheng; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    The HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Instituted April 2003) Security Standards mandate health institutions to protect health information against unauthorized use or disclosure. One approach to addressing this mandate is by utilizing user access control and generating audit trails of the various authorized as well as unauthorized user access of health data. Although most current clinical image systems (eg, PACS) have components that generate log files as a solution to address the HIPAA mandate, there is a lack of methodology to obtain and synthesize the pertinent data from the large volumes of log file data generated by these multiple components within a PACS. We have designed and developed a HIPAA Compliant Architecture specifically for tracking and auditing the image workflow of clinical imaging systems such as PACS. As an initial first step, a software toolkit was implemented based on the HIPAA Compliant architecture. The toolkit was implemented within a testbed PACS Simulator located in the Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) lab at the University of Southern California. Evaluation scenarios were developed where different user types performed legal and illegal access of PACS image data within each of the different components in the PACS Simulator. Results were based on whether the scenarios of unauthorized access were correctly identified and documented as well as normal operational activity.

  12. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Eryong Liu; Longyang Li; Gang Wang; Zhixiang Zeng; Wenjie Zhao; Qunji Xue

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, sem...

  13. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  14. Sharia-compliant hotels in Egypt: Concept and chanllenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ezzat Saad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to provide greater clearness for the meaning of the ShariaCompliant Hotel (SCH and identify the challenges facing the development of this type of hotels in Egypt. To fulfill these objectives, Delphi technique, as a method of refining group opinions, was used. The study used two rounds e-mailed questionnaires. Findings indicated that the most important defining features of SCH were; no alcohol or pork allowed, gender segregation was significant and halal food products are significant. Other important defining features included; Quran and prayer mats in each room, no nightclubs, disco or bars, and signs indicating the direction of Mecca in every room. The main SCH challenges cited by the respondents were deprivation of the insertion in the international or local hotel classifications; competition with other non-Islamic hotels, and need for specific criteria appropriated to the international hotel classifications.

  15. Design of a statically balanced fully compliant grasper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.J.; Gallego Sanchez, J.A.; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic and thus fully compliant surgical graspers are promising when they provide equal or better force feedback than conventional graspers. In this work for the first time a fully compliant grasper is designed to exhibit zero stiffness and zero operation force. The design problem is addressed

  16. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms...

  17. TIDAL TURBULENCE SPECTRA FROM A COMPLIANT MOORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Richmond, Marshall C.; Talbert, Joe; deKlerk, Alex; Polagye, Brian; Guerra, Maricarmen; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo

    2013-06-13

    A compliant mooring to collect high frequency turbulence data at a tidal energy site is evaluated in a series of short demon- stration deployments. The Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) improves upon recent bottom-mounted approaches by suspend- ing Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) at mid-water depths (which are more relevant to tidal turbines). The ADV turbulence data are superior to Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data, but are subject to motion contamination when suspended on a mooring in strong currents. In this demonstration, passive stabilization is shown to be sufficient for acquiring bulk statistics of the turbulence, without motion correction. With motion cor- rection (post-processing), data quality is further improved; the relative merits of direct and spectral motion correction are dis- cussed.

  18. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank. The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different rhetoric applied in both types of companies such as Agency (profit, Benefit (collective welfare, Compliance (law and contracts, Duty and Ethos (virtue. In term of moral attitudes, both types of companies disclosed relatively similar behaviour and commitment towards CSR. This research is the first of its kind to be conducted in Malaysia by using this new approach and will contribute new insights to existing CSR literatures in Malaysia.

  20. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  2. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction.

  3. Large-scale double-patterning compliant layouts for DP engine and design rule development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Lucas, Kevin; Hapli, John; Raffard, Herve; Barnes, Levi

    2009-03-01

    Double Patterning is seen as the prime technology to keep Moore's law on path while EUV technology is still maturing into production worthiness. As previously seen for alternating-Phase Shift Mask technology[1], layout compliance of double patterning is not trivial [2,3] and blind shrinks of anything but the most simplistic existing layouts, will not be directly suitable for double patterning. Evaluating a production worthy double patterning engine with highly non-compliant layouts would put unrealistic expectations on that engine and provide metrics with poor applicability for eventual large designs. The true production use-case would be for designs that have at least some significant double patterning compliance already enforced at the design stage. With this in mind a set of ASIC design blocks of different sizes and complexities were created that were double patterning compliant. To achieve this, a set of standard cells were generated, which individually and in isolation were double patterning compliant, for multiple layers simultaneously. This was done using the automated Standard Cell creation tool CadabraTM [4]. To create a full ASIC, however, additional constraints were added to make sure compliance would not be broken across the boundaries between standard cells when placed next to each other [5]. These standard cells were then used to create a variety of double patterning compliant ASICs using iCCompilerTM to place the cells correctly. Now with a compliant layout, checks were made to see if the constraints made at the micro level really do ensure a fully compliant layout on the whole chip and if the coloring engine could cope with such large datasets. A production worthy double patterning engine is ideally distributable over multiple processors [6,7] so that fast turn-around time can be achievable on even the largest designs. We demonstrate the degree of linearity of scaling achievable with our double patterning engine. These results can be understood

  4. On the design of compliant mechanisms using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for optimal design of compliant mechanism topologies. The method is based on continuum-type topology optimization techniques and finds the optimal compliant mechanism topology within a given design domain and a given position and direction of input and output forces....... By constraining the allowed displacement at the input port, it is possible to control the maximum stress level in the compliant mechanism. The ability of the design method to find a mechanism with complex output behavior is demonstrated by several examples. Some of the optimal mechanism topologies have been...... manufactured, both in macroscale (hand-size) made in Nylon, and in microscale (

  5. Scaling laws for a compliant biomimetic swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibouin, Florence; Raufaste, Christophe; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Mederic

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the seminal work of Lord Lighthill in the sixties, we study the motion of inertial aquatic swimmers that propels with undulatory gaits. In 2014, Gazzola et al. have uncovered the law linking the swimming velocity to the kinematics of the swimmer and the fluid properties. At high Reynolds numbers, the velocity appears to be equal to 0.4 Af /(2 π) , where A and f are respectively the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillating fin. We have constructed a compliant biomimetic swimmer, whose muscles have been modeled through a torque distribution thanks to a servomotor. A soft polymeric material mimics the flesh and provides the flexibility. By immersing our robot into a water tunnel, we find and characterize the operating point for which the propulsive force balances the drag. We bring the first experimental proof of the former law and probe large amplitude undulations which exhibits nonlinear effects. All data collapse perfectly onto a single master curve. We investigate the role of the fin flexibility by varying its length and its thickness and we figured out the existence of an efficient swimming regime. We thank the support of CNRS and Université Côte d'Azur.

  6. Exploiting Stretchable Metallic Springs as Compliant Electrodes for Cylindrical Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs have been widely used in soft robots and artificial bio-medical applications. Most DEAs are composed of a thin dielectric elastomer layer sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. DEAs vary in their design to provide bending, torsional, and stretch/contraction motions under the application of high external voltages. Most compliant electrodes are made of carbon powders or thin metallic films. In situations involving large deformations or improper fabrication, the electrodes are susceptible to breakage and increased resistivity. The worst cases result in a loss of conductivity and functional failure. In this study, we developed a method by which to exploit stretchable metallic springs as compliant electrodes for cylindrical DEAs. This design was inspired by the extensibility of mechanical springs. The main advantage of this approach is the fact that the metallic spring-like compliant electrodes remain conductive and do not increase the stiffness as the tube-like DEAs elongate in the axial direction. This can be attributed to a reduction in thickness in the radial direction. The proposed cylindrical structure is composed of highly-stretchable VHB 4905 film folded within a hollow tube and then sandwiched between copper springs (inside and outside to allow for stretching and contraction in the axial direction under the application of high DC voltages. We fabricated a prototype and evaluated the mechanical and electromechanical properties of the device experimentally using a high-voltage source of 9.9 kV. This device demonstrated a non-linear increase in axial stretching with an increase in applied voltage, reaching a maximum extension of 0.63 mm (axial strain of 2.35% at applied voltage of 9.9 kV. Further miniaturization and the incorporation of compressive springs are expected to allow the implementation of the proposed method in soft micro-robots and bio-mimetic applications.

  7. Generation of Compliant Mechanisms using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D.; Deb, K.

    2014-10-01

    Compliant mechanism is a single piece elastic structure which can deform to perform the assigned task. In this work, compliant mechanisms are evolved using a constraint based bi-objective optimization formulation which requires one user defined parameter ( η). This user defined parameter limits a gap between a desired path and an actual path traced by the compliant mechanism. The non-linear and discrete optimization problems are solved using the hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) wherein domain specific initialization, two-dimensional crossover operator and repairing techniques are adopted. A bit-wise local search method is used with elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to further refine the compliant mechanisms. Parallel computations are performed on the master-slave architecture to reduce the computation time. A parametric study is carried out for η value which suggests a range to evolve topologically different compliant mechanisms. The applied and boundary conditions to the compliant mechanisms are considered the variables that are evolved by the hybrid GA. The post-analysis of results unveils that the complaint mechanisms are always supported at unique location that can evolve the non-dominated solutions.

  8. A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W

    2007-08-13

    A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails

  9. Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Chun-Yip Li, Billy; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Anjunyan, Harut

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mec hanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output. The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe. Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding. The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses en - countered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature therm - o-electric devices. The

  10. Barriers to guideline-compliant psoriasis care: analyses and concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissing, L; Radtke, M A; Zander, N; Augustin, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective therapeutics and evidence-based treatment guidelines, a substantial proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis does not receive appropriate care. This under-provision of health care may cause further worsening of health, remarkable limitations of the patient's quality of life, and indirect costs for the health care system. In order to provide guideline-compliant care for every psoriasis patient, it is important to identify barriers obstructing optimal care. Studies have identified various barriers on the physician's and on the patient's side; however, respective studies approached only single barriers, and not all of them in the context of psoriasis. Other publications that describe barriers systematically did not focus on psoriasis either. The objective of this literature review was to identify barriers and facilitators, based on studies analysing quality of care and single barriers, resulting in a comprehensive model of causal factors. Our analyses revealed three categories of barriers - patient-related, physician-related and external factors: On the patient side, we found non-adherence to therapies to be an important barrier, often in close association with psychiatric factors. Barriers on the physician's side predominantly are incomplete knowledge of the guidelines as well as the complexity of psoriasis comorbidity. In some countries, payment for patients with complex disease status is poor and inconsistent reimbursement regulations potentially interfere with optimal care. The current analysis indicates that most barriers are interdependent. Thus, measures approaching related barriers simultaneously are required. To improve care for psoriasis patients, further studies systematically addressing all potentially relevant barriers in conjoint are needed. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarannum Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  12. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shaohua; Yu, Jianqing J.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on bovine tibia to identify unrecognized building blocks involved in bone formation and for an el...

  13. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-08-16

    Fall-related injuries can have serious consequences for older adults, including increased risk of dependence in daily activities and mortality. Compliant flooring is a passive intervention that may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in healthcare settings, including acute and long-term care, but few sites have implemented compliant flooring, in part because synthesised evidence about key performance aspects has not been available. We will conduct a scoping review to address the question: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries? We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search of academic databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE (Ovid), SportDiscus and Web of Science) and grey literature (clinical trial registries, theses/dissertations, abstracts/conference proceedings and relevant websites). 2 team members will independently screen records (first titles and abstracts, then full text) and extract data from included records. Numerical and narrative analyses will be presented by theme (biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, workplace safety). This scoping review responds to the information needs of healthcare decision-makers tasked with preventing fall-related injuries. This review will summarise evidence about compliant flooring as a potential intervention for preventing fall-related injuries in older adults and identify gaps in evidence and new avenues for research. Results will be especially useful in long-term care, but also applicable in acute care, assisted living and home care. We will disseminate the review's findings via open-access publications, conference presentations, a webinar, a Stakeholder Symposium and a Knowledge-to-Action Report. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  14. Freeform Compliant CMOS Electronic Systems for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-01-17

    The state-of-the-art electronics technology has been an integral part of modern advances. The prevalent rise of the mobile device and computational technology in the age of information technology offers exciting applications that are attributed to sophisticated, enormously reliable, and most mature CMOS-based electronics. We are accustomed to high performance, cost-effective, multifunctional, and energy-efficient scaled electronics. However, they are rigid, bulky, and brittle. The convolution of flexibility and stretchability in electronics for emerging Internet of Everything application can unleash smart application horizon in unexplored areas, such as robotics, healthcare, smart cities, transport, and entertainment systems. While flexible and stretchable device themes are being remarkably chased, the realization of the fully compliant electronic system is unaddressed. Integration of data processing, storage, communication, and energy management devices complements a compliant system. Here, a comprehensive review is presented on necessity and design criteria for freeform (physically flexible and stretchable) compliant high-performance CMOS electronic systems.

  15. Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Korall, Alexandra M B; Russell, Colin M; Feldman, Fabio; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mackey, Dawn C

    2018-09-01

    Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to vinyl overlay by 22-49% over a concrete subfloor and by 8-20% over a compliant subfloor. Compliant subflooring increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring by 18-31% when under a vinyl overlay. In contrast, compliant flooring caused no change in initial or sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring when under a carpet overlay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress-constrained topology optimization for compliant mechanism design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leon, Daniel M.; Alexandersen, Joe; Jun, Jun S.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an application of stress-constrained topology optimization to compliant mechanism design. An output displacement maximization formulation is used, together with the SIMP approach and a projection method to ensure convergence to nearly discrete designs. The maximum stress...... is approximated using a normalized version of the commonly-used p-norm of the effective von Mises stresses. The usual problems associated with topology optimization for compliant mechanism design: one-node and/or intermediate density hinges are alleviated by the stress constraint. However, it is also shown...

  17. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  18. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglino Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. Methods The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm, keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient’s suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. Results The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10-3 mmHg-1 for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Conclusion Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that Tango

  19. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial phantoms for in-vitro studies and device testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglino, Giovanni; Verschueren, Peter; Zegels, Raf; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

    2013-01-16

    Compliant vascular phantoms are desirable for in-vitro patient-specific experiments and device testing. TangoPlus FullCure 930 is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for PolyJet rapid prototyping. This work aims to gather preliminary data on the distensibility of this material, in order to assess the feasibility of its use in the context of experimental cardiovascular modelling. The descending aorta anatomy of a volunteer was modelled in 3D from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images and rapid prototyped using TangoPlus. The model was printed with a range of increasing wall thicknesses (0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm), keeping the lumen of the vessel constant. Models were also printed in both vertical and horizontal orientations, thus resulting in a total of ten specimens. Compliance tests were performed by monitoring pressure variations while gradually increasing and decreasing internal volume. Knowledge of distensibility was thus derived and then implemented with CMR data to test two applications. Firstly, a patient-specific compliant model of hypoplastic aorta suitable for connection in a mock circulatory loop for in-vitro tests was manufactured. Secondly, the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) of a patient necessitating pulmonary valve replacement was printed in order to physically test device insertion and assess patient's suitability for percutaneous pulmonary valve intervention. The distensibility of the material was identified in a range from 6.5 × 10(-3) mmHg(-1) for the 0.6 mm case, to 3.0 × 10(-3) mmHg(-1) for the 1.5 mm case. The models printed in the vertical orientation were always more compliant than their horizontal counterpart. Rapid prototyping of a compliant hypoplastic aorta and of a RVOT anatomical model were both feasible. Device insertion in the RVOT model was successful. Values of distensibility, compared with literature data, show that TangoPlus is suitable for manufacturing arterial phantoms, with

  20. ON THE RESPONSE OF IMPACTING COMPLIANT FLEX RUN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ON THE RESPONSE OF IMPACTING COMPLIANT FLEX RUN. T. T. Akano1,* and ... different from traditional rigid-body mechanisms which have rigid links ... components such as wings, fan blades and containment casings[6] ... Figure 2: Germany's Markus Rehm jumps at the Muller ... the principal stretches j as. , ,. [∑.

  1. DNA origami compliant nanostructures with tunable mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Marras, Alexander E; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2014-01-28

    DNA origami enables fabrication of precise nanostructures by programming the self-assembly of DNA. While this approach has been used to make a variety of complex 2D and 3D objects, the mechanical functionality of these structures is limited due to their rigid nature. We explore the fabrication of deformable, or compliant, objects to establish a framework for mechanically functional nanostructures. This compliant design approach is used in macroscopic engineering to make devices including sensors, actuators, and robots. We build compliant nanostructures by utilizing the entropic elasticity of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to locally bend bundles of double-stranded DNA into bent geometries whose curvature and mechanical properties can be tuned by controlling the length of ssDNA strands. We demonstrate an ability to achieve a wide range of geometries by adjusting a few strands in the nanostructure design. We further developed a mechanical model to predict both geometry and mechanical properties of our compliant nanostructures that agrees well with experiments. Our results provide a basis for the design of mechanically functional DNA origami devices and materials.

  2. Bauschinger effect in thin metal films on compliant substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vlassak, J.J.; Gdoutos, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices such as flexible displays and solar cells draw more and more attention from the industry. In these devices, the functionality is delivered by small-scale structures consisting of thin metal lines and other materials that are integrated on a compliant (e.g. polymer)

  3. Spectral fatigue analysis of a tensioned riser compliant tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadeniz, H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Shi, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the conceptual Tensioned Riser Compliant Tower (TRCT) structure of the Shell Oil, which is developed for a region of approximately 600 meter water depth of the West of Shetlands in the North Sea, is analyzed by using the SAPOS program of the Delft University of Technology. The fatigue

  4. Modelling and simulation of a compliant tilting pad air bearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, F.; Nijmeijer, H.

    The compliant tilting pad air bearing concept, a tilting pad bearing with the pivot of the pads placed on radial springs, is a promising aerodynamic bearing solution. Nevertheless, its non-linear dynamics make a time domain dynamic simulation model an essential tool for the design of rotor systems

  5. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  6. The Outwardly Rectifying Current of Layer 5 Neocortical Neurons that was Originally Identified as "Non-Specific Cationic" Is Essentially a Potassium Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Revah

    Full Text Available In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer 5 neocortical neurons, blockade of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels leaves a cesium current that is outward rectifying. This current was originally identified as a "non-specific cationic current", and subsequently it was hypothesized that it is mediated by TRP channels. In order to test this hypothesis, we used fluorescence imaging of intracellular sodium and calcium indicators, and found no evidence to suggest that it is associated with influx of either of these ions to the cell body or dendrites. Moreover, the current is still prominent in neurons from TRPC1-/- and TRPC5-/- mice. The effects on the current of various blocking agents, and especially its sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium, suggest that it is not a non-specific cationic current, but rather that it is generated by cesium-permeable delayed rectifier potassium channels.

  7. Handedness in shearing auxetics creates rigid and compliant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey Ian; MacCurdy, Robert; Manchester, Zachary; Chin, Lillian; Cellucci, Daniel; Rus, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    In nature, repeated base units produce handed structures that selectively bond to make rigid or compliant materials. Auxetic tilings are scale-independent frameworks made from repeated unit cells that expand under tension. We discovered how to produce handedness in auxetic unit cells that shear as they expand by changing the symmetries and alignments of auxetic tilings. Using the symmetry and alignment rules that we developed, we made handed shearing auxetics that tile planes, cylinders, and spheres. By compositing the handed shearing auxetics in a manner inspired by keratin and collagen, we produce both compliant structures that expand while twisting and deployable structures that can rigidly lock. This work opens up new possibilities in designing chemical frameworks, medical devices like stents, robotic systems, and deployable engineering structures.

  8. BENEFITS OF USING SOFTWARE WITH SIK COMPLIANT ARCHITECTURE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the main benefits that can be obtained by using a SIK (software inherited knowledge) compliant architecture for cloud services and support software used to build, administer and maintaining the cloud. It introduces the basic building blocks for cloud computing together with the main categories of cloud services. For the SIK architecture, shown in connection with a semantic-web application architecture, are introduced the main functionalities. The paper ...

  9. ISA-97 Compliant Architecture Testbed (ICAT) Projectry Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-30

    by the System Integracion Directorate of the USAISEC, August 29, 1992. The report discusses the refinement of the ISA-97 Compliant Architecture Model...browser and iconic representations of system objects and resources. When the user is interacting with an application which has multiple compo- nents, it is...computer communications, it is not uncommon for large information systems to be shared by users on multiple machines. The trend towards the desktop

  10. Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations, Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations dataset current as of 2008. Layer includes all towers identified visually and include cellular and other communication towers..

  11. When does mechanical plantar stimulation promote sensory re-weighing: standing on a firm or compliant surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszner-Domjan, Andrea; Nagy, Edit; Szíver, Edit; Feher-Kiss, Anna; Horvath, Gyöngyi; Kranicz, Janos

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of mechanical stimulation of the sole on standing postural stability in healthy, young adults. Fifty subjects (34 women, 16 men; mean age 23 ± 2 (mean ± SE)) stood barefoot on fixed force plates both with open and closed eyes on firm surface and then on compliant surface (foam). A modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance protocol was employed to assess the center of gravity (COG) excursions along anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) axes on each surface and visual condition. After the baseline measurement, a stimulation was applied with an elastic spiked layer topped to the firm and then foam surface, and the COG excursions were measured during the stimulation, and then at least 30 min after the stimulation of the spiked layer, we used 10 min of manual static and glide pressure applied to the plantar surface of both feet. Immediately after manual stimulation, static balance parameters were measured again. Results showed that after manual stimulation, the sway path with closed eyes decreased significantly on the AP and ML directions on firm surface conditions. The spiked layer caused significantly decreased sway path on firm platform in both directions, but it was ineffective on compliant surface. Our results established that the activation of plantar mechanoreceptors by 10-min manual stimulation can partially compensate subjects for the absence of visual input and the lack of accurate pressure information from the supporting surface, too.

  12. Flectofold—a biomimetic compliant shading device for complex free form facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, A.; Born, L.; Mader, A.; Sachse, R.; Saffarian, S.; Westermeier, A. S.; Poppinga, S.; Bischoff, M.; Gresser, G. T.; Milwich, M.; Speck, T.; Knippers, J.

    2018-01-01

    Smart and adaptive outer façade shading systems are of high interest in modern architecture. For long lasting and reliable systems, the abandonment of hinges which often fail due to mechanical wear during repetitive use is of particular importance. Drawing inspiration from the hinge-less motion of the underwater snap-trap of the carnivorous waterwheel plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa), the compliant façade shading device Flectofold was developed. Based on computational simulations of the biological role-model’s elastic and reversible motion, the actuation principle of the plant can be identified. The enclosed geometric motion principle is abstracted into a simplified curved-line folding geometry with distinct flexible hinge-zones. The kinematic behaviour is translated into a quantitative kinetic model, using finite element simulation which allows the detailed analyses of the influence of geometric parameters such as curved-fold line radius and various pneumatically driven actuation principles on the motion behaviour, stress concentrations within the hinge-zones, and actuation forces. The information regarding geometric relations and material gradients gained from those computational models are then used to develop novel material combinations for glass fibre reinforced plastics which enabled the fabrication of physical prototypes of the compliant façade shading device Flectofold.

  13. A detailed analysis of adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, I; Zheng, Z W; Johnson, K L

    2004-01-01

    As length scales decrease, adhesive forces become increasingly important. These adhesive forces contribute to the normal load in experiments conducted on thin layered systems using micro-probe instruments such as the surface force apparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). Adhesion between these thin-layer systems was analysed by Sridhar et al (1997 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1710) for the SFA geometry and Johnson and Sridhar (2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 683) for AFM using a numerical SJF (Sridhar-Johnson-Fleck) version of the JKR (Johnson-Kendal-Roberts) theory. In this paper, adhesion mechanics between a compliant elastic coating and a spherical probe is investigated using the SJF model in detail. When the substrate is rigid, the non-dimensional pull-off force may differ from the JKR value of -0.5 by as much as 90%. Computations of the contact size at zero load and pull-off force are presented for a range of values of adhesion energy. Finally, empirical relations for the contact load and contact compliance as a function of contact radius were obtained from the numerical data for practical layer-substrate material systems

  14. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  15. Instrumented Compliant Wrist with Proximity and Contact Sensing for Close Robot Interaction Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laferrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compliance has been exploited in various forms in robotic systems to allow rigid mechanisms to come into contact with fragile objects, or with complex shapes that cannot be accurately modeled. Force feedback control has been the classical approach for providing compliance in robotic systems. However, by integrating other forms of instrumentation with compliance into a single device, it is possible to extend close monitoring of nearby objects before and after contact occurs. As a result, safer and smoother robot control can be achieved both while approaching and while touching surfaces. This paper presents the design and extensive experimental evaluation of a versatile, lightweight, and low-cost instrumented compliant wrist mechanism which can be mounted on any rigid robotic manipulator in order to introduce a layer of compliance while providing the controller with extra sensing signals during close interaction with an object’s surface. Arrays of embedded range sensors provide real-time measurements on the position and orientation of surfaces, either located in proximity or in contact with the robot’s end-effector, which permits close guidance of its operation. Calibration procedures are formulated to overcome inter-sensor variability and achieve the highest available resolution. A versatile solution is created by embedding all signal processing, while wireless transmission connects the device to any industrial robot’s controller to support path control. Experimental work demonstrates the device’s physical compliance as well as the stability and accuracy of the device outputs. Primary applications of the proposed instrumented compliant wrist include smooth surface following in manufacturing, inspection, and safe human-robot interaction.

  16. Compliant flooring for fall injury prevention in long-term care

    OpenAIRE

    Lachance, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    A promising strategy for reducing the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in long-term care (LTC) is to decrease the ground surface stiffness, and the subsequent forces applied to the body parts at impact, through installation of compliant flooring. Evidence about the feasibility of compliant flooring in LTC is extremely limited. My PhD research addresses this gap by conducting a comprehensive, multimethod evaluation of compliant flooring. Specifically, I investigate the feasibili...

  17. A Compliant Bistable Mechanism Design Incorporating Elastica Buckling Beam Theory and Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Ümit; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new compliant bistable mechanism design is introduced. The combined use of pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) and the Elastica buckling theory is presented for the first time to analyze the new design. This mechanism consists of the large deflecting straight beams, buckling beams...... and the buckling Elastica solution for an original compliant mechanism kinematic analysis. New compliant mechanism designs are presented to highlight where such combined kinematic analysis is required....

  18. There is more to life than risk avoidance - elderly people's experiences of falls, fall-injuries and compliant flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Johanna; Jernbro, Carolina; Nilson, Finn

    2018-12-01

    Falls are the most common cause of injury in all ages and are especially difficult to prevent among residential care residents. Compliant flooring that absorbs energy generated within the fall, has been proposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding the implementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of falls, the risk of fall-injury, prevention in general and specifically compliant flooring as an injury preventative measure amongst frail elderly people living in a residential care facility with compliant flooring. Through this, generate a theory that further explains the underlying barriers of active prevention amongst elderly people. We used the grounded theory method and conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with eight elderly people in residential care (data collected between February and December 2017). The identified categories were Falling as a part of life, Fearing the consequences and A wish to prevent falls and injuries. Through the results it was clear that There is more to life than risk avoidance, permeated the interviews, therefore forming the grounded theory. The interviewees viewed falls as something common and normal, and were uninterested in focusing on the risk of falls. Although they wanted to prevent falls, it was often difficult to integrate preventative measures into their everyday life. They embraced the idea of an injury-reducing compliant flooring, however their main interests lay elsewhere, preferring to focus on social interaction and issues concerning daily activities. The theory generated in this paper proposes explanations on the obstacles of implementing fall prevention measures in an elderly frail population. The findings give insights as to why interest and compliance for active fall prevention measures are low. We conclude that complaint flooring, from the perspective of the residents, can work well in residential care.

  19. Contact Mechanics and Failure Modes of Compliant Polymeric Bearing Materials for Knee Cartilage Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohfafarosh, Mariya Shabbir

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability affecting millions of people worldwide. Total knee replacement is the current state-of-the-art treatment to alleviate pain and improve mobility among patients in the late stage of knee OA. The current gold standard materials for total knee arthroplasty are cobalt-chromium and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). However, wear debris and implant loosening-related revision persists; consequently, total knee replacements are not universally recommended for all patient subgroups with OA. This work explores the potential of using compliant polymeric materials in knee cartilage replacement devices, which are closer in lubrication and mechanical properties of articular cartilage, to prevent excessive removal of underlying bone and prolong the need for a total knee replacement. Two materials investigated in this thesis are polycarbonate urethane, Bionate 80A, and a novel hydrogel, Cyborgel, both of which have shown promising wear and lubrication properties under physiological loads. Polycarbonate urethane has been previously tested for the effects of gamma sterilization and has shown no significant changes in its mechanical strength or chemical bonds. Since an important aspect of medical device development is the sterilization process, this thesis first evaluated the effect of 30-35 kGy electron beam and gamma radiation on the polymer swell ratio, and the mechanical, chemical and tribological behavior of the novel hydrogel. Three different formulations were mechanically tested, and biphasic material properties were identified using finite element analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate chemical changes, while the wear properties were tested for 2 million cycles in bovine serum. The results showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the swell ratio, mechanical and tribological properties of the electron beam and gamma sterilized hydrogel sample as compared to the

  20. Assessing the degradation of compliant electrodes for soft actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; de Saint-Aubin, Christine; Poulin, Alexandre; Shea, Herbert R.

    2017-10-01

    We present an automated system to measure the degradation of compliant electrodes used in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) over millions of cycles. Electrodes for DEAs generally experience biaxial linear strains of more than 10%. The decrease in electrode conductivity induced by this repeated fast mechanical deformation impacts the bandwidth of the actuator and its strain homogeneity. Changes in the electrode mechanical properties lead to reduced actuation strain. Rather than using an external actuator to periodically deform the electrodes, our measurement method consists of measuring the properties of an electrode in an expanding circle DEA. A programmable high voltage power supply drives the actuator with a square signal up to 1 kHz, periodically actuating the DEA, and thus stretching the electrodes. The DEA strain is monitored with a universal serial bus camera, while the resistance of the ground electrode is measured with a multimeter. The system can be used for any type of electrode. We validated the test setup by characterising a carbon black/silicone composite that we commonly use as compliant electrode. Although the composite is well-suited for tens of millions of cycles of actuation below 5%, we observe important degradation for higher deformations. When activated at a 20% radial strain, the electrodes suffer from important damage after a few thousand cycles, and an inhomogeneous actuation is observed, with the strain localised in a sub-region of the actuator only.

  1. Compliant threads maximize spider silk connection strength and toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Avery; Pugno, Nicola M.; Cranford, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of functionalities, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of material. One feature that has escaped extensive investigation is the silk-on-silk connection joints within spider webs, particularly from a structural mechanics perspective. We report a joint theoretical and computational analysis of an idealized silk-on-silk fibre junction. By modifying the theory of multiple peeling, we quantitatively compare the performance of the system while systematically increasing the rigidity of the anchor thread, by both scaling the stress–strain response and the introduction of an applied pre-strain. The results of our study indicate that compliance is a virtue—the more extensible the anchorage, the tougher and stronger the connection becomes. In consideration of the theoretical model, in comparison with rigid substrates, a compliant anchorage enormously increases the effective adhesion strength (work required to detach), independent of the adhered thread itself, attributed to a nonlinear alignment between thread and anchor (contact peeling angle). The results can direct novel engineering design principles to achieve possible load transfer from compliant fibre-to-fibre anchorages, be they silk-on-silk or another, as-yet undeveloped, system. PMID:25008083

  2. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  3. Multi-physics modelling of a compliant humanoid robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobova, Alexandra A., E-mail: azobova@mech.math.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Habra, Timothée, E-mail: timothee.habra@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Center for Research in Mechatronics, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering (Belgium); Van der Noot, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.vandernoot@uclouvain.be, E-mail: nicolas.vandernoot@epfl.ch [EPFL STI IBI BIOROB, Biorobotics Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Dallali, Houman, E-mail: houman.dallali@iit.it; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos G., E-mail: nikos.tsagarakis@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Advanced Robotics (Italy); Fisette, Paul, E-mail: paul.fisette@uclouvain.be; Ronsse, Renaud, E-mail: renaud.ronsse@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Center for Research in Mechatronics, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    We present a multibody simulator being used for compliant humanoid robot modelling and report our reasoning for choosing the settings of the simulator’s key features. First, we provide a study on how the numerical integration speed and accuracy depend on the coordinate representation of the multibody system. This choice is particularly critical for mechanisms with long serial chains (e.g. legs and arms). Our second contribution is a full electromechanical model of the inner dynamics of the compliant actuators embedded in the COMAN robot, since joints’ compliance is needed for the robot safety and energy efficiency. Third, we discuss the different approaches for modelling contacts and selecting an appropriate contact library. The recommended solution is to couple our simulator with an open-source contact library offering both accurate and fast contact modelling. The simulator performances are assessed by two different tasks involving contacts: a bimanual manipulation task and a squatting tasks. The former shows reliability of the simulator. For the latter, we report a comparison between the robot behaviour as predicted by our simulation environment, and the real one.

  4. Multi-physics modelling of a compliant humanoid robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zobova, Alexandra A.; Habra, Timothée; Van der Noot, Nicolas; Dallali, Houman; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos G.; Fisette, Paul; Ronsse, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We present a multibody simulator being used for compliant humanoid robot modelling and report our reasoning for choosing the settings of the simulator’s key features. First, we provide a study on how the numerical integration speed and accuracy depend on the coordinate representation of the multibody system. This choice is particularly critical for mechanisms with long serial chains (e.g. legs and arms). Our second contribution is a full electromechanical model of the inner dynamics of the compliant actuators embedded in the COMAN robot, since joints’ compliance is needed for the robot safety and energy efficiency. Third, we discuss the different approaches for modelling contacts and selecting an appropriate contact library. The recommended solution is to couple our simulator with an open-source contact library offering both accurate and fast contact modelling. The simulator performances are assessed by two different tasks involving contacts: a bimanual manipulation task and a squatting tasks. The former shows reliability of the simulator. For the latter, we report a comparison between the robot behaviour as predicted by our simulation environment, and the real one.

  5. Biomimetic Spider Leg Joints: A Review from Biomechanical Research to Compliant Robotic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landkammer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent compliance, soft actuated joints are becoming increasingly important for robotic applications, especially when human-robot-interactions are expected. Several of these flexible actuators are inspired by biological models. One perfect showpiece for biomimetic robots is the spider leg, because it combines lightweight design and graceful movements with powerful and dynamic actuation. Building on this motivation, the review article focuses on compliant robotic joints inspired by the function principle of the spider leg. The mechanism is introduced by an overview of existing biological and biomechanical research. Thereupon a classification of robots that are bio-inspired by spider joints is presented. Based on this, the biomimetic robot applications referring to the spider principle are identified and discussed.

  6. Polymer-coated compliant receivers for intact laser-induced forward transfer of thin films: experimental results and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinaeugle, Matthias; Horak, Peter; Sones, Collin L.; Lippert, Thomas; Eason, Rob W.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigate both experimentally and numerically laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of thin films to determine the role of a thin polymer layer coating the receiver with the aim of modifying the rate of deceleration and reduction of material stress preventing intact material transfer. A numerical model of the impact phase during LIFT shows that such a layer reduces the modelled stress. The evolution of stress within the transferred deposit and the substrate as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer, the transfer velocity and the elastic properties of the polymer are evaluated. The functionality of the polymer layer is verified experimentally by LIFT printing intact 1- m-thick bismuth telluride films and polymeric light-emitting diode pads onto a layer of 12-m-thick polydimethylsiloxane and 50-nm-thick poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) blended with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated experimentally that the introduction of such a compliant layer improves adhesion between the deposit and its substrate.

  7. Modeling of a compliant joint in a Magnetic Levitation System for an endoscopic camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simi, M.; Tolou, N.; Valdastri, P.; Herder, J.L.; Menciassi, A.; Dario, P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel compliant Magnetic Levitation System (MLS) for a wired miniature surgical camera robot was designed, modeled and fabricated. The robot is composed of two main parts, head and tail, linked by a compliant beam. The tail module embeds two magnets for anchoring and manual rough translation. The

  8. Research on Grinding and Polishing Force Control of Compliant Flange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the grinding and polishing process is important to improve the production efficiency of the part surfaces. In this paper, a new compliant flange mounted on the end of the industrial robots for the robotic grinding and polishing force control is developed. With regard to the non-linear and time-varying problem of the contact force, the mathematical model of the new force control system was presented and the fuzzy PID control strategy was used to drive the proposed system. Especially, the air spring and electric proportional valve is studied to establish the model. The simulation results show that the selected control strategy has quick response and good robustness, which satisfies the real-time requirements of the grinding and polishing force control in processing.

  9. Stress relaxation insensitive designs for metal compliant mechanism threshold accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two designs for metal compliant mechanisms for use as threshold accelerometers which require zero external power. Both designs rely on long, thin flexures positioned orthogonally to a flat body. The first design involves cutting or stamping a thin spring-steel sheet and then bending elements to form the necessary thin flexors. The second design uses precut spring-steel flexure elements mounted into a mold which is then filled with molten tin to form a bimetallic device. Accelerations necessary to switch the devices between bistable states were measured using a centrifuge. Both designs showed very little variation in threshold acceleration due to stress relaxation over a period of several weeks. Relatively large variations in threshold acceleration were observed for devices of the same design, most likely due to variations in the angle of the flexor elements relative to the main body of the devices. Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Sensor, Accelerometer, Zero power, Shock, Threshold

  10. Challenges in adapting imitation and reinforcement learning to compliant robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinon Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an exponential increase of the range of tasks that robots are forecasted to accomplish. (Reprogramming these robots becomes a critical issue for their commercialization and for their applications to real-world scenarios in which users without expertise in robotics wish to adapt the robot to their needs. This paper addresses the problem of designing userfriendly human-robot interfaces to transfer skills in a fast and efficient manner. This paper presents recent work conducted at the Learning and Interaction group at ADVR-IIT, ranging from skill acquisition through kinesthetic teaching to self-refinement strategies initiated from demonstrations. Our group started to explore the use of imitation and exploration strategies that can take advantage of the compliant capabilities of recent robot hardware and control architectures.

  11. Kinematic Analysis and Optimization of a New Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Xu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three translational degrees of freedom (DOF compliant parallel micromanipulator (CPM is proposed, which has an excellent accuracy of parallel mechanisms with flexure hinges. The system is established by a proper selection of hardware and analyzed via the derived pseudo-rigid-body model. In view of the physical constraints imposed by both the piezoelectric actuators and flexure hinges, the CPM's reachable workspace is determined analytically, where a maximum cylinder defined as an usable workspace can be inscribed. Moreover, the optimal design of the CPM with the consideration of the usable workspace size and global dexterity index simultaneously is carried out by utilizing the approaches of direct search method, genetic algorithm (GA, and particle swarm optimization (PSO, respectively. The simulation results show that the PSO is the best method for the optimization, and the results are valuable in the design of a new micromanipulator.

  12. Topological design of compliant smart structures with embedded movable actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Kang, Zhan; Luo, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    In the optimal configuration design of piezoelectric smart structures, it is favorable to use actuation elements with certain predefined geometries from the viewpoint of manufacturability of fragile piezoelectric ceramics in practical applications. However, preserving the exact shape of these embedded actuators and tracking their dynamic motions presents a more challenging research task than merely allowing them to take arbitrary shapes. This paper proposes an integrated topology optimization method for the systematic design of compliant smart structures with embedded movable PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuators. Compared with most existing studies, which either optimize positions/sizes of the actuators in a given host structure or design the host structure with pre-determined actuator locations, the proposed method simultaneously optimizes the positions of the movable PZT actuators and the topology of the host structure, typically a compliant mechanism for amplifying the small strain stroke. A combined topological description model is employed in the optimization, where the level set model is used to track the movements of the PZT actuators and the independent point-wise density interpolation (iPDI) approach is utilized to search for the optimal topology of the host structure. Furthermore, we define an integral-type constraint function to prevent overlaps between the PZT actuators and between the actuators and the external boundaries of the design domain. Such a constraint provides a unified and explicit mathematical statement of the non-overlap condition for any number of arbitrarily shaped embedded actuators. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method. (paper)

  13. Topology optimum design of compliant mechanisms using modified ant colony optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kwang Seon; Han, Seog Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    A Modified ant colony optimization (MACO) algorithm was suggested for topology optimal design of compliant mechanisms since standard ACO cannot provide an appropriate optimal topology. In order to improve computational efficiency and suitability of standard ACO algorithm in topology optimization for compliant mechanisms, a continuous variable, called the 'Element contribution significance (ECS),'is employed, which serves to replace the positions of ants in the standard ACO algorithm, and assess the importance of each element in the optimization process. MACO algorithm was applied to topology optimizations of both linear and geometrically nonlinear compliant mechanisms using three kinds of objective functions, and optimized topologies were compared each other. From the comparisons, it was concluded that MACO algorithm can effectively be applied to topology optimizations of linear and geometrically nonlinear compliant mechanisms, and the ratio of Mutual potential energy (MPE) to Strain energy (SE) type of objective function is the best for topology optimal design of compliant mechanisms.

  14. Near-chip compliant layer for reducing perimeter stress during assembly process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.; Takken, Todd E.; Tian, Shurong; Yao, Yuan

    2018-03-20

    A heat source (single semiconductor chip or group of closely spaced semiconductor chips of similar height) is provided on a first side of a substrate, which substrate has on said first side a support member comprising a compressible material. A heat removal component, oriented at an angle to said heat source, is brought into proximity of said heat source such that said heat removal component contacts said support member prior to contacting said heat source. Said heat removal component is assembled to said heat source such that said support member at least partially absorbs global inequality of force that would otherwise be applied to said heat source, absent said support member comprising said compressible material.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of thaw layer thickness and its controlling factors identified using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography and hydro-thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh Phuong; Dafflon, Baptiste; Bisht, Gautam; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2018-06-01

    Quantitative understanding of controls on thaw layer thickness (TLT) dynamics in the Arctic peninsula is essential for predictive understanding of permafrost degradation feedbacks to global warming and hydrobiochemical processes. This study jointly interprets electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements and hydro-thermal numerical simulation results to assess spatiotemporal variations of TLT and to determine its controlling factors in Barrow, Alaska. Time-lapse ERT measurements along a 35-m transect were autonomously collected from 2013 to 2015 and inverted to obtain soil electrical resistivity. Based on several probe-based TLT measurements and co-located soil electrical resistivity, we estimated the electrical resistivity thresholds associated with the boundary between the thaw layer and permafrost using a grid search optimization algorithm. Then, we used the obtained thresholds to derive the TLT from all soil electrical resistivity images. The spatiotemporal analysis of the ERT-derived TLT shows that the TLT at high-centered polygons (HCPs) is smaller than that at low-centered polygons (LCPs), and that both thawing and freezing occur earlier at the HCPs compared to the LCPs. In order to provide a physical explanation for dynamics in the thaw layer, we performed 1-D hydro-thermal simulations using the community land model (CLM). Simulation results showed that air temperature and precipitation jointly govern the temporal variations of TLT, while the topsoil organic content (SOC) and polygon morphology are responsible for its spatial variations. When the topsoil SOC and its thickness increase, TLT decreases. Meanwhile, at LCPs, a thicker snow layer and saturated soil contribute to a thicker TLT and extend the time needed for TLT to freeze and thaw. This research highlights the importance of combination of measurements and numerical modeling to improve our understanding spatiotemporal variations and key controls of TLT in cold regions.

  16. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daou, Hadi El; Salumäe, Taavi; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill’s elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. (paper)

  17. A compliant mechanism for inspecting extremely confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, David; Moreu, Fernando; Cantu, Precious; Shields, Daniel; Wadden, Jack; El Hadedy, Mohamed; Farrar, Charles

    2017-11-01

    We present a novel, compliant mechanism that provides the capability to navigate extremely confined spaces for the purpose of infrastructure inspection. Extremely confined spaces are commonly encountered during infrastructure inspection. Examples of such spaces can include pipes, conduits, and ventilation ducts. Often these infrastructure features go uninspected simply because there is no viable way to access their interior. In addition, it is not uncommon for extremely confined spaces to possess a maze-like architecture that must be selectively navigated in order to properly perform an inspection. Efforts by the imaging sensor community have resulted in the development of imaging sensors on the millimeter length scale. Due to their compact size, they are able to inspect many extremely confined spaces of interest, however, the means to deliver these sensors to the proper location to obtain the desired images are lacking. To address this problem, we draw inspiration from the field of endoscopic surgery. Specifically we consider the work that has already been done to create long flexible needles that are capable of being steered through the human body. These devices are typically referred to as ‘steerable needles.’ Steerable needle technology is not directly applicable to the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces, but it does provide guidance on how this problem should be approached. Specifically, the super-elastic nitinol tubing material that allows steerable needles to operate is also appropriate for the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces. Furthermore, the portion of the mechanism that enters the extremely confined space is completely mechanical in nature. The mechanical nature of the device is an advantage when the extremely confined space features environmental hazards such as radiation that could degrade an electromechanically operated mechanism. Here, we present a compliant mechanism

  18. Variation simulation for compliant sheet metal assemblies with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yufeng

    Sheet metals are widely used in discrete products, such as automobiles, aircraft, furniture and electronics appliances, due to their good manufacturability and low cost. A typical automotive body assembly consists of more than 300 parts welded together in more than 200 assembly fixture stations. Such an assembly system is usually quite complex, and takes a long time to develop. As the automotive customer demands products of increasing quality in a shorter time, engineers in automotive industry turn to computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools for help. Computers are an invaluable resource for engineers, not only to simplify and automate the design process, but also to share design specifications with manufacturing groups so that production systems can be tooled up quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it is beneficial to develop computerized simulation and evaluation tools for development of automotive body assembly systems. It is a well-known fact that assembly architectures (joints, fixtures, and assembly lines) have a profound impact on dimensional quality of compliant sheet metal assemblies. To evaluate sheet metal assembly architectures, a special dimensional analysis tool need be developed for predicting dimensional variation of the assembly. Then, the corresponding systematic tools can be established to help engineers select the assembly architectures. In this dissertation, a unified variation model is developed to predict variation in compliant sheet metal assemblies by considering fixture-induced rigid-body motion, deformation and springback. Based on the unified variation model, variation propagation models in multiple assembly stations with various configurations are established. To evaluate the dimensional capability of assembly architectures, quantitative indices are proposed based on the sensitivity matrix, which are independent of the variation level of the process. Examples are given to demonstrate their applications in selecting robust assembly

  19. Design and optimization of a bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I; Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E

    2013-01-01

    A novel contact aided compliant mechanism called bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness properties in two orthogonal directions. An angled compliant joint (ACJ) is the fundamental element of this mechanism. Geometric parameters of ACJs determine the stiffness of the compliant mechanism. This paper presents the design and optimization of bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated for design optimization of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. The objectives of the optimization problem were to maximize or minimize the bending and sweep displacements, depending on the situation, while minimizing the von Mises stress and mass of each mechanism. This optimization problem was solved using NSGA-II (a genetic algorithm). The results of this optimization for a single ACJ during upstroke and downstroke are presented in this paper. Results of two different loading conditions used during optimization of a single ACJ for upstroke are presented. Finally, optimization results comparing the performance of compliant mechanisms with one and two ACJs are also presented. It can be inferred from these results that the number of ACJs and the design of each ACJ determines the stiffness of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. These mechanisms can be used in various applications. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of ornithopters by passively morphing their wings. In order to achieve a bio-inspired wing gait called continuous vortex gait, the wings of the ornithopter need to bend, and sweep simultaneously. This can be achieved by inserting the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism into the leading edge wing spar of the ornithopters. (paper)

  20. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  1. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  2. ELEGANT: A flexible SDDS-compliant code for accelerator simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, M.

    2000-01-01

    ELEGANT (ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking) is the principle accelerator simulation code used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for circular and one-pass machines. Capabilities include 6-D tracking using matrices up to third order, canonical integration, and numerical integration. Standard beamline elements are supported, as well as coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefields, rf elements, kickers, apertures, scattering, and more. In addition to tracking with and without errors, ELEGANT performs optimization of tracked properties, as well as computation and optimization of Twiss parameters, radiation integrals, matrices, and floor coordinates. Orbit/trajectory, tune, and chromaticity correction are supported. ELEGANT is fully compliant with the Self Describing Data Sets (SDDS) file protocol, and hence uses the SDDS Toolkit for pre- and post-processing. This permits users to prepare scripts to run the code in a flexible and automated fashion. It is particularly well suited to multistage simulation and concurrent simulation on many workstations. Several examples of complex projects performed with ELEGANT are given, including top-up safety analysis of the APS and design of the APS bunch compressor

  3. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  4. Koopmans-Compliant Spectral Functionals for Extended Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Linh Nguyen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Koopmans-compliant functionals have been shown to provide accurate spectral properties for molecular systems; this accuracy is driven by the generalized linearization condition imposed on each charged excitation, i.e., on changing the occupation of any orbital in the system, while accounting for screening and relaxation from all other electrons. In this work, we discuss the theoretical formulation and the practical implementation of this formalism to the case of extended systems, where a third condition, the localization of Koopmans’s orbitals, proves crucial to reach seamlessly the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate the formalism by first studying one-dimensional molecular systems of increasing length. Then, we consider the band gaps of 30 paradigmatic solid-state test cases, for which accurate experimental and computational results are available. The results are found to be comparable with the state of the art in many-body perturbation theory, notably using just a functional formulation for spectral properties and the generalized-gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation functional.

  5. Koopmans-Compliant Spectral Functionals for Extended Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Linh; Colonna, Nicola; Ferretti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Koopmans-compliant functionals have been shown to provide accurate spectral properties for molecular systems; this accuracy is driven by the generalized linearization condition imposed on each charged excitation, i.e., on changing the occupation of any orbital in the system, while accounting for screening and relaxation from all other electrons. In this work, we discuss the theoretical formulation and the practical implementation of this formalism to the case of extended systems, where a third condition, the localization of Koopmans's orbitals, proves crucial to reach seamlessly the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate the formalism by first studying one-dimensional molecular systems of increasing length. Then, we consider the band gaps of 30 paradigmatic solid-state test cases, for which accurate experimental and computational results are available. The results are found to be comparable with the state of the art in many-body perturbation theory, notably using just a functional formulation for spectral properties and the generalized-gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation functional.

  6. An overview on STEP-NC compliant controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. A.; Minhat, M.; Jamaludin, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The capabilities of conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools as termination organiser to fabricate high-quality parts promptly, economically and precisely are undeniable. To date, most CNCs follow the programming standard of ISO 6983, also called G & M code. However, in fluctuating shop floor environment, flexibility and interoperability of current CNC system to react dynamically and adaptively are believed still limited. This outdated programming language does not explicitly relate to each other to have control of arbitrary locations other than the motion of the block-by-block. To address this limitation, new standard known as STEP-NC was developed in late 1990s and is formalized as an ISO 14649. It adds intelligence to the CNC in term of interoperability, flexibility, adaptability and openness. This paper presents an overview of the research work that have been done in developing a STEP-NC controller standard and the capabilities of STEP-NC to overcome modern manufacturing demands. Reviews stated that most existing STEP-NC controller prototypes are based on type 1 and type 2 implementation levels. There are still lack of effort being done to develop type 3 and type 4 STEP-NC compliant controller.

  7. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  8. Effort Flow Analysis: A Methodology for Directed Product Evolution Using Rigid Body and Compliant Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greer, James

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation presents a systematic design methodology for directed product evolution that uses both rigid body and compliant mechanisms to facilitate component combination in the domain of mechanical products...

  9. Hawaii Compliant Large Capacity Cesspools (LCC), Hawaii, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LCC Compliant: Large Capacity Cesspools that have been properly abandoned or converted to a seepage pit that is associated with a State approved IWS. These LCCs are...

  10. Performance of a non-tapered 3D morphing wing with integrated compliant ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previtali, F; Ermanni, P

    2012-01-01

    Morphing wings have a high potential for improving the performance and reducing the fuel consumption of modern aircraft. Thanks to its simplicity, the compliant belt-rib concept is regarded by the authors as a promising solution. Using the compliant rib designed by Hasse and Campanile as a starting point, a compliant morphing wing made of composite materials is designed. Innovative methods for optimal placing of the actuation and for the quantification of the morphing are used. The performance of the compliant morphing wing in terms of three-dimensional (3D) structural behaviour and aerodynamic properties, both two- and three-dimensional, is presented and discussed. The fundamental importance of considering 3D coupling effects in the determination of the performance of morphing aerofoils is shown. (paper)

  11. Conversion of the US State System of Accountancy to be Year 2000 compliant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proco, G.; Brown, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) is the US government's state system of accountancy, maintaining current and historical data on the possession, use and transfer of nuclear material. The system is an important tool in maintaining and monitoring accounting data for nuclear materials inventory and transactions and reporting under the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the safeguards agreement between the US and the International Atomic Energy Agency and agreements for cooperation between the US and its international partners for peaceful uses of atomic energy. Accounting information is provided to the system by nuclear facilities under the reporting requirements issued by relevant US government entities: the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NMMSS is operated for the DOE and the NRC by NAC International, Norcross, Georgia. The state system of accountancy was identified by the US government as a 'mission essential' system, an accounting system considered essential to government missions. As such, the system is held to a high standard of reliability. This system was identified in 1996 by the DOE as a system that should be made Year 2000 compliant at an early date - by March 1999. Very detailed planning for system conversion was necessary including: risk and vulnerability assessments, a comprehensive test plan and a contingency plan to be followed in case the conversion was not completed on time. Actual compliance was accomplished well in advance of March 1999. The conversion was complete, tested and capable of receiving data in the revised format in July 1998. All date fields in the data base are now eight characters, with the year reported in four characters. All incoming data that is only six characters is modified through software into an eight-character format by a default provision in the system. Also, output reports now contain eight-character date fields. If any of the systems that

  12. CARAPACE:A novel composite advanced robotic actuator powering assistive compliant exoskeleton preliminary design

    OpenAIRE

    Masia, Lorenzo; Cappello, Leonardo; Morasso, Pietro; Lachenal, Xavier; Pirrera, Alberto; Weaver, Paul; Mattioni, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    A novel actuator is introduced that combines an elastically compliant composite structure with conventional electromechanical elements. The proposed design is analogous to that used in Series Elastic Actuators, its distinctive feature being that the compliant composite part offers different stable configurations. In other words, its elastic potential presents points of local minima that correspond to robust stable positions (multistability). This potential is known a priori as a function of t...

  13. An EMOF-Compliant Abstract Syntax for Bigraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kehrer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bigraphs are an emerging modeling formalism for structures in ubiquitous computing. Besides an algebraic notation, which can be adopted to provide an algebraic syntax for bigraphs, the bigraphical theory introduces a visual concrete syntax which is intuitive and unambiguous at the same time; the standard visual notation can be customized and thus tailored to domain-specific requirements. However, in contrast to modeling standards based on the Meta-Object Facility (MOF and domain-specific languages typically used in model-driven engineering (MDE, the bigraphical theory lacks a precise definition of an abstract syntax for bigraphical modeling languages. As a consequence, available modeling and analysis tools use proprietary formats for representing bigraphs internally and persistently, which hampers the exchange of models across tool boundaries. Moreover, tools can be hardly integrated with standard MDE technologies in order to build sophisticated tool chains and modeling environments, as required for systematic engineering of large systems or fostering experimental work to evaluate the bigraphical theory in real-world applications. To overcome this situation, we propose an abstract syntax for bigraphs which is compliant to the Essential MOF (EMOF standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG. We use typed graphs as a formal underpinning of EMOF-based models and present a canonical mapping which maps bigraphs to typed graphs in a natural way. We also discuss application-specific variation points in the graph-based representation of bigraphs. Following standard techniques from software product line engineering, we present a framework to customize the graph-based representation to support a variety of application scenarios.

  14. Design, realization and structural testing of a compliant adaptable wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, G; Arrieta, A F; Ermanni, P; Quack, M; Morari, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and testing of a novel wing morphing concept, based on distributed compliance structures, and actuated by piezoelectric elements. The adaptive wing features ribs with a selectively compliant inner structure, numerically optimized to achieve aerodynamically efficient shape changes while simultaneously withstanding aeroelastic loads. The static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the wing, and the effect of activating the actuators, is assessed by means of coupled 3D aerodynamic and structural simulations. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed morphing concept and optimization procedure, the wings of a model airplane are designed and manufactured according to the presented approach. The goal is to replace conventional ailerons, thus to achieve controllability in roll purely by morphing. The mechanical properties of the manufactured components are characterized experimentally, and used to create a refined and correlated finite element model. The overall stiffness, strength, and actuation capabilities are experimentally tested and successfully compared with the numerical prediction. To counteract the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric actuators, a closed-loop controller is implemented, and its capability of accurately achieving the desired shape adaptation is evaluated experimentally. Using the correlated finite element model, the aeroelastic behavior of the manufactured wing is simulated, showing that the morphing concept can provide sufficient roll authority to allow controllability of the flight. The additional degrees of freedom offered by morphing can be also used to vary the plane lift coefficient, similarly to conventional flaps. The efficiency improvements offered by this technique are evaluated numerically, and compared to the performance of a rigid wing. (paper)

  15. Financial Risk Ratios and Earnings Management: Reducing Uncertainties in Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Kazemian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether Shariah-compliant companies practice earnings management by investigating the relationship among the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow in discretionary accruals, which function as a substitute for earnings management. This empirical research is conducted on a sample of Malaysian Shariah-compliant companies from all industries in Bursa Malaysia from 2012 to 2014. Results show that Shariah-compliant companies are highly influenced by the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study argues that working as either Shariah-compliant or non-Shariah-compliant does not affect the level of earnings management through financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow by managers. Results should be of interest to stakeholders, shareholders, and regulatory bodies (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Securities Commission that oversee the accountability of corporate financial reporting to prevent earnings management in Shariah-compliant companies. Findings can also aid relevant authorities (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Security Commission in Malaysia in overcoming or reducing problems related to earnings management. This study is one of the most significant works in Malaysia in terms of sample size and methodology. It argues that the three elements of earnings management (i.e., financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow influence better disclosure of reported earnings.

  16. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E; Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I

    2012-01-01

    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance. (paper)

  17. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xinxing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. After that, the topology structures of wing leading edge of different glass fiber ply-orientations were obtained by using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP model and sensitivity filtering technique. The desired aerodynamics shape of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was obtained based on the proposed approach. The topology structures of wing leading edge depend on the glass fiber ply-orientation. Finally, the corresponding morphing experiment of compliant wing leading edge with composite materials was implemented, which verified the morphing capability of topology structure and illustrated the feasibility for designing compliant wing leading edge. The present paper lays the basis of ply-orientation optimization for compliant adaptive wing leading edge in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV field.

  18. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,

  19. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank buffer opportunities with high P/sed removal., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities...

  20. Environmental Modeling, The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nutrient removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use,...

  1. Attitude and subjective wellbeing of non-compliant mothers to childhood oral polio vaccine supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Gregory C; Nomhwange, Terna Ignatius; Shamang, Anthony F; Zakari, Furera; Musa, Audu I; Dogo, Paul M; Gugong, Victor; Iliyasu, Neyu

    2018-02-08

    Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers' attitude and subjective wellbeing on non-compliance to OPV supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria. The study utilized a cross-sectional design to assess attitude and subjective well-being of mothers using previously validated VACSATC (Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication-10 items) & SUBI (Subjective Well-being Inventory-40 items) measures. A total of 396 participants (equal number of non-compliant and compliant mothers) from 94 non-compliant settlements were interviewed, after informed consent. T-test was run to assess difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant mothers on VACSATC and SUBI measures. The research showed a significant difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant groups on VACSATC measure of mothers' attitude (M = 18.9 non-compliant, compared to 26.5 compliant; p  0.05). The research has shown that negative attitude is more commonly present in non-compliant mothers and may be a factor in vaccine refusal in Northern Nigeria.

  2. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  3. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  4. Pin fin compliant heat sink with enhanced flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2018-04-10

    Heat sinks and methods of using the same include a top and bottom plate, at least one of which has a plurality of pin contacts flexibly connected to one another, where the plurality of pin contacts have vertical and lateral flexibility with respect to one another; and pin slice layers, each having multiple pin slices, arranged vertically between the top and bottom plates such that the plurality of pin slices form substantially vertical pins connecting the top and bottom plates.

  5. Survey on Recent Designs of Compliant Micro-/Nano-Positioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyi Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromanipulation is a hot topic due to its enabling role in various research fields. In order to perform a high precision operation at a small scale, compliant mechanisms have been proposed and applied for decades. In microscale manipulation, micro-/nano-positioning is the most fundamental operation because a precision positioning is the premise of subsequent operations. This paper is concentrated on reviewing the state-of-the-art research on complaint micro-/nano-positioning stage design in recent years. It involves the major processes and components for designing a compliant positioning stage, e.g., actuator selection, stroke amplifier design, connecting scheme of the multi-DOF stage and structure optimization. The review provides a reference to design a compliant micro-/nano-positioning stage for pertinent applications.

  6. Approach for Structurally Clearing an Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Lokos, William A.; Cruz, Josue; Crampton, Glen; Stephens, Craig A.; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap was flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Gulfstream GIII testbed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. This smoothly curving flap replaced the existing Fowler flaps creating a seamless control surface. This compliant structure, developed by FlexSys Inc. in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory, supported NASA objectives for airframe structural noise reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, and wing weight reduction through gust load alleviation. A thorough structures airworthiness approach was developed to move this project safely to flight. A combination of industry and NASA standard practice require various structural analyses, ground testing, and health monitoring techniques for showing an airworthy structure. This paper provides an overview of compliant structures design, the structural ground testing leading up to flight, and the flight envelope expansion and monitoring strategy. Flight data will be presented, and lessons learned along the way will be highlighted.

  7. Coefficient of restitution in fractional viscoelastic compliant impacts using fractional Chebyshev collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Arman; Butcher, Eric A.; Nazari, Morad

    2017-02-01

    Compliant impacts can be modeled using linear viscoelastic constitutive models. While such impact models for realistic viscoelastic materials using integer order derivatives of force and displacement usually require a large number of parameters, compliant impact models obtained using fractional calculus, however, can be advantageous since such models use fewer parameters and successfully capture the hereditary property. In this paper, we introduce the fractional Chebyshev collocation (FCC) method as an approximation tool for numerical simulation of several linear fractional viscoelastic compliant impact models in which the overall coefficient of restitution for the impact is studied as a function of the fractional model parameters for the first time. Other relevant impact characteristics such as hysteresis curves, impact force gradient, penetration and separation depths are also studied.

  8. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordill, M J; Marx, V M; Kirchlechner, C

    2014-11-28

    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems.

  9. Inventory of platforms towards the design of a statically balanced six degrees of freedom compliant precision stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunning, A.G.; Tolou, N.; Herder, J.

    2011-01-01

    For many applications in precision engineering, a six degrees of freedom (DoF) compliant stage (CS) with zero stiffness is desirable, to deal with problems like backlash, friction, lubrication, and at the same time, reduce the actuation force. To this end, the compliant stage (also known as

  10. Modeling of a compliant joint in a Magnetic Levitation System for an endoscopic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compliant Magnetic Levitation System (MLS for a wired miniature surgical camera robot was designed, modeled and fabricated. The robot is composed of two main parts, head and tail, linked by a compliant beam. The tail module embeds two magnets for anchoring and manual rough translation. The head module incorporates two motorized donut-shaped magnets and a miniaturized vision system at the tip. The compliant MLS can exploit the static external magnetic field to induce a smooth bending of the robotic head (0–80°, guaranteeing a wide span tilt motion of the point of view. A nonlinear mathematical model for compliant beam was developed and solved analytically in order to describe and predict the trajectory behaviour of the system for different structural parameters. The entire device is 95 mm long and 12.7 mm in diameter. Use of such a robot in single port or standard multiport laparoscopy could enable a reduction of the number or size of ancillary trocars, or increase the number of working devices that can be deployed, thus paving the way for multiple view point laparoscopy.

  11. Monitoring by Control Technique - Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  12. Vibration isolation by compliant sensor mounting applied to a coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a vibration isolated design of the Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is proposed, by introducing a compliant connection between the casing and the tube displacement sensors with the intention to obtain a relative displacement measurement of the fluid conveying tube, dependent on the tube

  13. Validation of a digital work simulation to assess Macchiavellianism and compliant behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Oostrom, J.K.; Hiemstra, A.M.; Modderman, J.P.L.

    ”This paper describes a new and innovative measure that is developed to predict workplace deviance through the measurement of Machiavellianism and Compliant Behavior. Two field studies were conducted to study the validity of the digital work simulation. In Study 1, (N = 113) support was found for

  14. Design of a piezoelectric inchworm actuator and compliant end effector for minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Shawn; Edinger, Ben; Frecker, Mary I.; Koopmann, Gary H.

    1999-06-01

    Recent advances in robotics, tele-robotics, smart material actuators, and mechatronics raise new possibilities for innovative developments in millimeter-scale robotics capable of manipulating objects only fractions of a millimeter in size. These advances can have a wide range of applications in the biomedical community. A potential application of this technology is in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The focus of this paper is the development of a single degree of freedom prototype to demonstrate the viability of smart materials, force feedback and compliant mechanisms for minimally invasive surgery. The prototype is a compliant gripper that is 7-mm by 17-mm, made from a single piece of titanium that is designed to function as a needle driver for small scale suturing. A custom designed piezoelectric `inchworm' actuator drives the gripper. The integrated system is computer controlled providing a user interface device capable of force feedback. The design methodology described draws from recent advances in three emerging fields in engineering: design of innovative tools for MIS, design of compliant mechanisms, and design of smart materials and actuators. The focus of this paper is on the design of a millimeter-scale inchworm actuator for use with a compliant end effector in MIS.

  15. Compliant liquid column damper modified by shape memory alloy device for seismic vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Bhowmick, Sutanu; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Liquid column dampers (LCDs) have long been used for the seismic vibration control of flexible structures. In contrast, tuning LCDs to short-period structures poses difficulty. Various modifications have been proposed on the original LCD configuration for improving its performance in relatively stiff structures. One such system, referred to as a compliant-LCD has been proposed recently by connecting the LCD to the structure with a spring. In this study, an improvement is attempted in compliant LCDs by replacing the linear spring with a spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA). Considering the dissipative, super-elastic, force-deformation hysteresis of SMA triggered by stress-induced micro-structural phase transition, the performance is expected to improve further. The optimum parameters for the SMA-compliant LCD are obtained through design optimization, which is based on a nonlinear random vibration response analysis via stochastic linearization of the force-deformation hysteresis of SMA and dissipation by liquid motion through an orifice. Substantially enhanced performance of the SMA–LCD over a conventional compliant LCD is demonstrated, the consistency of which is further verified under recorded ground motions. The robustness of the improved performance is also validated by parametric study concerning the anticipated variations in system parameters as well as variability in seismic loading. (paper)

  16. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Shih, Wen-Pin; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic ...

  17. Vibration Isolation by an Actively Compliantly Mounted Sensor Applied to a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a vibration isolated design of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) is proposed by introducing a compliant connection between the casing and the tube displacement sensors, with the objective to obtain a relative displacement measurement of the fluid conveying tube, dependent on the tube

  18. Managerial Opportunism: Monitoring Financial Risk of Malaysian Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziatul Waznah Ghazali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Managerial opportunism, such as earnings management, is a rampant, but often discreet, among certain managers. Agency theory and the notion of conflict of interest are used as bases to assume that managers would resolve to engage with inappropriate activities for their personal benefits. Distortion of earnings would erode investor confidence and is detrimental to the capital market. The Islamic capital market with Shariah-compliant firms is expected not to engage in activities that go against the religion code of conduct. The main purpose of this study is to investigate managerial opportunism among Shariah-compliant companies, specifically the relationship between real earnings management and the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study employs 4,115 data from 694 sample companies for five years (2009–2013. Findings conclude that the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow have a significant relationship with earnings management among Shariah-compliant companies. This study provides evidence that further improvements on corporate governance are necessary to ensure that Shariah-compliant companies adhere with the Shariah requirement.

  19. Shape optimization and sensitivity of compliant beams for prescribed load-displacement response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaelli, G.; Herder, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the shape optimization of a compliant beam for prescribed load-displacements response. The analysis of the design is based on the isogeometric analysis framework for an enhanced fidelity between designed and analysed shape. The sensitivities used for an improved optimization

  20. The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes generate tsunamis by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate tsunamis, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and tsunami heights, particularly in the context of tsunami earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating tsunamis, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to model tsunami generation and propagation, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate tsunamis more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger tsunamis. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and tsunami wave height.

  1. Traffic Analysis Zones, This Layer was created by ARC's Transportation Planning Division to identify Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) in the 20-county Atlanta Region. These TAZs represent the geography used in the ongoing transportation modeling for the Envision 6 forecast series (, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Traffic Analysis Zones dataset current as of 2006. This Layer was created by ARC's Transportation Planning Division to identify Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) in the...

  2. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  3. Fully Decoupled Compliant Parallel Mechanism: a New Solution for the Design of Multidimensional Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multidimensional accelerometer is proposed based on fully decoupled compliant parallel mechanism. Three separated chains, which are served as the elastic body, are perpendicular to each other for sensing the kinetic information in different directions without decoupling process. As the crucial part of the whole sensor structure, the revolute and prismatic joints in three pairwise orthogonal branches of the parallel mechanism are manufactured with the alloy aluminium as flexure hinge-based compliant joints. The structure development is first introduced, followed by the comprehensive finite-element analysis including the strain of the sensitive legs, modal analysis for total deformation under different frequency, and the performance of harmonic response. Then, the shape optimization is conducted to reduce the unnecessary parts. Compliance optimization with particle swarm algorithm is implemented to redesign the dimension of the sensitive legs. The research supplies a new viewpoint for the mechanical design of physical sensor, especially acceleration sensor.

  4. Towards generating ECSS-compliant fault tree analysis results via ConcertoFLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, B.; Haider, Z.; Carlsson, A.

    2018-05-01

    Attitude Control Systems (ACSs) maintain the orientation of the satellite in three-dimensional space. ACSs need to be engineered in compliance with ECSS standards and need to ensure a certain degree of dependability. Thus, dependability analysis is conducted at various levels and by using ECSS-compliant techniques. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of these techniques. FTA is being automated within various Model Driven Engineering (MDE)-based methodologies. The tool-supported CHESS-methodology is one of them. This methodology incorporates ConcertoFLA, a dependability analysis technique enabling failure behavior analysis and thus FTA-results generation. ConcertoFLA, however, similarly to other techniques, still belongs to the academic research niche. To promote this technique within the space industry, we apply it on an ACS and discuss about its multi-faceted potentialities in the context of ECSS-compliant engineering.

  5. Ankle rehabilitation device with two degrees of freedom and compliant joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racu (Cazacu, C.-M.; Doroftei, I.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a rehabilitation device that we intend to be low cost and easy to manufacture. The system will ensure functionality but also have a small dimensions and low mass, considering the physiological dimensions of the foot and lower leg. To avoid injure of the ankle joint, this device is equipped with a compliant joint between the motor and mechanical transmission. The torque of this joint is intended to be adjustable, according to the degree of ankle joint damage. To choose the material and the dimensions of this compliant joint, in this paper we perform the first stress simulation. The minimum torque is calculated, while the maximum torque is given by the preliminary chosen actuator.

  6. Buckling of a stiff thin film on an elastic graded compliant substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhou; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou

    2017-12-01

    The buckling of a stiff film on a compliant substrate has attracted much attention due to its wide applications such as thin-film metrology, surface patterning and stretchable electronics. An analytical model is established for the buckling of a stiff thin film on a semi-infinite elastic graded compliant substrate subjected to in-plane compression. The critical compressive strain and buckling wavelength for the sinusoidal mode are obtained analytically for the case with the substrate modulus decaying exponentially. The rigorous finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to validate the analytical model and investigate the postbuckling behaviour of the system. The critical buckling strain for the period-doubling mode is obtained numerically. The influences of various material parameters on the results are investigated. These results are helpful to provide physical insights on the buckling of elastic graded substrate-supported thin film.

  7. CARAPACE: a novel composite advanced robotic actuator powering assistive compliant exoskeleton: preliminary design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Lorenzo; Cappello, Leonardo; Morasso, Pietro; Lachenal, Xavier; Pirrera, Alberto; Weaver, Paul; Mattioni, Filippo

    2013-06-01

    A novel actuator is introduced that combines an elastically compliant composite structure with conventional electromechanical elements. The proposed design is analogous to that used in Series Elastic Actuators, its distinctive feature being that the compliant composite part offers different stable configurations. In other words, its elastic potential presents points of local minima that correspond to robust stable positions (multistability). This potential is known a priori as a function of the structural geometry, thus providing tremendous benefits in terms of control implementation. Such knowledge enables the complexities arising from the additional degrees of freedom associated with link deformations to be overcome and uncover challenges that extends beyond those posed by standard rigidlink robot dynamics. It is thought that integrating a multistable elastic element in a robotic transmission can provide new scenarios in the field of assistive robotics, as the system may help a subject to stand or carry a load without the need for an active control effort by the actuators.

  8. Fir Filters Compliant with the IEEE Standard for M Class PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error, and exceeds FE (frequency error and RFE (rate of frequency error limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1 by the window method; 2 as flat-top windows; or as 3 optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.

  9. Corporate Governance and Islamic Social Responsibility Disclosure In Kuwaiti Shariah Compliant Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shammari, B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between corporate governance characteristics and the extent of Islamic social responsibility disclosure in Kuwait. The annual reports of 40 Shariah-compliant financial institutions listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange in 2010 are examined. Four major corporate governance characteristics are investigated: 1) the existence of a Shariah supervisory board; 2) the number of board members; 3) the proportion of non-executive directors to the total number of di...

  10. Lowering the Barrier for Standards-Compliant and Discoverable Hydrological Data Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.

    2013-12-01

    The growing need for sharing and integration of hydrological and climate data across multiple organizations has resulted in the development of distributed, services-based, standards-compliant hydrological data management and data hosting systems. The problem with these systems is complicated set-up and deployment. Many existing systems assume that the data publisher has remote-desktop access to a locally managed server and experience with computer network setup. For corporate websites, shared web hosting services with limited root access provide an inexpensive, dynamic web presence solution using the Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP (LAMP) software stack. In this paper, we hypothesize that a webhosting service provides an optimal, low-cost solution for hydrological data hosting. We propose a software architecture of a standards-compliant, lightweight and easy-to-deploy hydrological data management system that can be deployed on the majority of existing shared internet webhosting services. The architecture and design is validated by developing Hydroserver Lite: a PHP and MySQL-based hydrological data hosting package that is fully standards-compliant and compatible with the Consortium of Universities for Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) hydrologic information system. It is already being used for management of field data collection by students of the McCall Outdoor Science School in Idaho. For testing, the Hydroserver Lite software has been installed on multiple different free and low-cost webhosting sites including Godaddy, Bluehost and 000webhost. The number of steps required to set-up the server is compared with the number of steps required to set-up other standards-compliant hydrologic data hosting systems including THREDDS, IstSOS and MapServer SOS.

  11. Design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot to Tackle Overhang on Stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhole, Ajinkya; Turlapati, Sri Harsha; S, Rajashekhar V.; Dixit, Jay; Shah, Suril V.; Krishna, K Madhava

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and parameter design of a Robust Stair Climbing Compliant Modular Robot, capable of tackling stairs with overhangs. Modifying the geometry of the periphery of the wheels of our robot helps in tackling overhangs. Along with establishing a concept design, robust design parameters are set to minimize performance variation. The Grey-based Taguchi Method is adopted for providing an optimal setting for the design parameters of the robot. The robot prototype is shown...

  12. MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, T.; Javed, Maryiam; Asghar, S.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Johnson-Segalman fluid in a channel with compliant walls is analyzed. The flow is engendered due to sinusoidal waves on the channel walls. A series solution is developed for the case in which the amplitude ratio is small. Our computations show that the mean axial velocity of a Johnson-Segalman fluid is smaller than that of a viscous fluid. The variations of various interesting dimensionless parameters are graphed and discussed

  13. The Determinants of Voluntary Risk Disclosures: The Case of Shariah Compliant Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli Nurul Fida; Mohammed Nor Farizal; Sanusi Zuraidah Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Risk reporting is essential in notifying investors on how companies manage the risks they engage in. Even though companies nowadays release information through press releases, corporate websites, and other forms of communications, they still have to disclose more information in their annual reports. The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of voluntary risk disclosures of Shariah compliant companies (ShCCs) in Malaysia, focusing on the religiosity factor and the ownership st...

  14. A Compliant Mechanism Synthesis Theory for Fostering Innovation of Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    errors creep into the model only for very large loads, and it works extremely well for tip deflections as high as 70◦. A sensitivity analysis was also...D., and Howell, L. L., 1999. “A Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Initially- Curved Pinned-Pinned Segments Used in Compliant Mechanisms”. Journal of Me...synthesis theory that incorporate a general framework for determining pseudo-rigid-body models , type synthesis algorithms (determining mechanism topology

  15. Reward-Modulated Hebbian Plasticity as Leverage for Partially Embodied Control in Compliant Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burms, Jeroen; Caluwaerts, Ken; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    In embodied computation (or morphological computation), part of the complexity of motor control is offloaded to the body dynamics. We demonstrate that a simple Hebbian-like learning rule can be used to train systems with (partial) embodiment, and can be extended outside of the scope of traditional neural networks. To this end, we apply the learning rule to optimize the connection weights of recurrent neural networks with different topologies and for various tasks. We then apply this learning rule to a simulated compliant tensegrity robot by optimizing static feedback controllers that directly exploit the dynamics of the robot body. This leads to partially embodied controllers, i.e., hybrid controllers that naturally integrate the computations that are performed by the robot body into a neural network architecture. Our results demonstrate the universal applicability of reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Furthermore, they demonstrate the robustness of systems trained with the learning rule. This study strengthens our belief that compliant robots should or can be seen as computational units, instead of dumb hardware that needs a complex controller. This link between compliant robotics and neural networks is also the main reason for our search for simple universal learning rules for both neural networks and robotics. PMID:26347645

  16. Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

  17. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant open-source web-based reporting platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Dos Santos, Daniel; Klos, G; Kloeckner, R; Oberle, R; Dueber, C; Mildenberger, P

    2017-01-01

    To develop a platform that uses structured reporting templates according to the IHE Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, and to implement this platform into clinical routine. The reporting platform uses standard web technologies (HTML / JavaScript and PHP / MySQL) only. Several freely available external libraries were used to simplify the programming. The platform runs on a standard web server, connects with the radiology information system (RIS) and PACS, and is easily accessible via a standard web browser. A prototype platform that allows structured reporting to be easily incorporated into the clinical routine was developed and successfully tested. To date, 797 reports were generated using IHE MRRT-compliant templates (many of them downloaded from the RSNA's radreport.org website). Reports are stored in a MySQL database and are easily accessible for further analyses. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant platform for structured reporting is feasible using only standard web technologies. All source code will be made available upon request under a free license, and the participation of other institutions in further development is welcome. • A platform for structured reporting using IHE MRRT-compliant templates is presented. • Incorporating structured reporting into clinical routine is feasible. • Full source code will be provided upon request under a free license.

  18. Integration of LDSE and LTVS logs with HIPAA compliant auditing system (HCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Guo, Bing; Documet, Jorge; King, Nelson

    2006-03-01

    The deadline of HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) Security Rules has passed on February 2005; therefore being HIPAA compliant becomes extremely critical to healthcare providers. HIPAA mandates healthcare providers to protect the privacy and integrity of the health data and have the ability to demonstrate examples of mechanisms that can be used to accomplish this task. It is also required that a healthcare institution must be able to provide audit trails on image data access on demand for a specific patient. For these reasons, we have developed a HIPAA compliant auditing system (HCAS) for image data security in a PACS by auditing every image data access. The HCAS was presented in 2005 SPIE. This year, two new components, LDSE (Lossless Digital Signature Embedding) and LTVS (Patient Location Tracking and Verification System) logs, have been added to the HCAS. The LDSE can assure medical image integrity in a PACS, while the LTVS can provide access control for a PACS by creating a security zone in the clinical environment. By integrating the LDSE and LTVS logs with the HCAS, the privacy and integrity of image data can be audited as well. Thus, a PACS with the HCAS installed can become HIPAA compliant in image data privacy and integrity, access control, and audit control.

  19. Stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg with the self-stable region in slow and fast running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Oh Seok; Ha, Sung Mok; Lee, Dong Ha [Convergence Research Center for WellnessDaegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and TechnologyDaegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we propose the stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg that can have a self-stable region in slow and fast running. This proposition can contribute to reducing the control effort and enhancing the locomotion energy efficiency for the compliant three segment legged robot in slow and fast running. Previous research indicated that the running self-stable region of the spring-mass system is located in a relatively fast running region and that of the two segment leg is located in a relatively slow running region. In this paper, we analyze the stiffness characteristics of the spring-mass system and the two segment leg to explain the previous research results. From this analysis, we propose the stiffness characteristics of the compliant three segment leg with a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We further design the compliant three segment leg based on this proposition and check its structural stability. We examine the running self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg to determine whether it has a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We also examine the walking self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg.

  20. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-01-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [de

  1. Deformation of conjugate compliant fault zones induced by the 2013 Mw7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rishabh; Wang, Teng; Feng, Guangcai; Harrington, Jonathan; Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2017-04-01

    Strain localizations in compliant fault zones (with elastic moduli lower than the surrounding rocks) induced by nearby earthquakes have been detected using geodetic observations in a few cases in the past. Here we observe small-scale changes in interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements along multiple conjugate faults near the rupture of the 2013 Mw7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake. After removing the main coseismic deformation signal in the interferograms and correcting them for topography-related phase, we observe 2-3 cm signal along several conjugate faults that are 15-30 km from the mainshock fault rupture. These conjugate compliant faults have strikes of N30°E and N45°W. The sense of motion indicates left-lateral deformation across the N30°E faults and right-lateral deformation across the N45°W faults, which suggests the conjugate faults were subjected to extensional coseismic stresses along the WSW-ENE direction. The spacing between the different sets of faults is around 5 to 8 km. We explain the observed strain localizations as an elastic response of the compliant conjugate faults induced by the Baluchistan earthquake. Using 3D Finite Element models (FEM), we impose coseismic static displacements due to the earthquake along the boundaries of the FEM domain to reproduce the coseismic stress changes acting across the compliant faults. The InSAR measurements are used to constrain the geometry and rigidity variations of the compliant faults with respect to the surrounding rocks. The best fitting models show the compliant fault zones to have a width of 0.5 km to 2 km and a reduction of the shear modulus by a factor of 3 to 4. Our study yields similar values as were found for compliant fault zones near the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes in California, although here the strain localization is occurring on more complex conjugate sets of faults.

  2. Dynamic monitoring of compliant bodies impacting the water surface through local strain measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciroli, Riccardo; Biscarini, Chiara; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Filippo; Ubertini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The understanding and the experimental characterization of the evolution of impulsive loading is crucial in several fields in structural, mechanical and ocean engineering, naval architecture and aerospace. In this regards, we developed an experimental methodology to reconstruct the deformed shape of compliant bodies subjected to impulsive loadings, as those encountered in water entry events, starting from a finite number of local strain measurements performed through Fiber Bragg Gratings. The paper discusses the potential applications of the proposed methodology for: i) real-time damage detection and structural health monitoring, ii) fatigue assessment and iii) impulsive load estimation.

  3. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...... sandstones....

  4. EZ and GOSSIP, two new VO compliant tools for spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, P.; Garill, B.; Fumana, M.; Paioro, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Paltani, S.; Scaramella, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present EZ and GOSSIP, two new VO compliant tools dedicated to spectral analysis. EZ is a tool to perform automatic redshift measurement; GOSSIP is a tool created to perform the SED fitting procedure in a simple, user friendly and efficient way. These two tools have been developed by the PANDORA Group at INAF-IASF (Milano); EZ has been developed in collaboration with Osservatorio Monte Porzio (Roma) and Integral Science Data Center (Geneve). EZ is released to the astronomical community; GOSSIP is currently in beta-testing.

  5. Peroxy-Titanium Complex-based inks for low temperature compliant anatase thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanov, N S; Asvarov, A Sh; Chiolerio, A; Rabadanov, K Sh; Isaev, A B; Orudzhev, F F; Makhmudov, S Sh

    2017-07-15

    Stable highly crystalline titanium dioxide colloids are of paramount importance for the establishment of a solution-processable library of materials that could help in bringing the advantages of digital printing to the world of photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. Nano-sized titanium dioxide in the anatase phase was synthesized by means of hydrothermal methods and treated with hydrogen peroxide to form Peroxy-Titanium Complexes (PTCs). The influence of hydrogen peroxide on the structural, optical and rheological properties of titanium dioxide and its colloidal solutions were assessed and a practical demonstration of a low temperature compliant digitally printed anatase thin film given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A compliant underactuated hand with suction flow for underwater mobile manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Stuart, Hannah S.

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Fingertip suction is investigated using a compliant, underactuated, tendon-driven hand designed for underwater mobile manipulation. Tendon routing and joint stiffnesses are designed to provide ease of closure while maintaining finger rigidity, allowing the hand to pinch small objects, as well as secure large objects, without diminishing strength. While the hand is designed to grasp a range of objects, the addition of light suction flow to the fingertips is especially effective for small, low-friction (slippery) objects. Numerical simulations confirm that changing suction parameters can increase the object acquisition region, providing guidelines for future versions of the hand.

  7. Mechanically compliant electrodes and dielectric elastomers from PEG-PDMS copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS...... showed high conductivity combined with inherent softness. The high conductivity and softness, PDMS-PEG copolymers with incorporated MWCNTs hold great promises as compliant and highly stretchable electrodes for stretchable devices such as electro-mechanical transducers....

  8. Compliant Task Execution and Learning for Safe Mixed-Initiative Human-Robot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuonan; Conrad, Patrick R.; Shah, Julie A.; Williams, Brian C.; Mittman, David S.; Ingham, Michel D.; Verma, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel task execution capability that enhances the ability of in-situ crew members to function independently from Earth by enabling safe and efficient interaction with automated systems. This task execution capability provides the ability to (1) map goal-directed commands from humans into safe, compliant, automated actions, (2) quickly and safely respond to human commands and actions during task execution, and (3) specify complex motions through teaching by demonstration. Our results are applicable to future surface robotic systems, and we have demonstrated these capabilities on JPL's All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robot.

  9. VO-compliant libraries of high resolution spectra of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, D.

    2008-10-01

    In this contribution we describe a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant version of the libraries of high resolution spectra of cool stars described by Montes et al. (1997; 1998; and 1999). Since their publication the fully reduced spectra in FITS format have been available via ftp and in the World Wide Web. However, in the VO all the spectra will be accessible using a common web interface following the standards of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). These libraries include F, G, K and M field stars, from dwarfs to giants. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000 Å, with spectral resolution ranging from 0.09 to 3.0 Å.

  10. A compliant underactuated hand with suction flow for underwater mobile manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Stuart, Hannah S.; Wang, Shiquan; Gardineer, Bayard; Christensen, David L.; Aukes, Daniel M.; Cutkosky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Fingertip suction is investigated using a compliant, underactuated, tendon-driven hand designed for underwater mobile manipulation. Tendon routing and joint stiffnesses are designed to provide ease of closure while maintaining finger rigidity, allowing the hand to pinch small objects, as well as secure large objects, without diminishing strength. While the hand is designed to grasp a range of objects, the addition of light suction flow to the fingertips is especially effective for small, low-friction (slippery) objects. Numerical simulations confirm that changing suction parameters can increase the object acquisition region, providing guidelines for future versions of the hand.

  11. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  12. Extending Mechanical Construction Kits to Incorporate Passive and Compliant Elements for Educational Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, Dorit; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Reichardt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    artificial intelligence and biomechanics to students with different backgrounds. The robots we use both for research and education are usually built incorporating compliant materials as well as passive dynamics. These kind of properties are often not available in classical robot kits or mechanical...... construction kits. In this paper we describe some of the robots we use for education. So far we built the robots using 3D printing technology which is convenient but too expensive for class use. Our aim is to find cheaper, commercially available solutions. After a short review on educational robot kits...

  13. Confinement of Reinforced-Concrete Columns with Non-Code Compliant Confining Reinforcement plus Supplemental Pen-Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Kristianto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement

  14. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  15. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  16. Project Management Plan to Maintain Safe and Compliant Conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COX, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Project Management Plan presents the overall plan, description, mission, and workscope for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) maintain safe and compliant conditions project at PFP. This plan presents the overall description, mission, work scope, and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Maintain Safe and Compliant Conditions Project at PFP. This project includes all tasks required to maintain the safety boundary for the PFP Complex, except for the 2736-2 Vault Complex and the 234-52 vaults and vault-type rooms. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with the stabilization, and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This is the top-level definitive project management document that specifies the technical (work scope), schedule, and cost baselines that will manage the execution of this project. It describes the organizational approach and roles/responsibilities implemented to execute the project. This plan is under configuration management and any deviations must be authorized by appropriate change control action

  17. Structural stiffness and Coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1994-07-01

    Compliant foil bearings operate on either gas or liquid, which makes them very attractive for use in extreme environments such as in high-temperature aircraft turbine engines and cryogenic turbopumps. However, a lack of analytical models to predict the dynamic characteristics of foil bearings forces the bearing designer to rely on prototype testing, which is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, the authors present a theoretical model to predict the structural stiffness and damping coefficients of the bump foil strip in a journal bearing or damper. Stiffness is calculated based on the perturbation of the journal center with respect to its static equilibrium position. The equivalent viscous damping coefficients are determined based on the area of a closed hysteresis loop of the journal center motion. The authors found, theoretically, that the energy dissipated from this loop was mostly contributed by the frictional motion between contact surfaces. In addition, the source and mechanism of the nonlinear behavior of the bump foil strips were examined. With the introduction of this enhanced model, the analytical tools are now available for the design of compliant foil bearings.

  18. Force-Sensing Actuator with a Compliant Flexure-Type Joint for a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Grossard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the mechatronic design of a novel self-sensing motor-to-joint transmission to be used for the actuation of robotic dexterous manipulators. Backdrivability, mechanical simplicity and efficient flexure joint structures are key concepts that have guided the mechanical design rationale to provide the actuator with force sensing capabilities. Indeed, a self-sensing characteristic is achieved by the specific design of high-resolution cable-driven actuators based on a DC motor, a ball-screw and a monolithic compliant anti-rotation system together with a novel flexure pivot providing a frictionless mechanical structure. That novel compliant pivot with a large angular range and a small center shift has been conceived of to provide the inter-phalangeal rotational degree of freedom of the fingers’ joints to be used for integration in a multi-fingered robotic gripper. Simultaneously, it helps to remove friction at the joint level of the mechanism. Experimental tests carried out on a prototype show an accurate matching between the model and the real behavior. Overall, this mechatronic design contributes to the improvement of the manipulation skills of robotic grippers, thanks to the combination of high performance mechanics, high sensitivity to external forces and compliance control capability.

  19. The Determinants of Voluntary Risk Disclosures: The Case of Shariah Compliant Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Nurul Fida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk reporting is essential in notifying investors on how companies manage the risks they engage in. Even though companies nowadays release information through press releases, corporate websites, and other forms of communications, they still have to disclose more information in their annual reports. The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of voluntary risk disclosures of Shariah compliant companies (ShCCs in Malaysia, focusing on the religiosity factor and the ownership structure. A quantitative analysis using secondary data was employed as a method to assess the annual reports of 116 Shariah compliant companies in Malaysia for the financial years of 2012 and 2013. The findings of this study reveal that the voluntary risk disclosures in ShCCs on average are not more than sixty per cent. This study indicates no relationship between the religiosity of board members and directors’ ownership to the level of voluntary risk disclosure. More importantly, this study finds the relationship between the existence of government ownership and voluntary risk disclosure in ShCCs. The study adds value to the current body of knowledge in voluntary risk disclosures and suggests the importance of risk management information in the annual reports of ShCCs as Malaysia grows as a leading country in the Islamic economy.

  20. Development of a paperless, Y2K compliant exposure tracking database at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, J L; Creek, K L; Pozzi, A R; Whyte, H M

    2001-02-01

    The Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a database application known as IH DataView, which manages industrial hygiene monitoring data. IH DataView replaces a LANL legacy system, IHSD, that restricted user access to a single point of data entry needed enhancements that support new operational requirements, and was not Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant. IH DataView features a comprehensive suite of data collection and tracking capabilities. Through the use of Oracle database management and application development tools, the system is Y2K compliant and Web enabled for easy deployment and user access via the Internet. System accessibility is particularly important because LANL operations are spread over 43 square miles, and industrial hygienists (IHs) located across the laboratory will use the system. IH DataView shows promise of being useful in the future because it eliminates these problems. It has a flexible architecture and sophisticated capability to collect, track, and analyze data in easy-to-use form.

  1. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device.

  2. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant open-source web-based reporting platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto dos Santos, Daniel; Klos, G.; Kloeckner, R.; Oberle, R.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P. [University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To develop a platform that uses structured reporting templates according to the IHE Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, and to implement this platform into clinical routine. The reporting platform uses standard web technologies (HTML / JavaScript and PHP / MySQL) only. Several freely available external libraries were used to simplify the programming. The platform runs on a standard web server, connects with the radiology information system (RIS) and PACS, and is easily accessible via a standard web browser. A prototype platform that allows structured reporting to be easily incorporated into the clinical routine was developed and successfully tested. To date, 797 reports were generated using IHE MRRT-compliant templates (many of them downloaded from the RSNA's radreport.org website). Reports are stored in a MySQL database and are easily accessible for further analyses. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant platform for structured reporting is feasible using only standard web technologies. All source code will be made available upon request under a free license, and the participation of other institutions in further development is welcome. (orig.)

  3. Shari’ah-Compliant E-Commerce Models and Consumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kholifatul I Ardiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the real picture of Shari’ah-compliant E-commerce model and consumer trust in e-commerce today, analyzing its drawbacks, and finding out how they influence each other. Shari'ah-compliant E-commerce model is a model that describes how e-commerce should run in accordance with the provisions of the Shari’ah. Broadly speaking, e-commerce in the perspective of Shari’ah must comply with some rules, namely: 1. the form of the offer and transaction agreement; 2. the transacting parties (buyers and sellers; 3. Objects and prices in the transaction; 4. Free from major prohibitions in transactions. The sample in this study is Indonesian citizen who are consumers of e-commerce. This research uses descriptive and statistical methods with multiple linear regression model. This model is considered relevant and good to be studied in order to enlighten how e-commerce is currently in the perspective of IslamDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2913

  4. The Puller-Follower Control of Compliant and Noncompliant Antagonistic Tendon Drives in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Potkonjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control strategy for noncompliant and compliant antagonistic tendon drives. It is applied to a succession of increasingly complex single‐joint systems, starting with a linear and noncompliant system and ending with a revolute, nonlinearly tendon coupled and compliant system. The last configuration mimics the typical human joint structure, used as a model for certain joints of the anthropomimetic robot ECCEROBOT. The control strategy is based on a biologically inspired puller‐ follower concept, which distinguishes the roles of the agonist and antagonist motors. One actuator, the puller, is considered as being primarily responsible for the motion, while the follower prevents its tendon from becoming slack by maintaining its tendon force at some non‐zero level. Certain movements require switching actuator roles; adaptive co‐contraction is used to prevent tendons slackening, while maintaining energetic efficiency. The single‐joint control strategy is then evaluated in a multi‐ joint system. Dealing with the gravitational and dynamic effects arising from the coupling in a multi‐joint system, a robust control design has to be applied with on‐line gravity compensation. Finally, an experiment corresponding to object grasping is presented to show the controller

  5. The Puller-Follower Control of Compliant and Noncompliant Antagonistic Tendon Drives in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Potkonjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control strategy for noncompliant and compliant antagonistic tendon drives. It is applied to a succession of increasingly complex single-joint systems, starting with a linear and noncompliant system and ending with a revolute, nonlinearly tendon coupled and compliant system. The last configuration mimics the typical human joint structure, used as a model for certain joints of the anthropomimetic robot ECCEROBOT. The control strategy is based on a biologically inspired puller-follower concept, which distinguishes the roles of the agonist and antagonist motors. One actuator, the puller, is considered as being primarily responsible for the motion, while the follower prevents its tendon from becoming slack by maintaining its tendon force at some non-zero level. Certain movements require switching actuator roles; adaptive co-contraction is used to prevent tendons slackening, while maintaining energetic efficiency. The single-joint control strategy is then evaluated in a multi-joint system. Dealing with the gravitational and dynamic effects arising from the coupling in a multi-joint system, a robust control design has to be applied with on-line gravity compensation. Finally, an experiment corresponding to object grasping is presented to show the controller's robustness to external disturbances.

  6. Building block method: a bottom-up modular synthesis methodology for distributed compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesizing topologies of compliant mechanisms are based on rigid-link kinematic designs or completely automated optimization techniques. These designs yield mechanisms that match the kinematic specifications as a whole, but seldom yield user insight on how each constituent member contributes towards the overall mechanism performance. This paper reviews recent developments in building block based design of compliant mechanisms. A key aspect of such a methodology is formulating a representation of compliance at a (i single unique point of interest in terms of geometric quantities such as ellipses and vectors, and (ii relative compliance between distinct input(s and output(s in terms of load flow. This geometric representation provides a direct mapping between the mechanism geometry and their behavior, and is used to characterize simple deformable members that form a library of building blocks. The design space spanned by the building block library guides the decomposition of a given problem specification into tractable sub-problems that can be each solved from an entry in the library. The effectiveness of this geometric representation aids user insight in design, and enables discovery of trends and guidelines to obtain practical conceptual designs.

  7. First-principles photoemission spectroscopy in DNA and RNA nucleobases from Koopmans-compliant functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Linh; Borghi, Giovanni; Ferretti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    The determination of spectral properties of the DNA and RNA nucleobases from first principles can provide theoretical interpretation for experimental data, but requires complex electronic-structure formulations that fall outside the domain of applicability of common approaches such as density-functional theory. In this work, we show that Koopmans-compliant functionals, constructed to enforce piecewise linearity in energy functionals with respect to fractional occupation-i.e., with respect to charged excitations-can predict not only frontier ionization potentials and electron affinities of the nucleobases with accuracy comparable or superior with that of many-body perturbation theory and high-accuracy quantum chemistry methods, but also the molecular photoemission spectra are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental ultraviolet photoemsision spectroscopy data. The results highlight the role of Koopmans-compliant functionals as accurate and inexpensive quasiparticle approximations to the spectral potential, which transform DFT into a novel dynamical formalism where electronic properties, and not only total energies, can be correctly accounted for.

  8. Delayed outcomes and rule-governed behavior among "noncompliant" and "compliant" boys: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, D; Gross, A M

    1996-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of verbal, contingency-specifying, stimuli on compliance among two groups of preschool-aged boys. Experiment 1 assessed the joint influence of prior compliance history and reinforcement parameters on compliance, and Experiment 2 explored the utility of distinguishing between the evocative and function-altering effects of verbal stimuli. Results from Experiment 1 showed that statements specifying a behavior and an outcome controlled similar levels of compliance in "compliant" and "noncompliant" boys under conditions of immediate reinforcement, but as the opportunity for reinforcement became more delayed (or nonexistent), the performance of "noncompliant" boys deteriorated. Results from Experiment 2 showed that statements specifying immediate and delayed reinforcers, but not statements specifying no reinforcer, controlled high levels of compliance in both compliant and noncompliant boys, even after a 15-20 minute delay in the opportunity to respond. These results suggest that rules, or contingency specifying stimuli with function-altering, rather than evocative effects, reliably control the behavior of boys as young as 4 or 5 years-old.

  9. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant open-source web-based reporting platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto dos Santos, Daniel; Klos, G.; Kloeckner, R.; Oberle, R.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2017-01-01

    To develop a platform that uses structured reporting templates according to the IHE Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, and to implement this platform into clinical routine. The reporting platform uses standard web technologies (HTML / JavaScript and PHP / MySQL) only. Several freely available external libraries were used to simplify the programming. The platform runs on a standard web server, connects with the radiology information system (RIS) and PACS, and is easily accessible via a standard web browser. A prototype platform that allows structured reporting to be easily incorporated into the clinical routine was developed and successfully tested. To date, 797 reports were generated using IHE MRRT-compliant templates (many of them downloaded from the RSNA's radreport.org website). Reports are stored in a MySQL database and are easily accessible for further analyses. Development of an IHE MRRT-compliant platform for structured reporting is feasible using only standard web technologies. All source code will be made available upon request under a free license, and the participation of other institutions in further development is welcome. (orig.)

  10. On the compliant behaviour of free-standing Si nanostructures on Si(001) for Ge nanoheteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Grzegorz

    2012-04-24

    Selective chemical vapor deposition Ge heteroepitaxy approaches for high quality Ge nanostructure growth with reasonable thermal budget must be developed for local Ge photonic module integration. A promising vision is offered by the compliant substrate effects within nanometer scale Ge/Si heteroepitaxial structures. Here, in contrast to the classical Ge deposition on bulk Si substrates, the thermal and lattice mismatch strain energy accumulated in the Ge epilayer is partially shifted to the free-standing Si nanostructure. This strain partitioning phenomenon is at the very heart of the nanoheteroepitaxy theory (NHE) and, if strain energy levels are correctly balanced, offers the vision to grow defect-free nanostructures of lattice mismatched semiconductors on Si. In case of the Ge/Si heterosystem with a lattice mismatch of 4.2%, the strain partitioning phenomenon is expected to be triggered when free-standing Si nanopillars with the width of 50 nm and below are used. In order to experimentally verify NHE with its compliant substrate effects, a set of free-standing Ge/Si nanostructures with diameter ranging from 150 to 50 nm were fabricated and investigated. The main limitation corresponds to a simultaneous detection of (a) the strain partitioning phenomenon between Ge and Si and (b) the absence of defects on the nano-scale. In this respect, synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to study the epitaxial relationship, defect and strain characteristics with high resolution and sensitivity in a non-destructive way. Raman spectroscopy supported by finite element method calculations were used to investigate the strain distribution within a single Ge/Si nanostructure. Special focus was devoted to transmission electron microscopy to determine the quality of the Ge epilayer. It was found, that although high quality Ge nanoclusters can be achieved by thermal annealing on Si pillars bigger than 50 nm in width, no proof of strain partitioning

  11. Standard requirements for GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohmann, Christian

    2011-03-22

    Abstract Background A recent survey has shown that data management in clinical trials performed by academic trial units still faces many difficulties (e.g. heterogeneity of software products, deficits in quality management, limited human and financial resources and the complexity of running a local computer centre). Unfortunately, no specific, practical and open standard for both GCP-compliant data management and the underlying IT-infrastructure is available to improve the situation. For that reason the "Working Group on Data Centres" of the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) has developed a standard specifying the requirements for high quality GCP-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials. Methods International, European and national regulations and guidelines relevant to GCP, data security and IT infrastructures, as well as ECRIN documents produced previously, were evaluated to provide a starting point for the development of standard requirements. The requirements were produced by expert consensus of the ECRIN Working group on Data Centres, using a structured and standardised process. The requirements were divided into two main parts: an IT part covering standards for the underlying IT infrastructure and computer systems in general, and a Data Management (DM) part covering requirements for data management applications in clinical trials. Results The standard developed includes 115 IT requirements, split into 15 separate sections, 107 DM requirements (in 12 sections) and 13 other requirements (2 sections). Sections IT01 to IT05 deal with the basic IT infrastructure while IT06 and IT07 cover validation and local software development. IT08 to IT015 concern the aspects of IT systems that directly support clinical trial management. Sections DM01 to DM03 cover the implementation of a specific clinical data management application, i.e. for a specific trial, whilst DM04 to DM12 address the data management of trials across the unit

  12. Design and development of broadband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester based on compliant orthoplanar spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Sharvari

    With advancement in technology, power requirements are reduced drastically for sensor nodes. The piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters generate sufficient power to low-powered sensor nodes. The main requirement of energy harvester is to provide a broad bandwidth. A conventional linear harvester does not satisfy this requirement. Therefore, the research focus is shifted to exploiting nonlinearity to widen the bandwidth of the harvester. Although nonlinear techniques are promising for broadening a bandwidth, reverse sweep shows reduced response as compared to the forward sweep. To overcome this issue, this thesis presents the design and development of a broadband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester based on a nonlinear multi-frequency compliant orthoplanar spring. This thesis is divided into three parts. The first part presents the design and experimental study of a tri-leg compliant orthoplanar spring for a broadband energy harvesting. The harvester performance is enhanced through the use of lightweight masses, which bring nonlinear vibration modes closer. The performance of the harvester is analyzed through development of a mathematical model based on the Duffing oscillator. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement. The parametric study shows that an optimum performance is achieved by further reducing a gap in between the vibration modes using different weight masses. In the second part of the research, multiple (bi, quad and pent) leg compliant orthoplanar springs are designed to understand their role in expanding the bandwidth and reducing gap between vibration modes. The designed harvesters are compared by calculating the figure of merits. The quad-leg design provides a better performance in terms of power density and bandwidth among all the designs. The reverse sweep response is comparable to the forward sweep in terms of bandwidth. In the final part, a magnetic force is applied to the tri-leg harvester, which enhanced the voltage

  13. Improved GMP-compliant multi-dose production and quality control of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luurtsema, G; Boersma, H H; Schepers, M; de Vries, A M T; Maas, B; Zijlma, R; de Vries, E F J; Elsinga, P H

    2017-01-01

    6-[ 18 F]Fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA) is a frequently used radiopharmaceutical for detecting neuroendocrine and brain tumors and for the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. To meet the demand for FDOPA, a high-yield GMP-compliant production method is required. Therefore, this study aimed to improve the FDOPA production and quality control procedures to enable distribution of the radiopharmaceutical over distances.FDOPA was prepared by electrophilic fluorination of the trimethylstannyl precursor with [ 18 F]F 2 , produced from [ 18 O] 2 via the double-shoot approach, leading to FDOPA with higher specific activity as compared to FDOPA which was synthesized, using [ 18 F]F 2 produced from 20 Ne, leading to FDOPA with a lower specific activity. The quality control of the product was performed using a validated UPLC system and compared with quality control with a conventional HPLC system. Impurities were identified using UPLC-MS. The [ 18 O] 2 double-shoot radionuclide production method yielded significantly more [ 18 F]F 2 with less carrier F 2 than the conventional method starting from 20 Ne. After adjustment of radiolabeling parameters substantially higher amounts of FDOPA with higher specific activity could be obtained. Quality control by UPLC was much faster and detected more side-products than HPLC. UPLC-MS showed that the most important side-product was FDOPA-quinone, rather than 6-hydroxydopa as suggested by the European Pharmacopoeia. The production and quality control of FDOPA were significantly improved by introducing the [ 18 O] 2 double-shoot radionuclide production method, and product analysis by UPLC, respectively. As a result, FDOPA is now routinely available for clinical practice and for distribution over distances.

  14. Compliant tiedown system for securing a cask for transporting radioactive materials to a vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.V.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a tiedown system for releasably securing a cask having opposing trunnions to a cradle assembly that in turn is mounted onto the deck and frame of a vehicle. The cradle assembly includes at least one cradle member for supporting the weight of the cask, and wherein the cask trunnions are displaceable in opposite vertical directions relative to the cradle member of the cradle assembly when the assembly is torsionally flexed, and the cask rotates relative to the cradle member, about a horizontally oriented axis comprising a compliant linkage means including a tie-bar means operably connected between the trunnions and moveably mounted within the cradle assembly for applying a biasing force on each of the trunnions that remains substantially constant despite the opposite vertical displacement of the trunnions relative to the cradle member that results from the torsional flexing of the vehicle deck

  15. A Standard-Compliant Virtual Meeting System with Active Video Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yao-Jen; Wang, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yung-Chang; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an H.323 standard compliant virtual video conferencing system. The proposed system not only serves as a multipoint control unit (MCU) for multipoint connection but also provides a gateway function between the H.323 LAN (local-area network) and the H.324 WAN (wide-area network) users. The proposed virtual video conferencing system provides user-friendly object compositing and manipulation features including 2D video object scaling, repositioning, rotation, and dynamic bit-allocation in a 3D virtual environment. A reliable, and accurate scheme based on background image mosaics is proposed for real-time extracting and tracking foreground video objects from the video captured with an active camera. Chroma-key insertion is used to facilitate video objects extraction and manipulation. We have implemented a prototype of the virtual conference system with an integrated graphical user interface to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  16. Human-Robot Interaction during Walking with a Powered Compliant Knee Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Romain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of locomotor training involve taskspecificity, repeatability, variability, intensity and self-initiative. KNEXO, a unilateral knee exoskeleton has been developed to study the effects of compliant assistance during treadmill gait. Overall, walking within KNEXO, leads to asymmetric kinematics (Figure 1 and changes in naturally occurring muscle activity. Walking without KNEXO and with KNEXO in unassisted mode is difficult to compare as the device is unilateral and the pneumatic muscles give, although weight-compensated, a certain amount of inertia to the movement. Walking with KNEXO in high compliance resembles walking with KNEXO in unassisted mode. Overall, kinematic and EMG data show that the device has its shortcomings (unilateral, 1 DoF, 1 joint when assisting healthy gait, yet it gives opportunities to study the effects of assistanceas-needed on gait biomechanics.

  17. CRUX: A compliant robotic upper-extremity exosuit for lightweight, portable, multi-joint muscular augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Steven; Pansodtee, Pattawong; Robbins, Ash; Baltaxe-Admony, Leya Breanna; Trombadore, James M; Teodorescu, Mircea; Agogino, Adrian; Kurniawan, Sri

    2017-07-01

    Wearable robots can potentially offer their users enhanced stability and strength. These augmentations are ideally designed to actuate harmoniously with the user's movements and provide extra force as needed. The creation of such robots, however, is particularly challenging due to the underlying complexity of the human body. In this paper, we present a compliant, robotic exosuit for upper extremities called CRUX. This exosuit, inspired by tensegrity models of the human arm, features a lightweight (1.3 kg), flexible multi-joint design for portable augmentation. We also illustrate how CRUX maintains the full range of motion of the upper-extremities for its users while providing multi-DoF strength amplification to the major muscles of the arm, as evident by tracking the heart rate of an individual exercising said arm. Exosuits such as CRUX may be useful in physical therapy and in extreme environments where users are expected to exert their bodies to the fullest extent.

  18. Aerodynamic Flight-Test Results for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Ali, Aliyah N.; Bui, Trong T.; Ellsworth, Joel C.; Garcia, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of compliant flaps installed onto a modified Gulfstream III airplane were investigated. Analyses were performed prior to flight to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flap installation. Flight tests were conducted to gather both structural and aerodynamic data. The airplane was instrumented to collect vehicle aerodynamic data and wing pressure data. A leading-edge stagnation detection system was also installed. The data from these flights were analyzed and compared with predictions. The predictive tools compared well with flight data for small flap deflections, but differences between predictions and flight estimates were greater at larger deflections. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of vehicle aerodynamics, wing sectional pressure coefficient profiles, and air data.

  19. Compliant ferroelastic domains in epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, L.; McGilly, L. J.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-28

    Ordered patterns of highly compliant ferroelastic domains have been created by use of tensile strained epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films, of very low defect density, grown on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. The effect of 180° switching on well-ordered a/c 90° domain patterns is investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, piezoelectric force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that ferroelastic a-domains, having an in-plane polarization, can be created and completely removed on a local level by an out-of-plane electric field. The modifications of the ferroelastic domain pattern can be controlled by varying the parameters used during switching with a piezoresponse force microscope to produce the desired arrangement.

  20. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors.

  1. Metallized compliant 3D microstructures for dry contact thermal conductance enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Wang, Jicheng; Zhong, Yang; Pan, Liang; Weibel, Justin A.

    2018-05-01

    Microstructured three-dimensional (3D) materials can be engineered to enable new capabilities for various engineering applications; however, microfabrication of large 3D structures is typically expensive due to the conventional top-down fabrication scheme. Herein we demonstrated the use of projection micro-stereolithography and electrodeposition as cost-effective and high-throughput methods to fabricate compliant 3D microstructures as a thermal interface material (TIM). This novel TIM structure consists of an array of metallized micro-springs designed to enhance the dry contact thermal conductance between nonflat surfaces under low interface pressures (10s-100s kPa). Mechanical compliance and thermal resistance measurements confirm that this dry contact TIM can achieve conformal contact between mating surfaces with a nonflatness of approximately 5 µm under low interface pressures.

  2. A highly compliant protein native state with a spontaneous-like mechanical unfolding pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Valpapuram, Immanuel; Camilloni, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of proteins and their force-induced structural changes play key roles in many biological processes. Previous studies have shown that natively folded proteins are brittle under tension, unfolding after small mechanical deformations, while partially folded intermediate...... states, such as molten globules, are compliant and can deform elastically a great amount before crossing the transition state barrier. Moreover, under tension proteins appear to unfold through a different sequence of events than during spontaneous unfolding. Here, we describe the response to force...... of the four-α-helix acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in the low-force regime using optical tweezers and ratcheted molecular dynamics simulations. The results of our studies reveal an unprecedented mechanical behavior of a natively folded protein. ACBP displays an atypical compliance along two nearly orthogonal...

  3. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  4. A nonlinear multi-mode wideband piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester using compliant orthoplanar spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.

  5. Experimental study on surface wrinkling of silicon monoxide film on compliant substrate under thermally induced loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Kong, Yingxiao; Jiang, Wenchong; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin

    2017-06-01

    The wrinkling of a silicon monoxide thin film on a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate structure was experimentally investigated in this study. The self-expansion effect of PDMS during film deposition was utilized to impose a pretensile strain on the structure through a specially made fixture. A laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) system with an in situ heating stage was employed for the real-time measurement. The Young’s modulus of the silicon monoxide thin film as well as the PDMS substrate was measured on the basis of the elasticity theory. Moreover, the effects of temperature variations on geometric parameters in the postbuckling state, such as wavelength and amplitude, were analyzed. It was proved that wavelength is relatively immune to thermal loads, while amplitude is much more sensitive.

  6. Development and Control of Compliant Hybrid Joints for Human-Symbiotic Mobile Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a robot with the ability to secure human safety in humanrobot collisions arising in our living and working environments. The humansymbiotic service robot using compliant hybrid joints realizes human safety, absorbs impact force, and fulfills task. In unexpected or expected collisions with human, the arising impulse force is attenuated effectively by the proposed physical model. Owing to the displacement of the links, several recovery controls have been developed for the endeffector to maintain its desired task position after the collision. The force attenuation property has been verified through collision simulations and experiments in that the capability of the proposed passive arm in overcoming the limitations of active compliance control has been demonstrated.

  7. Development and Control of Compliant Hybrid Joints for Human-Symbiotic Mobile Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a robot with the ability to secure human safety in human-robot collisions arising in our living and working environments. The human-symbiotic service robot using compliant hybrid joints realizes human safety, absorbs impact force, and fulfills task. In unexpected or expected collisions with human, the arising impulse force is attenuated effectively by the proposed physical model. Owing to the displacement of the links, several recovery controls have been developed for the end-effector to maintain its desired task position after the collision. The force attenuation property has been verified through collision simulations and experiments in that the capability of the proposed passive arm in overcoming the limitations of active compliance control has been demonstrated.

  8. A Standard-Compliant Virtual Meeting System with Active Video Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yao-Jen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an H.323 standard compliant virtual video conferencing system. The proposed system not only serves as a multipoint control unit (MCU for multipoint connection but also provides a gateway function between the H.323 LAN (local-area network and the H.324 WAN (wide-area network users. The proposed virtual video conferencing system provides user-friendly object compositing and manipulation features including 2D video object scaling, repositioning, rotation, and dynamic bit-allocation in a 3D virtual environment. A reliable, and accurate scheme based on background image mosaics is proposed for real-time extracting and tracking foreground video objects from the video captured with an active camera. Chroma-key insertion is used to facilitate video objects extraction and manipulation. We have implemented a prototype of the virtual conference system with an integrated graphical user interface to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  9. Design, modeling and optimization of an underwater manipulator with four-bar mechanism and compliant linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sang Ok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Bae, Jang Ho; Kim, Jong Won [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Won [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Underwater manipulators are very important for a robot to perform a specific operation in water. Conventional robot arm manipulators have been suggested for various operations but have not been suitable for repeated motion in gathering something. This paper presents a new underwater manipulator design for gathering things such as starfish on the sea floor. The manipulator is composed of a four-bar linkage to achieve repeated motion along a loop and compliant linkages to enhance the efficiency of the gathering work. Kinematic and quasi-static analyses were performed to calculate the loop path and the reaction force at the actuation point. Based on the analysis, optimal design was performed to maximize the working distance with the height difference and the reaction moments considered as constraints. A prototype was assembled to test the performance of the manipulator, and the empirical loop path was compared to simulation results.

  10. Design, modeling and optimization of an underwater manipulator with four-bar mechanism and compliant linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sang Ok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Bae, Jang Ho; Kim, Jong Won; Seo, Tae Won

    2016-01-01

    Underwater manipulators are very important for a robot to perform a specific operation in water. Conventional robot arm manipulators have been suggested for various operations but have not been suitable for repeated motion in gathering something. This paper presents a new underwater manipulator design for gathering things such as starfish on the sea floor. The manipulator is composed of a four-bar linkage to achieve repeated motion along a loop and compliant linkages to enhance the efficiency of the gathering work. Kinematic and quasi-static analyses were performed to calculate the loop path and the reaction force at the actuation point. Based on the analysis, optimal design was performed to maximize the working distance with the height difference and the reaction moments considered as constraints. A prototype was assembled to test the performance of the manipulator, and the empirical loop path was compared to simulation results

  11. Modal Measurements and Model Corrections of A Large Stroke Compliant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijma W.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling flexure based mechanisms, generally flexures are modelled perfectly aligned and nominal values are assumed for the dimensions. To test the validity of these assumptions for a two Degrees Of Freedom (DOF large stroke compliant mechanism, eigenfrequency and mode shape measurements are compared to results obtained with a flexible multibody model. The mechanism consists of eleven cross flexures and seven interconnecting bodies. From the measurements 30% lower eigenfrequencies are observed than those obtained with the model. With a simplified model, it is demonstrated that these differences can be attributed to wrongly assumed leaf spring thickness and misalignment of the leaf springs in the cross flexures. These manufacturing tolerances thus significantly affect the behaviour of the two DOF mechanism, even though it was designed using the exact constraint design principle. This design principle avoids overconstraints to limit internal stresses due to manufacturing tolerances, yet this paper shows clearly that manufacturing imperfections can still result in significantly different dynamic behaviour.

  12. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-05-29

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds.

  13. Synthesis of Porous and Mechanically Compliant Carbon Aerogels Using Conductive and Structural Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Macias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of conductive and mechanically compliant monolithic carbon aerogels prepared by sol-gel polycondensation of melamine-resorcinol-formaldehyde (MRF mixtures by incorporating diatomite and carbon black additives. The resulting aerogels composites displayed a well-developed porous structure, confirming that the polymerization of the precursors is not impeded in the presence of either additive. The aerogels retained the porous structure after etching off the siliceous additive, indicating adequate cross-linking of the MRF reactants. However, the presence of diatomite caused a significant fall in the pore volumes, accompanied by coarsening of the average pore size (predominance of large mesopores and macropores. The diatomite also prevented structural shrinkage and deformation of the as-prepared monoliths upon densification by carbonization, even after removal of the siliceous framework. The rigid pristine aerogels became more flexible upon incorporation of the diatomite, favoring implementation of binderless monolithic aerogel electrodes.

  14. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  15. An 802.11k Compliant Framework for Cooperative Handoff in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korakis Thanasis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks, the stations (STAs are associated with the available access points (APs and communicate through them. In traditional handoff schemes, the STAs get information about the active APs in their neighborhood by scanning the available channels and listening to transmitted beacons. This paper proposes an 802.11k compliant framework for cooperative handoff where the STAs are informed about the active APs by exchanging information with neighboring STAs. Besides, the APs share useful information that can be used by the STAs in a handoff process. In this way, we minimize the delay of the scanning procedure. We evaluate the performance of our mechanisms through OPNET simulations. We demonstrate that our scheme reduces the scanning delay up to 92%. Consequently, our system is more capable in meeting the needs of QoS-sensitive applications.

  16. Comparison of Portfolio Selection and Performance: Shari’ah-Compliant and Socially Responsible Investment Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Islamic screening criteria on Shari’ah-compliant portfolio selection and performance compared to Socially Responsible Investment (SRI portfolio. Each portfolio constructed from 15 stocks based on FTSE 100 using data from year 1997. Mean-variance portfolio optimization is employed with some financial ratios added as constraints for the Shari’ah portfolio. Annual expected return of each portfolio from 2008 to 2013 is used to calculate Sharpe’s ratio, Treynor ratio and Jensen’s alpha as the performance measurement tools. Macroeconomic variables are assessed using ordinary least square to examine whether they influence the portfolios’ expected returns or not. The result finds that Shari’ah portfolio has a better performance than SRI from year 2008 to 2010 shown by higher value of the measurement tools. However, from 2011 to 2013, SRI portfolio has better performance than Shari’ah portfolio. 

  17. Compliant lightweight non-invasive standalone “Marine Skin” tagging system

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2018-04-16

    Current marine research primarily depends on weighty and invasive sensory equipment and telemetric network to understand the marine environment, including the diverse fauna it contains, as a function of animal behavior and size, as well as equipment longevity. To match animal morphology and activity within the surrounding marine environment, here we show a physically flexible and stretchable skin-like and waterproof autonomous multifunctional system, integrating Bluetooth, memory chip, and high performance physical sensors. The sensory tag is mounted on a swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) and is capable of continuous logging of depth, temperature, and salinity within the harsh ocean environment. The fully packaged, ultra-lightweight (<2.4 g in water), and compliant “Marine Skin” system does not have any wired connection enabling safe and weightless cutting-edge approach to monitor and assess marine life and the ecosystem’s health to support conservation and management of marine ecosystems.

  18. Mix design and pollution control potential of pervious concrete with non-compliant waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pérez, Linoshka; Hwang, Sangchul

    2016-07-01

    Pervious concrete mix was optimized for the maximum compressive strength and the desired permeability at 7 mm/s with varying percentages of water-to-binder (W/B), fly ash-to-binder (FA/B), nano-iron oxide-to-binder (NI/B) and water reducer-to-binder (WR/B). The mass ratio of coarse aggregates in sizes of 4.75-9.5 mm to the binder was fixed at 4:1. Waste FA used in the study was not compliant with a standard specification for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. One optimum pervious concrete (Opt A) targeting high volume FA utilization had a 28-day compressive strength of 22.8 MPa and a permeability of 5.6 mm/s with a mix design at 36% W/B, 35% FA/B, 6% NI/B and 1.2% WR/B. The other (Opt B) targeting a less use of admixtures had a 28-day compressive strength and a permeability of 21.4 MPa and 7.6 mm/s, respectively, at 32% W/B, 10% FA/B, 0.5% NI/B and 0.8% WR/B. During 10 loads at a 2-h contact time each, the Opt A and Opt B achieved the average fecal coliform removals of 72.4% and 77.9% and phosphorus removals of 49.8% and 40.5%, respectively. Therefore, non-compliant waste FA could be utilized for a cleaner production of pervious concrete possessing a greater structural strength and compatible hydrological property and pollution control potential, compared to the ordinary pervious concrete. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experience of plastic surgery registrars in a European Working Time Directive compliant rota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blacam, Catherine; Tierney, Sean; Shelley, Odhran

    2017-08-01

    Surgical training requires exposure to clinical decision-making and operative experience in a supervised environment. It is recognised that learning ability is compromised when fatigued. The European Working Time Directive requires a decrease in working hours, but compliance reduces trainees' clinical exposure, which has profound implications for plastic surgery training. The aim of this study was to evaluate plastic surgery registrars' experience of an EWTD-compliant rota, and to examine its impact on patient care, education, and logbook activity. An electronic survey was distributed to plastic surgery registrars in a university teaching hospital. Registrars were asked to rate 31 items on a five-point Likert scale, including statements on patient care, clinical and operative duties, training, and quality-of-life. Interquartile deviations explored consensus among responses. Operative caseload was objectively evaluated using eLogbook data to compare activity at equal time points before and after implementation of the EWTD rota. Highest levels of consensus among respondents were found in positive statements addressing alertness and preparation for theatre, as well as time to read and study for exams. Registrars agreed that EWTD compliance improved their quality-of-life. However, it was felt that continuity of patient care was compromised by work hours restriction. Registrars were concerned about their operative experience. eLogbook data confirmed a fall-off in mean caseload of 31.8% compared to activity prior to EWTD rota implementation. While EWTD compliant rotas promote trainee quality-of-life and satisfaction with training, attention needs to be paid to optimising operative opportunities.

  20. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sharon R.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6%) and 57 boys (70.4%) between the ages of 6–12 year old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021

  1. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sharon R; O'Brien, Kelly A; Clarke, Tana L; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6 %) and 57 boys (70.4 %) between the ages of 6-12 years old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed.

  2. Comparing Arc-shaped Feet and Rigid Ankles with Flat Feet and Compliant Ankles for a Dynamic Walker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlemann, Ilyas; Matthias Braun, Jan; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that exchanging curved feet and rigid ankles by at feet and compliant ankles improves the range of gait parameters for a bipedal dynamic walker. The new lower legs were designed such that they t to the old set-up, allowing for a direct and quantitative comparison. The dynamic...

  3. Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Etienne J; Remaud, Anthony; Boyas, Sébastien; Lajoie, Yves; Bilodeau, Martin

    2012-06-14

    Fatiguing exercises used across studies to induce alterations in postural control are diverse and may explain the different findings reported. This study aimed to compare the effects of two types of fatiguing plantarflexion exercises on postural control on a firm and a compliant surface. Ten healthy young men (29 ± 4 years) were asked to stand as steadily as possible for 30 s, blindfolded with feet together, on a firm and a compliant surface before and immediately after an isometric and an isokinetic fatiguing exercise. Maximal force reduction due to fatigue was found significant but similar between exercises. No significant difference was found between the fatiguing exercises on all Center of Pressure (CoP) parameters. Both fatiguing exercises induced increases in CoP excursion area, CoP variability and CoP velocity in both planes (antero-posterior, mediolateral) on the compliant surface. On the firm surface, both fatiguing exercises only induced increases in CoP variability and CoP velocity in the fatigued plane (antero-posterior). Isometric and isokinetic fatiguing exercises, when producing a similar level of force reduction, induce similar decreases in postural control. The effects of fatigue on postural control in healthy young men are more pronounced when standing on a compliant surface, i.e. when proprioceptive information at the ankle is altered.

  4. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

    2006-01-01

    TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

  5. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassooij, J.; Tolou, N.; Tortora, G.; Caccavaro, S.; Menciassi, A.; Herder, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of

  6. Dependence of residual displacements on the width and depth of compliant fault zones: a 3D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Duan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Compliant fault zones have been detected along active faults by seismic investigations (trapped waves and travel time analysis) and InSAR observations. However, the width and depth extent of compliant fault zones are still under debate in the community. Numerical models of dynamic rupture build a bridge between theories and the geological and geophysical observations. Theoretical 2D plane-strain studies of elastic and inelastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquake have been conducted by Duan [2010] and Duan et al [2010]. In this study, we further extend the experiments to 3D with a focus on elastic response. We are specifically interested in how residual displacements depend on the structure and properties of complaint fault zones, in particular on the width and depth extent. We conduct numerical experiments on various types of fault-zone models, including fault zones with a constant width along depth, with decreasing widths along depth, and with Hanning taper profiles of velocity reduction. . Our preliminary results suggest 1) the width of anomalous horizontal residual displacement is only indicative of the width of a fault zone near the surface, and 2) the vertical residual displacement contains information of the depth extent of compliant fault zones.

  7. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  8. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries in older adults: A scoping review of biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Feldman, Fabio; Laing, Andrew C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2017-01-01

    Compliant flooring, broadly defined as flooring systems or floor coverings with some level of shock absorbency, may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in older adults; however, a lack of synthesized evidence may be limiting widespread uptake. Informed by the Arksey and O'Malley framework and guided by a Research Advisory Panel of knowledge users, we conducted a scoping review to answer: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries in healthcare settings? We searched academic and grey literature databases. Any record that discussed a compliant flooring system and at least one of biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, or workplace safety was eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers screened and abstracted records, charted data, and summarized results. After screening 3611 titles and abstracts and 166 full-text articles, we included 84 records plus 56 companion (supplementary) reports. Biomechanical efficacy records (n = 50) demonstrate compliant flooring can reduce fall-related impact forces with minimal effects on standing and walking balance. Clinical effectiveness records (n = 20) suggest that compliant flooring may reduce injuries, but may increase risk for falls. Preliminary evidence suggests that compliant flooring may be a cost-effective strategy (n = 12), but may also result in increased physical demands for healthcare workers (n = 17). In summary, compliant flooring is a promising strategy for preventing fall-related injuries from a biomechanical perspective. Additional research is warranted to confirm whether compliant flooring (i) prevents fall-related injuries in real-world settings, (ii) is a cost-effective intervention strategy, and (iii) can be installed without negatively impacting workplace safety. Avenues for future research are

  9. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Optimal Portfolio and Capital Management Strategy for Basel III Compliant Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E. Muller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We model a Basel III compliant commercial bank that operates in a financial market consisting of a treasury security, a marketable security, and a loan and we regard the interest rate in the market as being stochastic. We find the investment strategy that maximizes an expected utility of the bank’s asset portfolio at a future date. This entails obtaining formulas for the optimal amounts of bank capital invested in different assets. Based on the optimal investment strategy, we derive a model for the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, which the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS introduced as a measure against banks’ susceptibility to failure. Furthermore, we consider the optimal investment strategy subject to a constant CAR at the minimum prescribed level. We derive a formula for the bank’s asset portfolio at constant (minimum CAR value and present numerical simulations on different scenarios. Under the optimal investment strategy, the CAR is above the minimum prescribed level. The value of the asset portfolio is improved if the CAR is at its (constant minimum value.

  11. A cross-platform GUI to control instruments compliant with SCPI through VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-10-01

    In nuclear physics experiments, it is necessary and important to control instruments from a PC, which automates many tasks that require human operations otherwise. Not only does this make long term measurements possible, but it also makes repetitive operations less error-prone. We created a graphical user interface (GUI) to control instruments connected to a PC through RS232, USB, LAN, etc. The GUI is developed using Qt Creator, a cross-platform integrated development environment, which makes it portable to various operating systems, including those commonly used in mobile devices. NI-VISA library is used in the back end so that the GUI can be used to control instruments connected through various I/O interfaces without any modification. Commonly used SCPI commands can be sent to different instruments using buttons, sliders, knobs, and other various widgets provided by Qt Creator. As an example, we demonstrate how we set and fetch parameters and how to retrieve and display data from an Agilent Digital Storage Oscilloscope X3034A with the GUI. Our GUI can be easily used for other instruments compliant with SCPI and VISA with little or no modification.

  12. Compliant actuation based on dielectric elastomers for a force-feedback device: modeling and experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vertechy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their large power densities, low costs and shock-insensitivity, Dielectric Elastomers (DE seem to be a promising technology for the implementation of light and compact force-feedback devices such as, for instance, haptic interfaces. Nonetheless, the development of these kinds of DE-based systems is not trivial owing to the relevant dissipative phenomena that affect the DE when subjected to rapidly changing deformations. In this context, the present paper addresses the development of a force feedback controller for an agonist-antagonist linear actuator composed of a couple of conically-shaped DE films and a compliant mechanism behaving as a negative-rate bias spring. The actuator is firstly modeled accounting for the visco-hyperelastic nature of the DE material. The model is then linearized and employed for the design of a force controller. The controller employs a position sensor, which determines the actuator configuration, and a force sensor, which measures the interaction force that the actuator exchanges with the environment. In addition, an optimum full-state observer is also implemented, which enables both accurate estimation of the time-dependent behavior of the elastomeric material and adequate suppression of the sensor measurement noise. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the proposed actuator-controller architecture.

  13. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Johnson, Shawn P; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W; Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William G

    2014-01-01

    We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander's hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus). We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW) of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL) as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised in an aquatic facility. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  14. HIPAA Compliant Wireless Sensing Smartwatch Application for the Self-Management of Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wireless sensors to a smartwatch application (app) via a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant cryptography framework, which then sends data to a cloud for real-time analytics. The asthma risk is then sent to the smartwatch and provided to the user via simple graphics for easy interpretation by children. After testing the safety and feasibility of the system in an adult with moderate asthma prior to testing in children, it was found that the analytics model is able to determine the overall asthma risk (high, medium, or low risk) with an accuracy of 80.10 ± 14.13%. Furthermore, the features most important for assessing the risk of an asthma attack were multifaceted, highlighting the importance of continuously monitoring different wireless sensors and RESTful APIs. Future testing this asthma attack risk prediction system in pediatric asthma individuals may lead to an effective self-management asthma program.

  15. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eFahlman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander’s hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus. We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised under human care. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  16. Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narematsu, Naoki; Quek, Raymond; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2015-12-01

    Ciliary movements in protozoa exhibit metachronal wave-like coordination, in which a constant phase difference is maintained between adjacent cilia. It is at present generally thought that metachronal waves require hydrodynamic coupling between adjacent cilia and the extracellular fluid. To test this hypothesis, we aspirated a Paramecium cell using a micropipette which completely sealed the surface of the cell such that no fluid could pass through the micropipette. Thus, the anterior and the posterior regions of the cell were hydrodynamically decoupled. Nevertheless, we still observed that metachronal waves continued to propagate from the anterior to the posterior ends of the cell, suggesting that in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, there are other mechanisms that can also transmit the metachronal waves. Such transmission was also observed in computational modeling where the fluid was fully decoupled between two partitions of a beating ciliary array. We also imposed cyclic stretching on the surface of live Paramecium cells and found that metachronal waves persisted in the presence of cyclic stretching. This demonstrated that, in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, a compliant substrate can also play a critical role in mediating the propagation of metachronal waves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Material selection for elastic energy absorption in origami-inspired compliant corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, Sean S; Delimont, Isaac L; Howell, Larry L; Fullwood, David T

    2014-01-01

    Elastic absorption of kinetic energy and distribution of impact forces are required in many applications. Recent attention to the potential for using origami in engineering may provide new methods for energy absorption and force distribution. A three-stage strategy is presented for selecting materials for such origami-inspired designs that can deform to achieve a desired motion without yielding, absorb elastic strain energy, and be lightweight or cost effective. Two material indices are derived to meet these requirements based on compliant mechanism theory. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the effects of the material stiffness in the Miura-ori tessellation on its energy absorption and force distribution characteristics compared with a triangular wave corrugation. An example is presented of how the method can be used to select a material for a general energy absorption application of the Miura-ori. Whereas the focus of this study is the Miura-ori tessellation, the methods developed can be applied to other tessellated patterns used in energy absorbing or force distribution applications. (paper)

  18. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  19. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: A caBIG(TM Silver Level Compliant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoying Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™ Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system™ (LEAD™, which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK provided by National Cancer Institute’s Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD™ platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD™ could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG™ can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG™ to the management of clinical and biological data.

  20. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: A caBIG(TM Silver Level Compliant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoying Huang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™ Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system™ (LEAD™, which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK provided by National Cancer Institute’s Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD™ platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD™ could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG™ can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG™ to the management of clinical and biological data.

  1. Clinically compliant spatial and temporal imaging of chimeric antigen receptor T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Foster, Julie; Kashani, Roxana; Gazinska, Patrycja; Cook, Celia; Sosabowski, Jane; Maher, John; Papa, Sophie

    2018-03-14

    The unprecedented efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy of CD19 + B-cell malignancy has established a new therapeutic pillar of hematology-oncology. Nonetheless, formidable challenges remain for the attainment of comparable success in patients with solid tumors. To accelerate progress and rapidly characterize emerging toxicities, systems that permit the repeated and non-invasive assessment of CAR T-cell bio-distribution would be invaluable. An ideal solution would entail the use of a non-immunogenic reporter that mediates specific uptake of an inexpensive, non-toxic and clinically established imaging tracer by CAR T cells. Here we show the utility of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) for the temporal and spatial monitoring of CAR T-cell behavior in a cancer-bearing host. This system provides a clinically compliant toolkit for high-resolution serial imaging of CAR T cells in vivo, addressing a fundamental unmet need for future clinical development in the field.

  2. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  3. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  4. A soft and conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer as a compliant electrode for dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymers (Mn = 3 – 5 kg/mol) were chain-extended (Mn = 30 – 45 kg/mol) using hydrosilylation reaction as presented in figure 1. Subsequently, the extended copolymers were added to a conductive nano-filler (multi-walled carbon nanotubes – MWCNTs) in order to enhance...... conductivity. The combination of soft chainextended PDMS-PEG block copolymers and conductive MWCNTs results in a soft and conductive block copolymer composite which potentially can be used as a compliant and highly stretchable electrode for dielectric elastomers. The addition of MWCNTs into the PDMS-PEG matrix...... MWCNTs is 10-3 S/cm compared to 10-1 S/cm of a non-stretchable reference conducting silicone elastomer (LR3162 from Wacker). Furthermore, PDMS-PEG block copolymer with 4 phr MWCNTs (Young’s modulus, Y = 0.26 MPa) is softer and more stretchable thanLR3162 (Y = 1.17 MPa)....

  5. Compliant Buckled Foam Actuators and Application in Patient-Specific Direct Cardiac Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; Futran, Chaim C; Lee, Jeanne; O'Brien, Kevin W; Amiri Moghadam, Amir A; Mosadegh, Bobak; Silberstein, Meredith N; Min, James K; Shepherd, Robert F

    2018-02-01

    We introduce the use of buckled foam for soft pneumatic actuators. A moderate amount of residual compressive strain within elastomer foam increases the applied force ∼1.4 × or stroke ∼2 × compared with actuators without residual strain. The origin of these improved characteristics is explained analytically. These actuators are applied in a direct cardiac compression (DCC) device design, a type of implanted mechanical circulatory support that avoids direct blood contact, mitigating risks of clot formation and stroke. This article describes a first step toward a pneumatically powered, patient-specific DCC design by employing elastomer foam as the mechanism for cardiac compression. To form the device, a mold of a patient's heart was obtained by 3D printing a digitized X-ray computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan into a solid model. From this model, a soft, robotic foam DCC device was molded. The DCC device is compliant and uses compressed air to inflate foam chambers that in turn apply compression to the exterior of a heart. The device is demonstrated on a porcine heart and is capable of assisting heart pumping at physiologically relevant durations (∼200 ms for systole and ∼400 ms for diastole) and stroke volumes (∼70 mL). Although further development is necessary to produce a fully implantable device, the material and processing insights presented here are essential to the implementation of a foam-based, patient-specific DCC design.

  6. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: A caBIG(tm) Silver level compliant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system™ (LEAD™), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute’s Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD™ platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD™ could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG™ can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG™ to the management of clinical and biological data. PMID:19492074

  7. Development of the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Database: a caBIG Silver level compliant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W; Flowers, Christopher R

    2009-04-03

    Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system (LEAD), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute's Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG to the management of clinical and biological data.

  8. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 2: Materials and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, B.; Ruscitto, D.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Material coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine were exposed to service test temperatures of 540 C or 650 C for 300 hours, and to 10 temperature cycles from room temperatures to the service test temperatures. Selected coatings were then put on journal and partial-arc foils and tested in start-stop cycle tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles. Half of the test cycles were performed at a test chamber service temperature of 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F); the other half were performed at room temperature. Based on test results, the following combinations and their service temperature limitations are recommended: HL-800 TM (CdO and graphite) on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS 120 (Tribaloy 400, silver and CaF2 on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and Kaman DES on journal and foil up to 640 C (1200 F). Kaman DES coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  9. Development of surface coatings for air-lubricated, compliant journal bearings to 650 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, B.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Surface coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal for an automotive gas turbine engine were tested to find those capable of withstanding temperatures of either 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F). Also, the coatings have to be capable of surviving the start-stop sliding contact cycles prior to rotor lift-off and at touchdown. Selected coating combinations were tested in start-stop tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles at room and maximum temperatures. Specific coating recommendations are: Cdo and graphite on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS-120 (Tribaloy 400, silver, and CaF2) on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and chemically adherent Cr2O3 on journal and foil up to 650 C (1200 F). The chemically adherent Cr2O3 coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  10. Patient-oriented presentation of results of radiological procedures using DICOM-compliant DVD media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Aberle, Denise R.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Lu, David S.; Dahlbom, Magdalena; McGill, D. Ric; McCoy, J. Michael

    2003-05-01

    Some institutions have adopted digital media such as CD ROMs to provide patients and referring physicians with results of radiological procedures. These systems require a computer to review the images and lack the supporting explanations and guidance for patients to properly understand the results. We developed a hybrid DVD encoding format that combines DICOM-compliant image storage format with video streams viewable on any consumer DVD players. The addition of the video material allows radiologists to provide explanations, disclaimers and guidance to the patients regarding the results of the study. The diagnostic report is also included on the DVD as a PDF file and as a set of video frames that can be viewed on a DVD player. The native high-resolution images are also included in DICOM format on the DVD and can be accessed by any workstation equipped with a DICOM viewer. The DVD that can be reviewed on any consumer DVD player overcomes the limitation of CD ROMS that require the use of a personal computer. The results of the radiological procedures become more accessible patients that could be reluctant or unable to use a computer. Also, live video clips add a more personalized note and allow radiologists to convey important messages to the patients. This is particularly useful for self-referred screening procedures where results should always be accompanied with education material and explanations of the findings.

  11. Compliant behaviour of redundant robot arm - experiments with null-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Petar B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental aspects of Jacobian nullspace use in kinematically redundant robots for achieving kinetostatically consistent control of their compliant behavior. When the stiffness of the robot endpoint is dominantly influenced by the compliance of the robot joints, generalized stiffness matrix can be mapped into joint space using appropriate congruent transformation. Actuation stiffness matrix achieved by this transformation is generally nondiagonal. Off-diagonal elements of the actuation matrix can be generated by redundant actuation only (polyarticular actuators, but such kind of actuation is very difficult to realize practically in technical systems. The approach of solving this problem which is proposed in this paper is based on the use of kinematic redundancy and nullspace of the Jacobian matrix. Evaluation of the developed analytical model was done numerically by a minimal redundant robot with one redundant d.o.f. and experimentally by a 7 d.o.f. Yaskawa SIA 10F robot arm. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35007

  12. Importance of structural damping in the dynamic analysis of compliant deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalque, Florence; Rochus, Pierre; Brüls, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their motion results from the elastic deformation of structural components and the absence of actuators or external energy sources. The mechanical behaviour of a tape spring is intrinsically complex and nonlinear involving buckling, hysteresis and self-locking phenomena. In the majority of the previous works, dynamic simulations were performed without any physical representation of the structural damping. These simulations could be successfully achieved because of the presence of numerical damping in the transient solver. However, in this case, the dynamic response turns out to be quite sensitive to the amount of numerical dissipation, so that the predictive capabilities of the model are questionable. In this work based on numerical case studies, we show that the dynamic simulation of a tape spring can be made less sensitive to numerical parameters when the structural dissipation is taken into account.

  13. Photonic generation of FCC-compliant UWB pulses based on modified Gaussian quadruplet and incoherent wavelength-to-time conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hongqian; Wang, Muguang; Tang, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Jian, Shuisheng

    2018-03-01

    A novel scheme for the generation of FCC-compliant UWB pulse is proposed based on modified Gaussian quadruplet and incoherent wavelength-to-time conversion. The modified Gaussian quadruplet is synthesized based on linear sum of a broad Gaussian pulse and two narrow Gaussian pulses with the same pulse-width and amplitude peak. Within specific parameter range, FCC-compliant UWB with spectral power efficiency of higher than 39.9% can be achieved. In order to realize the designed waveform, a UWB generator based on spectral shaping and incoherent wavelength-to-time mapping is proposed. The spectral shaper is composed of a Gaussian filter and a programmable filter. Single-mode fiber functions as both dispersion device and transmission medium. Balanced photodetection is employed to combine linearly the broad Gaussian pulse and two narrow Gaussian pulses, and at same time to suppress pulse pedestals that result in low-frequency components. The proposed UWB generator can be reconfigured for UWB doublet by operating the programmable filter as a single-band Gaussian filter. The feasibility of proposed UWB generator is demonstrated experimentally. Measured UWB pulses match well with simulation results. FCC-compliant quadruplet with 10-dB bandwidth of 6.88-GHz, fractional bandwidth of 106.8% and power efficiency of 51% is achieved.

  14. Risk and Return under Shari’a Framework: An Attempt to Develop Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A speedy emerging area of finance is the Shari’a compliant financial system. In first decade of 21st century Islamic financing has shown tremendous increase and global volume has reached to US $ 1,041 billion by the end of 2009. Being financial intermediaries Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs have shown commendable progress in deposit collection under profit and loss sharing schemes however investment avenues are limited in comparison of conventional banks. Although a large number of financing modes are available to IFIs, yet maintenance of required liquidity is serious issue because money market and capital market is dominated by interest based instruments and conventional practices (some are clearly prohibited by Shari’a. Recently Al-meezan Investment Management Ltd. (AIML has started screening of Shari’a compliant stocks on KSE, and provided an avenue for Shari’a Compliant Investors/IFIs to invest in equities. This study is conducted to understand conventional asset pricing models, document any mismatching with Shari’a financial system, and suggest amendments if required. Findings suggest existing models of equity pricing (CAPM, APT/MFM are very much practicable under Shari’a framework with slight modification of risk free return because under Shari’a frame work risk free returns do not exist.

  15. Short-Term Medical Costs of a VHA Health Information Exchange: A CHEERS-Compliant Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D.; Dixon, Brian E.; Perkins, Susan M.; Myers, Laura J.; Weiner, Michael; Zillich, Allan J.; Haggstrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health program provides the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) a framework whereby VHA providers can access the veterans’ electronic health record information to coordinate healthcare across multiple sites of care. As an early adopter of VLER, the Indianapolis VHA and Regenstrief Institute implemented a regional demonstration program involving bi-directional health information exchange (HIE) between VHA and non-VHA providers. The aim of the study is to determine whether implementation of VLER HIE reduces 1 year VHA medical costs. A cohort evaluation with a concurrent control group compared VHA healthcare costs using propensity score adjustment. A CHEERs compliant checklist was used to conduct the cost evaluation. Patients were enrolled in the VLER program onsite at the Indianapolis VHA in outpatient clinics or through the release-of-information office. VHA cost data (in 2014 dollars) were obtained for both enrolled and nonenrolled (control) patients for 1 year prior to, and 1 year after, the index date of patient enrollment. There were 6104 patients enrolled in VLER and 45,700 patients in the control group. The annual adjusted total cost difference per patient was associated with a higher cost for VLER enrollees $1152 (95% CI: $807–1433) (P < 0.01) (in 2014 dollars) than VLER nonenrollees. Short-term evaluation of this demonstration project did not show immediate reductions in healthcare cost as might be expected if HIE decreased redundant medical tests and treatments. Cost reductions from shared health information may be realized with longer time horizons. PMID:26765453

  16. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values

  17. GMP-compliant isolation and large-scale expansion of bone marrow-derived MSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Fekete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have gained importance in tissue repair, tissue engineering and in immunosupressive therapy during the last years. Due to the limited availability of MSC in the bone marrow, ex vivo amplification prior to clinical application is requisite to obtain therapeutic applicable cell doses. Translation of preclinical into clinical-grade large-scale MSC expansion necessitates precise definition and standardization of all procedural parameters including cell seeding density, culture medium and cultivation devices. While xenogeneic additives such as fetal calf serum are still widely used for cell culture, its use in the clinical context is associated with many risks, such as prion and viral transmission or adverse immunological reactions against xenogeneic components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We established animal-free expansion protocols using platelet lysate as medium supplement and thereby could confirm its safety and feasibility for large-scale MSC isolation and expansion. Five different GMP-compliant standardized protocols designed for the safe, reliable, efficient and economical isolation and expansion of MSC was performed and MSC obtained were analyzed for differentiation capacity by qPCR and histochemistry. Expression of standard MSC markers as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy as well as expression of additional MSC markers and of various chemokine and cytokine receptors was analysed by flow cytometry. Changes of metabolic markers and cytokines in the medium were addressed using the LUMINEX platform. CONCLUSIONS: The five different systems for isolation and expansion of MSC described in this study are all suitable to produce at least 100 millions of MSC, which is commonly regarded as a single clinical dose. Final products are equal according to the minimal criteria for MSC defined by the ISCT. We showed that chemokine and integrin receptors analyzed had the same expression pattern

  18. TU-AB-201-07: Image Guided Endorectal HDR Brachytherapy Using a Compliant Balloon Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, G; Goodman, K [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High dose rate endorectal brachytherapy is an option to deliver a focal, high-dose radiotherapy to rectal tumors for patients undergoing non-operative management. We investigate a new multichannel, MR compatible applicator with a novel balloon-based design to provide improved treatment geometry. We report on the initial clinical experience using this applicator. Methods: Patients were enrolled on an IRB-approved, dose-escalation protocol evaluating the use of the anorectal (AR-1) applicator (Ancer Medical, Hialeah, FL), a multichannel applicator with two concentric balloons. The inner balloon supports 8 source lumens; the compliant outer balloon expands to separate the normal rectal wall and the source lumens, yet deforms around a firm, exophytic rectal mass, leading to dose escalation to tumor while sparing normal rectum. Under general anesthesia, gold fiducial markers were inserted above and below the tumor, and the AR applicator was placed in the rectum. MRI-based treatment plans were prepared to deliver 15 Gy in 3 weekly fractions to the target volume while sparing healthy rectal tissue, bladder, bowel and anal muscles. Prior to each treatment, CBCT/Fluoroscopy were used to place the applicator in the treatment position and confirm the treatment geometry using rigid registration of the CBCT and planning MRI. After registration of the applicator images, positioning was evaluated based on the match of the gold markers. Results: Highly conformal treatment plans were achieved. MR compatibility of the applicator enabled good tumor visualization. In spite of the non-rigid nature of the applicators and the fact that a new applicator was used at each treatment session, treatment geometry was reproducible to within 2.5 mm. Conclusions: This is the first report on using the AR applicator in patients. Highly conformal plans, confidence in MRI target delineation, in combination with reproducible treatment geometry provide encouraging feedback for continuation with

  19. A New XYZ Compliant Parallel Mechanism for Micro-/Nano-Manipulation: Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the constraint and position identification (CPI approach for synthesizing XYZ compliant parallel mechanisms (CPMs and configuration modifications, this paper proposes a new fully-symmetrical XYZ CPM with desired motion characteristics such as reduced cross-axis coupling, minimized lost motion, and relatively small parasitic motion. The good motion characteristics arise from not only its symmetric configuration, but also the rigid linkages between non-adjacent rigid stages. Comprehensive kinematic analysis is carried out based on a series of finite element simulations over a motion range per axis less than ±5% of the beam length, which reveals that the maximum cross-axis coupling rate is less than 0.86%, the maximum lost motion rate is less than 1.20%, the parasitic rotations of the motion stage (MS are in the order of 10−5 rad, and the parasitic translations of the three actuated stages (ASs are in the order of 10−4 of the beam length (less than 0.3% of the motion range, where the beam slenderness ratio is larger than 20. Furthermore, the nonlinear analytical models of the primary translations of the XYZ CPM, including the primary translations of the MS and the ASs, are derived and validated to provide a quick design synthesis. Moreover, two practical design schemes of the proposed XYZ CPM are discussed with consideration of the manufacturability. The practical designs enable the XYZ CPM to be employed in many applications such as micro-/nano-positioning, micro-/nano-manufacturing and micro-/nano-assembly. Finally, a spatial high-precision translational system is presented based on the practical design schemes, taking the actuator and sensor integration into account.

  20. I-SWOT as instrument to individually optimize therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: Effective, norm-compliant and meeting the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachweh, A; von Kodolitsch, Y; Kölbel, T; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Wipper, S; Bernhardt, A M; Girdauskas, E; Detter, C; Reichenspurner, H; Blankart, C R; Debus, E S

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines summarize medical evidence, they identify the most efficient therapy under study conditions and recommend this therapy for use. The physician now has the challenge to translate a therapy that is efficient under laboratory conditions to a patient who is an individual person. To accomplish this task the physician has to make sure that (I) the ideal typical therapy is applicable and effective in this individual patient taking the special features into consideration, that (II) therapy is compliant with the norm including guidelines, laws and ethical requirements (conformity) and that (III) the therapy meets the patient's needs. How can physicians together with the patients translate the medical evidence into an individually optimized therapy? At the German Aortic Center in Hamburg we use I‑SWOT as an instrument to identify such individually optimized therapy. With I‑SWOT, we present an instrument with which we have developed an (I) efficient, (II) conform and (III) needs-oriented therapeutic strategy for individual patients. I-SWOT cross-tabulates strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients. This I‑SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy, which comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. We discuss the case of a patient with asymptomatic thoracoabdominal aneurysm to show how I‑SWOT is used to identify an individually optimized therapy strategy.

  1. Force microscopy of layering and friction in an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoth, Judith; Hausen, Florian; Bennewitz, Roland; Müser, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate ([Py 1,4 ][FAP]) in confinement between a SiO x and a Au(1 1 1) surface are investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) under electrochemical control. Up to 12 layers of ion pairs can be detected through force measurements while approaching the tip of the AFM to the surface. The particular shape of the force versus distance curve is explained by a model for the interaction between tip, gold surface and ionic liquid, which assumes an exponentially decaying oscillatory force originating from bulk liquid density correlations. Jumps in the tip–sample distance upon approach correspond to jumps of the compliant force sensor between branches of the oscillatory force curve. Frictional force between the laterally moving tip and the surface is detected only after partial penetration of the last double layer between tip and surface. (paper)

  2. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

  3. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  4. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  5. Assuring image authenticity within a data grid using lossless digital signature embedding and a HIPAA-compliant auditing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper C.; Ma, Kevin C.; Liu, Brent J.

    2008-03-01

    A Data Grid for medical images has been developed at the Image Processing and Informatics Laboratory, USC to provide distribution and fault-tolerant storage of medical imaging studies across Internet2 and public domain. Although back-up policies and grid certificates guarantee privacy and authenticity of grid-access-points, there still lacks a method to guarantee the sensitive DICOM images have not been altered or corrupted during transmission across a public domain. This paper takes steps toward achieving full image transfer security within the Data Grid by utilizing DICOM image authentication and a HIPAA-compliant auditing system. The 3-D lossless digital signature embedding procedure involves a private 64 byte signature that is embedded into each original DICOM image volume, whereby on the receiving end the signature can to be extracted and verified following the DICOM transmission. This digital signature method has also been developed at the IPILab. The HIPAA-Compliant Auditing System (H-CAS) is required to monitor embedding and verification events, and allows monitoring of other grid activity as well. The H-CAS system federates the logs of transmission and authentication events at each grid-access-point and stores it into a HIPAA-compliant database. The auditing toolkit is installed at the local grid-access-point and utilizes Syslog [1], a client-server standard for log messaging over an IP network, to send messages to the H-CAS centralized database. By integrating digital image signatures and centralized logging capabilities, DICOM image integrity within the Medical Imaging and Informatics Data Grid can be monitored and guaranteed without loss to any image quality.

  6. Implications of Multi-Core Architectures on the Development of Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS) Compliant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Two CBEA based products available for purchase were: Sony PlayStation 3 and the IBM BladeCenter QS20. The CBEA provides a single general purpose...and second generation Sony PlayStation 3 devices. Figure 13 provides the block diagram for the CMOS 90 nm Cell Broadband Engine processor [IBM07a...information between two red networks via a black network. In this scenario, a Sony PlayStation 3 is used for the CBEA-compliant processor. The CBEA

  7. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  8. Multi-layered controllable stiffness beams for morphing: energy, actuation force, and material strain considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Gabriel; Gandhi, Farhan

    2010-01-01

    Morphing aerospace structures could benefit from the ability of structural elements to transition from a stiff load-bearing state to a relatively compliant state that can undergo large deformation at low actuation cost. The present paper focuses on multi-layered beams with controllable flexural stiffness—comprising polymer layers affixed to the surfaces of a base beam and cover layers, in turn, affixed to the surfaces of the polymer layers. Heating the polymer through the glass transition reduces its shear modulus, decouples the cover layers from the base beam and reduces the overall flexural stiffness. Although the stiffness and actuation force required to bend the beam reduce, the energy required to heat the polymer layer must also be considered. Results show that for beams with low slenderness ratios, relatively thick polymer layers, and cover layers whose extensional stiffness is high, the decoupling of the cover layers through softening of the polymer layers can result in flexural stiffness reductions of over 95%. The energy savings are also highest for these configurations, and will increase as the deformation of the beam increases. The decoupling of the cover layers from the base beam through the softening of the polymer reduces the axial strains in the cover layers significantly; otherwise material failure would prevent large deformation. Results show that when the polymer layer is stiff, the cover layers are the dominant contributors to the total energy in the beam, and the energy in the polymer layers is predominantly axial strain energy. When the polymer layers are softened the energy in the cover layers is a small contributor to the total energy which is dominated by energy in the base beam and shear strain energy in the polymer layer

  9. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M.; Karakas, Zeynep N.; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω μɛ-1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was -5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle.

  10. Closed-form critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures on compliant ground under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double impulse is introduced as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. A closed-form solution of the elastic-plastic response of a structure on compliant (flexible ground by the ‘critical double impulse’ is derived for the first time based on the solution for the corresponding structure with fixed base. As in the case of fixed-base model, only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse and the energy approach plays an important role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response on compliant ground. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that, in the case of a smaller input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes larger, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. On the other hand, in the case of a larger input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes smaller, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. The criticality and validity of the proposed theory are investigated through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  11. Malachi’s concept of a Torah-compliant community (Ml 3:22 [MT] and its associated implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing O. Boloje

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Malachi’s distinctive claims that guarantee a well-ordered community, namely the validity and feasibility of a Torah-compliant community. Since Torah compliance is a fundamental core of Israel’s life, in the book of Malachi, Yahweh’s Torah functions as the reliable and invariable authority for the community well-being as a whole. Community well-being as pictured by Malachi is created not only by Yahweh but also as the consequent contemplation and action of community. Malachi notes clearly that it is the sins of the community as a whole that renders it inconceivable that Yahweh’s blessings should attend to them as they are now, and Malachi demands certain definite and substantial actions as preconditions to the manifestation of the desired expectations. To him the secret of creating and maintaining a healthy, viable community and living as people in covenant relationship with Yahweh, is by ‘remembering’ (upholding and practicing Yahweh’s Torah. Accordingly, Malachi enjoined his audience to remember the Torah of Moses, which constitutes the fundamental dimensions of their relationship with Yahweh. This article is thus an attempt to understand Malachi’s concept of a Torah-compliant community and its associated blessings of happiness and shalom.

  12. Experimental investigations of the large deflection capabilities of a compliant parallel mechanism actuated by shape memory alloy wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, M; Nagarajan, T; Singaperumal, M

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the coupled effect of the force developed by the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and the force required for the large deflection of an elastica member in a compliant parallel mechanism. The compliant mechanism developed in house consists of a moving platform mounted on a superelastic pillar and three SMA wire actuators to manipulate the platform. A three-axis MEMS accelerometer has been mounted on the moving platform to measure its tilt angle. Three miniature force sensors have been designed and fabricated out of cantilever beams, each mounted with a pair of strain gauges, to measure the force developed by the respective actuators. The force sensors are highly sensitive and cost effective compared to commercially available miniature force sensors. Calibration of the force sensors has been accomplished with known weights, and for the three-axis MEMS accelerometer a rotary base has been considered which is usually used in optical applications. The calibration curves obtained, with R-squared values between 0.9997 and 1.0, show that both the tilt and force sensors considered are most appropriate for the respective applications. The mechanism fixed with the sensors and the drivers for the SMA actuators is integrated with a National Instrument's data acquisition system. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical results and it was found that the relative error is less than 2%. This is a preliminary study in the development of a mechanism for eye prosthesis and similar applications

  13. Establishing an Iso-Compliant Modern Cancer-Biobank in a Developing Country: A Model for International Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughayer, Maher A; Souan, Lina

    2015-01-01

    King Hussein Cancer (KHCC) is a specialized cancer center that treats both adult and pediatric cancer patients from Jordan and the neighboring countries. KHCC is acknowledged as a leader in cancer treatment in the Middle East and its vision is to maintain its leading position in cancer therapy and research. Hence, KHCC embarked on establishing the first ISO compliant cancer biobank (KHCCBIO) in Jordan.Currently, there are very few biobanks in the Middle East, hence, KHCC wanted to change this situation by establishing an ISO-compliant cancer biobank which would incorporate all current international guidelines and best-in class practices under an approved quality management system for the benefit of researchers in Jordan, its neighboring countries, and throughout the world. The established biobank would follow the highest ethical standards in collecting, processing, storing and distributing high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens.The strategy used in establishing KHCCBIO was based on taking advantage of international networking and collaboration. This in essence led to knowledge transfer between well established organizations, institutions and individuals from Europe and Jordan, in existing technological innovation and internationally recognized quality standards. KHCC efforts were facilitated by a grant from the European Union under the seventh frame work program.Future aims of KHCCBIO are to develop KHCC's research infrastructure, increase its scope and visibility and improve its competitiveness throughout the biomedical science arena. Moreover, KHCCBIO is aiming to establish a platform for future knowledge transfer and collaborative research; develop partnerships between European and Middle Eastern organizations.

  14. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M; Karakas, Zeynep N; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω με −1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was −5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle. (paper)

  15. GMP-compliant automated synthesis of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 (Florbetapir F 18) for imaging {beta}-amyloid plaques in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, C.-H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.-J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Weng, C.-C. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ting, Y.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Jan, T.-R. [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Skovronsky, Daniel [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, M.-P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Wey, S.-P., E-mail: spwey@mail.cgu.edu.t [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report herein the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant automated synthesis of {sup 18}F-labeled styrylpyridine, AV-45 (Florbetapir), a novel tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaques in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. [{sup 18}F]AV-45 was prepared in 105 min using a tosylate precursor with Sumitomo modules for radiosynthesis under GMP-compliant conditions. The overall yield was 25.4{+-}7.7% with a final radiochemical purity of 95.3{+-}2.2% (n=19). The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]AV-45 reached as high as 470{+-}135 TBq/mmol (n=19). The present studies show that [{sup 18}F]AV-45 can be manufactured under GMP-compliant conditions and could be widely available for routine clinical use.

  16. Compliant gel polymer electrolyte based on poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl alcohol) for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xianguo; Huang, Xinglan; Gao, Jiandong; Zhang, Shu; Deng, Zhenghua; Suo, Jishuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Compliant gel polymer electrolyte based on P(MA-co-AN)/PVA is facilely prepared for flexible lithium-ion batteries. •The compliant gel polymer electrolyte displays high ionic conductivity, self-standing and mechanical flexible. •The compliant gel polymer electrolyte exhibits excellent chemical and electrochemical performances. -- Abstract: In this report, mechanically compliant gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) for flexible lithium-ion batteries is facilely fabricated. The GPE that based on the poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (P(MA-co-AN)/PVA) was prepared via emulsion polymerization. Herein, the P(MA-co-AN) copolymer is anticipated to exert beneficial for the bendability of the GPE, as well as swollen with the liquid electrolyte to provide a facile pathway for ion movement. The PVA serves as a stabilizer during the emulsion polymerization and a mechanical framework for the compliant polymer membrane. Performance benefits of the mechanically compliant membrane are elucidated in terms of mechanical behavior, thermostability and ionic conductivity. The GPE is still self-standing and mechanical flexible after swollen with liquid electrolyte. The GPE displays a conductivity of 0.98 mS cm −1 with the uptake electrolyte up to 150% of its own weight at 30 °C, excellent electrochemical stability window (5.2 V vs. Li/Li + ) and favorable interfacial characteristics. When used in flexible lithium-ion batteries, such a GPE demonstrates satisfactory compatibility with LiCoO 2 and graphite electrodes

  17. Thin pentacene layer under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srnanek, R.; Jakabovic, J.; Kovac, J.; Donoval, D.; Dobrocka, E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have got a lot of interest during the last years, due to their usability for organic thin film transistor. Pentacene, C 22 H 14 , is one of leading candidates for this purpose. While we obtain the published data about pressure-induced phase transition only on single crystal of pentacene we present pressure-induced phase transition in pentacene thin layers for the first time. Changes in the pentacene structure, caused by the pressure, were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Applying the defined pressure to the pentacene layer it can be transformed from thin phase to bulk phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was found as useful method for detection of changes and phases identification in the pentacene layer induced by mechanical pressure. Such a pressure-induced transformation of pentacene thin layers was observed and identified for the first time. (authors)

  18. Identifying, meeting, and assessing customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danner, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining proficiency in carrying out mission goals is fundamental to the success of any organization. The definitive mission of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is open-quotes to conduct waste management activities in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient mannerclose quotes. In order to effectively fulfill this mission, must meet or exceed several standards in respect to our customers. These include: (1) identifying current and future customer expectations; (2) managing our relationships with our customers; (3) ensuring our commitment to our customers; and (4) measuring our success m customer satisfaction. Our customers have a great variety of requirements and expectations. Many of these are in the form of local, state, and federal regulations and environmental standards. Others are brought to our attention through inquires made to the Department of Energy (DOE).Consumer surveys have proven to be effective tools which have been used to make improvements, enhance certain program elements, and identify beneficial areas in already existing programs. In addition, national working groups, technology transfer meetings, and manager/contractor's meeting offer excellent opportunities to assess our activities

  19. A High-Order Theory for the Analysis of Circular Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells with Transversely Compliant Core Subjected to External Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Omid; Khalili, S.M.R.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2012-01-01

    A new model based on the high order sandwich panel theory is proposed to study the effect of external loads on the free vibration of circular cylindrical composite sandwich shells with transversely compliant core, including also the calculation of the buckling loads. In the present model......, which is based on a 3D elasticity solution for the core material, can be used as a benchmark in future studies of the free vibration and buckling of circular cylindrical composite sandwich shells with a transversely compliant core....

  20. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  1. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  2. No difference between mechanical perturbation training with compliant surface and manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after ACL rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Logerstedt, David; Failla, Mathew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-27

    Manual perturbation training improves dynamic knee stability and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL-rupture). However, it is limited to static standing position and does not allow time-specific perturbations at different phase of functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administering mechanical perturbation training including compliant surface provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional measures after an acute ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-ruptures participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical (Mechanical) and eight subjects received manual perturbation training (Manual). All patients completed a functional testing (isometric quadriceps strength, single-legged hop tests) and patient-reported measures (Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), Global Rating Score (GRS), International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 (IKDC 2000) at pre- and post-training. 2 × 2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for all measures (p > 0.18). Main effects of time were found for single hop (Pre-testing: 85.14% ± 21.07; Post-testing: 92.49% ± 17.55), triple hop (Pre-testing: 84.64% ± 14.17; Post-testing: 96.64% ± 11.14), KOS-ADLS (Pre-testing: 81.13% ± 11.12; Post-testing: 88.63% ± 12.63), GRS (Pre-testing: 68.63% ± 15.73; Post-testing: 78.81% ± 13.85), and IKDC 2000 (Pre-testing: 66.66% ± 9.85; Post-testing: 76.05% ± 14.62) (p training using compliant surfaces induce effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after acute ACL-rupture. The clinical significance is both modes of training improve patients' functional-performance and limb-to-limb movement symmetry, and enhancing the patients' self-reported of knee functional measures after ACL rupture. Mechanical

  3. Determining the Optimum Portfolio of Sharia Stocks Using an Approach of Shariah Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Husein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shariah Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM is a modification of the model Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. This research is quantitative descriptive study of theories of optimal portfolio analysis applied to trading stocks, especially in stocks Jakarta Islamic Index. Sampling technique used was purposive sampling and obtained 26 shares. The analysis tool used is MatLab R2010a. The results of this study are not prove theMarkowitz portfolio theory. This is explained by the amount of Beta market (β_m a value beta below 1 indicates that the fluctuation of stocks returns do not follow the movement of market fluctuations. Investors are likely to want a high profit, the investors are advised to choose a second portfolio groups, with rate of 0.176722% and investors are likely to enjoy a substantial risk in the investment portfolio are advised to choose the first group with a great risk of 0.8501%.

  4. Prototype of a Standards-Based EHR and Genetic Test Reporting Tool Coupled with HL7-Compliant Infobuttons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Jacob K.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Williams, Marc S.; Freimuth, Robert R.

    2018-01-01

    Integration of genetic information is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. However, genetic information is often ambiguous and difficult to understand, and clinicians have reported low-self-efficacy in integrating genetics into their care routine. The Health Level Seven (HL7) Infobutton standard helps to integrate online knowledge resources within Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and is required for EHR certification in the US. We implemented a prototype of a standards-based genetic reporting application coupled with infobuttons leveraging the Infobutton and Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) Standards. Infobutton capabilities were provided by Open Infobutton, an open source package compliant with the HL7 Infobutton Standard. The resulting prototype demonstrates how standards-based reporting of genetic results, coupled with curated knowledge resources, can provide dynamic access to clinical knowledge on demand at the point of care. The proposed functionality can be enabled within any EHR system that has been certified through the US Meaningful Use program.

  5. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  6. Conception and Implementation of an OGC-Compliant Sensor Observation Service for a Standardized Access to Raster Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Sorg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The target of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC is interoperability of geographic information, which means creating opportunities to access geodata in a consistent, standardized way. In the domain of sensor data, the target will be picked up within the OGC Sensor Web Enablement Initiative and especially reached through the Sensor Observation Service (SOS standard. This one defines a service for a standardized access to time series data and is usually used for in situ sensors (like discharge gauges and climate stations. Although the standard considers raster data, no implementation of the standard for raster data exists presently. In this paper an OGC-compliant Sensor Observation Service for a standardized access to raster data is described. A data model was developed that enables effective storage of the raster data with the corresponding metadata in a database, reading this data in an efficient way, and encoding it with result formats that the SOS-standard provides.

  7. Analisis Saham Syariah Efisien dengan Pendekatan Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model (SCAPM pada Jakarta Islamic Index (JII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Hasan Quthbi

    2017-10-01

    Artikel ini bermaksud untuk menganalisis saham syariah yang tergolong efisien untuk keputusan investasi dengan menggunakan SCAPM (Shari’a Compliant Asset Pricing Model. SCAPM adalah bentuk modifikasi dari CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model yang bertujuan agar kerangka model analisis masih dalam kerangka syariah. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dokumentasi dari data yang bersifat sekunder. Digunakan 13 sampel saham syariah pada penelitian ini dengan kriteria saham syariah yang konsisten masuk pada JII (Jakarta Islamic Index periode penelitian Desember 2013 hingga November 2016 dan memiliki pengembalian saham individual positif. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 9 saham syariah yang tergolong efisien dan 4 sisanya tidak efisien. Saham PT. Adaro Energy memiliki nilai RVAR terbesar yang berarti memiliki kinerja saham paling baik.

  8. Fabrication of a compliant phantom of the human aortic arch for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütter Larissa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compliant phantoms of the human aortic arch can mimic patient specific cardiovascular dysfunctions in vitro. Hence, phantoms may enable elucidation of haemodynamic disturbances caused by aortic dysfunction. This paper describes the fabrication of a thin-walled silicone phantom of the human ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery. The model geometry was determined via a meta-analysis and modelled in SolidWorks before 3D printing. The solid model surface was smoothed and scanned with a 3D scanner. An offset outer mould was milled from Ebalta S-Model board. The final phantom indicated that ABS was a suitable material for the internal model, the Ebalta S-Model board yielded a rough external surface. Co-location of the moulds during silicone pour was insufficient to enable consistent wall thickness. The resulting phantom was free of air bubbles but did not have the desired wall thickness consistency.

  9. The Biological Connection Markup Language: a SBGN-compliant format for visualization, filtering and analysis of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Luca; Calura, Enrica; Popovici, Razvan R; Rizzetto, Lisa; Guedez, Damariz Rivero; Donato, Michele; Romualdi, Chiara; Draghici, Sorin; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2011-08-01

    Many models and analysis of signaling pathways have been proposed. However, neither of them takes into account that a biological pathway is not a fixed system, but instead it depends on the organism, tissue and cell type as well as on physiological, pathological and experimental conditions. The Biological Connection Markup Language (BCML) is a format to describe, annotate and visualize pathways. BCML is able to store multiple information, permitting a selective view of the pathway as it exists and/or behave in specific organisms, tissues and cells. Furthermore, BCML can be automatically converted into data formats suitable for analysis and into a fully SBGN-compliant graphical representation, making it an important tool that can be used by both computational biologists and 'wet lab' scientists. The XML schema and the BCML software suite are freely available under the LGPL for download at http://bcml.dc-atlas.net. They are implemented in Java and supported on MS Windows, Linux and OS X.

  10. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org).

  11. Ownership transfer for non-federate object and time management in developing an hla compliant logistics model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.

    1998-01-12

    A seaport simulation model, PORTSIM, has been developed for the Department of Defense (DOD) at Argonne National Laboratory. PORTSIM simulates the detailed processes of cargo loading and unloading in a seaport and provides throughput capability, resource utilization, and other important information on the bottlenecks in a seaport operation, which are crucial data in determining troop and equipment deployment capability. There are two key problems to solve in developing the HLA-compliant PORTSIM model. The first is the cargo object ownership transfer problem. In PORTSIM, cargo items, e.g. vehicles, containers, and pallets, are objects having asset attributes. Cargo comes to a seaport for loading or unloading. The ownership of a cargo object transfers from its carrier to the port and then from the port to a new carrier. Each owner of the cargo object is responsible for publishing and updating the attributes of the cargo object when it has the ownership. This creates a unique situation in developing the PORTSIM federate object model, that is, the ownership of the object instead of the attributes needs to be changed in handling the cargo object in the PORTSIM federate. The ownership management service provided by the current RTI does not directly address this issue. The second is the time management issue. PORTSIM is an event-driven simulation that models seaport operations over time. To make PORTSIM HLA compliant, time management must be addressed to allow for synchronization with other simulation models. This paper attempts to address these two issues and methodologies developed for solving these two problems.

  12. MIG version 0.0 model interface guidelines: Rules to accelerate installation of numerical models into any compliant parent code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of A High Precision 3D-Printed Ti6Al4V Compliant Parallel Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tuan; Teo, Tat Joo; Huat Yeo, Song; Wang, Pan; Nai, Mui Ling Sharon

    2017-12-01

    A novel 3D printed compliant parallel manipulator (CPM) with θX - θX - Z motions is presented in this paper. This CPM is synthesized using the beam-based method, a new structural optimization approach, to achieve optimized stiffness properties with targeted dynamic behavior. The CPM performs high non-actuating stiffness based on the predicted stiffness ratios of about 3600 for translations and 570 for rotations, while the dynamic response is fast with the targeted first resonant mode of 100Hz. A prototype of the synthesized CPM is fabricated using the electron beam melting (EBM) technology with Ti6Al4V material. Driven by three voice-coil (VC) motors, the CPM demonstrated a positioning resolution of 50nm along the Z axis and an angular resolution of ~0.3 “about the X and Y axes, the positioning accuracy is also good with the measured values of ±25.2nm and ±0.17” for the translation and rotations respectively. Experimental investigation also shows that this large workspace CPM has a first resonant mode of 98Hz and the stiffness behavior matches the prediction with the highest deviation of 11.2%. Most importantly, the full workspace of 10° × 10° × 7mm of the proposed CPM can be achieved, that demonstrates 3D printed compliant mechanisms can perform large elastic deformation. The obtained results show that CPMs printed by EBM technology have predictable mechanical characteristics and are applicable in precise positioning systems.

  14. Full-duplex transmission of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant MIMO WLAN signals over a 2-km 7-core fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Yuting; Li, Jianqiang; Lei, Yi; Tang, Ming; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate a full-duplex transmission system of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signals over a 2-km 7-core fiber for in-building wireless local-area network (WLAN) distributed antenna systems. For full-duplex 3 � 3 MIMO

  15. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  16. The Protein Identifier Cross-Referencing (PICR service: reconciling protein identifiers across multiple source databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leinonen Rasko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each major protein database uses its own conventions when assigning protein identifiers. Resolving the various, potentially unstable, identifiers that refer to identical proteins is a major challenge. This is a common problem when attempting to unify datasets that have been annotated with proteins from multiple data sources or querying data providers with one flavour of protein identifiers when the source database uses another. Partial solutions for protein identifier mapping exist but they are limited to specific species or techniques and to a very small number of databases. As a result, we have not found a solution that is generic enough and broad enough in mapping scope to suit our needs. Results We have created the Protein Identifier Cross-Reference (PICR service, a web application that provides interactive and programmatic (SOAP and REST access to a mapping algorithm that uses the UniProt Archive (UniParc as a data warehouse to offer protein cross-references based on 100% sequence identity to proteins from over 70 distinct source databases loaded into UniParc. Mappings can be limited by source database, taxonomic ID and activity status in the source database. Users can copy/paste or upload files containing protein identifiers or sequences in FASTA format to obtain mappings using the interactive interface. Search results can be viewed in simple or detailed HTML tables or downloaded as comma-separated values (CSV or Microsoft Excel (XLS files suitable for use in a local database or a spreadsheet. Alternatively, a SOAP interface is available to integrate PICR functionality in other applications, as is a lightweight REST interface. Conclusion We offer a publicly available service that can interactively map protein identifiers and protein sequences to the majority of commonly used protein databases. Programmatic access is available through a standards-compliant SOAP interface or a lightweight REST interface. The PICR

  17. Quantification of retinal layer thickness changes in acute macular neuroretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Marion R.; Beck, Marco; Kolb, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively evaluate retinal layer thickness changes in acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). Methods AMN areas were identified using near-infrared reflectance (NIR) images. Intraretinal layer segmentation using Heidelberg software was performed. The inbuilt ETDRS -grid was moved on...

  18. Mechanically Compliant Electronic Materials for Wearable Photovoltaics and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy Francis, III

    Applications of stretchable electronic materials for human-machine interfaces are described herein. Intrinsically stretchable organic conjugated polymers and stretchable electronic composites were used to develop stretchable organic photovoltaics (OPVs), mechanically robust wearable OPVs, and human-machine interfaces for gesture recognition, American Sign Language Translation, haptic control of robots, and touch emulation for virtual reality, augmented reality, and the transmission of touch. The stretchable and wearable OPVs comprise active layers of poly-3-alkylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3AT:PCBM) and transparent conductive electrodes of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and devices could only be fabricated through a deep understanding of the connection between molecular structure and the co-engineering of electronic performance with mechanical resilience. The talk concludes with the use of composite piezoresistive sensors two smart glove prototypes. The first integrates stretchable strain sensors comprising a carbon-elastomer composite, a wearable microcontroller, low energy Bluetooth, and a 6-axis accelerometer/gyroscope to construct a fully functional gesture recognition glove capable of wirelessly translating American Sign Language to text on a cell phone screen. The second creates a system for the haptic control of a 3D printed robot arm, as well as the transmission of touch and temperature information.

  19. Dynamics of the Marine Cloud Layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chi, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Goals of this research have been to identify physical processes that determine the dynamics of marine cloud layers and to quantify roles of turbulence, convection and thermal radiation that play in formation...

  20. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  1. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  2. Comparing the effects of mechanical perturbation training with a compliant surface and manual perturbation training on joints kinematics after ACL-rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Failla, Mathew; Marmon, Adam; Logerstedt, David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2018-05-23

    Performing physical activities on a compliant surface alters joint kinematics and increases joints stiffness. However, the effect of compliant surface on joint kinematics after ACL-rupture is yet unknown. To compare the effects of mechanical perturbation training with a compliant surface to manual perturbation training on joint kinematics after ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-rupture participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical perturbation with compliant surface (Mechanical) and 8 patients received manual perturbation training (Manual). Patients completed standard gait analysis before (Pre) and after (Post) training. Significant group-by-time interactions were found for knee flexion angle at initial contact (IC) and peak knee flexion (PKF) (pMechanical:27.68+4.08°, p = 0.011), hip rotation angle at PKE (Manual:-3.40+4.78°, Mechanical:5.43+4.78°, p Mechanical:0.55+2.23°, p = 0.039). Main effects of time were found for hip adduction angle at PKE (Pre:6.98+4.48°, Post:8.41+4.91°, p = 0.04), knee adduction angle at IC (Pre:-2.90+3.50°, Post:-0.62+2.58°, p = 0.03), ankle adduction angle at IC (Pre:2.16+3.54, Post:3.8+3.68, p = 0.008), and ankle flexion angle at PKF (Pre:-4.55+2.77°, Post:-2.39+3.48°, p = 0.01). Training on a compliant surface induces different effects on joint kinematics compared to manual perturbation training after ACL-rupture. Manual perturbation improved hip alignment and increased knee flexion angles, while mechanical training decreased knee flexion angles throughout the stance phase. Administering training on a compliant surface after ACL-rupture may help improving dynamic knee stability, however, long-term effects on knee health needs to be determined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  4. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  5. How compliant are dental practice Facebook pages with Australian health care advertising regulations? A Netnographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Acl; Spallek, H

    2018-03-01

    The National Law that regulates the dental and other health care professions in Australia sets out regulations that dictate how dental practices are to advertise. This study examines the extent to which the profession complies with these regulations and the potential impact that advertising may have upon professionalism. A Facebook search of 38 local government areas in Sydney, New South Wales, was carried out to identify dental practices that had pages on this social media site. A framework for assessment of compliance was developed using the regulatory guidelines and was used to conduct a netnographic review. Two hundred and sixty-six practice pages were identified from across the 38 regions. Of these pages, 71.05% were in breach of the National Law in their use of testimonials, 5.26% displayed misleading or false information, 4.14% displayed offers that had no clear terms and conditions or had inexact pricing, 19.55% had pictures or text that was likely to create unrealistic expectations of treatment benefit and 16.92% encouraged the indiscriminate and unnecessary utilization of health services. This study found that compliance with the National Law by the Facebook pages surveyed was poor. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  7. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  8. The risk of second hip fracture is decreased with compliant and persistent use of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Vestergaard, Peter; Petersen, Karin Dam

    experience a 19% increased mortality within the first year following hip fractures. Furthermore, studies have shown that within 10 years after first hip fracture 40% will experience another hip fracture. The risk for second hip fracture is markedly increased, initiating at a relative risk of 11.8 within...... the first month after fracture and does not normalise until 15 years later. Fracture prevention programs have focused on identifying patients at risk of secondary low energy trauma fractures. The secondary prevention programs for fractures begin immediately after the first fracture, through identification...... of risk factors and initiate pharmaceutical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential benefits from alendronate treatment for secondary low energy trauma fracture patients in Denmark, compared to no pharmaceutical treatment for this group of patients. METHODS: A Markov model...

  9. Riding through red lights: the rate, characteristics and risk factors of non-compliant urban commuter cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilyn; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the rate and associated factors of red light infringement among urban commuter cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a covert video camera to record cyclists at 10 sites across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia from October 2008 to April 2009. In total, 4225 cyclists faced a red light and 6.9% were non-compliant. The main predictive factor for infringement was direction of travel, cyclists turning left (traffic travels on the left-side in Australia) had 28.3 times the relative odds of infringement compared to cyclists who continued straight through the intersection. Presence of other road users had a deterrent effect with the odds of infringement lower when a vehicle travelling in the same direction was present (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.53) or when other cyclists were present (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36). Findings suggest that some cyclists do not perceive turning left against a red signal to be unsafe and the opportunity to ride through the red light during low cross traffic times influences the likelihood of infringement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Tissue Homogenization to Support the Generation of GMP-Compliant Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from the Umbilical Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Emnett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the umbilical cord (UC is an excellent source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. However, current protocols for extracting and culturing UC-MSCs do not meet current good manufacturing practice (cGMP standards, in part due to the use of xenogeneic reagents. To support the development of a cGMP-compliant method, we have examined an enzyme-free isolation method utilizing tissue homogenization (t-H followed by culture in human platelet lysate (PL supplemented media. The yield and viability of cells after t-H were comparable to those obtained after collagenase digestion (Col-D. Importantly, kinetic analysis of cultured cells showed logarithmic growth over 10 tested passages, although the rate of cell division was lower for t-H as compared to Col-D. This slower growth of t-H-derived cells was also reflected in their longer population doubling time. Interestingly, there was no difference in the expression of mesenchymal markers and trilineage differentiation potential of cells generated using either method. Finally, t-H-derived cells had greater clonogenic potential compared to Col-D/FBS but not Col-D/PL and were able to maintain CFU-F capacity through P7. This bench scale study demonstrates the possibility of generating therapeutic doses of good quality UC-MSCs within a reasonable length of time using t-H and PL.

  11. Systematic Design Method and Experimental Validation of a 2-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism with Excellent Input and Output Decoupling Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The output and input coupling characteristics of the compliant parallel mechanism (CPM bring difficulty in the motion control and challenge its high performance and operational safety. This paper presents a systematic design method for a 2-degrees-of-freedom (DOFs CPM with excellent decoupling performance. A symmetric kinematic structure can guarantee a CPM with a complete output decoupling characteristic; input coupling is reduced by resorting to a flexure-based decoupler. This work discusses the stiffness design requirement of the decoupler and proposes a compound flexure hinge as its basic structure. Analytical methods have been derived to assess the mechanical performances of the CPM in terms of input and output stiffness, motion stroke, input coupling degree, and natural frequency. The CPM’s geometric parameters were optimized to minimize the input coupling while ensuring key performance indicators at the same time. The optimized CPM’s performances were then evaluated by using a finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was constructed and experimental validations were carried out to test the performance of the CPM and verify the effectiveness of the design method. The design procedure proposed in this paper is systematic and can be extended to design the CPMs with other types of motion.

  12. Design response spectra-compliant real and synthetic GMS for seismic analysis of seismically isolated nuclear reactor containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmer Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the severe impacts of recent earthquakes, the use of seismic isolation is paramount for the safety of nuclear structures. The diversity observed in seismic events demands ongoing research to analyze the devastating attributes involved, and hence to enhance the sustainability of base-isolated nuclear power plants. This study reports the seismic performance of a seismically-isolated nuclear reactor containment building (NRCB under strong short-period ground motions (SPGMs and long-period ground motions (LPGMs. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission-based design response spectrum for the seismic design of nuclear power plants is stipulated as the reference spectrum for ground motion selection. Within the period range(s of interest, the spectral matching of selected records with the target spectrum is ensured using the spectral-compatibility approach. NRC-compliant SPGMs and LPGMs from the mega-thrust Tohoku earthquake are used to obtain the structural response of the base-isolated NRCB. To account for the lack of earthquakes in low-to-moderate seismicity zones and the gap in the artificial synthesis of long-period records, wavelet-decomposition based autoregressive moving average modeling for artificial generation of real ground motions is performed. Based on analysis results from real and simulated SPGMs versus LPGMs, the performance of NRCBs is discussed with suggestions for future research and seismic provisions.

  13. Expansion of Human Tregs from Cryopreserved Umbilical Cord Blood for GMP-Compliant Autologous Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard R. Seay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood is a traditional and convenient source of cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymic regulatory T cells (Tregs are also present in cord blood, and there is growing interest in the use of autologous Tregs to provide a low-risk, fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched cell product for treating autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practice (GMP-compatible Treg expansion protocol using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in a mean 2,092-fold expansion of Tregs over a 16-day culture for a median yield of 1.26 × 109 Tregs from single-donor cryopreserved units. The resulting Tregs passed prior clinical trial release criteria for Treg purity and sterility, including additional rigorous assessments of FOXP3 and Helios expression and epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR. Compared with expanded adult peripheral blood Tregs, expanded cord blood Tregs remained more naive, as assessed by continued expression of CD45RA, produced reduced IFN-γ following activation, and effectively inhibited responder T cell proliferation. Immunosequencing of the T cell receptor revealed a remarkably diverse receptor repertoire within cord blood Tregs that was maintained following in vitro expansion. These data support the feasibility of generating GMP-compliant Tregs from cord blood for adoptive cell transfer therapies and highlight potential advantages in terms of safety, phenotypic stability, autoantigen specificity, and tissue distribution.

  14. 470‐MHz–698‐MHz IEEE 802.15.4m Compliant RF CMOS Transceiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngho Seo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an IEEE 802.15.4m compliant TV white‐space orthogonal frequency‐division multiplexing (TVWS‐(OFDM radio frequency (RF transceiver that can be adopted in advanced metering infrastructures, universal remote controllers, smart factories, consumer electronics, and other areas. The proposed TVWS‐OFDM RF transceiver consists of a receiver, a transmitter, a 25% duty‐cycle local oscillator generator, and a delta‐sigma fractional‐N phase‐locked loop. In the TV band from 470 MHz to 698 MHz, the highly linear RF transmitter protects the occupied TV signals, and the high‐Q filtering RF receiver is tolerable to in‐band interferers as strong as −20 dBm at a 3‐MHz offset. The proposed TVWS‐OFDM RF transceiver is fabricated using a 0.13‐μm CMOS process, and consumes 47 mA in the Tx mode and 35 mA in the Rx mode. The fabricated chip shows a Tx average power of 0 dBm with an error‐vector‐magnitude of  3%, and a sensitivity level of −103 dBm with a packet‐error‐rate of 3%. Using the implemented TVWS‐OFDM modules, a public demonstration of electricity metering was successfully carried out.

  15. Non-leaky modes and bandgaps of surface acoustic waves in wrinkled stiff-film/compliant-substrate bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Yang; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have found a wide variety of technical applications, including SAW filters, SAW resonators, microfluidic actuators, biosensors, flow measurement devices, and seismic wave shields. Stretchable/flexible electronic devices, such as sensory skins for robotics, structural health monitors, and wearable communication devices, have received considerable attention across different disciplines. Flexible SAW devices are essential building blocks for these applications, wherein piezoelectric films may need to be integrated with the compliant substrates. When piezoelectric films are much stiffer than soft substrates, SAWs are usually leaky and the devices incorporating them suffer from acoustic losses. In this study, the propagation of SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system is investigated, and our analysis shows that non-leaky modes can be achieved by engineering stress patterns through surface wrinkles in the system. Our analysis also uncovers intriguing bandgaps (BGs) related to the SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system; these are caused by periodic deformation patterns, which indicate that diverse wrinkling patterns could be used as metasurfaces for controlling the propagation of SAWs.

  16. BabelFish-Tools for IEEE C37.118.2-compliant real-time synchrophasor data mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, M. S.; Vanfretti, L.; Baudette, M.

    BabelFish (BF) is a real-time data mediator for development and fast prototyping of synchrophasor applications. BF is compliant with the synchrophasor data transmission IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011. BF establishes a TCP/IP connection with any Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) stream and parses the IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011 frames in real-time to provide access to raw numerical data in the LabVIEW environment. Furthermore, BF allows the user to select "data-of-interest" and transmit it to either a local or remote application using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in order to support both unicast and multicast communication. In the power systems Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control (WAMPAC) domain, BF provides the first Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) for the purpose of giving the users tools for fast prototyping of new applications processing PMU measurements in their chosen environment, thus liberating them of time consuming synchrophasor data handling and allowing them to develop applications in a modular fashion, without a need of a large and monolithic synchrophasor software environment.

  17. Design and experimental evaluation of a lightweight, high-torque and compliant actuator for an active ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltedo, Marta; Bacek, Tomislav; Langlois, Kevin; Junius, Karen; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    The human ankle joint plays a crucial role during walking. At the push-off phase the ankle plantarflexors generate the highest torque among the lower limb joints during this activity. The potential of the ankle plantarflexors is affected by numerous pathologies and injuries, which cause a decrease in the ability of the subject to achieve a natural gait pattern. Active orthoses have shown to have potential in assisting these subjects. The design of such robots is very challenging due to the contrasting design requirements of wearability (light weight and compact) and high torques capacity. This paper presents the development of a high-torque ankle actuator to assist the ankle joint in both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The compliant actuator is a spindle-driven MACCEPA (Mechanically Adjustable Compliance and Controllable Equilibrium Position Actuator). The design of the actuator was made to keep its weight as low as possible, while being able to provide high torques. As a result of this novel design, the actuator weighs 1.18kg. Some static characterization tests were perfomed on the actuator and their results are shown in the paper.

  18. An efficient semi-implicit method for three-dimensional non-hydrostatic flows in compliant arterial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambri, Francesco; Dumbser, Michael; Casulli, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    Blood flow in arterial systems can be described by the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations within a time-dependent spatial domain that accounts for the elasticity of the arterial walls. In this article, blood is treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid that flows through compliant vessels of general cross section. A three-dimensional semi-implicit finite difference and finite volume model is derived so that numerical stability is obtained at a low computational cost on a staggered grid. The key idea of the method consists in a splitting of the pressure into a hydrostatic and a non-hydrostatic part, where first a small quasi-one-dimensional nonlinear system is solved for the hydrostatic pressure and only in a second step the fully three-dimensional non-hydrostatic pressure is computed from a three-dimensional nonlinear system as a correction to the hydrostatic one. The resulting algorithm is robust, efficient, locally and globally mass conservative, and applies to hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flows in one, two and three space dimensions. These features are illustrated on nontrivial test cases for flows in tubes with circular or elliptical cross section where the exact analytical solution is known. Test cases of steady and pulsatile flows in uniformly curved rigid and elastic tubes are presented. Wherever possible, axial velocity development and secondary flows are shown and compared with previously published results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Design response spectra-compliant real and synthetic GMS for seismic analysis of seismically isolated nuclear reactor containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer [ENVICO Consultants Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abu-Hayah, Nadin; Kim, Doo Kie [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [Innose Tech Co., Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Due to the severe impacts of recent earthquakes, the use of seismic isolation is paramount for the safety of nuclear structures. The diversity observed in seismic events demands ongoing research to analyze the devastating attributes involved, and hence to enhance the sustainability of base-isolated nuclear power plants. This study reports the seismic performance of a seismically-isolated nuclear reactor containment building (NRCB) under strong short-period ground motions (SPGMs) and long-period ground motions (LPGMs). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission-based design response spectrum for the seismic design of nuclear power plants is stipulated as the reference spectrum for ground motion selection. Within the period range(s) of interest, the spectral matching of selected records with the target spectrum is ensured using the spectral-compatibility approach. NRC-compliant SPGMs and LPGMs from the mega-thrust Tohoku earthquake are used to obtain the structural response of the base-isolated NRCB. To account for the lack of earthquakes in low-to-moderate seismicity zones and the gap in the artificial synthesis of long-period records, wavelet-decomposition based autoregressive moving average modeling for artificial generation of real ground motions is performed. Based on analysis results from real and simulated SPGMs versus LPGMs, the performance of NRCBs is discussed with suggestions for future research and seismic provisions.

  20. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T.; Thomas, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes (‘FSC cigarettes’) that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk. PMID:28751788

  1. Learning compliant manipulation through kinesthetic and tactile human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Klas; Billard, Aude

    2014-01-01

    Robot Learning from Demonstration (RLfD) has been identified as a key element for making robots useful in daily lives. A wide range of techniques has been proposed for deriving a task model from a set of demonstrations of the task. Most previous works use learning to model the kinematics of the task, and for autonomous execution the robot then relies on a stiff position controller. While many tasks can and have been learned this way, there are tasks in which controlling the position alone is insufficient to achieve the goals of the task. These are typically tasks that involve contact or require a specific response to physical perturbations. The question of how to adjust the compliance to suit the need of the task has not yet been fully treated in Robot Learning from Demonstration. In this paper, we address this issue and present interfaces that allow a human teacher to indicate compliance variations by physically interacting with the robot during task execution. We validate our approach in two different experiments on the 7 DoF Barrett WAM and KUKA LWR robot manipulators. Furthermore, we conduct a user study to evaluate the usability of our approach from a non-roboticists perspective.

  2. How compliant are beverage employees to occupational health and safety regulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chetty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This observational study was undertaken to identify thehealth and safety violations of employees at a specific beverage manufac-turing company.  A  site inspection and observation of all employees employedat this specific beverage company was conducted by the researcher over 2 days. Employees were observed for 12 hours per day with the morningshift on Day 1 and the afternoon shift on Day 2. A  sample of conveniencewas used in that every employee who was present on those days was included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data set. There were a total of 212 employees and 332 behaviours observed during thisstudy period. Unsafe handling and behaviour was observed in 55% of observations. Incorrect manual lifting techniques was the most frequent health and safety violation observed. In the 48 manual lifting behaviours observed, correct practice was observed in only three cases.  It is clear thatmore healthcare education and practical training is required in the area of manual lifting techniques. It is clear that more practical training is required in the area of manual handling.

  3. An implementation of a security infrastructure compliant with the Italian Personal Data Protection Code in a web-based cooperative work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccher, Claudio; Eccher, Lorenzo; Izzo, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In this poster we describe the security solutions implemented in a web-based cooperative work frame-work for managing heart failure patients among different health care professionals involved in the care process. The solution, developed in close collaboration with the Law Department of the University of Trento, is compliant with the new Italian Personal Data Protection Code, issued in 2003, that regulates also the storing and processing of health data.

  4. Concurrent validity of accelerations measured using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kavanagh, Justin K; Morrison, Steven; Hodges, Paul W; Smeathers, James E; Kerr, Graham K

    2014-01-01

    Although accelerometers are extensively used for assessing gait, limited research has evaluated the concurrent validity of these devices on less predictable walking surfaces or the comparability of different methods used for gravitational acceleration compensation. This study evaluated the concurrent validity of trunk accelerations derived from a tri-axial inertial measurement unit while walking on firm, compliant and uneven surfaces and contrasted two methods used to remove gravitational accelerations; i) subtraction of the best linear fit from the data (detrending); and ii) use of orientation information (quaternions) from the inertial measurement unit. Twelve older and twelve younger adults walked at their preferred speed along firm, compliant and uneven walkways. Accelerations were evaluated for the thoracic spine (T12) using a tri-axial inertial measurement unit and an eleven-camera Vicon system. The findings demonstrated excellent agreement between accelerations derived from the inertial measurement unit and motion analysis system, including while walking on uneven surfaces that better approximate a real-world setting (all differences firm surfaces (delta range: -0.05 to 0.06 vs. 0.00 to 0.14 m.s(-2)), whereas the quaternion method performed better when walking on compliant and uneven walkways (delta range: -0.16 to -0.02 vs. -0.07 to 0.07 m.s(-2)). The technique used to compensate for gravitational accelerations requires consideration in future research, particularly when walking on compliant and uneven surfaces. These findings demonstrate trunk accelerations can be accurately measured using a wireless inertial measurement unit and are appropriate for research that evaluates healthy populations in complex environments.

  5. A MIQE-compliant real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L Johnson

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is widely used as a diagnostic tool in clinical laboratories and is particularly effective for detecting and identifying infectious agents for which routine culture and microscopy methods are inadequate. Invasive fungal disease (IFD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients, and optimal diagnostic criteria are contentious. Although PCR-based methods have long been used for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA, variable performance in clinical practice has limited their value. This shortcoming is a consequence of differing sample selection, collection and preparation protocols coupled with a lack of standardisation of the PCR itself. Furthermore, it has become clear that the performance of PCR-based assays in general is compromised by the inadequacy of experimental controls, insufficient optimisation of assay performance as well as lack of transparency in reporting experimental details. The recently published "Minimum Information for the publication of real-time Quantitative PCR Experiments" (MIQE guidelines provide a blueprint for good PCR assay design and unambiguous reporting of experimental detail and results. We report the first real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR assay targeting Aspergillus species that has been designed, optimised and validated in strict compliance with the MIQE guidelines. The hydrolysis probe-based assay, designed to target the 18S rRNA DNA sequence of Aspergillus species, has an efficiency of 100% (range 95-107%, a dynamic range of at least six orders of magnitude and limits of quantification and detection of 6 and 0.6 Aspergillus fumigatus genomes, respectively. It does not amplify Candida, Scedosporium, Fusarium or Rhizopus species and its clinical sensitivity is demonstrated in histological material from proven IA cases, as well as concordant PCR and galactomannan data in matched broncho-alveolar lavage and blood samples. The robustness

  6. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  7. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  8. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  9. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  10. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  11. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  12. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  13. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  14. Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam C. Afeiche

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0–5.9, 6–11.9, and 12–23.9 months and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012 was conducted (n = 949. Among 0–5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day, such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. For infants 6–11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6–11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31% and SSBs (35%. After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12–23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.

  15. Good manufacturing practice-compliant expansion of marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells for cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastens, Martin H; Goltry, Kristin; Prohaska, Wolfgang; Tschöpe, Diethelm; Stratmann, Bernd; Lammers, Dirk; Kirana, Stanley; Götting, Christian; Kleesiek, Knut

    2007-01-01

    production of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant cell therapeutics, ready for use within a clinical setting, with minimal risk of microbial contamination.

  16. Many Infants and Young Children Are Not Compliant with Mexican and International Complementary Feeding Recommendations for Milk and Other Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Villalpando-Carrión, Salvador; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fries, Lisa R; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-04-10

    Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0-5.9, 6-11.9, and 12-23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was conducted ( n = 949). Among 0-5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day) and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day), such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). For infants 6-11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6-11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31%) and SSBs (35%). After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12-23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.

  17. Multi-layer monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Caspar, D.L.D.

    1975-01-01

    This invention provides an artificial monochromator crystal for efficiently selecting a narrow band of neutron wavelengths from a neutron beam having a Maxwellian wavelength distribution, by providing on a substrate a plurality of germanium layers, and alternate periodic layers of a different metal having tailored thicknesses, shapes, and volumetric and neutron scattering densities. (U.S.)

  18. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  19. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  1. Biologically inspired multi-layered synthetic skin for tactile feedback in prosthetic limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Luke; Nguyen, Harrison; Betthauser, Joseph; Kaliki, Rahul; Thakor, Nitish

    2016-08-01

    The human body offers a template for many state-of-the-art prosthetic devices and sensors. In this work, we present a novel, sensorized synthetic skin that mimics the natural multi-layered nature of mechanoreceptors found in healthy glabrous skin to provide tactile information. The multi-layered sensor is made up of flexible piezoresistive textiles that act as force sensitive resistors (FSRs) to convey tactile information, which are embedded within a silicone rubber to resemble the compliant nature of human skin. The top layer of the synthetic skin is capable of detecting small loads less than 5 N whereas the bottom sensing layer responds reliably to loads over 7 N. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a simplified human fingertip and the synthetic skin was performed. Results suggest similarities in behavior during loading. A natural tactile event is simulated by loading the synthetic skin on a prosthetic limb. Results show the sensors' ability to detect applied loads as well as the ability to simulate neural spiking activity based on the derivative and temporal differences of the sensor response. During the tactile loading, the top sensing layer responded 0.24 s faster than the bottom sensing layer. A synthetic biologically-inspired skin such as this will be useful for enhancing the functionality of prosthetic limbs through tactile feedback.

  2. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  3. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  4. Conserved S-Layer-Associated Proteins Revealed by Exoproteomic Survey of S-Layer-Forming Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brant R.; Hymes, Jeffrey; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Lactobacillus acidophilus homology group comprises Gram-positive species that include L. acidophilus, L. helveticus, L. crispatus, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii. While these bacteria are closely related, they have varied ecological lifestyles as dairy and food fermenters, allochthonous probiotics, or autochthonous commensals of the host gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cell surface components play a critical role in the molecular dialogue between bacteria and interaction signaling with the intestinal mucosa. Notably, the L. acidophilus complex is distinguished in two clades by the presence or absence of S-layers, which are semiporous crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits found as the outermost layer of the bacterial cell wall. In this study, S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) in the exoproteomes of various S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species were proteomically identified, genomically compared, and transcriptionally analyzed. Four gene regions encoding six putative SLAPs were conserved in the S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species but not identified in the extracts of the closely related progenitor, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which does not produce an S-layer. Therefore, the presence or absence of an S-layer has a clear impact on the exoproteomic composition of Lactobacillus species. This proteomic complexity and differences in the cell surface properties between S-layer- and non-S-layer-forming lactobacilli reveal the potential for SLAPs to mediate intimate probiotic interactions and signaling with the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:26475115

  5. Towards a semantic web layered architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available as an architectural pattern or architectural style [6, 43]. In this section we give a brief description of the con- cepts software architecture and layered architecture. In ad- dition we provide a summary of a list of criteria for layered architectures identified...- els caused some architectural recurrences to evolve. These are described as architectural patterns [6] or architectural styles [43]. Examples of the best known architectural patterns include, but are not limited to, the client/server architectural...

  6. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  7. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  8. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-07

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) and Ir(IV)-Ir(IV)/Ir(IV)-Ir(V) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology.

  9. GMP-compliant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Roeland; Lavalaye, Jules; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of routine care patient examinations with 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals is still relatively limited, probably caused by the presumed need for large investments in hot cells, automated synthesis modules, laboratory equipment and validation efforts. Our aim was to set up

  10. Compliant Nanospring Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    types of films, all being 10±0.3µm thick, Figure 2(a-f). Seeding of the Si substrate with 500 nm high Si posts was prepared via Deep Reactive-Ion...sensing indentation experiments”, Journal of Materials Research Society, 7, 1992, 1564-1583. [35] Naraghi M, Chasiotis I, Kahn H, Wen Y and Dzenis...151901. [36] Naraghi M, Chasiotis I, Kahn H, Wen Y and Dzenis YA, “Novel method for mechanical characterization pf polymeric nanofibers”, Review

  11. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  12. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  13. Topologically nontrivial quantum layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, G.; Exner, P.; Krejcirik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Given a complete noncompact surface Σ embedded in R 3 , we consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in the layer Ω that is defined as a tubular neighborhood of constant width about Σ. Using an intrinsic approach to the geometry of Ω, we generalize the spectral results of the original paper by Duclos et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 223, 13 (2001)] to the situation when Σ does not possess poles. This enables us to consider topologically more complicated layers and state new spectral results. In particular, we are interested in layers built over surfaces with handles or several cylindrically symmetric ends. We also discuss more general regions obtained by compact deformations of certain Ω

  14. Sustainable development of a GCP-compliant clinical trials platform in Africa: the malaria clinical trials alliance perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Bernhards R; Baiden, Rita; Diallo, Diadier; Smith, Peter G; Binka, Fred N

    2010-04-20

    The Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance (MCTA), a programme of INDEPTH network of demographic surveillance centres, was launched in 2006 with two broad objectives: to facilitate the timely development of a network of centres in Africa with the capacity to conduct clinical trials of malaria vaccines and drugs under conditions of good clinical practice (GCP); and to support, strengthen and mentor the centres in the network to facilitate their progression towards self-sustaining clinical research centres. Sixteen research centres in 10 African malaria-endemic countries were selected that were already working with the Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) or the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV). All centres were visited to assess their requirements for research capacity development through infrastructure strengthening and training. Support provided by MCTA included: laboratory and facility refurbishment; workshops on GCP, malaria diagnosis, strategic management and media training; and training to support staff to undertake accreditation examinations of the Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP). Short attachments to other network centres were also supported to facilitate sharing practices within the Alliance. MCTA also played a key role in the creation of the African Media & Malaria Research Network (AMMREN), which aims to promote interaction between researchers and the media for appropriate publicity and media reporting of research and developments on malaria, including drug and vaccine trials. In three years, MCTA strengthened 13 centres to perform GCP-compliant drug and vaccine trials, including 11 centres that form the backbone of a large phase III malaria vaccine trial. MCTA activities have demonstrated that centres can be brought up to GCP compliance on this time scale, but the costs are substantial and there is a need for further support of other centres to meet the growing demand for clinical trial capacity. The MCTA experience also indicates that

  15. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  16. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  17. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  18. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  19. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  20. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  1. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  2. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance M Hallberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES, in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment–associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay, blood serum (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay, and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay, across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species–associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards–based mitigation approaches were effective.

  3. Evaluation of GMP-compliant culture media for in vitro expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchter, Patrick; Vetter, Marcel; Saffrich, Rainer; Diehlmann, Anke; Bieback, Karen; Ho, Anthony D; Horn, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow serve as a resource for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications require standardized protocols according to good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines. Donor variability as well as the intrinsic heterogeneity of MSC populations must be taken into consideration. The composition of the culture medium is a key factor in successful MSC expansion. The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the efficiency of xeno-free human platelet lysate (HPL)-based cell expansion with two commercially available media-StemPro MSC SFM CTS (for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications) and MSCGM (non-GMP-compliant, for research only)-in an academic setting as the first optimization step toward GMP-compliant manufacturing. We report the feasibility of MSC expansion up to the yielded cell number with all three media. MSCs exhibited the typical fibroblastoid morphology, with distinct differences in cell size depending on the medium. The differentiation capacity and characteristic immunophenotype were confirmed for all MSC populations. Proliferation was highest using StemPro MSC SFM CTS, whereas HPL medium was more cost-effective and its composition could be adjusted individually according to the respective needs. In summary, we present a comprehensive evaluation of GMP-compatible culture media for MSC expansion. Both StemPro and HPL medium proved to be suitable for clinical application and allowed sufficient cell proliferation. Specific differences were observed and should be considered according to the intended use. This study provides a detailed cost analysis and tools that may be helpful for the establishment of GMP-compliant MSC expansion. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  5. Figures of merit of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for compliant analysis of waters and wastes using USEPA standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, I.B.; Spence, B.; Walder, A.

    2004-01-01

    The scope of this study is to critically review the performance of the ICP-MS instrumentation and aspects of the analytical methodology for compliant determination of Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, V, and Zn in surface and subsurface water, soil, sludge, sediments and various solid wastes. The evaluation was performed using conventional and practical figures of analytical merit detailed in using USEPA SW (Solid Waste) 846 procedures and ISO/EC 17025

  6. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: IROC-H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC-H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC-H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC-H for analysis. Results: The average IROC-H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.

  7. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: IROC-H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC-H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC-H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC-H for analysis. Results: The average IROC-H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI

  8. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  9. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  10. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  11. 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D3 serum modulation after use of sunbeds compliant with European Union standards: A randomized open observational controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benedikt; Bachmann, Chantal C; Braun, Ralph; Abraham, Alison G; Serra, Andreas L; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2017-07-01

    Regular use of sunbed exposure has been reported to increase 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 [25(OH)D] serum levels. However, the influence of sunbeds compliant with the recent European Union standard EN-60335-2-27 on 25(OH)D serum levels is unknown. We investigated the impact of standard sunbed use compliant with the European Union standard on 25(OH)D serum modulation and well-being. In a randomized controlled study, 25(OH)D serum levels were measured at enrollment, after 1 week, and after completion of the 12-week period of sunbed use with twice weekly exposure and compared with the control group without any sunbed exposure. In the sunbed intervention group (N = 31), a 27% increase of mean 25(OH)D levels was noted 1 week after starting sunbed use (P European Union standard induced a transient increase of 25(OH)D levels, whereas no change in well-being was observed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can we reduce the cost of illness with more compliant patients? An estimation of the effect of 100% compliance with hypertension treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçkaya, Güvenç; Wertheimer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The current study was designed to calculate the direct cost of noncompliance of hypertensive patients to the US health system. Understanding these expenses can inform screening and education budget policy regarding expenditure levels that can be calculated to be cost-beneficial. The study was conducted in 3 parts. First, a computer search of National Institutes of Health Web sites and professional society Web sites for organizations with members that treat hypertension, and a PubMed search were performed to obtain the numbers required for calculations. Second, formulas were developed to estimate the risk of noncompliance and undiagnosed hypertension. Third, risk calculations were performed using the information obtained in part 1 and the formulas developed in part 2. Direct risk reduction for stroke caused by hypertension, heart attack, kidney disease, and heart disease was calculated for a 100% compliant strategy. Risk, case, and cost reduction for a 100% compliant strategy for hypertension were 32%, 8.5 million and US$ 72 billion, respectively. Our analysis means that the society can spend up to the cost of noncompliance in screening, education, and prevention efforts in an attempt to reduce these costly and traumatic sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension in the light of published analysis.

  13. Three-layer magnetoconvection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.-K.; Silvers, L.J.; Proctor, M.R.E.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that some stars have two or more convection zones in close proximity near to the stellar photosphere. These zones are separated by convectively stable regions that are relatively narrow. Due to the close proximity of these regions it is important to construct mathematical models to understand the transport and mixing of passive and dynamic quantities. One key quantity of interest is a magnetic field, a dynamic vector quantity, that can drastically alter the convectively driven flows, and have an important role in coupling the different layers. In this Letter we present the first investigation into the effect of an imposed magnetic field in such a geometry. We focus our attention on the effect of field strength and show that, while there are some similarities with results for magnetic field evolution in a single layer, new and interesting phenomena are also present in a three layer system

  14. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  15. Superfluid Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F

    2017-03-31

    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  16. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  17. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  18. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  19. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  20. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  1. Thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Fehsenfeld, P.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of industrial equip ment is substantially influenced by wear and corrosion; monitoring can prevent accidents and avoid down-time. One powerful tool is thin layer activation analysis (TLA) using accelerator systems. The information is used to improve mechanical design and material usage; the technology is used by many large companies, particularly in the automotive industry, e.g. Daimler Benz. A critical area of a machine component receives a thin layer of radioactivity by irradiation with charged particles from an accelerator - usually a cyclotron. The radioactivity can be made homogeneous by suitable selection of particle, beam energy and angle of incidence. Layer thickness can be varied from 20 microns to around 1 mm with different depth distributions; the position and size of the wear zone can be set to within 0.1 mm. The machine is then reassembled and operated so that wear can be measured. An example is a combustion engine comprising piston ring, cylinder wall, cooling water jacket and housing wall, where wear measurements on the cylinder wall are required in a critical zone around the dead-point of the piston ring. Proton beam bombardment creates a radioactive layer whose thickness is known accurately, and characteristic gamma radiation from this radioactive zone penetrates through the engine and is detected externally. Measurements can be made either of the activity removed from the surface, or of the (reduced) residual activity; wear measurement of the order of 10 -9 metres is possible

  2. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  3. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  4. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  5. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  6. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  7. Role of core support material in veneer failure of brittle layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ilja; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Lawn, Brian R

    2007-07-01

    A study is made of veneer failure by cracking in all-ceramic crown-like layer structures. Model trilayers consisting of a 1 mm thick external glass layer (veneer) joined to a 0.5 mm thick inner stiff and hard ceramic support layer (core) by epoxy bonding or by fusion are fabricated for testing. The resulting bilayers are then glued to a thick compliant polycarbonate slab to simulate a dentin base. The specimens are subjected to cyclic contact (occlusal) loading with spherical indenters in an aqueous environment. Video cameras are used to record the fracture evolution in the transparent glass layer in situ during testing. The dominant failure mode is cone cracking in the glass veneer by traditional outer (Hertzian) cone cracks at higher contact loads and by inner (hydraulically pumped) cone cracks at lower loads. Failure is deemed to occur when one of these cracks reaches the veneer/core interface. The advantages and disadvantages of the alumina and zirconia core materials are discussed in terms of mechanical properties-strength and toughness, as well as stiffness. Consideration is also given to the roles of interface strength and residual thermal expansion mismatch stresses in relation to the different joining methods. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Luminescence properties of ZnO layers grown on Si-on-insulator substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhupendra; Gong, Hao; Vicknesh, S.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline ZnO thin films grown on compliant silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The ZnO thin films on SOI were characterized by micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The observation of E 2 high optical phonon mode near 438 cm -1 in the Raman spectra of the ZnO samples represents the wurtzite crystal structure. Apart from the near-band-edge free exciton (FX) transition around 3.35 eV at 77 K, the PL spectra of such ZnO films also showed a strong defect-induced violet emission peak in the range of 3.05-3.09 eV. Realization of such ZnO layers on SOI would be useful for heterointegration with SOI-based microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems

  9. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  10. Interaction of a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer with a fluttering panel using direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodony, Daniel; Ostoich, Christopher; Geubelle, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer is investigated using a direct numerical simulation approach for coupled fluid-structure problems. The solid solution uses a finite-strain, finite-deformation formulation, while the direct numerical simulation of the boundary layer uses a finite-difference compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The initially laminar boundary layer contains low amplitude unstable eigenmodes that grow in time and excite traveling bending waves in the panel. As the boundary layer transitions to a fully turbulent state, with Reθ ~ 1200 , the panel's bending waves coalesce into a standing wave pattern exhibiting flutter with a final amplitude approximately 20 times the panel thickness. The corresponding panel deflection is roughly 25 wall units and reaches across the sonic line in the boundary layer profile. Once it reaches a limit cycle state, the panel/boundary layer system is examined in detail where it is found that turbulence statistics, especially the main Reynolds stress - , appear to be modified by the presence of the compliant panel, the effect of which is forgotten within one integral length downstream of the panel. Supported by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate under contract number FA8650-06-2-3620.

  11. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  12. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  13. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    of interfering nodes and usage of spatial reservation mechanisms. Specifically, we introduce a reserved area in order to protect the nodes involved in two-way relaying from the interference caused by neighboring nodes. We analytically derive the end-to-end rate achieved by PLNC considering the impact......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  14. Gravitational double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senovilla, José M M

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the properties of thin shells through which the scalar curvature R is discontinuous in gravity theories with Lagrangian F(R) = R − 2Λ + αR 2 on the bulk. These shells/domain walls are of a new kind because they possess, in addition to the standard energy–momentum tensor, an external energy flux vector, an external scalar pressure/tension and, most exotic of all, another energy–momentum contribution resembling classical dipole distributions on a shell: a double layer. I prove that all these contributions are necessary to make the entire energy–momentum tensor divergence-free. This is the first known occurrence of such a type of double layer in a gravity theory. I present explicit examples in constant-curvature five-dimensional bulks, with a brief study of their properties: new physical behaviors arise. (fast track communications)

  15. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  16. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market; Wettbewerbskonforme Stromgrosshandelspreise. Eine Untersuchung der Verordnung ueber die Integritaet und Transparenz des Energiegrosshandelsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-07-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [German] Die Entwicklung der Stromgrosshandelspreise zeigte in den letzten Jahren einen sehr schwankenden Verlauf. Ausgangspunkt fuer die Gewaehrleistung wettbewerbskonformer Strompreise sind einheitliche Bestimmungen, die im gesamten Stromgrosshandel einen funktionierenden Wettbewerb etablieren, fuer mehr Transparenz am Markt sorgen und marktmissbraeuchliche Einflussnahmen auf den Grosshandelspreis verbieten. Die REMIT-Verordnung schafft als erstes unionsrechtliches Regelwerk hierzu einheitliche Vorgaben. Der Band untersucht zunaechst die Transparenz-, Wettbewerbs-, und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel vor Erlass der Verordnung. Dabei wird deutlich, wie die Transparenz- und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel idealerweise ausgestaltet sein sollten. Auf dieser Grundlage

  17. Barrier layer arrangement for conductive layers on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.S.; Agostinelli, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a circuit element comprised of a silicon substrate and a conductive layer located on the substrate. It is characterized in that the conductive layer consists essentially of a rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide and a barrier layer triad is interposed between the silicon substrate and the conductive layer comprised of a first triad layer located adjacent the silicon substrate consisting essentially of silica, a third triad layer remote from the silicon substrate consisting essentially of a least one Group 4 heavy metal oxide, and a second triad layer interposed between the first and third triad layers consisting essentially of a mixture of silica and at lease one Group 4 heavy metal oxide

  18. Low-cost approach for a software-defined radio based ground station receiver for CCSDS standard compliant S-band satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, M. A.; Butt, B. M.; Klinkner, S.

    2016-10-01

    A major concern of a university satellite mission is to download the payload and the telemetry data from a satellite. While the ground station antennas are in general easy and with limited afford to procure, the receiving unit is most certainly not. The flexible and low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) transceiver "BladeRF" is used to receive the QPSK modulated and CCSDS compliant coded data of a satellite in the HAM radio S-band. The control software is based on the Open Source program GNU Radio, which also is used to perform CCSDS post processing of the binary bit stream. The test results show a good performance of the receiving system.

  19. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  20. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  1. Friedel Transition in Layered Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierzawa, M.; Zamora, M.; Baeriswyl, D.; Bagnoud, X.

    1996-01-01

    Weakly coupled superconducting layers are described by the anisotropic 3D XY model. A low-temperature layer decoupling due to a proliferation of fluxons between planes, as proposed by Friedel, does not occur. The same is true for a periodic superlattice of high and low T c layers, although the interplane coherence can become extremely weak. On the other hand a true layer decoupling is found for a random stack. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  3. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  4. The Keck keyword layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  5. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torreão Dassen, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be

  7. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  8. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  9. Design technology co-optimization for 14/10nm metal1 double patterning layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingli; Su, Xiaojing; Chen, Ying; Su, Yajuan; Shao, Feng; Zhang, Recco; Lei, Junjiang; Wei, Yayi

    2016-03-01

    Design and technology co-optimization (DTCO) can satisfy the needs of the design, generate robust design rule, and avoid unfriendly patterns at the early stage of design to ensure a high level of manufacturability of the product by the technical capability of the present process. The DTCO methodology in this paper includes design rule translation, layout analysis, model validation, hotspots classification and design rule optimization mainly. The correlation of the DTCO and double patterning (DPT) can optimize the related design rule and generate friendlier layout which meets the requirement of the 14/10nm technology node. The experiment demonstrates the methodology of DPT-compliant DTCO which is applied to a metal1 layer from the 14/10nm node. The DTCO workflow proposed in our job is an efficient solution for optimizing the design rules for 14/10 nm tech node Metal1 layer. And the paper also discussed and did the verification about how to tune the design rule of the U-shape and L-shape structures in a DPT-aware metal layer.

  10. Community detection, link prediction, and layer interdependence in multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bacco, Caterina; Power, Eleanor A.; Larremore, Daniel B.; Moore, Cristopher

    2017-04-01

    Complex systems are often characterized by distinct types of interactions between the same entities. These can be described as a multilayer network where each layer represents one type of interaction. These layers may be interdependent in complicated ways, revealing different kinds of structure in the network. In this work we present a generative model, and an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm, which allows us to perform inference tasks such as community detection and link prediction in this setting. Our model assumes overlapping communities that are common between the layers, while allowing these communities to affect each layer in a different way, including arbitrary mixtures of assortative, disassortative, or directed structure. It also gives us a mathematically principled way to define the interdependence between layers, by measuring how much information about one layer helps us predict links in another layer. In particular, this allows us to bundle layers together to compress redundant information and identify small groups of layers which suffice to predict the remaining layers accurately. We illustrate these findings by analyzing synthetic data and two real multilayer networks, one representing social support relationships among villagers in South India and the other representing shared genetic substring material between genes of the malaria parasite.

  11. The Adobe Photoshop layers book

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Layers are the building blocks for working in Photoshop. With the correct use of the Layers Tool, you can edit individual components of your images nondestructively to ensure that your end result is a combination of the best parts of your work. Despite how important it is for successful Photoshop work, the Layers Tool is one of the most often misused and misunderstood features within this powerful software program. This book will show you absolutely everything you need to know to work with layers, including how to use masks, blending, modes and layer management. You'll learn professional tech

  12. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  13. Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new class of superconducting materials, Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS) are described. These materials are produced by sequentially depositing ultrathin layers of materials using high rate magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. Strong evidence is presented that layers as thin as 10 A can be prepared in this fashion. Resistivity data indicates that the mean free path is layer thickness limited. A strong disagreement is found between the experimentally measured transition temperatures T/sub c/ and the T/sub c/'s calculated using the Cooper limit approximation. This is interpreted as a change in the band structure or the phonon structure of the material due to layering or to surfaces

  14. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  15. Curvilinear crack layer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexander; Chaoui, Kamel; Moet, Abdelsamie

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of an experiment designed to allow observation of the effect of damage orientation on the direction of crack growth in the case of crack layer propagation, using polystyrene as the model material. The direction of crack advance under a given loading condition is noted to be determined by a competition between the tendency of the crack to maintain its current direction and the tendency to follow the orientation of the crazes at its tip. The orientation of the crazes is, on the other hand, determined by the stress field due to the interaction of the crack, the crazes, and the hole. The changes in craze rotation relative to the crack define the active zone rotation.

  16. The layers of subtitling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of subtitling, although widely practiced over the past 20 years, has generally been confined to comparative studies focusing on the product of subtitle translation, with little or no consideration of the conditions of creation and reception. Focusing on the process of subtitle production, occasional studies have touched upon the cognitive processes accompanying it, but no study so far has related these processes, and the resulting products, to various degrees of translators’ competence. This is precisely what this essay does, focusing on the different layers of subtitle translation provided for two different films and in two different contexts. By analysing the first and second versions of subtitle translations, we shall reflect on the acquisition, and application, of different subtitling competences.

  17. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  18. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  19. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  20. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among road traffic accident survivors: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wanli; Gong, Lina; Xia, Miaojuan; Dai, Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    Involvement in road traffic accidents (RTAs) may put individuals at increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, among which posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents a public health issue. However, a great disparity was observed among studies exploring the prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the pooled prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors. Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched to identify relevant studies. Study selection and data extraction were conducted independently by 2 investigators, and a meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the data. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using the Cochran Q test and quantified using the I statistic. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of the heterogeneity. The possibility of publication bias was assessed using Egger linear test. Fifteen eligible studies containing 6804 RTA survivors were identified in this meta-analysis, of which 1489 were identified with PTSD. The pooled prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors was 22.25% (95% confidence interval: 16.71%-28.33%). A high degree of heterogeneity was observed across studies (I = 97.1%, P < .001), with reported PTSD prevalence ranging from 6.3% to 58.3%. Subgroup analyses found that the prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors varied significantly across studies in relation to the instrument used to assess PTSD, country, race, gender, and education level (P < .05). The high pooled prevalence of PTSD among RTA survivors found in this study significantly underscores the need for providing timely and effective intervention strategies for RTA survivors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  3. A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Nicola; Sherrington, Catherine; Cameron, Ian D; Kurrle, Susan E; Lord, Stephen R; Lockwood, Keri; Herbert, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    What is the effect of a multifactorial intervention on frailty and mobility in frail older people who comply with their allocated treatment? Secondary analysis of a randomised, controlled trial to derive an estimate of complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment. A total of 241 frail community-dwelling people aged ≥ 70 years. Intervention participants received a 12-month multidisciplinary intervention targeting frailty, with home exercise as an important component. Control participants received usual care. Primary outcomes were frailty, assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria (range 0 to 5 criteria), and mobility measured using the 12-point Short Physical Performance Battery. Outcomes were assessed 12 months after randomisation. The treating physiotherapist evaluated the amount of treatment received on a 5-point scale. 216 participants (90%) completed the study. The median amount of treatment received was 25 to 50% (range 0 to 100). The CACE (ie, the effect of treatment in participants compliant with allocation) was to reduce frailty by 1.0 frailty criterion (95% CI 0.4 to 1.5) and increase mobility by 3.2 points (95% CI 1.8 to 4.6) at 12 months. The mean CACE was substantially larger than the intention-to-treat effect, which was to reduce frailty by 0.4 frailty criteria (95% CI 0.1 to 0.7) and increase mobility by 1.4 points (95% CI 0.8 to 2.1) at 12 months. Overall, compliance was low in this group of frail people. The effect of the treatment on participants who comply with allocated treatment was substantially greater than the effect of allocation on all trial participants. Australian and New Zealand Trial Registry ANZCTRN12608000250336. [Fairhall N, Sherrington C, Cameron ID, Kurrle SE, Lord SR, Lockwood K, Herbert RD (2016) A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial.Journal of Physiotherapy63: 40

  4. DOCUMENT IMAGE REGISTRATION FOR IMPOSED LAYER EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Narayan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of filled-in information from document images in the presence of template poses challenges due to geometrical distortion. Filled-in document image consists of null background, general information foreground and vital information imposed layer. Template document image consists of null background and general information foreground layer. In this paper a novel document image registration technique has been proposed to extract imposed layer from input document image. A convex polygon is constructed around the content of the input and the template image using convex hull. The vertices of the convex polygons of input and template are paired based on minimum Euclidean distance. Each vertex of the input convex polygon is subjected to transformation for the permutable combinations of rotation and scaling. Translation is handled by tight crop. For every transformation of the input vertices, Minimum Hausdorff distance (MHD is computed. Minimum Hausdorff distance identifies the rotation and scaling values by which the input image should be transformed to align it to the template. Since transformation is an estimation process, the components in the input image do not overlay exactly on the components in the template, therefore connected component technique is applied to extract contour boxes at word level to identify partially overlapping components. Geometrical features such as density, area and degree of overlapping are extracted and compared between partially overlapping components to identify and eliminate components common to input image and template image. The residue constitutes imposed layer. Experimental results indicate the efficacy of the proposed model with computational complexity. Experiment has been conducted on variety of filled-in forms, applications and bank cheques. Data sets have been generated as test sets for comparative analysis.

  5. Excited waves in shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  6. Neocortical layer 6, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Thomson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to summarise some of the major areas of neocortical research as it pertains to layer 6. After a brief summary of the development of this intriguing layer, the major pyramidal cell classes to be found in layer 6 are described and compared. The connections made and received by these different classes of neurones are then discussed and the possible functions of these connections, with particular reference to the shaping of responses in visual cortex and thalamus. Inhibition in layer 6 is discussed where appropriate, but not in great detail. Many types of interneurones are to be found in each cortical layer and layer 6 is no exception, but the functions of each type remain to be elucidated.

  7. Magnetism in layered Ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, Paul C.

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, the magnetism of the layered Ruthenates has been studied by means of different neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic correlations in the single-layer Ruthenates of the series Ca{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}RuO{sub 4} have been investigated as function of Sr-concentration (x=0.2 and 0.62), temperature and magnetic field. These inelastic neutron scattering studies demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetic paramagnon scattering with antiferromagnetic fluctuations at incommensurate wave vectors. The temperature dependence of the amplitudes and energies of both types of excitations indicate the proximity to magnetic instabilities; their competition seems to determine the complex behavior of these materials. In Ca{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 4}, which shows a metamagnetic transition, the ferromagnetic fluctuations are strongly suppressed at low temperature, but appear at higher temperature or application of a magnetic field. In the high-field phase of Ca{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 4} above the metamagnetic transition, a ferromagnetic magnon dominates the excitation spectrum. Polarized neutron scattering revealed the existence of a very broad signal around the zone centre, in addition to the well-known incommensurate excitations at Q=(0.3,0.3,0) in the unconventional superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. With this additional contribution, it is possible to set up a general model for the Q-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is well consistent with the results of other measurement methods that do not resolve the Q-dependence. Upon doping with Ti, the incommensurate fluctuations are enhanced, in particular near the critical concentration for the onset of magnetic order, but no divergence down to very low temperature is observed. In the bilayer Ti-doped Ca{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, the existence of magnetic order with a propagation vector of about ((1)/(4),(1)/(4),0) has been discovered and characterized in detail. Above and below T{sub N}, excitations at this

  8. Boundary-Layer & health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  9. Magnetism in layered Ruthenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the magnetism of the layered Ruthenates has been studied by means of different neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic correlations in the single-layer Ruthenates of the series Ca 2-x Sr x RuO 4 have been investigated as function of Sr-concentration (x=0.2 and 0.62), temperature and magnetic field. These inelastic neutron scattering studies demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetic paramagnon scattering with antiferromagnetic fluctuations at incommensurate wave vectors. The temperature dependence of the amplitudes and energies of both types of excitations indicate the proximity to magnetic instabilities; their competition seems to determine the complex behavior of these materials. In Ca 1.8 Sr 0.2 RuO 4 , which shows a metamagnetic transition, the ferromagnetic fluctuations are strongly suppressed at low temperature, but appear at higher temperature or application of a magnetic field. In the high-field phase of Ca 1.8 Sr 0.2 RuO 4 above the metamagnetic transition, a ferromagnetic magnon dominates the excitation spectrum. Polarized neutron scattering revealed the existence of a very broad signal around the zone centre, in addition to the well-known incommensurate excitations at Q=(0.3,0.3,0) in the unconventional superconductor Sr 2 RuO 4 . With this additional contribution, it is possible to set up a general model for the Q-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is well consistent with the results of other measurement methods that do not resolve the Q-dependence. Upon doping with Ti, the incommensurate fluctuations are enhanced, in particular near the critical concentration for the onset of magnetic order, but no divergence down to very low temperature is observed. In the bilayer Ti-doped Ca 3 Ru 2 O 7 , the existence of magnetic order with a propagation vector of about ((1)/(4),(1)/(4),0) has been discovered and characterized in detail. Above and below T N , excitations at this wave vector and another one, related to Sr 3 Ru 2 O 7 , have been

  10. Clustering network layers with the strata multilayer stochastic block model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Natalie; Shai, Saray; Taylor, Dane; Mucha, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks are a useful data structure for simultaneously capturing multiple types of relationships between a set of nodes. In such networks, each relational definition gives rise to a layer. While each layer provides its own set of information, community structure across layers can be collectively utilized to discover and quantify underlying relational patterns between nodes. To concisely extract information from a multilayer network, we propose to identify and combine sets of layers with meaningful similarities in community structure. In this paper, we describe the "strata multilayer stochastic block model" (sMLSBM), a probabilistic model for multilayer community structure. The central extension of the model is that there exist groups of layers, called "strata", which are defined such that all layers in a given stratum have community structure described by a common stochastic block model (SBM). That is, layers in a stratum exhibit similar node-to-community assignments and SBM probability parameters. Fitting the sMLSBM to a multilayer network provides a joint clustering that yields node-to-community and layer-to-stratum assignments, which cooperatively aid one another during inference. We describe an algorithm for separating layers into their appropriate strata and an inference technique for estimating the SBM parameters for each stratum. We demonstrate our method using synthetic networks and a multilayer network inferred from data collected in the Human Microbiome Project.

  11. Microanalysis of pictorial layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna

    2008-01-01

    Cross section samples from polychrome wood sculpture are analyzed by optical microscopy, the nuclear techniques: micro X Ray Fluorescence, micro Proton induced Xray Emission coupled with Rutherford Backscattering and the traditional method by Scanning Electronic Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Xray fluorescence detection (SEMEDX) microanalytical methods. Special emphasis is dedicated to mXRF, a novel advanced technique developed thanks to the last achievements of the Xray optics that can be available by modifying conventional laboratory XRF spectrometer, representing an alternative to the traditional and expensive SEMEDX stratigraphic analysis of pictorial works. The results are compared with respect to spatial resolution to differentiate pictorial layer structure and elemental sensitivity. Number of layer, relative position of layer, layer thickness and chemical composition of pigments are determined in the characterization of valuable polychromes of once church San Juan de Letrán in order to obtain information about their “material history” that should contribute to its provenance and attribution research. The pigments used in this artistic works were identified by their characteristic elements. The elemental distribution maps obtained by the used nuclear techniques precisely reproduced microphotographies obtained by means of Light Microscopy. (author)

  12. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  13. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  14. A POROUS, LAYERED HELIOPAUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Opher, M., E-mail: swisdak@umd.edu, E-mail: drake@umd.edu, E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The picture of the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the domains of the Sun and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-as a pristine interface with a large rotation in the magnetic field fails to describe recent Voyager 1 (V1) data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the global heliosphere reveal that the rotation angle of the magnetic field across the HP at V1 is small. Particle-in-cell simulations, based on cuts through the MHD model at V1's location, suggest that the sectored region of the heliosheath (HS) produces large-scale magnetic islands that reconnect with the interstellar magnetic field while mixing LISM and HS plasma. Cuts across the simulation reveal multiple, anti-correlated jumps in the number densities of LISM and HS particles, similar to those observed, at the magnetic separatrices. A model is presented, based on both the observations and simulations, of the HP as a porous, multi-layered structure threaded by magnetic fields. This model further suggests that contrary to the conclusions of recent papers, V1 has already crossed the HP.

  15. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  16. CHARGE-TRANSFER BETWEEN LAYERS IN MISFIT LAYER COMPOUNDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEGERS, GA

    1995-01-01

    Electron donation from MX double layers to TX(2) sandwiches, the interlayer bonding and the localization of conduction electrons in misfit layer compounds (MX)(p)(TX(2))(n) (M=Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, rare earth metals; T=Ti, V, Cr, Nb, Ta; X=S, Se; 1.08

  17. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  18. On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of the paper, equations and methodology are discussed and in the second, we discuss results. 2. Methodology. In the atmospheric electricity, the earth's surface is one electrode and electrode layer or electrical boundary layer is a region near the surface of the earth in which profiles of atmospheric electrical.

  19. Gastroesophageal anastomosis: single-layer versus double-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, V.A.; Bilal, A.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimum technique for gastroesophageal anastomosis. Double layer technique has long been considered important for safe healing but there is evidence that single layer technique is also safe and can be performed in much shorter time. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of single layer and double layer techniques for gastroesophageal anastomosis. A prospective randomized study was conducted in cardiothoracic unit, Lady Reading Hospital from Jan 2006 to Jan 2008. Fifty patients with oesophageal carcinoma undergoing subtotal oesophagectomy were randomized to have the anastomosis by single layer continuous or double layer continuous technique (group A (n=24) and B (n=26) respectively). The demographic data, operative and anastomosis time, postoperative complications and hospital mortality were recorded on a proforma and analyzed on SPSS 10. There was no significant difference between group A and B in terms of age, gender, postoperative complications and duration of hospital stay. Anastomotic leak occurred in 4.2% patients in group A and 7.7% in group B (p=NS). Mean anastomosis time was 10.04 minutes in group A and 19.2 minutes in group B (p=0.0001). Mean operative time was 163.83 minutes and 170.96 minutes in group A and B respectively. Overall hospital mortality was 2%; no deaths occurred due to anastomotic leak. Single layer continuous technique is equally safe and can be performed in shorter time and at a lower cost than the double layer technique. (author)

  20. Natural melanin composites by layer-by-layer assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Taesik; Shim, Bong Sub

    2015-04-01

    Melanin is an electrically conductive and biocompatible material, because their conjugated backbone structures provide conducting pathways from human skin, eyes, brain, and beyond. So there is a potential of using as materials for the neural interfaces and the implantable devices. Extracted from Sepia officinalis ink, our natural melanin was uniformly dispersed in mostly polar solvents such as water and alcohols. Then, the dispersed melanin was further fabricated to nano-thin layered composites by the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. Combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), the melanin nanoparticles behave as an LBL counterpart to from finely tuned nanostructured films. The LBL process can adjust the smart performances of the composites by varying the layering conditions and sandwich thickness. We further demonstrated the melanin loading degree of stacked layers, combination nanostructures, electrical properties, and biocompatibility of the resulting composites by UV-vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), multimeter, and in-vitro cell test of PC12, respectively.

  1. Design and Validation of a Control Algorithm for a SAE J2954-Compliant Wireless Charger to Guarantee the Operational Electrical Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel González-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer is foreseen as a suitable technology to provide charge without cables to electric vehicles. This technology is mainly supported by two coupled coils, whose mutual inductance is sensitive to their relative positions. Variations on this coefficient greatly impact the electrical magnitudes of the wireless charger. The aim of this paper is the design and validation of a control algorithm for an Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2954-compliant wireless charger to guarantee some operational and electrical constraints. These constraints are designed to prevent some components from being damaged by excessive voltage or current. This paper also presents the details for the design and implementation of the bidirectional charger topology in which the proposed controller is incorporated. The controller is installed on the primary and on the secondary side, given that wireless communication is necessary with the other side. The input data of the controller helps it decide about the phase shift required to apply in the DC/AC converter. The experimental results demonstrate how the system regulates the output voltage of the DC/AC converter so that some electrical magnitudes do not exceed predefined thresholds. The regulation, which has been tested when coil misalignments occur, is proven to be effective.

  2. Production of recombinant antigens and antibodies in Nicotiana benthamiana using 'magnifection' technology: GMP-compliant facilities for small- and large-scale manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimyuk, Victor; Pogue, Gregory; Herz, Stefan; Butler, John; Haydon, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the adaptation of the plant virus-based transient expression system, magnICON(®) for the at-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical proteins. The system utilizes so-called "deconstructed" viral vectors that rely on Agrobacterium-mediated systemic delivery into the plant cells for recombinant protein production. The system is also suitable for production of hetero-oligomeric proteins like immunoglobulins. By taking advantage of well established R&D tools for optimizing the expression of protein of interest using this system, product concepts can reach the manufacturing stage in highly competitive time periods. At the manufacturing stage, the system offers many remarkable features including rapid production cycles, high product yield, virtually unlimited scale-up potential, and flexibility for different manufacturing schemes. The magnICON system has been successfully adaptated to very different logistical manufacturing formats: (1) speedy production of multiple small batches of individualized pharmaceuticals proteins (e.g. antigens comprising individualized vaccines to treat NonHodgkin's Lymphoma patients) and (2) large-scale production of other pharmaceutical proteins such as therapeutic antibodies. General descriptions of the prototype GMP-compliant manufacturing processes and facilities for the product formats that are in preclinical and clinical testing are provided.

  3. Full GMP-Compliant Validation of Bone Marrow-Derived Human CD133+ Cells as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product for Refractory Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA regulatory frameworks, Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP represent a new category of drugs in which the active ingredient consists of cells, genes, or tissues. ATMP-CD133 has been widely investigated in controlled clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases, making CD133+ cells one of the most well characterized cell-derived drugs in this field. To ensure high quality and safety standards for clinical use, the manufacturing process must be accomplished in certified facilities following standard operative procedures (SOPs. In the present work, we report the fully compliant GMP-grade production of ATMP-CD133 which aims to address the treatment of chronic refractory ischemic heart failure. Starting from bone marrow (BM, ATMP-CD133 manufacturing output yielded a median of 6.66 × 106 of CD133+ cells (range 2.85 × 106–30.84 × 106, with a viability ranged between 96,03% and 99,97% (median 99,87% and a median purity of CD133+ cells of 90,60% (range 81,40%–96,20%. Based on these results we defined our final release criteria for ATMP-CD133: purity ≥ 70%, viability ≥ 80%, cellularity between 1 and 12 × 106 cells, sterile, and endotoxin-free. The abovementioned criteria are currently applied in our Phase I clinical trial (RECARDIO Trial.

  4. GMP-compliant, large-scale expanded allogeneic natural killer cells have potent cytolytic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okjae Lim

    Full Text Available Ex vivo-expanded, allogeneic natural killer (NK cells can be used for the treatment of various types of cancer. In allogeneic NK cell therapy, NK cells from healthy donors must be expanded in order to obtain a sufficient number of highly purified, activated NK cells. In the present study, we established a simplified and efficient method for the large-scale expansion and activation of NK cells from healthy donors under good manufacturing practice (GMP conditions. After a single step of magnetic depletion of CD3(+ T cells, the depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were stimulated and expanded with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of OKT3 and IL-2 for 14 days, resulting in a highly pure population of CD3(-CD16(+CD56(+ NK cells which is desired for allogeneic purpose. Compared with freshly isolated NK cells, these expanded NK cells showed robust cytokine production and potent cytolytic activity against various cancer cell lines. Of note, expanded NK cells selectively killed cancer cells without demonstrating cytotoxicity against allogeneic non-tumor cells in coculture assays. The anti-tumor activity of expanded human NK cells was examined in SCID mice injected with human lymphoma cells. In this model, expanded NK cells efficiently controlled lymphoma progression. In conclusion, allogeneic NK cells were efficiently expanded in a GMP-compliant facility and demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Full GMP-compliant validation of bone marrow-derived human CD133(+) cells as advanced therapy medicinal product for refractory ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Daniela; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Bassetti, Beatrice; Cabiati, Benedetta; Spaltro, Gabriella; Biagi, Ettore; Parma, Matteo; Biondi, Andrea; Cavallotti, Laura; Gambini, Elisa; Pompilio, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) regulatory frameworks, Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP) represent a new category of drugs in which the active ingredient consists of cells, genes, or tissues. ATMP-CD133 has been widely investigated in controlled clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases, making CD133(+) cells one of the most well characterized cell-derived drugs in this field. To ensure high quality and safety standards for clinical use, the manufacturing process must be accomplished in certified facilities following standard operative procedures (SOPs). In the present work, we report the fully compliant GMP-grade production of ATMP-CD133 which aims to address the treatment of chronic refractory ischemic heart failure. Starting from bone marrow (BM), ATMP-CD133 manufacturing output yielded a median of 6.66 × 10(6) of CD133(+) cells (range 2.85 × 10(6)-30.84 × 10(6)), with a viability ranged between 96,03% and 99,97% (median 99,87%) and a median purity of CD133(+) cells of 90,60% (range 81,40%-96,20%). Based on these results we defined our final release criteria for ATMP-CD133: purity ≥ 70%, viability ≥ 80%, cellularity between 1 and 12 × 10(6) cells, sterile, and endotoxin-free. The abovementioned criteria are currently applied in our Phase I clinical trial (RECARDIO Trial).

  6. Full GMP-Compliant Validation of Bone Marrow-Derived Human CD133+ Cells as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product for Refractory Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Daniela; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Bassetti, Beatrice; Cabiati, Benedetta; Spaltro, Gabriella; Biagi, Ettore; Parma, Matteo; Biondi, Andrea; Cavallotti, Laura; Gambini, Elisa; Pompilio, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) regulatory frameworks, Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP) represent a new category of drugs in which the active ingredient consists of cells, genes, or tissues. ATMP-CD133 has been widely investigated in controlled clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases, making CD133+ cells one of the most well characterized cell-derived drugs in this field. To ensure high quality and safety standards for clinical use, the manufacturing process must be accomplished in certified facilities following standard operative procedures (SOPs). In the present work, we report the fully compliant GMP-grade production of ATMP-CD133 which aims to address the treatment of chronic refractory ischemic heart failure. Starting from bone marrow (BM), ATMP-CD133 manufacturing output yielded a median of 6.66 × 106 of CD133+ cells (range 2.85 × 106–30.84 × 106), with a viability ranged between 96,03% and 99,97% (median 99,87%) and a median purity of CD133+ cells of 90,60% (range 81,40%–96,20%). Based on these results we defined our final release criteria for ATMP-CD133: purity ≥ 70%, viability ≥ 80%, cellularity between 1 and 12 × 106 cells, sterile, and endotoxin-free. The abovementioned criteria are currently applied in our Phase I clinical trial (RECARDIO Trial). PMID:26495296

  7. Protein and Molecular Characterization of a Clinically Compliant Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Fraction Capable of Accelerating Muscle Regeneration Through Enhancement of Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellows, Ben; Mitchell, Robert; Antonioli, Manuela; Kretz, Oliver; Chambers, David; Zeuner, Marie-Theres; Denecke, Bernd; Musante, Luca; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Holthofer, Harry; Joch, Barbara; Ray, Steve; Widera, Darius; David, Anna L; Huber, Tobias B; Dengjel, Joern; De Coppi, Paolo; Patel, Ketan

    2017-09-15

    The secretome of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) has great potential as a therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine. However, it must be produced in a clinically compliant manner before it can be used in humans. In this study, we developed a means of producing a biologically active secretome from AFSCs that is free of all exogenous molecules. We demonstrate that the full secretome is capable of promoting stem cell proliferation, migration, and protection of cells against senescence. Furthermore, it has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Most importantly, we show that it promotes tissue regeneration in a model of muscle damage. We then demonstrate that the secretome contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that harbor much, but not all, of the biological activity of the whole secretome. Proteomic characterization of the EV and free secretome fraction shows the presence of numerous molecules specific to each fraction that could be key regulators of tissue regeneration. Intriguingly, we show that the EVs only contain miRNA and not mRNA. This suggests that tissue regeneration in the host is mediated by the action of EVs modifying existing, rather than imposing new, signaling pathways. The EVs harbor significant anti-inflammatory activity as well as promote angiogenesis, the latter may be the mechanistic explanation for their ability to promote muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin injury.

  8. Magnetic properties of layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansky, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The organic superconductors (BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(SNC) 2 and (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 , with T c = 10K and 1.2K, have layered and highly anisotropic crystal structures. This thesis describes AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on these materials which illustrate the consequences of the discrete layered structure for the magnetic properties of the superconducting state. A DC magnetic field applied parallel to the layers of either material causes the rapid suppression of the AC screening response, and this indicates that the pinning restoring force for vortex motion parallel to the layers is anomalously weak in this orientation. This is believed to be due to the small size of the interlayer coherence length relative to the layer spacing. A simple estimate based on the energy and length scales relevant to Josephson coupled layers gives the correct order of magnitude for the pinning force. Pinning for vortices oriented perpendicular to the layers is larger by a factor of 500 for BEDT and 25 for TMTSF. When the DC field is applied at an angle to the layers, the initial suppression of the susceptibility is identical to that for a field parallel to the layers; when the field component normal to the layers exceeds a threshold, a sharp recovery of screening occurs. These observations indicate that the field initially enters the sample only in the direction parallel to the layers. The recovery of screening signals field penetration in the perpendicular direction at higher field strength, and is due to the onset of pinning by in-plane vortex cores. This magnetic open-quotes lock-inclose quotes effect is a qualitatively new behavior and is a direct consequence of weak interlayer coupling. The London penetration depth associated with interlayer currents is found to be on the order of hundreds of microns, comparable to that of a Josephson junction, and two to three orders of magnitude larger than for conventional superconductors

  9. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-10

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one\\'s hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  10. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.; Li, Erqiang; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  11. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Li, E. Q.; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  12. Fast biosensor with reagent layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A detection system and a sensor chip for detecting target mols., and thus corresponding analytes in a sample is described. Typically the detection system includes a sensor chip. The sensor chip (1) comprises on its detection surface a dissolvable reagent layer. When the dissolvable reagent layer is

  13. Prevalent Diseases Identified in Semi-Industrial Poultry Farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2003-2007 with the aim of identifying prevalent diseases in modern poultry farming in Mali. It covered 22 modern layer farms located in the suburban areas of Bamako District and of Sikasso and Segou towns. Analyses focused on a total of 536 samples, 260 sera, 254 eggs, 149 organ samples, ...

  14. Identifying the Key Weaknesses in Network Security at Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    A new study identifies and ranks the 10 security gaps responsible for most outsider attacks on college computer networks. The list is intended to help campus system administrators establish priorities as they work to increase security. One network security expert urges that institutions utilize multiple security layers. (DB)

  15. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are often identified as regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    ... are often identified as regions susceptible to seasonal blooms of harmful ... that the bay acts as a net importer of bottom water and net exporter of surface waters over a synoptic cycle. This ... waves or wind stress on the surface friction layer.

  16. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection

  17. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  18. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  19. Sublayer of Prandtl Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of Prandtl boundary layers in the vanishing viscosity limit {ν \\to 0} . In Grenier (Commun Pure Appl Math 53(9):1067-1091, 2000), one of the authors proved that there exists no asymptotic expansion involving one of Prandtl's boundary layer, with thickness of order {√{ν}} , which describes the inviscid limit of Navier-Stokes equations. The instability gives rise to a viscous boundary sublayer whose thickness is of order {ν^{3/4}} . In this paper, we point out how the stability of the classical Prandtl's layer is linked to the stability of this sublayer. In particular, we prove that the two layers cannot both be nonlinearly stable in L^∞. That is, either the Prandtl's layer or the boundary sublayer is nonlinearly unstable in the sup norm.

  20. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  1. The atmospheric boundary layer — advances in knowledge and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Hess, G. D.; Physick, W. L.; Bougeault, P.

    1996-02-01

    We summarise major activities and advances in boundary-layer knowledge in the 25 years since 1970, with emphasis on the application of this knowledge to surface and boundary-layer parametrisation schemes in numerical models of the atmosphere. Progress in three areas is discussed: (i) the mesoscale modelling of selected phenomena; (ii) numerical weather prediction; and (iii) climate simulations. Future trends are identified, including the incorporation into models of advanced cloud schemes and interactive canopy schemes, and the nesting of high resolution boundary-layer schemes in global climate models.

  2. Associations between dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia risk: a PRISMA compliant meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He HR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hairong He,1 Huanhuan Wu,1,2 Lihong Yang,1 Fan Gao,1 Yajuan Fan,3 Junqin Feng,3 Xiancang Ma1,3 1Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2College of Pharmacy, Xi’an Medical University, 3Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Objective: To determine the relationships between dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia using meta-analysis.Method: The PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched to identify relevant literature published up to February 2016. The allele contrast model was used. STATA software was used for statistical analysis, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated to evaluate the associations between dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia. Meta-regression and publication bias, trim-and-fill, subgroup, sensitivity, cumulative, and fail-safe number analyses were also performed.Results: This meta-analysis included 81 studies. The rs1801028 and rs1799732 were associated with schizophrenia risk among Asians (P=0.04, OR =1.25, 95% CI =1.01–1.55; P<0.01, OR =0.76, 95% CI =0.63–0.92, respectively, while the rs6277 was associated with schizophrenia risk in Caucasians (P<0.01, OR=0.72, 95% CI =0.66–0.79. The rs1800497 was also associated with schizophrenia risk in population-based controls (P<0.01, OR =0.84, 95% CI =0.72–0.97. The rs6275, rs1079597, and rs1800498 were not associated with schizophrenia risk. In addition, meta-regression indicated that the controls may be sources of heterogeneity for the rs1801028 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, while ethnicity may be sources of heterogeneity for the rs6277 SNP. Publication bias was significant for the rs1801028 SNP, and this result changed after the publication bias was adjusted using the trim-and-fill method

  3. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  4. Strength of the Three Layer Beam with Two Binding Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyński M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the strength analysis of a simply supported three layer beam. The sandwich beam consists of: two metal facings, the metal foam core and two binding layers between the faces and the core. In consequence, the beam is a five layer beam. The main goal of the study is to elaborate a mathematical model of this beam, analytical description and a solution of the three-point bending problem. The beam is subjected to a transverse load. The nonlinear hypothesis of the deformation of the cross section of the beam is formulated. Based on the principle of the stationary potential energy the system of four equations of equilibrium is derived. Then deflections and stresses are determined. The influence of the binding layers is considered. The results of the solutions of the bending problem analysis are shown in the tables and figures. The analytical model is verified numerically using the finite element analysis, as well as experimentally.

  5. Layer-by-layer-assembled healable antifouling films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Wu, Mingda; Li, Bochao; Ren, Kefeng; Cheng, Zhongkai; Ji, Jian; Li, Yang; Sun, Junqi

    2015-10-21

    Healable antifouling films are fabricated by the exponential layer-by-layer assembly of PEGylated branched poly(ethylenimine) and hyaluronic acid followed by post-crosslinking. The antifouling function originates from the grafted PEG and the extremely soft nature of the films. The rapid and multiple healing of damaged antifouling functions caused by cuts and scratches can be readily achieved by immersing the films in normal saline solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Accurate identification of layer number for few-layer WS2 and WSe2 via spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzheng; Li, Xinshu; Yu, Tong; Yang, Guochun; Chen, Heyu; Zhang, Cen; Feng, Qiushi; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Weizhen; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-03-23

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with a typical layered structure are highly sensitive to their layer number in optical and electronic properties. Seeking a simple and effective method for layer number identification is very important to low-dimensional TMD samples. Herein, a rapid and accurate layer number identification of few-layer WS 2 and WSe 2 is proposed via locking their photoluminescence (PL) peak-positions. As the layer number of WS 2 /WSe 2 increases, it is found that indirect transition emission is more thickness-sensitive than direct transition emission, and the PL peak-position differences between the indirect and direct transitions can be regarded as fingerprints to identify their layer number. Theoretical calculation confirms that the notable thickness-sensitivity of indirect transition derives from the variations of electron density of states of W atom d-orbitals and chalcogen atom p-orbitals. Besides, the PL peak-position differences between the indirect and direct transitions are almost independent of different insulating substrates. This work not only proposes a new method for layer number identification via PL studies, but also provides a valuable insight into the thickness-dependent optical and electronic properties of W-based TMDs.

  7. Near Identifiability of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Bekey, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts regarding approximate mathematical models treated rigorously. Paper presents new results in analysis of structural identifiability, equivalence, and near equivalence between mathematical models and physical processes they represent. Helps establish rigorous mathematical basis for concepts related to structural identifiability and equivalence revealing fundamental requirements, tacit assumptions, and sources of error. "Structural identifiability," as used by workers in this field, loosely translates as meaning ability to specify unique mathematical model and set of model parameters that accurately predict behavior of corresponding physical system.

  8. Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Perl, Joseph; LoSasso, Tom; Salop, Arthur; Whittum, David; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm 2 . The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm 3 water phantom was 4x4x4 mm 3 . For the 10x10 cm 2 field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm 3 voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm 2 open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size for fields up to 30x30 cm 2

  9. Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Perl, Joseph; LoSasso, Tom; Salop, Arthur; Whittum, David; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Physics Division, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021 (United States); Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Physics Division, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}. The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm{sup 3} water phantom was 4x4x4 mm{sup 3}. For the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm{sup 3} voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size

  10. The Trend of CSR Disclosures and the Role of Corporate Governance Attributes: The Case of Shari'ah Compliant Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdifatah Ahmed Haji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the trend of corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosures and the role of corporate governance attributes in the CSR disclosures of Shari’ah compliant companies (ShCCs in Malaysia for the years 2006 and 2009, a period which corresponds before and after a plethora of significant changes in Malaysia, encompassing the recent financial crisis and policy changes in the form of corporate governance restructuring. Using a CSR disclosure checklist, the extent and quality of CSR discourses of a sample of 76 ShCCs was examined. The results indicate that the extent and quality of CSR disclosures by the ShCCs is in overall low. However, there was a significant increasing trend in both the extent and quality of the CSR disclosures by the ShCCs over time. results of this study offer a number of practical implications. First, whilst the findings reveal a significant increasing trend of CSR information subsequent to the policy changes and the recent financial crisis, the CSR information was however not systematically provided, with most of the disclosures being stated in a narrative form. Hence, the policy makers in Malaysia may want to re-enforce the mandatory requirement of CSR information and provide a detailed CSR framework for the companies to follow such as "what" and "how" the CSR information should be disclosed. Second, the role of corporate governance attributes in the social disclosures of the ShCCs did not improve following the revised code, perhaps due to the unfolding recent global financial turmoil which may have undermined the effectiveness of the corporate governance attributes. Finally, this study offers the first empirical study to have assessed the trend of CSR disclosures and the role of governance attributes in CSR disclosure practices by the ShCCs.

  11. Experimental and Simulation-Based Investigation of Polycentric Motion of an Inherent Compliant Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Skewed Rotary Elastic Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wilkening

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To offer a functionality that could not be found in traditional rigid robots, compliant actuators are in development worldwide for a variety of applications and especially for human–robot interaction. Pneumatic bending actuators are a special kind of such actuators. Due to the absence of fixed mechanical axes and their soft behavior, these actuators generally possess a polycentric motion ability. This can be very useful to provide an implicit self-alignment to human joint axes in exoskeleton-like rehabilitation devices. As a possible realization, a novel bending actuator (BA was developed using patented pneumatic skewed rotary elastic chambers (sREC. To analyze the actuator self-alignment properties, knowledge about the motion of this bending actuator type, the so-called skewed rotary elastic chambers bending actuator (sRECBA, is of high interest and this paper presents experimental and simulation-based kinematic investigations. First, to describe actuator motion, the finite helical axes (FHA of basic actuator elements are determined using a three-dimensional (3D camera system. Afterwards, a simplified two-dimensional (2D kinematic simulation model based on a four-bar linkage was developed and the motion was compared to the experimental data by calculating the instantaneous center of rotation (ICR. The equivalent kinematic model of the sRECBA was realized using a series of four-bar linkages and the resulting ICR was analyzed in simulation. Finally, the FHA of the sRECBA were determined and analyzed for three different specific motions. The results show that the actuator’s FHA adapt to different motions performed and it can be assumed that implicit self-alignment to the polycentric motion of the human joint axis will be provided.

  12. Benard convection in liquid sodium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kek, V.

    1989-08-01

    In a sodium layer heated from below and cooled from above, the integral Nusselt numbers are determined in a range of Rayleigh numbers 1.5x10 3 5 . The experiments are performed in containers with dimensions of 500 mm in diameter and 15 mm and 45 mm in height. The relevant quantities are evaluated from measured temperature and heating power data. The experiments show that the heat transfer across the layer is determined mainly by heat conduction up to Rayleigh number Ra ≅ 10 4 . Beyond this value a significant increase of the convective heat transport is observed. At a Rayleigh number of 4x10 4 the Nusselt number achieves the value Nu = 1.7. This result differs from values given by Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations reported in the literature for liquids with higher Prandtl number. A regression analysis of the experimental data results empirical correlations for the Nusselt number. A time series analysis of the time dependent temperature signals shows that the measured temperature fluctuations exhibit predominantly stochastic features. However, in the lower range of Rayleigh numbers 1.5x10 3 4 certain regular frequencies can be identified from peaks in broadband power density spectra. These frequencies correspond to fluctuations of a period of 80 to 200 seconds. These regular frequencies are explained by instabilities of the cellular pattern in the convection layer reported in the literature. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Falcucci, C.; Jaksic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based μXRF , μPIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based μXRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 μm) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

  14. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  15. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  16. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  17. Exploring the magnetospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapgood, M.A.; Bryant, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    We show how, for most crossings of the boundary layer, one can construct a 'transition parameter', based on electron density and temperature, which orders independent plasma measurements into well-defined patterns which are consistent from case to case. We conclude that there is a gradual change in the balance of processes which determine the structure of the layer and suggest that there is no advantage in dividing the layer into different regions. We further conclude that the mixing processes in layer act in an organised way to give the consistent patterns revealed by the transition parameter. More active processes must sometimes take to give the extreme values (e.g. in velocity) which are seen in some crossings

  18. The laminar boundary layer equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curle, N

    2017-01-01

    Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.

  19. TOOL: The Open Opinion Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Hassan

    2002-01-01

    Shared opinions drive society: what we read, how we vote, and where we shop are all heavily influenced by the choices of others. However, the cost in time and money to systematically share opinions remains high, while the actual performance history of opinion generators is often not tracked. This article explores the development of a distributed open opinion layer, which is given the generic name of TOOL. Similar to the evolution of network protocols as an underlying layer for many comput...

  20. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackeret, J

    1927-01-01

    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.