Sample records for identify common goals

  1. Can children identify and achieve goals for intervention? A randomized trial comparing two goal-setting approaches. (United States)

    Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Jacobsson, Helén; Johansson, Ulla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena


    The efficacy of two different goal-setting approaches (children's self-identified goals and goals identified by parents) were compared on a goal-directed, task-oriented intervention. In this assessor-blinded parallel randomized trial, 34 children with disabilities (13 males, 21 females; mean age 9y, SD 1y 4mo) were randomized using concealed allocation to one of two 8-week, goal-directed, task-oriented intervention groups with different goal-setting approaches: (1) children's self-identified goals (n=18) using the Perceived Efficacy and Goal-Setting System, or (2) goals identified by parents (n=16) using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Participants were recruited through eight paediatric rehabilitation centres and randomized between October 2011 and May 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Goal Attainment Scaling and the secondary measure, the COPM performance scale (COPM-P). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention and at the 5-month follow-up. There was no evidence of a difference in mean characteristics at baseline between groups. There was evidence of an increase in mean goal attainment (mean T score) in both groups after intervention (child-goal group: estimated mean difference [EMD] 27.84, 95% CI 22.93-32.76; parent-goal group: EMD 21.42, 95% CI 16.16-26.67). There was no evidence of a difference in the mean T scores post-intervention between the two groups (EMD 6.42, 95% CI -0.80 to 13.65). These results were sustained at the 5-month follow-up. Children's self-identified goals are achievable to the same extent as parent-identified goals and remain stable over time. Thus children can be trusted to identify their own goals for intervention, thereby influencing their involvement in their intervention programmes. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda


    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  3. Collaborating with Staff: Sharing a Common Philosophy, Working To Achieve Common Goals. (United States)

    Salzman, Jeff


    A well-understood camp philosophy motivates the entire staff to work toward a common purpose, which is more meaningful than money. Camp administrators can ensure that staff members implement the camp philosophy by interviewing prospective staff members with the mission in mind, teaching staff the camp's vision, praising staff with specifics,…

  4. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions (United States)

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles


    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  5. Working Together Toward a Common Goal: A Grounded Theory of Nurse-Physician Collaboration. (United States)

    Fewster-Thuente, Lori


    Working together toward a common goal is an empirically derived theory that can guide education and practice to improve patient outcomes while saving money and lives. Grounded theory was used to explore nurses' and physicians' experiences with collaboration in order to understand the process intrinsically.

  6. Identifying and applying psychological theory to setting and achieving rehabilitation goals. (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Wyke, Sally; Dixon, Diane


    Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories that that offer most potential to inform clinical practice. The rehabilitation and self-management literature was systematically searched to identify review papers or empirical studies that proposed a specific theory of behaviour change relevant to setting and/or achieving goals in a clinical context. Data from included papers were extracted under the headings of: key constructs, clinical application and empirical support. Twenty-four papers were included in the review which proposed a total of five theories: (i) social cognitive theory, (ii) goal setting theory, (iii) health action process approach, (iv) proactive coping theory, and (v) the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. The first three of these theories demonstrated most potential to inform clinical practice, on the basis of their capacity to inform interventions that resulted in improved patient outcomes. Social cognitive theory, goal setting theory and the health action process approach are theories of behaviour change that can inform clinicians in the process of setting and achieving goals in the rehabilitation setting. Overlapping constructs within these theories have been identified, and can be applied in clinical practice through the development and evaluation of a goal-setting practice framework.

  7. Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob


    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). Identifying the Goal, User model and Conditions of Recommender Systems for Formal and Informal Learning. Journal of Digital Information, 10(2), 4-24.

  8. Common Lung Microbiome Identified among Mechanically Ventilated Surgical Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Smith

    Full Text Available The examination of the pulmonary microbiome in patients with non-chronic disease states has not been extensively examined. Traditional culture based screening methods are often unable to identify bacteria from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies allows for a culture-independent molecular based analysis to determine the microbial composition in the lung of this patient population. For this study, the Ion Torrent PGM system was used to assess the microbial complexity of culture negative bronchoalveolar lavage samples. A group of samples were identified that all displayed high diversity and similar relative abundance of bacteria. This group consisted of Hydrogenophaga, unclassified Bacteroidetes, Pedobacter, Thauera, and Acinetobacter. These bacteria may be representative of a common non-pathogenic pulmonary microbiome associated within this population of patients.

  9. Civil law and common law : Two different paths leading to the same goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Časlav Pejović


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was not to judge which legal system is better: civil law or common law. The task of lawyers should not be to defend their legal systems/ but to improve them. Each legal system may have some advantages and deficiencies. If a foreign legal system has some advantages, why not incorporate them in our domestic legal system? In that way the resulting convergence of the two legal systems can only contribute to their common goal of creating a fair and just legal system which can provide legal certainty and protection to all citizens and legal persons.

  10. The ICF as a common language for rehabilitation goal-setting: comparing client and professional priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Aletia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint rehabilitation goals are an important component for effective teamwork in the rehabilitation field. The activities and participation domain of the ICF provides a common language for professionals when setting these goals. Involving clients in the formulation of rehabilitation goals is gaining momentum as part of a person-centred approach to rehabilitation. However, this is particularly difficult when clients have an acquired communication disability. The expressive communication difficulties negatively affect the consensus building process. As a result, obtaining information regarding rehabilitation goals from professionals and their clients warrants further investigation for this particular population. Methods This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program. Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats™ visual framework for goal setting. Each participant rated the importance of the nine activities and participation domains of the ICF for inclusion in their current rehabilitation program. Results The ICF domains which consistently appear as very important across these groups are mobility, self-care and communication. Domains which consistently appear in the lower third of the rankings include spare time, learning and thinking and domestic life. Results indicate however that no statistical significant differences exist in terms of the individual domains across each of the participant groups. Within group differences however indicated that amongst the speech-language therapists and physiotherapists there was a statistical significant difference between spare time activities and communication and mobility. Conclusions Findings indicate that

  11. 77 FR 48162 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the Challenge To Identify Audacious Goals in... (United States)


    ... diverse input not only from vision researchers and other biomedical and scientific research communities... in 1997. Multiple research groups then worked on developing gene therapy to treat this form of LCA... and Registration for the Challenge To Identify Audacious Goals in Vision Research and Blindness...

  12. Identifying secondary series for stepwise common singular spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Common singular spectrum analysis is a technique which can be used to forecast a pri- mary time series by using the information from a secondary series. Not all secondary series, however, provide useful information. A first contribution in this paper is to point out the properties which a secondary series should ...

  13. Identifying Personal Goals of Patients With Long Term Condition: A Service Design Thinking Approach. (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Gammon, Deede


    Care for patients with long term conditions is often characterized as fragmented and ineffective, and fails to engage the resources of patients and their families in the care process. Information and communication technology can potentially help bridge the gap between patients' lives and resources and services provided by professionals. However, there is little attention on how to identify and incorporate the patients' individual needs, values, preferences and care goals into the digitally driven care settings. We conducted a case study with healthcare professionals and patients participated applying a service design thinking approach. The participants could elaborate some personal goals of patients with long term condition which can potentially be incorporated in digitally driven care plans using examples from their own experiences.

  14. The perceptual control of goal-directed locomotion: a common control architecture for interception and navigation? (United States)

    Chardenon, A; Montagne, G; Laurent, M; Bootsma, R J


    Intercepting a moving object while locomoting is a highly complex and demanding ability. Notwithstanding the identification of several informational candidates, the role of perceptual variables in the control process underlying such skills remains an open question. In this study we used a virtual reality set-up for studying locomotor interception of a moving ball. The subject had to walk along a straight path and could freely modify forward velocity, if necessary, in order to intercept-with the head-a ball moving along a straight path that led it to cross the agent's displacement axis. In a series of experiments we manipulated a local (ball size) and a global (focus of expansion) component of the visual flow but also the egocentric orientation of the ball. The experimental observations are well captured by a dynamic model linking the locomotor acceleration to properties of both global flow and egocentric direction. More precisely the changes in locomotor velocity depend on a linear combination of the change in bearing angle and the change in egocentric orientation, allowing the emergence of adaptive behavior under a variety of circumstances. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the control of different goal-directed locomotion tasks (i.e. steering and interceptive tasks) could share a common architecture.

  15. The Need-Goal Integration Hypothesis: How to Meet Identified Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeoba F. Ilesanmi


    Full Text Available The paper highlights the many needs/goals of stake holders in the organisation and closely examines the well-worn believe that the main role of managers is to motivate their subordinates. Argument was proposed as to why this view is not appropriate in today’s organisations. The driving force for most employees, whose mobility and employability has been enhanced by ICT and globalization, is the extent to which the employing organisations is able to articulate their needs and meet them. To motivate and retain the modern day workers with portable skills, and to whom career is more a lattice than a ladder, is to be able to factor their needs into the goals of the organisation. More so, organisation is not about management and employees alone. There are many other stake holders; less visible though, but very important in the need-goal constellations of the organisation. It is posited that all stake holders in the organisation need to be motivated (by identifying and meeting their needs though in diverse ways, and that the action and inaction of one stake holder provides impetus for adequacy or shortfall in the motivation equation.

  16. Postsecondary Students With Psychiatric Disabilities Identify Core Services and Key Ingredients to Supporting Education Goals. (United States)

    Biebel, Kathleen; Mizrahi, Raphael; Ringeisen, Heather


    Accessing and successfully completing postsecondary educational opportunities may be challenging for those living with psychiatric disabilities. This exploratory study highlights the experiences of individuals with psychiatric disabilities participating in postsecondary educational support initiatives. Investigators conducted case studies with 3 education support initiatives across the United States. Focus groups revealed what concrete supported education services were helpful and key ingredients in delivering education supports. Access to specialists, mindfulness techniques, help with time management and procrastination, and facilitating classroom accommodations were identified as critical. Developing authentic relationships with supported education staff, flexibility in service delivery and access to student peers living with psychiatric disabilities were noted as key ingredients in service delivery. Incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention, therein providing more supports to students with psychiatric disabilities achieving their postsecondary education goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine


    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438

  18. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective. (United States)

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A


    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output.

  19. Glucokinase MODY and implications for treatment goals of common forms of diabetes. (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Owen, Katharine R


    Treatment goals in diabetes concentrate on reducing the risk of vascular complications, largely through setting targets for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). These targets are based on epidemiological studies of complication development, but so far have not adequately addressed the adverse effects associated with lowering HbA1c towards the normal range. Glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a monogenic form of hyperglycaemia (GCK-MODY) characterised by fasting hyperglycaemia with low postprandial glucose excursions and a marginally elevated HbA1c. Minimal levels of vascular complications (comparable with nondiabetic individuals) are observed in GCK-MODY, leading to the hypothesis that GCK-MODY may represent a useful paradigm for assessing treatment goals in all forms of diabetes. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind this concept, suggest ways of translating this hypothesis into clinical practice and address some of the caveats of such an approach.

  20. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  1. Observational goals for Max '91 to identify the causative agent for impulsive bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.A.


    Recent studies of impulsive hard x ray and microwave bursts suggest that a propagating causative agent with a characteristic velocity of the order of 1000 km/s is responsible for these bursts. The results of these studies are summarized and observable distinguishing characteristics of the various possible agents are highlighted, with emphasis on key observational goals for the Max '91 campaigns. The most likely causative agents suggested by the evidence are shocks, thermal conduction fronts, and propagating modes of magnetic reconnection in flare plasmas. With new instrumentation planned for Max '91, high spatial resolution observations of hard x ray sources have the potential to identify the agent by revealing detailed features of source spatial evolution. Observations with the Very Large Array and other radio imaging instruments are of great importance, as well as detailed modeling of coronal loop structures to place limits on their density and temperature profiles. With the combined hard x ray and microwave imaging observations, aided by loop model results, the simplest causative agent to rule out would be the propagating modes of magnetic reconnection. To fit the observational evidence, reconnection modes would need to travel at approximately the same velocity (the Alfven velocity) in different coronal structures that vary in length by a factor of 10(exp 3). Over such a vast range in loop lengths, it is difficult to believe that the Alfven velocity is constant. Thermal conduction fronts would be suggested by sources that expand along the direction of B and exhibit relatively little particle precipitation. Particle acceleration due to shocks could produce more diverse radially expanding source geometries with precipitation at loop footprints

  2. Getting on the Same Page: Identifying Goals for Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron


    Technology use among young children is increasingly a fact of life, and establishing a clear set of goals that are broadly accepted by stakeholders is critical to planning for the successful integration of technology into early childhood education (ECE). However, debates about the role of technology in ECE settings are ongoing, with some…

  3. Students' Self-Identified Long-Term Leadership Development Goals: An Analysis by Gender and Race (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Boyd, Barry L.; Duran, Kristina M.


    Leadership development goal statements of 92 undergraduate students enrolled in a multi-year self-directed leadership development program were analyzed using content and thematic analyses to investigate patterns of similarities and differences across gender and race. This qualitative analysis utilized a theoretical framework that approached…

  4. Conflict Management, Transitional Justice and De-radicalization – Different, but common goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mühlhausen


    Full Text Available The aim of this working paper is to explore common issues between the process of reconciliation in post-conflict societies, negotiations and the renouncement of violent means. This paper brings forward the argument that reconciliation, negotiations as well as disengagement or de-radicalization processes are important for a non-violent communication between extremists and the society they should re-integrate. Re-opening communication channels after terrorist violence can help to build trust and chance former conflict party’s mindsets. Comparing the principles of victim-oriented instruments of transitional justice to the disengagement process of perpetrators demonstrates some reasons for successful collective disengagement. Furthermore, especially amnesties, ore milder punishment are important incentives for negotiations and disengagement. This is often evaluated as unjust by victims and may suppress a further truth-finding process. Choosing completive restorative justice instruments like public apologies and public discussions in truth-finding processes can increase justice for victims and makes de-radicalization processes more lasting.

  5. Parkinson's patients' executive profile and goals they set for improvement: Why is cognitive rehabilitation not common practice? (United States)

    Vlagsma, T T; Koerts, J; Fasotti, L; Tucha, O; van Laar, T; Dijkstra, H; Spikman, J M


    Impairments in executive functions (EF) are the core cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Surprisingly, cognitive rehabilitation is not routinely offered to patients with PD. However, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), cognitive rehabilitation, in particular strategic executive training, is common practice and has been shown to be effective. In this study, we determined whether PD patients have different needs and aims with regard to strategic executive training than ABI patients, and whether possible differences might be a reason for not offering this kind of cognitive rehabilitation programme to patients with PD. Patients' needs and aims were operationalised by individually set goals, which were classified into domains of EF and daily life. In addition, patients with PD and ABI were compared on their cognitive, in particular EF, profile. Overall, PD patients' goals and cognitive profile were similar to those of patients with ABI. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, there is no reason to assume that strategic executive training cannot be part of standard therapy in PD. However, when strategic executive training is applied in clinical practice, disease-specific characteristics need to be taken into account.

  6. Finding Common Ground: Identifying and Eliciting Metacognition in ePortfolios across Contexts (United States)

    Bokser, Julie A.; Brown, Sarah; Chaden, Caryn; Moore, Michael; Cleary, Michelle Navarre; Reed, Susan; Seifert, Eileen; Zecker, Liliana Barro; Wozniak, Kathryn


    Research has suggested ePortfolios reveal and support students' metacognition, that is, their awareness, tracking, and evaluation of their learning over time. However, due to the wide variety of purposes and audiences for ePortfolios, it has been unclear whether there might be common criteria for identifying and assessing metacognition in…

  7. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); T. Esko (Tõnu); G. Davies (Gail); T.H. Pers (Tune); P. Turley (Patrick); B. Benyamin (Beben); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); J.J. Lee (James J.); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Miller (Mike); O. Rostapshova (Olga); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Conley (Dalton); J. Derringer; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Franke (Lude); E.L. Glaeser (Edward L.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C. Hayward (Caroline); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J. Karjalainen (Juha); D. Laibson (David); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); G. Mcmahon (George); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); S. Pinker (Steven); D.J. Porteous (David J.); D. Posthuma (Danielle); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); B.H. Smithk (Blair H.); J.M. Starr (John); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N.J. Timpsonm (Nicholas J.); M. Trzaskowskin (Maciej); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.E. Ward (Mary); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G.D. Smith; I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); R. Plomin (Robert); P.M. Visscher (Peter); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp)


    textabstractWe identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxyphenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69

  8. What Are They Thinking? The Development and Use of an Instrument that Identifies Common Science Misconceptions (United States)

    Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles R.; Larrabee, Timothy


    This article describes the rationale for, and development of, an online instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. Science Beliefs is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. It utilizes a true or false, along with a written-explanation, format. The true or…

  9. Goal Disengagement Capacities and Severity of Disease across Older Adulthood: The Sample Case of the Common Cold (United States)

    Jobin, Joelle; Wrosch, Carsten


    This study examined age-related associations between goal disengagement capacities, emotional distress, and disease severity across older adulthood. Given that an age-related increase in the experience of stressors might render important goals unattainable, it is expected that goal disengagement capacities would predict a decrease in the severity…

  10. Common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in familial Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisha Elias


    In this study we identified three families with Lynch syndrome from a rural cancer center in western India (KCHRC, Goraj, Gujarat, where 70-75 CRC patients are seen annually. DNA isolated from the blood of consented family members of all three families (8-10 members/family was subjected to NGS sequencing methods on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. We identified unique mutations in the MLH1 gene in all three HNPCC family members. Two of the three unrelated families shared a common mutation (154delA and 156delA. Total 8 members of a family were identified as carriers for 156delA mutation of which 5 members were unaffected while 3 were affected (age of onset: 1 member <30yrs & 2 were>40yr. The family with 154delA mutation showed 2 affected members (>40yr carrying the mutations.LYS618DEL mutation found in 8 members of the third family showed that both affected and unaffected carried the mutation. Thus the common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in two unrelated families had a high risk for lynch syndrome especially above the age of 40.

  11. Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine


    In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore...... function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated....... Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model...

  12. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Du

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs. We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33. We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s.

  13. Common integration sites of published datasets identified using a graph-based framework

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    Alessandro Vasciaveo


    Full Text Available With next-generation sequencing, the genomic data available for the characterization of integration sites (IS has dramatically increased. At present, in a single experiment, several thousand viral integration genome targets can be investigated to define genomic hot spots. In a previous article, we renovated a formal CIS analysis based on a rigid fixed window demarcation into a more stretchy definition grounded on graphs. Here, we present a selection of supporting data related to the graph-based framework (GBF from our previous article, in which a collection of common integration sites (CIS was identified on six published datasets. In this work, we will focus on two datasets, ISRTCGD and ISHIV, which have been previously discussed. Moreover, we show in more detail the workflow design that originates the datasets.

  14. Sequence-Based Introgression Mapping Identifies Candidate White Mold Tolerance Genes in Common Bean

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    Sujan Mamidi


    Full Text Available White mold, caused by the necrotrophic fungus (Lib. de Bary, is a major disease of common bean ( L.. WM7.1 and WM8.3 are two quantitative trait loci (QTL with major effects on tolerance to the pathogen. Advanced backcross populations segregating individually for either of the two QTL, and a recombinant inbred (RI population segregating for both QTL were used to fine map and confirm the genetic location of the QTL. The QTL intervals were physically mapped using the reference common bean genome sequence, and the physical intervals for each QTL were further confirmed by sequence-based introgression mapping. Using whole-genome sequence data from susceptible and tolerant DNA pools, introgressed regions were identified as those with significantly higher numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs relative to the whole genome. By combining the QTL and SNP data, WM7.1 was located to a 660-kb region that contained 41 gene models on the proximal end of chromosome Pv07, while the WM8.3 introgression was narrowed to a 1.36-Mb region containing 70 gene models. The most polymorphic candidate gene in the WM7.1 region encodes a BEACH-domain protein associated with apoptosis. Within the WM8.3 interval, a receptor-like protein with the potential to recognize pathogen effectors was the most polymorphic gene. The use of gene and sequence-based mapping identified two candidate genes whose putative functions are consistent with the current model of pathogenicity.

  15. A Common Ancestral Mutation in CRYBB3 Identified in Multiple Consanguineous Families with Congenital Cataracts.

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    Xiaodong Jiao

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the genetic determinants of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in large consanguineous families.Affected individuals underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and slit-lamp photographs of the cataractous lenses were obtained. An aliquot of blood was collected from all participating family members and genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells. Initially, a genome-wide scan was performed with genomic DNAs of family PKCC025 followed by exclusion analysis of our familial cohort of congenital cataracts. Protein-coding exons of CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, and CRYBA4 were sequenced bidirectionally. A haplotype was constructed with SNPs flanking the causal mutation for affected individuals in all four families, while the probability that the four familial cases have a common founder was estimated using EM and CHM-based algorithms. The expression of Crybb3 in the developing murine lens was investigated using TaqMan assays.The clinical and ophthalmological examinations suggested that all affected individuals had nuclear cataracts. Genome-wide linkage analysis localized the causal phenotype in family PKCC025 to chromosome 22q with statistically significant two-point logarithm of odds (LOD scores. Subsequently, we localized three additional families, PKCC063, PKCC131, and PKCC168 to chromosome 22q. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing identified a missense variation: c.493G>C (p.Gly165Arg in CRYBB3 that segregated with the disease phenotype in all four familial cases. This variation was not found in ethnically matched control chromosomes, the NHLBI exome variant server, or the 1000 Genomes or dbSNP databases. Interestingly, all four families harbor a unique disease haplotype that strongly suggests a common founder of the causal mutation (p<1.64E-10. We observed expression of Crybb3 in the mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 (E15, and expression remained relatively steady throughout development.Here, we

  16. Pleiotropy among common genetic loci identified for cardiometabolic disorders and C-reactive protein.

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    Symen Ligthart

    Full Text Available Pleiotropic genetic variants have independent effects on different phenotypes. C-reactive protein (CRP is associated with several cardiometabolic phenotypes. Shared genetic backgrounds may partially underlie these associations. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify the shared genetic background of inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We also evaluated whether the pleiotropic effects of such loci were biological or mediated in nature. First, we examined whether 283 common variants identified for 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes in GWAS are associated with CRP level. Second, we tested whether 18 variants identified for serum CRP are associated with 10 cardiometabolic phenotypes. We used a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 1.1×10-04 (0.05/463 as a threshold of significance. We evaluated the independent pleiotropic effect on both phenotypes using individual level data from the Women Genome Health Study. Evaluating the genetic overlap between inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes, we found 13 pleiotropic regions. Additional analyses showed that 6 regions (APOC1, HNF1A, IL6R, PPP1R3B, HNF4A and IL1F10 appeared to have a pleiotropic effect on CRP independent of the effects on the cardiometabolic phenotypes. These included loci where individuals carrying the risk allele for CRP encounter higher lipid levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, 5 regions (GCKR, PABPC4, BCL7B, FTO and TMEM18 had an effect on CRP largely mediated through the cardiometabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, our results show genetic pleiotropy among inflammation and cardiometabolic phenotypes. In addition to reverse causation, our data suggests that pleiotropic genetic variants partially underlie the association between CRP and cardiometabolic phenotypes.

  17. Identifying Hotspots in Land and Water Resource Uses on the Way towards Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (United States)

    Palazzo, A.; Havlik, P.; Van Dijk, M.; Leclere, D.


    Agriculture plays a key role in achieving adequate food, water, and energy security (as summarized in the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs) as populations grow and incomes rise. Yet, agriculture is confronted with an enormous challenge to produce more using less. Land and water resources are projected to be strongly affected by climate change demand and agriculture faces growing competition in the demand for these resources. To formulate policies that contribute to achieving the SDGs, policy makers need assessments that can anticipate and navigate the trade-offs within the water/land/energy domain. Assessments that identify locations or hotspots where trade-offs between the multiple, competing users of resources may exist must consider both the local scale impacts of resource use as well as regional scale socioeconomic trends, policies, and international markets that further contribute to or mitigate the impacts of resource trade-offs. In this study, we quantify impacts of increased pressure on the land system to provide agricultural and bioenergy products under increasingly scarce water resources using a global economic and land use model, GLOBIOM. We model the supply and demand of agricultural products at a high spatial resolution in an integrated approach that considers the impacts of global change (socioeconomic and climatic) on the biophysical availability and the growing competition of land and water. We also developed a biodiversity module that relates changes in land uses to changes in local species richness and global species extinction risk. We find that water available for agriculture and freshwater ecosystems decreases due to climate change and growing demand from other sectors (domestic, energy and industry) (Fig 1). Climate change impacts will limit areas suitable for irrigation and may lead to an expansion of rainfed areas in biodiverse areas. Impacts on food security from climate change are significant in some regions (SSA and SA) and policies

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies shared risk loci common to two malignancies in golden retrievers.

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    Noriko Tonomura


    Full Text Available Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6% and hemangiosarcoma (20%. We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers.

  19. Identifying Two Common Types of Breast Benign Diseases Based on Multiphoton Microscopy

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    Yan Wu


    Full Text Available Multiphoton microscopy has attracted increasing attention and investigations in the field of breast cancer, based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and second-harmonic generation (SHG. However, the incidence of breast benign diseases is about 5 to 10 times higher than breast cancer; up to 30% of women suffer from breast benign diseases and require treatment at some time in their lives. Thus, in this study, MPM was applied to image fibroadenoma and fibrocystic lesion, which are two of the most common breast benign diseases. The results show that MPM has the capability to identify the microstructure of lobule and stroma in normal breast tissue, the interaction of compressed ducts with surrounding collagen fiber in fibroadenoma, and the architecture of cysts filled with cystic fluid in fibrocystic disease. These findings indicate that, with integration of MPM into currently accepted clinical imaging system, it has the potential to make a real-time diagnosis of breast benign diseases in vivo, as well as breast cancer.

  20. Things you never thought of that make a difference: personal goals, common sense, and good behavior in practice. (United States)

    Watson, J Tracy


    There are many aspects of your practice that you never think of when you first get into your new practice environment. You have spent the better part of your life training in a rigorous surgical residency and possibly fellowship. You have worked hard to get to this station in life. Because of your training and the obvious fact that you are a hard-driving individual, there are certain subtleties to a successful practice that you might have overlooked or never thought about during your training years. In many ways, it is the "little things" that you never learned or never thought of that will affect your overall long-term practice success, personal happiness, and relationships the most. This article reviews aspects of practice that at first glance are merely good common sense.

  1. Whole-exome sequencing identifies common and rare variant metabolic QTLs in a Middle Eastern population. (United States)

    Yousri, Noha A; Fakhro, Khalid A; Robay, Amal; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mohney, Robert P; Zeriri, Hassina; Odeh, Tala; Kader, Sara Abdul; Aldous, Eman K; Thareja, Gaurav; Kumar, Manish; Al-Shakaki, Alya; Chidiac, Omar M; Mohamoud, Yasmin A; Mezey, Jason G; Malek, Joel A; Crystal, Ronald G; Suhre, Karsten


    Metabolomics-genome-wide association studies (mGWAS) have uncovered many metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) influencing human metabolic individuality, though predominantly in European cohorts. By combining whole-exome sequencing with a high-resolution metabolomics profiling for a highly consanguineous Middle Eastern population, we discover 21 common variant and 12 functional rare variant mQTLs, of which 45% are novel altogether. We fine-map 10 common variant mQTLs to new metabolite ratio associations, and 11 common variant mQTLs to putative protein-altering variants. This is the first work to report common and rare variant mQTLs linked to diseases and/or pharmacological targets in a consanguineous Arab cohort, with wide implications for precision medicine in the Middle East.

  2. Identifying Farm Pond Habitat Suitability for the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus: A Conservation-Perspective Approach

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    Chun-Hsien Lai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a habitat-suitability assessment model for Gallinula chloropus, or the Common Moorhen, to be applied to the selection of the most suitable farm pond for habitat conservation in Chiayi County, Taiwan. First, the fuzzy Delphi method was employed to evaluate habitat selection factors and calculate the weights of these factors. The results showed that the eight crucial factors, by importance, in descending order, were (1 area ratio of farmlands within 200 m of the farm pond; (2 pond area; (3 pond perimeter; (4 aquatic plant coverage of the pond surface; (5 drought period; (6 coverage of high and low shrubs around the pond bank; (7 bank type; and (8 water-surface-to-bank distance. Subsequently, field evaluations of 75 farm ponds in Chiayi County were performed. The results indicated that 15 farm ponds had highly-suitable habitats and were inhabited by unusually high numbers of Common Moorhens; these habitats were most in need of conservation. A total of two farm ponds were found to require habitat-environment improvements, and Common Moorhens with typical reproductive capacity could be appropriately introduced into 22 farm ponds to restore the ecosystem of the species. Additionally, the habitat suitability and number of Common Moorhens in 36 farm ponds were lower than average; these ponds could be used for agricultural irrigation, detention basins, or for recreational use by community residents. Finally, the total habitat suitability scores and occurrence of Common Moorhens in each farm pond were used to verify the accuracy of the habitat-suitability assessment model for the Common Moorhen. The overall accuracy was 0.8, and the Kappa value was 0.60, which indicates that the model established in this study exhibited high credibility. To sum up, this is an applicable framework not only to assess the habitat suitability of farm ponds for Common Moorhens, but also to determine whether a particular location may

  3. Common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in familial Lynch syndrome


    Jisha Elias; Coral Karunakaran; Snigdha Majumder; Malini Manoharan; Rakshit Shah; Yogesh Mistry; Rajesh Ramanuj; Niraj Bhatt; Arati Khanna- Gupta


    Lynch syndrome (Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer, HNPCC) is one of the most common hereditary familial colorectal cancers (CRC) with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. It accounts for 2-5% of the total CRCs reported worldwide. Although a lower incidence for CRCs have been observed in India, the last decade has shown a remarkable increase of CRC incidences (2-4 %). Features of Lynch syndrome associated colorectal cancer include early age of cancer onset, accelerated car...

  4. Identifying resistance gene analogs associated with resistances to different pathogens in common bean. (United States)

    López, Camilo E; Acosta, Iván F; Jara, Carlos; Pedraza, Fabio; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Gallego, Gerardo; Beebe, Steve; Tohme, Joe


    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.

  5. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species. (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong


    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain.

  6. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

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    Salma A. Abdelmagid


    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  7. The genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad virus identifies an evolutionary intermediate within ranaviruses. (United States)

    Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcamí, Antonio; Alejo, Alí


    Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses.

  8. Identifying Genetic Hotspots by Mapping Molecular Diversity of Widespread Trees: When Commonness Matters. (United States)

    Souto, Cintia P; Mathiasen, Paula; Acosta, María Cristina; Quiroga, María Paula; Vidal-Russell, Romina; Echeverría, Cristian; Premoli, Andrea C


    Conservation planning requires setting priorities at the same spatial scale at which decision-making processes are undertaken considering all levels of biodiversity, but current methods for identifying biodiversity hotspots ignore its genetic component. We developed a fine-scale approach based on the definition of genetic hotspots, which have high genetic diversity and unique variants that represent their evolutionary potential and evolutionary novelties. Our hypothesis is that wide-ranging taxa with similar ecological tolerances, yet of phylogenetically independent lineages, have been and currently are shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces that result in geographically concordant genetic patterns. We mapped previously published genetic diversity and unique variants of biparentally inherited markers and chloroplast sequences for 9 species from 188 and 275 populations, respectively, of the 4 woody dominant families of the austral temperate forest, an area considered a biodiversity hotspot. Spatial distribution patterns of genetic polymorphisms differed among taxa according to their ecological tolerances. Eight genetic hotspots were detected and we recommend conservation actions for some in the southern Coastal Range in Chile. Existing spatially explicit genetic data from multiple populations and species can help to identify biodiversity hotspots and guide conservation actions to establish science-based protected areas that will preserve the evolutionary potential of key habitats and species. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Which behaviours? Identifying the most common and burdensome behaviour changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Andrews, Sophie Claire; Pavlis, Alexia; Staios, Mathew; Fisher, Fiona


    Behaviour change is increasingly recognised as a common feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be similar to that seen in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The behaviours most disturbed in ALS, and those that relate most significantly to caregiver burden, however, have not been well established. Forty ALS participants and their caregivers, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls and their relatives, participated in this study. ALS participants were assessed on a disease rating scale, and caregivers and control informants completed the revised version of the Cambridge Behaviour Inventory and a measure of burden. ALS caregivers reported significantly more disturbance than healthy control informants on the functional domains of everyday skills, self-care, and sleep, and in the behavioural domains of mood and motivation. There were no differences between groups in frequency of memory and orientation difficulties, or behaviours characteristic of FTD, such as changes to eating habits or stereotypic and motor behaviour, indicating that the behavioural profile in ALS may differ from FTD. In the ALS group, the domains with the strongest relationship to caregiver burden were everyday skills, motivation and memory, likely because poor motivation, memory dysfunction and difficulties completing activities of daily living require more carer support via direct supervision, prompting or hands on care. Services to support ALS patients and caregivers need to provide targeted interventions for those functional and behavioural changes which are most burdensome in the disease.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies NBS-LRR-Encoding Genes Related with Anthracnose and Common Bacterial Blight in the Common Bean. (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jifeng; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin


    Nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes represent the largest and most important disease resistance genes in plants. The genome sequence of the common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) provides valuable data for determining the genomic organization of NBS-LRR genes. However, data on the NBS-LRR genes in the common bean are limited. In total, 178 NBS-LRR-type genes and 145 partial genes (with or without a NBS) located on 11 common bean chromosomes were identified from genome sequences database. Furthermore, 30 NBS-LRR genes were classified into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR (TNL) types, and 148 NBS-LRR genes were classified into coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR (CNL) types. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree supported the division of these PvNBS genes into two obvious groups, TNL types and CNL types. We also built expression profiles of NBS genes in response to anthracnose and common bacterial blight using qRT-PCR. Finally, we detected nine disease resistance loci for anthracnose (ANT) and seven for common bacterial blight (CBB) using the developed NBS-SSR markers. Among these loci, NSSR24, NSSR73, and NSSR265 may be located at new regions for ANT resistance, while NSSR65 and NSSR260 may be located at new regions for CBB resistance. Furthermore, we validated NSSR24, NSSR65, NSSR73, NSSR260, and NSSR265 using a new natural population. Our results provide useful information regarding the function of the NBS-LRR proteins and will accelerate the functional genomics and evolutionary studies of NBS-LRR genes in food legumes. NBS-SSR markers represent a wide-reaching resource for molecular breeding in the common bean and other food legumes. Collectively, our results should be of broad interest to bean scientists and breeders.

  11. Polygenic analysis of genome-wide SNP data identifies common variants on allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadnejad, Afsaneh; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Haagerup, Annette

    Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a complex disorder that affects many people around the world. There is a high genetic contribution to the development of the AR, as twins and family studies have estimated heritability of more than 33%. Due to the complex nature of the disease, single SNP...... analysis has limited power in identifying the genetic variations for AR. We combined genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) with polygenic risk score (PRS) in exploring the genetic basis underlying the disease. Methods: We collected clinical data on 631 Danish subjects with AR cases consisting of 434...... sibling pairs and unrelated individuals and control subjects of 197 unrelated individuals. SNP genotyping was done by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0. SNP imputation was performed using "IMPUTE2". Using additive effect model, GWAS was conducted in discovery sample, the genotypes...

  12. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.


    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  13. Hospital doctors behave differently, and only by respecting the fundamentals of professional organizations will managers be able to create common goals with professionals. (United States)

    Van Dijck, H


    Hospital doctors behave differently from other hospital workers. The general and specific characteristics of the doctors' behavior are described. As professionals, doctors want to make autonomous decisions and more specifically, they negotiate differently. The best description of their negotiation style is one that features multi-actor, multi-issue characteristics. They behave as actors in a network in never-ending rounds of negotiations with variable issues up for discussion: one time you lose, the next you win. A doctor's career starts with a long residency period in which he or she absorbs professional habits. His or her knowledge and way of organizing are implicit. It is hard for him or her to explicitly describe what he or she is doing. This makes it difficult for managers to discuss quality issues with doctors. Dealing with disruptive behavior is not easy either. The difficult tasks of the chief medical officer, who acts as a go-between, are highlighted. Only when managers respect the fundamentals of the professional organization will they be able to create common goals with the professionals. Common goals bring about better care in hospitals.

  14. Identifying common barriers and facilitators to linkage and retention in chronic disease care in western Kenya

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    Beth Rachlis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly being challenged in providing care and treatment for chronic diseases, both communicable and non-communicable. In order to address the challenges of linkage to and retention in chronic disease management, there is the need to understand the factors that can influence engagement in care. We conducted a qualitative study to identify barriers and facilitators to linkage and retention in chronic care for HIV, tuberculosis (TB and Hypertension (HTN as part of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH program in western Kenya. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted July 2012-August 2013. Study participants were purposively sampled from three AMPATH clinics and included patients within the AMPATH program receiving HIV, TB, and HTN care, as well as caregivers of children with HIV, community leaders, and healthcare providers. A set of interview guides were developed to explore perceived barriers and facilitators to chronic disease management, particularly related to linkage to and retention in HIV, TB and HTN care. Data were coded and various themes were identified. We organized the concepts and themes generated using the Andersen-Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization. Results A total of 235 participants including 110 individuals living with HIV (n = 50, TB (n = 39, or HTN (n = 21; 24 caregivers; 10 community leaders; and 62 healthcare providers participated. Barriers and facilitators were categorized as predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need factors. Many of the facilitators and barriers reported in this study were consistently reported across disease categories including personal drive, patient-provider relationships and the need for social and peer support. Conclusions Our findings provide insight into the individual as well as broader structural factors that can deter or encourage linkage and retention that

  15. Identifying and attributing common data quality problems: temperature and precipitation observations in Bolivia and Peru (United States)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie; Calle, Juan; Moreno, Isabel; Andrade, Marcos; Velarde, Fernando; Ticona, Laura; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellón, Yaruska; Oria Rojas, Clara; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Rohrer, Mario


    Assessing climatological trends and extreme events requires high-quality data. However, for many regions of the world, observational data of the desired quality is not available. In order to eliminate errors in the data, quality control (QC) should be applied before data analysis. If the data still contains undetected errors and quality problems after QC, a consequence may be misleading and erroneous results. A region which is seriously affected by observational data quality problems is the Central Andes. At the same time, climatological information on ongoing climate change and climate risks are of utmost importance in this area due to its vulnerability to meteorological extreme events and climatic changes. Beside data quality issues, the lack of metadata and the low station network density complicate quality control and assessment, and hence, appropriate application of the data. Errors and data problems may occur at any point of the data generation chain, e.g. due to unsuitable station configuration or siting, poor station maintenance, erroneous instrument reading, or inaccurate data digitalization and post processing. Different measurement conditions in the predominantly conventional station networks in Bolivia and Peru compared to the mostly automated networks e.g. in Europe or Northern America may cause different types of errors. Hence, applying QC methods used on state of the art networks to Bolivian and Peruvian climate observations may not be suitable or sufficient. A comprehensive amount of Bolivian and Peruvian maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation in-situ measurements were analyzed to detect and describe common data quality problems. Furthermore, station visits and reviews of the original documents were done. Some of the errors could be attributed to a specific source. Such information is of great importance for data users, since it allows them to decide for what applications the data still can be used. In ideal cases, it may even allow to

  16. Risk assessment derived from migrants identified in several adhesives commonly used in food contact materials. (United States)

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C


    Adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer materials, where their components pass through the layers and migrate to the food. Nine different adhesives (acrylic, vinyl and hotmelt) and their migration in 21 laminates for future use as market samples have been evaluated and risk assessment has been carried out. A total of 75 volatiles and non volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most of the compounds migrated below their specific migration limit (SML), lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and values recommended by Cramer. Six compounds classified as high toxicity class III according to Cramer classification, migrated over their SML and exposure values recommended by Cramer, when they were applied in the full area of the packaging. Nevertheless, these adhesives fulfill the threshold in the real application as they are applied in a small area of the packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microarray analysis identifies a common set of cellular genes modulated by different HCV replicon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerosolimo Germano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA synthesis and protein expression affect cell homeostasis by modulation of gene expression. The impact of HCV replication on global cell transcription has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we analysed the expression profiles of different clones of human hepatoma-derived Huh-7 cells carrying a self-replicating HCV RNA which express all viral proteins (HCV replicon system. Results First, we compared the expression profile of HCV replicon clone 21-5 with both the Huh-7 parental cells and the 21-5 cured (21-5c cells. In these latter, the HCV RNA has been eliminated by IFN-α treatment. To confirm data, we also analyzed microarray results from both the 21-5 and two other HCV replicon clones, 22-6 and 21-7, compared to the Huh-7 cells. The study was carried out by using the Applied Biosystems (AB Human Genome Survey Microarray v1.0 which provides 31,700 probes that correspond to 27,868 human genes. Microarray analysis revealed a specific transcriptional program induced by HCV in replicon cells respect to both IFN-α-cured and Huh-7 cells. From the original datasets of differentially expressed genes, we selected by Venn diagrams a final list of 38 genes modulated by HCV in all clones. Most of the 38 genes have never been described before and showed high fold-change associated with significant p-value, strongly supporting data reliability. Classification of the 38 genes by Panther System identified functional categories that were significantly enriched in this gene set, such as histones and ribosomal proteins as well as extracellular matrix and intracellular protein traffic. The dataset also included new genes involved in lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal network, which may be critical for HCV replication and pathogenesis. Conclusion Our data provide a comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression induced by HCV replication and reveal modulation of new genes potentially useful

  18. Teaching assistants’ performance at identifying common introductory student difficulties in mechanics revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries


    Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students’ initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs: knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (∼900 of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students’ difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information

  19. Common Allergens Identified Based on Patch Test Results in Patients with Suspected Contact Dermatitis of the Scalp. (United States)

    Aleid, Nouf M; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella


    Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40-59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications.

  20. Common Allergens Identified Based on Patch Test Results in Patients with Suspected Contact Dermatitis of the Scalp (United States)

    Aleid, Nouf M.; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella


    Background Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. Objectives To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. Results The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40–59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Conclusion Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications. PMID:28611994

  1. Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bolton


    Full Text Available Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma, and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG. Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136 influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.

  2. Crowd-sourced Ontology for Photoleukocoria: Identifying Common Internet Search Terms for a Potentially Important Pediatric Ophthalmic Sign. (United States)

    Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W


    Leukocoria is the most common presenting sign for pediatric eye disease including retinoblastoma and cataract, with worse outcomes if diagnosis is delayed. We investigated whether individuals could identify leukocoria in photographs (photoleukocoria) and examined their subsequent Internet search behavior. Using a web-based questionnaire, in this cross-sectional study we invited adults aged over 18 years to view two photographs of a child with photoleukocoria, and then search the Internet to determine a possible diagnosis and action plan. The most commonly used search terms and websites accessed were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 1639 individuals. Facebook advertisement was the most effective recruitment strategy. The mean age of all respondents was 38.95 ± 14.59 years (range, 18-83), 94% were female, and 59.3% had children. An abnormality in the images presented was identified by 1613 (98.4%) participants. The most commonly used search terms were: "white," "pupil," "photo," and "eye" reaching a variety of appropriate websites or links to print or social media articles. Different words or phrases were used to describe the same observation of photoleukocoria leading to a range of websites. Variations in the description of observed signs and search words influenced the sites reached, information obtained, and subsequent help-seeking intentions. Identifying the most commonly used search terms for photoleukocoria is an important step for search engine optimization. Being directed to the most appropriate websites informing of the significance of photoleukocoria and the appropriate actions to take could improve delays in diagnosis of important pediatric eye disease such as retinoblastoma or cataract.

  3. The contribution of goal specificity to goal achievement in collaborative goal setting for the management of asthma. (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Alles, Chehani; Lemay, Kate; Reddel, Helen; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol


    Goal setting was investigated as part of an implementation trial of an asthma management service (PAMS) conducted in 96 Australian community pharmacies. Patients and pharmacists identified asthma-related issues of concern to the patient and collaboratively set goals to address these. Although goal setting is commonly integrated into disease state management interventions, the nature of goals, and their contribution to goal attainment and health outcomes are not well understood. To identify and describe: 1) goals set collaboratively between adult patients with asthma and their pharmacist, 2) goal specificity and goal achievement, and 3) describe the relationships between specificity, achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Measures of goal specificity, and goal achievement were developed and applied to patient data records. Goals set were thematically analyzed into goal domains. Proportions of goals set, goals achieved and their specificity were calculated. Correlational and regression analyses were undertaken to determine the relationships between goal specificity, goal achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Data were drawn from 498 patient records. Findings showed that patients set a wide range and number of asthma-related goals (N = 1787) and the majority (93%) were either achieved or being working toward by the end of the study. Goal achievement was positively associated with specific and moderately specific goals, but not non-specific goals. However, on closer inspection, an inconsistent pattern of relationships emerged as a function of goal domain. Findings also showed that goal setting was associated with end-of-study asthma control but not to asthma-related quality of life. Pharmacists can help patients to set achievable and specific asthma management goals, and these have the potential to directly impact health outcomes such as asthma control. Goal specificity appears to be an important feature in the

  4. Defining safety culture and the nexus between safety goals and safety culture. 3. A Methodology for Identifying Deficiencies in Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, George; Weil, Rick


    At present, the drivers of performance problems at nuclear power plants (NPPs) are organizational in nature. Organizational deficiencies and other 'latent' conditions cause human errors, resulting in incidents that impact the performance of NPPs. Therefore, the human reliability community, regulators, and others concerned with NPP safety express the view that safety culture and organizational factors play an important role in plant safety. However, we have yet to identify one complete set of organizational factors, establish links between deficient safety culture and performance, or develop adequate tools to measure safety culture. This paper will contribute to the resolution of these issues. Safety culture is not a single factor but rather is a collection of several distinct factors. This paper asserts that in order to pro-actively manage safety culture at NPPs, leading indicators and appropriate measurements must be identified and developed. Central to this effort are the identification of the distinct factors comprising safety culture and the relationships between those factors and performance. We have identified several factors important to safety culture. We have developed a methodology that is a combination of traditional root-cause analysis and theories of human error, most notably Reason's theory of accident causation. In addition to this methodology's usefulness in identifying deficiencies in safety culture, it could also be used as a starting point to identify leading indicators of deteriorating safety performance. We have identified six organizational factors as being important: communication, formalization, goal prioritization, problem identification, roles and responsibilities, and technical knowledge. In addition, we have found that certain organizational factors, although pervasive throughout the organization, have a much greater influence on the successful outcome of particular tasks of work processes, rather than being equally important to all

  5. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation. (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M


    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  6. Epidemiological study on the penicillin resistance of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates identified as the common sequence types. (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Shi, Wei; Chen, Chang-hui; Wen, De-nian; Tian, Jin; Yao, Kai-hu


    There were some limitation in the current interpretation about the penicillin resistance mechanism of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates at the strain level. To explore the possibilities of studying the mechanism based on the sequence types (ST) of this bacteria, 488 isolates collected in Beijing from 1997-2014 and 88 isolates collected in Youyang County, Chongqing and Zhongjiang County, Sichuan in 2015 were analyzed by penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution and annual distribution. The results showed that the penicillin MICs of the all isolates covering by the given ST in Beijing have a defined range, either penicillin MIC penicillin MICs in the first few years after it was identified. The penicillin MIC of isolates identified as common STs and collected in Youyang County, Chongqing and Sichuan Zhongjiang County, including the ST271, ST320 and ST81, was around 0.25~2 mg/L (≥0.25 mg/L). Our study revealed the epidemiological distribution of penicillin MICs of the given STs determined in clinical S. pneumoniae isolates, suggesting that it is reasonable to research the penicillin resistance mechanism based on the STs of this bacteria.

  7. Computational study of the fibril organization of polyglutamine repeats reveals a common motif identified in beta-helices. (United States)

    Zanuy, David; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Lesk, Arthur M; Nussinov, Ruth


    The formation of fibril aggregates by long polyglutamine sequences is assumed to play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington. Here, we model peptides rich in glutamine, through a series of molecular dynamics simulations. Starting from a rigid nanotube-like conformation, we have obtained a new conformational template that shares structural features of a tubular helix and of a beta-helix conformational organization. Our new model can be described as a super-helical arrangement of flat beta-sheet segments linked by planar turns or bends. Interestingly, our comprehensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank reveals that this is a common motif in beta-helices (termed beta-bend), although it has not been identified so far. The motif is based on the alternation of beta-sheet and helical conformation as the protein sequence is followed from the N to the C termini (beta-alpha(R)-beta-polyPro-beta). We further identify this motif in the ssNMR structure of the protofibril of the amyloidogenic peptide Abeta(1-40). The recurrence of the beta-bend suggests a general mode of connecting long parallel beta-sheet segments that would allow the growth of partially ordered fibril structures. The design allows the peptide backbone to change direction with a minimal loss of main chain hydrogen bonds. The identification of a coherent organization beyond that of the beta-sheet segments in different folds rich in parallel beta-sheets suggests a higher degree of ordered structure in protein fibrils, in agreement with their low solubility and dense molecular packing.

  8. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.


    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  9. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals (United States)

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil


    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively associated…

  10. Meta-analysis of 28,141 individuals identifies common variants within five new loci that influence uric acid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kolz


    Full Text Available Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2x10(-201, ABCG2 (p = 3.1x10(-26, SLC17A1 (p = 3.0x10(-14, SLC22A11 (p = 6.7x10(-14, SLC22A12 (p = 2.0x10(-9, SLC16A9 (p = 1.1x10(-8, GCKR (p = 1.4x10(-9, LRRC16A (p = 8.5x10(-9, and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7x10(-9. Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0x10(-26 and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0x10(-8 concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4x10(-57 and p = 8.1x10(-54, respectively, forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels.

  11. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity. (United States)

    Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R


    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

  12. Using reference nutrient density goals with food balance sheet data to identify likely micronutrient deficits for fortification planning in countries in the Western Pacific region. (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso


    Collection of nationwide food consumption data at the individual level is the preferred option for planning fortification programs. However, such data are seldom collected in low-income countries. In contrast, Food Balance Sheets (FBS), published annually for approximately 180 countries, may provide a source of national data for program planning. To explore the use of micronutrient densities from FBS data to identify likely deficits for eight micronutrients in national diets. Micronutrient densities in the daily available food supply per capita were calculated from the micronutrient contents of 95 food commodities in 17 Western Pacific Region countries. Densities were compared with reference nutrient density goals developed to ensure that at least 95% of individuals, irrespective of life-stage group, are likely to have adequate intakes. Of the eight micronutrients, Cambodia and Korea D.P.R. had likely deficits for six; China, Fiji, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Lao P.D.R., Philippines, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam had likely deficits for five; Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea had likely deficits for four; and New Caledonia had likely deficits for three. The most frequent deficits were for iron, zinc, and calcium (all countries), followed by vitamin B2 and vitamin A (n = 13), vitamin B1 (n = 2), and vitamin B12 (n = 1). The nutrient density approach could be applied to FBS data for ranking countries according to likely micronutrient deficits, but it provides no information on distribution of nutrient supply for fortification program planning. The approach described here could be applied to data from Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) to characterize households at greatest risk.

  13. Identifying barriers to Science, Technology, Society and environment (STSE) educational goals and pedagogy in science education: A case study of UMASS Lowell undergraduate engineering (United States)

    Phaneuf, Tiffany

    The implementation of sustainable development in higher education is a global trend. Engineers, as gatekeepers of technological innovation, confront increasingly complex world issues ranging from economic and social to political and environmental. Recently, a multitude of government reports have argued that solving such complex problems requires changes in the pedagogy of engineering education, such as that prescribed by the Science, Technology, Society, and education (STS) movement that grew out of the environmental movement in the 70s. In STS students are engaged in the community by understanding that scientific progress is innately a sociopolitical process that involves dimensions of power, wealth and responsibility. United States accreditation criteria now demand "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context" (ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission 2005). With such emphasis on STS education as necessary to address complex world issues, it is vital to assess the barriers in the traditional engineering curriculum that may inhibit the success of such educational reform. This study identifies barriers to STS goals and pedagogy in post secondary science education by using the Francis College of Engineering at UMASS Lowell as a single case study. The study draws on existing literature to develop a theoretical framework for assessing four hypothesized barriers to STS education in undergraduate engineering. Identification of barriers to STS education in engineering generates a critical reflection of post secondary science education and its role in preparing engineers to be active citizens in shaping a rapidly globalizing world. The study offers policy recommendations for enabling post secondary science education to incorporate STS education into its curriculum.

  14. A DNA methylation microarray-based study identifies ERG as a gene commonly methylated in prostate cancer. (United States)

    Schwartzman, Jacob; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Gibbs, Angela; Gao, Lina; Corless, Christopher L; Jin, Jennifer; Zarour, Luai; Higano, Celestia; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; McWeeney, Shannon K; Bova, G Steven; Partin, Alan W; Mori, Motomi; Alumkal, Joshi


    DNA methylation of promoter regions is a common event in prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Because prior reports demonstrating that DNA methylation is important in prostate cancer studied a limited number of genes, we systematically quantified the DNA methylation status of 1505 CpG dinucleotides for 807 genes in 78 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples and three normal prostate samples. The ERG gene, commonly repressed in prostate cells in the absence of an oncogenic fusion to the TMPRSS2 gene, was one of the most commonly methylated genes, occurring in 74% of prostate cancer specimens. In an independent group of patient samples, we confirmed that ERG DNA methylation was common, occurring in 57% of specimens, and cancer-specific. The ERG promoter is marked by repressive chromatin marks mediated by polycomb proteins in both normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells, which may explain ERG's predisposition to DNA methylation and the fact that tumors with ERG DNA methylation were more methylated, in general. These results demonstrate that bead arrays offer a high-throughput method to discover novel genes with promoter DNA methylation such as ERG, whose measurement may improve our ability to more accurately detect prostate cancer.

  15. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders (United States)

    Teixeira, Julie Brill


    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  16. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendran, Praveen; Drenos, Fotios; Young, Robin; Warren, Helen; Cook, James P; Manning, Alisa K; Grarup, Niels; Sim, Xueling; Barnes, Daniel R; Witkowska, Kate; Staley, James R; Tragante, Vinicius; Tukiainen, Taru; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Masca, Nicholas; Freitag, Daniel F; Ferreira, Teresa; Giannakopoulou, Olga; Tinker, Andrew; Harakalova, Magdalena; Mihailov, Evelin; Liu, Chunyu; Kraja, Aldi T; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Rasheed, Asif; Samuel, Maria; Zhao, Wei; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Jackson, Anne U; Narisu, Narisu; Swift, Amy J; Southam, Lorraine; Marten, Jonathan; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Stančáková, Alena; Fava, Cristiano; Ohlsson, Therese; Matchan, Angela; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Gjesing, Anette P; Kontto, Jukka; Perola, Markus; Shaw-Hawkins, Susan; Havulinna, Aki S; Zhang, He; Donnelly, Louise A; Groves, Christopher J; Rayner, N William; Neville, Matt J; Robertson, Neil R; Yiorkas, Andrianos M; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kajantie, Eero; Zhang, Weihua; Willems, Sara M; Lannfelt, Lars; Malerba, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Verweij, Niek; Evangelou, Evangelos; Moayyeri, Alireza; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Poveda, Alaitz; Varga, Tibor V; Caslake, Muriel; de Craen, Anton J M; Trompet, Stella; Luan, Jian'an; Scott, Robert A; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C M; Marioni, Riccardo; Menni, Cristina; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hassinen, Maija; Burgess, Stephen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Felix, Janine F; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Malarstig, Anders; Reilly, Dermot F; Hoek, Maarten; Vogt, Thomas F; Lin, Honghuang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Traylor, Matthew; Markus, Hugh S; Highland, Heather M; Justice, Anne E; Marouli, Eirini; Lindström, Jaana; Uusitupa, Matti; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Rolandsson, Olov; Franks, Paul W; Dedoussis, George; Spector, Timothy D; Jousilahti, Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nick J; Brown, Morris J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Connell, John M; Jukema, J Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris J; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; de Boer, Rudolf A; van der Meer, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Gambaro, Giovanni; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I W; Numans, Mattijs E; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Petersen, Eva R B; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Oksa, Heikki; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Franks, Steve; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise L; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina; Karpe, Fredrik; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, Cristen J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Groop, Leif; Käräjämäki, AnneMari; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Alam, Dewan S; Majumder, Abdulla Al Shafi; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Chowdhury, Rajiv; McCarthy, Mark I; Poulter, Neil; Stanton, Alice V; Sever, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ferrières, Jean; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Veronesi, Giovanni; Virtamo, Jarmo; Deloukas, Panos; Elliott, Paul; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Porteous, David J; Hayward, Caroline; Scotland, Generation; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Boehnke, Michael; Stringham, Heather M; Frossard, Philippe; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Tobin, Martin D; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Caulfield, Mark J; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew P; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Samani, Nilesh J; Saleheen, Danish; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Danesh, John; Wain, Louise V; Butterworth, Adam S; Howson, Joanna M M; Munroe, Patricia B


    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up to

  17. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendran, P. (Praveen); F. Drenos (Fotios); R. Young (Robin); H. Warren (Helen); Cook, J.P. (James P.); A.K. Manning (Alisa); N. Grarup (Niels); X. Sim (Xueling); D. Barnes (Daniel); H.E. Witkowska (Ewa); J.R. Staley (James R.); V. Tragante (Vinicius); T. Tukiainen (Taru); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); Masca, N. (Nicholas); C.M. Freitag (Christine); T. Ferreira (Teresa); O. Giannakopoulou (Olga); Tinker, A. (Andrew); M. Harakalova (Magdalena); E. Mihailov (Evelin); Liu, C. (Chunyu); A. Kraja (Aldi); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); A. Rasheed (Asif); M. Samuel (Maria); W. Zhao (Wei); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); A.U. Jackson (Anne); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.J. Swift (Amy); L. Southam (Lorraine); J. Marten (Jonathan); J.R. Huyghe (Jeroen R.); A. Stancáková (Alena); C. Fava (Cristiano); Ohlsson, T. (Therese); A. Matchan (Angela); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Bork-Jensen (Jette); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); Kontto, J. (Jukka); M. Perola (Markus); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); Zhang, H. (He); L.A. Donnelly (Louise); C.J. Groves (Christopher); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); M.J. Neville (Matthew); N.R. Robertson (Neil); Yiorkas, A.M. (Andrianos M.); K.H. Herzig; E. Kajantie (Eero); W. Zhang (Weihua); S.M. Willems (Sara); L. Lannfelt (Lars); G. Malerba (Giovanni); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E. Trabetti (Elisabetta); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); Vergnaud, A.-C. (Anne-Claire); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); Poveda, A. (Alaitz); T.V. Varga (Tibor V.); M. Caslake (Muriel); A.J.M. De Craen (Anton J. M.); S. Trompet (Stella); J. Luan (Jian'An); R.A. Scott (Robert); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D.C. Liewald (David C.); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); C. Menni (Cristina); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); G. Hallmans (Göran); F. Renström (Frida); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); Hassinen, M. (Maija); S. Burgess (Stephen); Vasan, R.S. (Ramachandran S.); J.F. Felix (Janine); Uria-Nickelsen, M. (Maria); A. Mälarstig (Anders); Reilly, D.F. (Dermot F.); Hoek, M. (Maarten); Vogt, T.F. (Thomas F.); H. Lin (Honghuang); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); M. Traylor (Matthew); H.S. Markus (Hugh); H. Highland (Heather); A.E. Justice (Anne); E. Marouli (Eirini); J. Lindström (Jaana); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. Komulainen (Pirjo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Rudan (Igor); Rolandsson, O. (Olov); P.W. Franks (Paul); G.V. Dedoussis (George); T.D. Spector (Timothy); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); S. Männistö (Satu); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); J.M. Starr (John); C. Langenberg (Claudia); N.J. Wareham (Nick); M.J. Brown (Morris); A. Dominiczak (Anna); Connell, J.M. (John M.); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); N. Sattar (Naveed); I. Ford (Ian); Packard, C.J. (Chris J.); T. Esko (Tõnu); R. Mägi (Reedik); A. Metspalu (Andres); R.A. de Boer (Rudolf); Van Der Meer, P. (Peter); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Ingelsson, E. (Erik); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); M.E. Numans (Mattijs); I. Brandslund (Ivan); Christensen, C. (Cramer); Petersen, E.R.B. (Eva R. B.); E. Korpi-Hyövälti (Eeva); H. Oksa (Heikki); J.C. Chambers (John); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); S. Franks (Steve); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); Linneberg, A. (Allan); T. Skaaby (Tea); Thuesen, B. (Betina); F. Karpe (Fredrik); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); A.D. Morris (Andrew); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); K. Hveem (Kristian); C.J. Willer (Cristen); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); L. Groop (Leif); Käräjämäki, A. (Annemari); A. Palotie (Aarno); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); D.S. Alam (Dewan S.); Majumder, A.A.S. (Abdulla Al Shafi); E. di Angelantonio (Emanuele); R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); N.R. Poulter (Neil); A. Stanton (Alice); P. Sever (Peter); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); Blankenberg, S. (Stefan); J. Ferrieres (Jean); F. Kee (Frank); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); J. Virtamo (Jarmo); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); P. Elliott (Paul); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); O. Melander (Olle); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); D. Porteous (David); C. Hayward (Caroline); G. Scotland (Generation); F.S. Collins (Francis); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); T. Hansen (T.); O. Pedersen (Oluf); M. Boehnke (Michael); H.M. Stringham (Heather); R. Frossard; C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); M.D. Tobin (Martin); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); M. Caulfield (Mark); A. Mahajan (Anubha); A.P. Morris (Andrew); Tomaszewski, M. (Maciej); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); Saleheen, D. (Danish); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); J. Danesh (John); Wain, L.V. (Louise V.); A.S. Butterworth (Adam); Howson, J.M.M. (Joanna M. M.); P. Munroe (Patricia)


    textabstractHigh blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants

  18. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendran, Praveen; Drenos, Fotios; Young, Robin


    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up to ...

  19. Trans-ancestry meta-analyses identify rare and common variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendran, Praveen; Drenos, Fotios; Young, Robin; Warren, Helen; Cook, James P.; Manning, Alisa K.; Grarup, Niels; Sim, Xueling; Barnes, Daniel R.; Witkowska, Kate; Staley, James R.; Tragante, Vinicius; Tukiainen, Taru; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Masca, Nicholas; Freitag, Daniel F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Giannakopoulou, Olga; Tinker, Andrew; Harakalova, Magdalena; Mihailov, Evelin; Liu, Chunyu; Kraja, Aldi T.; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Rasheed, Asif; Samue, Maria; Zhao, Wei; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Narisu, Narisu; Swift, Amy J.; Southam, Lorraine; Marten, Jonathan; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Stancakova, Alena; Fava, Cristiano; Ohlsson, Therese; Matchan, Angela; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Gjesing, Anette P.; Kontto, Jukka; Perola, Markus; Shaw-Hawkins, Susan; Havulinna, Aki S.; Verweij, Niek; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Meer, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Asselbergs, Folkert W.


    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low frequency and common genetic variants in up to

  20. Identifying Estonian Stakeholder Views as the Bases for Designing Science Teachers' In-Service Course Which Support Promotion of Competence Based Curriculum Goals (United States)

    Laius, A.; Post, A.; Rannikmäe, M.


    This study solicits views about the goals of science education from a range of stakeholders within the science education community and society. It also compares students' needs, expressed through stakeholder expectations, with the current learning situation of gymnasium graduates. The study uses a Delphi method to solicit views with 111…

  1. Comparing cancer vs normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jendholm, Johan


    Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes, and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells and has not been efficient in iden......-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients....

  2. Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, M; Luan, J; Langenberg, C


    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based sam......BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population......, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population....

  3. A novel common large genomic deletion and two new missense mutations identified in the Romanian phenylketonuria population. (United States)

    Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Iorgulescu, Daniela; Mager, Monica Alina; Anton-Paduraru, Dana; Vulturar, Romana; Thöny, Beat


    The mutation spectrum for the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene was investigated in a cohort of 84 hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) patients from Romania identified through newborn screening or neurometabolic investigations. Differential diagnosis identified 81 patients with classic PAH deficiency while 3 had tetrahydropterin-cofactor deficiency and/or remained uncertain due to insufficient specimen. PAH-genetic analysis included a combination of Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries, MLPA and NGS with genomic DNA, and cDNA analysis from immortalized lymphoblasts. A diagnostic efficiency of 99.4% was achieved, as for one allele (out of a total of 162 alleles) no mutation could be identified. The most prevalent mutation was p.Arg408Trp which was found in ~ 38% of all PKU alleles. Three novel mutations were identified, including the two missense mutations p.Gln226Lys and p.Tyr268Cys that were both disease causing by prediction algorithms, and the large genomic deletion EX6del7831 (c.509 + 4140_706 + 510del7831) that resulted in skipping of exon 6 based on PAH-cDNA analysis in immortalized lymphocytes. The genomic deletion was present in a heterozygous state in 12 patients, i.e. in ~ 8% of all the analyzed PKU alleles, and might have originated from a Romanian founder.

  4. Meta-analysis identifies common and rare variants influencing blood pressure and overlapping with metabolic trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C. (Chunyu); A. Kraja (Aldi); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J. Brody (Jennifer); N. Franceschini (Nora); J.C. Bis (Joshua); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); Y. Lu (Yingchang); Weiss, S. (Stefan); X. Guo (Xiuqing); W. Palmas (Walter); L.W. Martin (Lisa); Y.D. Chen (Y.); Surendran, P. (Praveen); F. Drenos (Fotios); Cook, J.P. (James P.); P. Auer (Paul); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); Giri, A. (Ayush); Zhao, W. (Wei); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); Lin, L.-A. (Li-An); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); N. Amin (Najaf); Mei, H. (Hao); J. Yao (Jiefen); J.M. Voorman (Jeanine); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.L. Grove (Megan); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S.J. Hwang; H. Chen (Han); T. Huan (Tianxiao); Kosova, G. (Gulum); N.O. Stitziel (Nathan); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Li (Man); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); C. Pattaro (Cristian); M. Gorski (Mathias); C. Kooperberg (Charles); G. Papanicolaou (George); Rossouw, J.E. (Jacques E.); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); C. Bouchard (Claude); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André G.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R. Vasan (Ramachandran); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); K.D. Taylor (Kent); K.Y. Liu; E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); F. Giulianini (Franco); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Salfati (Elias); T.B. Harris (Tamara); Launer, L.J. (Lenore J.); M. Dörr (Marcus); S.B. Felix (Stephan); R. Rettig (Rainer); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Kim (Eric); W.-J. Lee (Wen-Jane); I.T. Lee; Sheu, W.H.-H. (Wayne H.-H.); Tsosie, K.S. (Krystal S.); Edwards, D.R.V. (Digna R. Velez); Y. Liu (YongMei); Correa, A. (Adolfo); D.R. Weir (David); U. Völker (Uwe); P.M. Ridker (Paul); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Reiner (Alexander); Van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia M.); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); T.L. Edwards (Todd L.); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Fornage (Myriam); G.B. Ehret (Georg); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); D. Levy (Daniel); D.I. Chasman (Daniel)


    textabstractMeta-analyses of association results for blood pressure using exome-centric single-variant and gene-based tests identified 31 new loci in a discovery stage among 146,562 individuals, with follow-up and meta-analysis in 180,726 additional individuals (total n = 327,288). These blood

  5. Literature overview highlights lack of paediatric donation protocols but identifies common themes that could guide their development. (United States)

    Vileito, A; Siebelink, M J; Verhagen, Aae


    Paediatric donation is a unique and extremely sensitive process that requires specific knowledge and competencies. Most countries use protocols for organ and tissue donation to ensure optimal care for the donor and family, but these mainly focus on adults. However, the donation process for children differs from adults in many ways. An overview of the literature was performed to identify protocols for the paediatric population. PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Internet were searched up to March 2016 for papers or other sources in English related to specific organ and tissue donation protocols for children and neonates. This comprised title, abstract and then full-text screening of relevant data. We included 12 papers and two electronic sources that were mainly from North America and Europe. Most discussed donations after cardiac death. The recurring themes included identifying potential donors, approaching parents, palliative care and collaboration with organ procurement organisations. Most papers called for paediatric donation policies to be standardised. Scientific publications in English on paediatric donation protocols are very scarce. No comprehensive paediatric donation protocol was found. We identified several recurring themes in the literature that could be used to develop such protocols. ©2018 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Establishing the need and identifying goals for a curriculum in medical business ethics: a survey of students and residents at two medical centers in Missouri. (United States)

    Kraus, Elena M; Bakanas, Erin; Gursahani, Kamal; DuBois, James M


    In recent years, issues in medical business ethics (MBE), such as conflicts of interest (COI), Medicare fraud and abuse, and the structure and functioning of reimbursement systems, have received significant attention from the media and professional associations in the United States. As a result of highly publicized instances of financial interests altering physician decision-making, major professional organizations and government bodies have produced reports and guidelines to encourage self-regulation and impose rules to limit physician relationships with for-profit entities. Nevertheless, no published curricula exist in the area of MBE. This study aimed to establish a baseline level of knowledge and the educational goals medical students and residents prioritize in the area of MBE. 732 medical students and 380 residents at two academic medical centers in the state of Missouri, USA, completed a brief survey indicating their awareness of major MBE guidance documents, knowledge of key MBE research, beliefs about the goals of an education in MBE, and the areas of MBE they were most interested in learning more about. Medical students and residents had little awareness of recent and major reports on MBE topics, and had minimal knowledge of basic MBE facts. Residents scored statistically better than medical students in both of these areas. Medical students and residents were in close agreement regarding the goals of an MBE curriculum. Both groups showed significant interest in learning more about MBE topics with an emphasis on background topics such as "the business aspects of medicine" and "health care delivery systems". The content of major reports by professional associations and expert bodies has not trickled down to medical students and residents, yet both groups are interested in learning more about MBE topics. Our survey suggests potentially beneficial ways to frame and embed MBE topics into the larger framework of medical education.

  7. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj


    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  8. Genome-wide association study to identify common variants associated with brachial circumference: a meta-analysis of 14 cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Boraska

    Full Text Available Brachial circumference (BC, also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05 in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC.

  9. A novel de novo activating mutation in STAT3 identified in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). (United States)

    Russell, Mark A; Pigors, Manuela; Houssen, Maha E; Manson, Ania; Kelsell, David; Longhurst, Hilary; Morgan, Noel G


    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterised by repeated infection associated with primary acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID frequently has a complex aetiology but, in certain cases, it has a monogenic cause. Recently, variants within the gene encoding the transcription factor STAT3 were implicated in monogenic CVID. Here, we describe a patient presenting with symptoms synonymous with CVID, who displayed reduced levels of IgG and IgA, repeated viral infections and multiple additional co-morbidities. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo novel missense mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 (c.870A>T; p.K290N). Accordingly, the K290N variant of STAT3 was generated, and a STAT3 responsive dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the variant strongly enhances STAT3 transcriptional activity both under basal and stimulated (with IL-6) conditions. Overall, these data complement earlier studies in which CVID-associated STAT3 mutations are predicted to enhance transcriptional activity, suggesting that such patients may respond favourably to IL-6 receptor antagonists (e.g. tocilizumab). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, M.A.; Richardson, N.E.; Sayre, P.H.; Brown, N.R.; Masteller, E.L.; Clayton, L.K.; Ritz, J.; Reinherz, E.L.


    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate the primary structure of CALLA, the authors purified the protein to homogeneity, obtained the NH 2 -terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line λgt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NM 2 -terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA + cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types

  11. In silico analysis to identify vaccine candidates common to multiple serotypes of Shigella and evaluation of their immunogenicity

    KAUST Repository

    Pahil, Sapna


    Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp. This approach led to the identification of many immunogenic peptides. The five most promising peptides based on MHC binding efficiency were a putative lipoprotein (EL PGI I), a putative heat shock protein (EL PGI II), Spa32 (EL PGI III), IcsB (EL PGI IV) and a hypothetical protein (EL PGI V). These peptides were synthesized and the immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice by ELISA and cytokine assays. The putative heat shock protein (HSP) and the hypothetical protein elicited good humoral response, whereas putative lipoprotein, Spa32 and IcsB elicited good T-cell response as revealed by increased IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine levels. The patient sera from confirmed cases of shigellosis were also evaluated for the presence of peptide specific antibodies with significant IgG and IgA antibodies against the HSP and the hypothetical protein, bestowing them as potential future vaccine candidates. The antigens reported in this study are novel and have not been tested as vaccine candidates against Shigella. This study offers time and cost-effective way of identifying unprecedented immunogenic antigens to be used as potential vaccine candidates. Moreover, this approach should easily be extendable to find new potential vaccine candidates for other pathogenic bacteria.

  12. In silico analysis to identify vaccine candidates common to multiple serotypes of Shigella and evaluation of their immunogenicity

    KAUST Repository

    Pahil, Sapna; Taneja, Neelam; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Raghava, G. P. S.


    Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp. This approach led to the identification of many immunogenic peptides. The five most promising peptides based on MHC binding efficiency were a putative lipoprotein (EL PGI I), a putative heat shock protein (EL PGI II), Spa32 (EL PGI III), IcsB (EL PGI IV) and a hypothetical protein (EL PGI V). These peptides were synthesized and the immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice by ELISA and cytokine assays. The putative heat shock protein (HSP) and the hypothetical protein elicited good humoral response, whereas putative lipoprotein, Spa32 and IcsB elicited good T-cell response as revealed by increased IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine levels. The patient sera from confirmed cases of shigellosis were also evaluated for the presence of peptide specific antibodies with significant IgG and IgA antibodies against the HSP and the hypothetical protein, bestowing them as potential future vaccine candidates. The antigens reported in this study are novel and have not been tested as vaccine candidates against Shigella. This study offers time and cost-effective way of identifying unprecedented immunogenic antigens to be used as potential vaccine candidates. Moreover, this approach should easily be extendable to find new potential vaccine candidates for other pathogenic bacteria.

  13. In silico analysis to identify vaccine candidates common to multiple serotypes of Shigella and evaluation of their immunogenicity. (United States)

    Pahil, Sapna; Taneja, Neelam; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Raghava, G P S


    Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp. This approach led to the identification of many immunogenic peptides. The five most promising peptides based on MHC binding efficiency were a putative lipoprotein (EL PGI I), a putative heat shock protein (EL PGI II), Spa32 (EL PGI III), IcsB (EL PGI IV) and a hypothetical protein (EL PGI V). These peptides were synthesized and the immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice by ELISA and cytokine assays. The putative heat shock protein (HSP) and the hypothetical protein elicited good humoral response, whereas putative lipoprotein, Spa32 and IcsB elicited good T-cell response as revealed by increased IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine levels. The patient sera from confirmed cases of shigellosis were also evaluated for the presence of peptide specific antibodies with significant IgG and IgA antibodies against the HSP and the hypothetical protein, bestowing them as potential future vaccine candidates. The antigens reported in this study are novel and have not been tested as vaccine candidates against Shigella. This study offers time and cost-effective way of identifying unprecedented immunogenic antigens to be used as potential vaccine candidates. Moreover, this approach should easily be extendable to find new potential vaccine candidates for other pathogenic bacteria.

  14. In silico analysis to identify vaccine candidates common to multiple serotypes of Shigella and evaluation of their immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Pahil

    Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp. This approach led to the identification of many immunogenic peptides. The five most promising peptides based on MHC binding efficiency were a putative lipoprotein (EL PGI I, a putative heat shock protein (EL PGI II, Spa32 (EL PGI III, IcsB (EL PGI IV and a hypothetical protein (EL PGI V. These peptides were synthesized and the immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice by ELISA and cytokine assays. The putative heat shock protein (HSP and the hypothetical protein elicited good humoral response, whereas putative lipoprotein, Spa32 and IcsB elicited good T-cell response as revealed by increased IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine levels. The patient sera from confirmed cases of shigellosis were also evaluated for the presence of peptide specific antibodies with significant IgG and IgA antibodies against the HSP and the hypothetical protein, bestowing them as potential future vaccine candidates. The antigens reported in this study are novel and have not been tested as vaccine candidates against Shigella. This study offers time and cost-effective way of identifying unprecedented immunogenic antigens to be used as potential vaccine candidates. Moreover, this approach should easily be extendable to find new potential vaccine candidates for other pathogenic bacteria.

  15. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gao

    Full Text Available Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST, waist-hip ratio (WHR, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263 from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS. Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8 in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1 was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8. This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8 were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156 and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6 in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1 associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.

  16. Two Libraries Working toward Common Goals (United States)

    Potter, Tonya; Johnson, Kara


    Students look to their school library to find new books, seek information, creatively solve problems, and use technology. School libraries play an essential role in students' academic growth and development of lifelong learning skills. All of the wonderful resources and services that school libraries provide are easily accessible to the population…

  17. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.


    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  18. A multi-sample based method for identifying common CNVs in normal human genomic structure using high-resolution aCGH data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihyun Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is difficult to identify copy number variations (CNV in normal human genomic data due to noise and non-linear relationships between different genomic regions and signal intensity. A high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH containing 42 million probes, which is very large compared to previous arrays, was recently published. Most existing CNV detection algorithms do not work well because of noise associated with the large amount of input data and because most of the current methods were not designed to analyze normal human samples. Normal human genome analysis often requires a joint approach across multiple samples. However, the majority of existing methods can only identify CNVs from a single sample. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a multi-sample-based genomic variations detector (MGVD that uses segmentation to identify common breakpoints across multiple samples and a k-means-based clustering strategy. Unlike previous methods, MGVD simultaneously considers multiple samples with different genomic intensities and identifies CNVs and CNV zones (CNVZs; CNVZ is a more precise measure of the location of a genomic variant than the CNV region (CNVR. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We designed a specialized algorithm to detect common CNVs from extremely high-resolution multi-sample aCGH data. MGVD showed high sensitivity and a low false discovery rate for a simulated data set, and outperformed most current methods when real, high-resolution HapMap datasets were analyzed. MGVD also had the fastest runtime compared to the other algorithms evaluated when actual, high-resolution aCGH data were analyzed. The CNVZs identified by MGVD can be used in association studies for revealing relationships between phenotypes and genomic aberrations. Our algorithm was developed with standard C++ and is available in Linux and MS Windows format in the STL library. It is freely available at:

  19. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops. (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François


    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Patients Commonly Believe Their Heart Failure Hospitalizations Are Preventable and Identify Worsening Heart Failure, Nonadherence, and a Knowledge Gap as Reasons for Admission. (United States)

    Gilotra, Nisha A; Shpigel, Adam; Okwuosa, Ike S; Tamrat, Ruth; Flowers, Deirdre; Russell, Stuart D


    There are few data describing patient-identified precipitants of heart failure (HF) hospitalization. We hypothesized a patient's perception of reason for or preventability of an admission may be related to 30-day readmission rates. Ninety-four patients admitted with decompensated HF from July 2014 to March 2015 completed a brief questionnaire regarding circumstances leading to admission. Thirty-day outcomes were assessed via telephone call and chart review. Mean age was 58 ± 14 years, with 60% blacks (n = 56) and 41% females (n = 39). Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 30%; 27 had preserved ejection fraction. Seventy-two patients identified their hospitalization to be due to HF (± another condition). Most common patient-identified precipitants of admission were worsening HF (n = 37) and dietary nonadherence (n = 11). Readmitted patients tended to have longer time until first follow-up appointment (21 vs 8 days). Seven of the 42 patients who identified their hospitalization as preventable were readmitted compared with 21/49 who believed their hospitalization was unpreventable (P = .012). On multivariate regression analysis, patients who thought their hospitalization was preventable were less likely to be readmitted (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.91; P = .04). Almost 50% of patients believe their HF hospitalization is preventable, and these patients appear to be less likely to be readmitted within 30 days. Notably, patients cite nonadherence and lack of knowledge as reasons hospitalizations are preventable. These results lend insight into possible interventions to reduce HF readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledile Mankga


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species, either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health.

  2. Molecular and Conventional Analysis of Acute Diarrheal Isolates Identifies Epidemiological Trends, Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Profiles of Common Enteropathogens in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods.Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes. The association between virulence genes, resistance phenotypes and genetic diversities was analyzed.Results: Among stool specimens testing positive for pathogens (23.1%, 59 bacterial and 36 viral pathogens were identified. V. parahaemolyticus (27/412, 6.6%, Salmonella (23/412, 5.6% and norovirus GII (21/412, 5.1% were three most-commonly found. Most bacterial isolates exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance with high percentage of MDR. The drug resistance rates of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella isolates to cephalosporins were high, such as 100.0 and 34.8% to CFX, 55.6 and 43.4% to CTX, 92.6 and 95.7% to CXM, respectively. The most common resistance combination of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella was cephalosporins and quinolone. The dominant sequence types (STs of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were ST3 (70.4% and ST11 (43.5%, respectively. The detection rates of virulence genes in V. parahaemolyticus were tlh (100% and tdh (92.6%, without trh and ureR. Most of the Salmonella isolates were positive for the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs genes (87–100%, and some for Salmonella plasmid virulence (SPV genes (34.8% for spvA and spvB, 43.5% for spvC. In addition, just like the drug resistance, virulence genes exhibited wide-spread distribution among the different STs albeit

  3. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. (United States)

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M


    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  4. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting-based community DNA hybridization to pinpoint genome-specific fragments as molecular markers to identify and track populations common to healthy human guts. (United States)

    Wei, Guifang; Pan, Li; Du, Huimin; Chen, Junyi; Zhao, Liping


    Bacterial populations common to healthy human guts may play important roles in human health. A new strategy for discovering genomic sequences as markers for these bacteria was developed using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting. Structural features within microbial communities are compared with ERIC-PCR followed by DNA hybridization to identify genomic fragments shared by samples from healthy human individuals. ERIC-PCR profiles of fecal samples from 12 diseased or healthy human and piglet subjects demonstrated stable, unique banding patterns for each individual tested. Sequence homology of DNA fragments in bands of identical size was examined between samples by hybridization under high stringency conditions with DIG-labeled ERIC-PCR products derived from the fecal sample of one healthy child. Comparative analysis of the hybridization profiles with the original agarose fingerprints identified three predominant bands as signatures for populations associated with healthy human guts with sizes of 500, 800 and 1000 bp. Clone library profiling of the three bands produced 17 genome fragments, three of which showed high similarity only with regions of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome, while the remainder were orphan sequences. Association of these sequences with healthy guts was validated by sequence-selective PCR experiments, which showed that a single fragment was present in all 32 healthy humans and 13 healthy piglets tested. Two fragments were present in the healthy human group and in 18 children with non-infectious diarrhea but not in eight children with infectious diarrhea. Genome fragments identified with this novel strategy may be used as genome-specific markers for dynamic monitoring and sequence-guided isolation of functionally important bacterial populations in complex communities such as human gut microflora.

  5. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzón, Jorge H C


    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  6. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzó n, Jorge H C; Sampayo, Eugenia M.; Cox, Evelyn F.; Chauka, Leonard J.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Voolstra, Christian R.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.


    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  7. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009 GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010; Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011; Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates; and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be

  8. Goal motives and multiple-goal striving in sport and academia: A person-centered investigation of goal motives and inter-goal relations. (United States)

    Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L


    This investigation extended the goal striving literature by examining motives for two goals being pursued simultaneously. Grounded in self-determination theory, we examined how student-athletes' motives for their sporting and academic goals were associated with inter-goal facilitation and interference. Cross-sectional survey. UK university student-athletes (n=204) identified their most important sporting and academic goals. They then rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified and intrinsic motives for these goals and completed questionnaires assessing inter-goal facilitation and interference. Using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis, we identified three distinct profiles of goal motives. Auxiliary analyses showed that the profile with high identified motives for both goals reported greater inter-goal facilitation. Extending the previous literature, the findings demonstrate the benefits of autonomous motives when simultaneously pursing goals in sport and academia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care – a long-term, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen CH


    Full Text Available Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,2 Lene Falgaard Eplov,2 Carsten Hjorthøj,2 Marie Eliasen,1 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Andreas Schröder,3 Torben Jørgensen1,4,5 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Hellerup, 3Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5The Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs.Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982–1987 and Inter99 (1999–2004, recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278 was divided into symptom groups according to the degree of IBS definition fulfillment at baseline and/or follow-up and was followed until December 2013 in Danish central registries. Cox regression was used for the analyses, adjusting for age, sex, length of education and cohort membership. In a subsequent analysis, we adjusted for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS.Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental

  10. A Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) from a global cohort identifies common variants in FSHB and SMAD3 driving spontaneous human dizygotic twinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aagaard, K.; Mbarek, H.; Steinberg, S.; Nyholt, D.R.; Gordon, S.D.; Miller, M.B.; McRae, A.F.; Hottenga, J.J.; Day, F.R.; Hinds, D.A.; Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Davies, G.E.; Martin, H.C.; Lambalk, C.B.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Jansen, R.; McAloney, K.; Vink, J.M.; Kaprio, J.; Plomin, R.; Spector, T.D.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Boomsma, D.I.


    Objective: Although dizygotic (DZ) twins occur once every 70 live births and has long been suspected to be familial, the genetic loci driving human twinning have not yet been identified. Based on our recent success in identifying "twin genes" in the marmoset primate (which exclusively gestates twins

  11. Is eating science or common sense? Knowledge about "natural foods" among self-identified "natural food" consumers, vendors and producers in rural and urban Mexico. (United States)

    Kooijmans, Anneke; Flores-Palacios, Fátima


    To explore the common sense knowledge that consumers, vendors and producers hold of "natural foods". The focus was on common knowledge because this is infrequently explored in social psychology where most studies focus on the implementation of scientific knowledge. The focus was on natural foods because the naturalness of foods seems to be one of the particular concerns that current consumers have about today's food market and because a specific natural food preference was observed in the contexts of study. Fifty-seven informants in a rural context and 58 informants in an urban context participated in either a free association study or an interview study. Data content were analyzed. In the urban context natural foods obtain their significance in the relationship between food and the self-concept; eating natural (or good) food is a task that requires effort and attitude, and foods obtain a moral value. In the rural context natural foods obtain their significance as an expression of a social and cultural system of interdependence that establishes practices and customs that have a long history in the community. It is suggested that these common knowledge systems are related to practical challenges that are particular to the informants' context and that the structure of their common sense knowledge systems depend on the mediation of the flow of scientific knowledge and technological knowledge in each context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals. (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H


    Objective : To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods : This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results : The results of a quantitative survey ( n  = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups ( n  = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals ( p 's goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals ( p  goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions : Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  13. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic


    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe


    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  14. Identifying common impairments in frail and dependent older people: validation of the COPE assessment for non-specialised health workers in low resource primary health care settings. (United States)

    A T, Jotheeswaran; Dias, Amit; Philp, Ian; Beard, John; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin


    Frail and dependent older people in resource-poor settings are poorly served by health systems that lack outreach capacity. The COPE (Caring for Older PEople) multidimensional assessment tool is designed to help community health workers (CHWs) identify clinically significant impairments and deliver evidence-based interventions Older people (n = 150) identified by CHWs as frail or dependent, were assessed at home by the CHW using the structured COPE assessment tool, generating information on impairments in nutrition, mobility, vision, hearing, continence, cognition, mood and behaviour. The older people were reassessed by local physicians who reached a clinical judgment regarding the presence or absence of the same impairments based upon clinical examination guided by the EASY-Care assessment tool. The COPE tool was considered easy to administer, and gave CHWs a sense of empowerment to understand and act upon the needs of older people. Agreement between COPE assessment by CHW and clinician assessors was modest (ranged from 45.8 to 91.3 %) for most impairments. However, the prevalence of impairments was generally higher according to clinicians, particularly for visual impairment (98.7 vs 45.8 %), cognitive impairment (78.4 vs. 38.2 %) and depression (82.0 vs. 59.9 %). Most cases identified by WHO-COPE were clinician confirmed (positive predictive values - 72.2 to 98.5 %), and levels of disability and needs for care among those identified by COPE were higher than those additionally identified by the clinician alone. The COPE is a feasible tool for the identification of specific impairments in frail dependent older people in the community. Those identified are likely to be confirmed as having clinically relevant problems by clinicians working in the same service, and the COPE may be particularly effective at targeting attention upon those with the most substantial unmet needs.

  15. DOE goals: Excellence, openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.


    The author feels that the benefit of the experience and programmatic resources it has developed since passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982 and of the sound and flexible policy framework provided by the amendments, DOE is confident that program objectives can be met on a schedule that balances the needs for technical excellence, institutional openness, and timely acceptance. As the program evolves, DOE will continue to assess how effectively policies are serving program objectives. The need for flexibility in developing a first-of-a-kind system is essential. But flexibility does not alter the need for program stability, which, in turn, requires a commonly shared commitment to realizing the program's goals. This commitment must rest upon a pragmatic understanding of the realities of waste-management system development

  16. Common Mechanisms Underlying Refractive Error Identified in Functional Analysis of Gene Lists From Genome-Wide Association Study Results in 2 European British Cohorts (United States)

    Hysi, Pirro G.; Mahroo, Omar A.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Wojciechowski, Robert; Williams, Katie M.; Young, Terri L.; Mackey, David A.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Christopher J.


    IMPORTANCE To date, relatively few genes responsible for a fraction of heritability have been identified by means of large genetic association studies of refractive error. OBJECTIVE To explore the genetic mechanisms that lead to refractive error in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Genome-wide association studies were carried out in 2 British population-based independent cohorts (N = 5928 participants) to identify genes moderately associated with refractive error. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Enrichment analyses were used to identify sets of genes overrepresented in both cohorts. Enriched groups of genes were compared between both participating cohorts as a further measure against random noise. RESULTS Groups of genes enriched at highly significant statistical levels were remarkably consistent in both cohorts. In particular, these results indicated that plasma membrane (P = 7.64 × 10−30), cell-cell adhesion (P = 2.42 × 10−18), synaptic transmission (P = 2.70 × 10−14), calcium ion binding (P = 3.55 × 10−15), and cation channel activity (P = 2.77 × 10−14) were significantly overrepresented in relation to refractive error. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings provide evidence that development of refractive error in the general population is related to the intensity of photosignal transduced from the retina, which may have implications for future interventions to minimize this disorder. Pathways connected to the procession of the nerve impulse are major mechanisms involved in the development of refractive error in populations of European origin. PMID:24264139

  17. Goals are not selfish. (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A


    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  18. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.


    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  19. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)


    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  20. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hwey Chiu


    Full Text Available Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies.

  1. Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten


    ) and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs). Methods and study design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982-1987) and Inter99 (1999-2004), recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. The total study population (n = 7,278) was divided into symptom...... for mental vulnerability as a risk factor for both CMDs and FSSs, including IBS. Results: Over a 5-year period, 51% patients had no IBS symptoms, 17% patients had IBS symptoms without abdominal pain, 22% patients had IBS symptoms including abdominal pain and 10% patients fulfilled the IBS definition. IBS...... and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were significantly associated with the development of CMDs and other FSSs identified in secondary care. When adjusting for mental vulnerability, IBS and IBS symptoms including abdominal pain were no longer associated with CMDs, but the significant relationship...

  2. Meta-analysis of rare and common exome chip variants identifies S1PR4 and other loci influencing blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratz, Nathan; Schick, Ursula M; Zhou, Yi


    with Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotypes. We then performed replication analyses of new discoveries in 18,018 European-American women and 5,261 Han Chinese. We identified and replicated four new erythrocyte trait-locus associations (CEP89, SHROOM3, FADS2, and APOE) and six new WBC loci for neutrophil count...... (S1PR4), monocyte count (BTBD8, NLRP12, and IL17RA), eosinophil count (IRF1), and total WBC count (MYB). The association of a rare missense variant in S1PR4 supports the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in leukocyte trafficking and circulating neutrophil counts. Loss-of-function experiments...... for S1pr4 in mouse and s1pr4 in zebrafish demonstrated phenotypes consistent with the association observed in humans and altered kinetics of neutrophil recruitment and resolution in response to tissue injury....

  3. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.


    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  4. Analysis of the Gli-D2 locus identifies a genetic target for simultaneously improving the breadmaking and health-related traits of common wheat. (United States)

    Li, Da; Jin, Huaibing; Zhang, Kunpu; Wang, Zhaojun; Wang, Faming; Zhao, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yong Q; Wang, Daowen; Dong, Lingli


    Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) that encode the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of the Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, with two of them each experiencing a tandem duplication. A mutant line lacking Gli-D2 (DLGliD2) consistently exhibited better breadmaking quality and dough functionalities than its progenitor Xy81, but without penalties in other agronomic traits. It also had an elevated lysine content in the grains. Transcriptome analysis verified the lack of Gli-D2 α-gliadin gene expression in DLGliD2. Furthermore, the transcript and protein levels of protein disulfide isomerase were both upregulated in DLGliD2 grains. Consistent with this finding, DLGliD2 had increased disulfide content in the flour. Our work sheds light on the structure and function of Gli-D2 in commercial wheat, and suggests that the removal of Gli-D2 and the gliadins specified by it is likely to be useful for simultaneously enhancing the end-use and health-related traits of common wheat. Because gliadins and homologous proteins are widely present in grass species, the strategy and information reported here may be broadly useful for improving the quality traits of diverse cereal crops. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Academic goals in surgery. (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian


    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  6. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  7. High IL-17E and low IL-17C dermal expression identifies a fibrosis-specific motif common to morphea and systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adele Lonati

    identifies a fibrosis-specific motif. The specific IL-17C/IL-17E cytokine combination may thus play a role in the development of fibrosis.

  8. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  9. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsworth, Kerrie, E-mail: [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hodkiewicz, Melinda [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)


    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: > We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. > We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. > Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  10. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Kerrie; Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina; Hodkiewicz, Melinda


    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  11. Patient Health Goals Elicited During Home Care Admission: A Categorization. (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chou, Edgar Y; Wojciechowicz, Christine


    Home care agencies are initiating "patient health goal elicitation" activities as part of home care admission planning. We categorized elicited goals and identified "clinically informative" goals at a home care agency. We examined patient goals that admitting clinicians documented in the point-of-care electronic health record; conducted content analysis on patient goal data to develop a coding scheme; grouped goal themes into codes; assigned codes to each goal; and identified goals that were in the patient voice. Of the 1,763 patient records, 16% lacked a goal; only 15 goals were in a patient's voice. Nurse and physician experts identified 12 of the 20 codes as clinically important accounting for 82% of goal occurrences. The most frequent goal documented was safety/falls (23%). Training and consistent communication of the intent and operationalization of patient goal elicitation may address the absence of patient voice and the less than universal recording of home care patients' goals.

  12. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady


    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...

  13. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.


    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  14. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle


    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  15. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  16. Adamkus, Zatlers : new nuclear plant a common Baltic goal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus kinnitas ajakirjanikele, et nelja riigi koostööl ehitatav tuumaelektrijaam tuleb kindlasti. Läti president Zatlers rõhutas uute tehnoloogiate turvalisuse vajalikkust

  17. Exploring interdepencies and common goals in disaster recovery coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raju, Emmanuel; Becker, Per; Tehler, Henrik


    recovery setting. It takes a case study approach and is based on eighteen interviews conducted in Tamil Nadu. The main findings of this study highlight that there are different types of dependencies between stakeholders. Further, the strength of these dependencies varies between two or more stakeholders...

  18. Theorizing University Identity Development: Multiple Perspectives and Common Goals (United States)

    MacDonald, Ginger Phillips


    Universities articulate their identities during moments of organizational change. The process of development of university identity is herein explored from multiple theoretical strands: (a) industrial/organizational psychology, (b) human development/social psychology, (c) marketing, and (d) postmodern sociological. This article provides an…

  19. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane


    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  20. Practical goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dylan


    This book and its treatment of goal programming will help organizations meet targets and objectives. The book includes many worked-out examples and tutorial exercises, and is designed to demostrate and teach its readers good modeling practice.

  1. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  2. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  3. Functional Goals and Predictors of Their Attainment in Low-Income Community-Dwelling Older Adults. (United States)

    Waldersen, Brian W; Wolff, Jennifer L; Roberts, Laken; Bridges, Allysin E; Gitlin, Laura N; Szanton, Sarah L


    To describe functional goals and factors associated with goal attainment among low-income older adults with disabilities living in the community. Secondary analysis. Participants' homes. Older adults (N=226) with disability who participated in the Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders trial. A 5-month, home-based, person-directed, structured program delivered by an interprofessional team: occupational therapist, registered nurse, and handyman. Process of occupational therapist goal setting and attainment at the final occupational therapist visit. Participants identified 728 functional goals (mean of 3.2 goals per participant), most commonly related to transferring (22.0%; n=160 goals), changing or maintaining body position (21.4%; n=156 goals), and stair climbing (13.0%; n=95 goals). Participants attained 73.5% (n=535) of goals. Goal attainment was highest for stair climbing (86.3%), transferring (85.6%), and self-care (84.6%); walking goals were less likely attained (54.0%). Goal attainment was not associated with age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, function, or health-related quality of life but was less likely among participants who had severe pain compared with those without pain (adjusted odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.86). When participant readiness to change score increases by 1 point on the 4-point scale, goal attainment was 62% more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.29). Home-based collaborative goal setting between older adults and occupational therapists is feasible and particularly effective when individuals are ready or willing to adopt new strategies to achieve identified goals. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IEP goals for school-age children with speech sound disorders. (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Justice, Laura M; Redle, Erin E


    The purpose of the current study was to describe the current state of practice for writing Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals for children with speech sound disorders (SSDs). IEP goals for 146 children receiving services for SSDs within public school systems across two states were coded for their dominant theoretical framework and overall quality. A dichotomous scheme was used for theoretical framework coding: cognitive-linguistic or sensory-motor. Goal quality was determined by examining 7 specific indicators outlined by an empirically tested rating tool. In total, 147 long-term and 490 short-term goals were coded. The results revealed no dominant theoretical framework for long-term goals, whereas short-term goals largely reflected a sensory-motor framework. In terms of quality, the majority of speech production goals were functional and generalizable in nature, but were not able to be easily targeted during common daily tasks or by other members of the IEP team. Short-term goals were consistently rated higher in quality domains when compared to long-term goals. The current state of practice for writing IEP goals for children with SSDs indicates that theoretical framework may be eclectic in nature and likely written to support the individual needs of children with speech sound disorders. Further investigation is warranted to determine the relations between goal quality and child outcomes. (1) Identify two predominant theoretical frameworks and discuss how they apply to IEP goal writing. (2) Discuss quality indicators as they relate to IEP goals for children with speech sound disorders. (3) Discuss the relationship between long-term goals level of quality and related theoretical frameworks. (4) Identify the areas in which business-as-usual IEP goals exhibit strong quality.

  5. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions (United States)

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu


    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  6. Horses for courses? A qualitative exploration of goals formulated in mental health settings by young people, parents, and clinicians. (United States)

    Jacob, Jenna; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Holley, Simone; Law, Duncan; Wolpert, Miranda


    This research sought to explore and categorise goals set by children and young people, parents/caregivers and jointly by a combination of children/young people, parents/caregivers and/or clinicians within mental health settings across the United Kingdom. Using a dataset of 441 goals formed at the outset of 180 treatment episodes (2007-2010) from UK child mental health services using the Goal-Based Outcomes tool, a grounded theory approach was taken, which built on previous research into child-rated goals to develop frameworks for parent and joint goal data which were then compared with the child goal data. A total of 19 subthemes and four overarching themes were identified for parent goals. A total of 19 subthemes in five overarching themes were identified for joint goals. These were compared with 25 subthemes and three overarching themes for child goals. A comparison of subthemes between parent, child and joint goals demonstrated many consistencies, but also differences. Most commonly rated goals from children focused on coping with specific difficulties, personal growth and independence. Parent goals focused mainly on managing specific difficulties, parent-specific goals and improving self or life. Jointly negotiated goals focused on parent-specific goals, self-confidence and understanding, hopes for the future and managing specific problems. The results suggest that goals may capture areas not captured by other normed outcome measures. In particular, goals may capture higher order, underlying factors, such as confidence, resilience, coping, and parenting factors that may not be explored by other measures. The differences across perspectives also link to existing literature suggesting a different focus on treatment based on perspectives and highlights the potential importance when jointly agreeing goals of ensuring the voice of the child/young person is heard and included in goal setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome. (United States)

    Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph


    The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.

  8. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 3 - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.-E. (VTT (Finland)); Knochenhauer, M. (Relcon Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))


    The first phase of the project (2006) described the status, concepts and history of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants. The second and third phases (2007-2008) have provided guidance related to the resolution of some of the problems identified, and resulted in a common understanding regarding the definition of safety goals. The basic aim of phase 3 (2009) has been to increase the scope and level of detail of the project, and to start preparations of a guidance document. Based on the conclusions from the previous project phases, the following issues have been covered: 1) Extension of international overview. Analysis of results from the questionnaire performed within the ongoing OECD/NEA WGRISK activity on probabilistic safety criteria, including participation in the preparation of the working report for OECD/NEA/WGRISK (to be finalised in phase 4). 2) Use of subsidiary criteria and relations between these (to be finalised in phase 4). 3) Numerical criteria when using probabilistic analyses in support of deterministic safety analysis (to be finalised in phase 4). 4) Guidance for the formulation, application and interpretation of probabilistic safety criteria (to be finalised in phase 4). (LN)

  9. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 3 - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.-E.; Knochenhauer, M.


    The first phase of the project (2006) described the status, concepts and history of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants. The second and third phases (2007-2008) have provided guidance related to the resolution of some of the problems identified, and resulted in a common understanding regarding the definition of safety goals. The basic aim of phase 3 (2009) has been to increase the scope and level of detail of the project, and to start preparations of a guidance document. Based on the conclusions from the previous project phases, the following issues have been covered: 1) Extension of international overview. Analysis of results from the questionnaire performed within the ongoing OECD/NEA WGRISK activity on probabilistic safety criteria, including participation in the preparation of the working report for OECD/NEA/WGRISK (to be finalised in phase 4). 2) Use of subsidiary criteria and relations between these (to be finalised in phase 4). 3) Numerical criteria when using probabilistic analyses in support of deterministic safety analysis (to be finalised in phase 4). 4) Guidance for the formulation, application and interpretation of probabilistic safety criteria (to be finalised in phase 4). (LN)

  10. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  11. Materialistic Values and Goals. (United States)

    Kasser, Tim


    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  12. Identity, Intimacy, Status and Sex Dating Goals as Correlates of Goal-Consistent Behavior and Satisfaction in Australian Youth (United States)

    Kelly, Marguerite; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Boislard-P., Marie-Aude


    The most common dating goals of adolescents are identity, intimacy, status and sex. In this study of Australian youth (16-30 years, N = 208), dating goals were expected to explain goal-consistent behavior in each domain. Also, goals coupled with consistent behavior were expected to be associated with greater satisfaction in each domain. Age,…

  13. Consumer Buying Goals and Communication Behavior. (United States)

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Four hundred eight female users of cosmetics in Madison, Wisconsin, responded to questionnaires which sought to discover correlations among the goal of the purchaser and the type and source of information sought in the buying decision. Two goals were identified: rational (cost, functional benefits of product, or possible undesirable consequences…

  14. Identifying User Experience Goals for Interactive Climate Management Business Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Barlow, Stephanie


    This paper presents findings from interpretative phenomenological interviews about the user experience of interactive climate management with six growers and crop consultants. The focus of user experience research has been on quantitative studies of consumers’ initial usage experiences, for example...... of mobile phones or e-commerce websites. In contrast, this empirical paper provides an example of how to capture user experience in work contexts and with a qualitative methodology. We present a model of the essence of the emotional user experience of interactive climate management. Then we suggest...... of interactive climate management in this and other domains. The overall aim with the paper is to take the concept of user experience into the IS community and to describe and understand what are individual workers’ positive emotional use experiences when interacting with workplace systems....

  15. Preoperative learning goals set by surgical residents and faculty. (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Breen, Elizabeth; Ashley, Stanley W; Peyre, Sarah E


    The operating room (OR) remains the main teaching venue for surgical trainees. The OR is considered a pure-discovery learning environment; the downsides of this can be putatively overcome when faculty and trainee arrive at a shared understanding of learning. This study aimed to better understand preoperative learning goals to identify areas of commonalities and potential barrier to intraoperative teaching. Brief, structured preoperative interviews were conducted outside the OR with the resident and faculty member who were scheduled to operate together. Answers were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory. Twenty-seven resident-faculty pairs were interviewed. Nine residents (33.3%) were junior (PGY 1 and 2) and 18 (66.7%) were senior (PGY 3 through 5). Learning goal categories that emerged from the response analysis were anatomy, basic and advanced surgical skills, general and specific procedural tasks, technical autonomy, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations. Residents articulated fewer learning goals than faculty (1.5 versus 2.4; P = 0.024). The most frequently identified learning goal by both groups was one classifiable under general procedural tasks; the greatest divergence was seen regarding perioperative considerations, which were identified frequently by faculty members but rarely by residents. Faculty articulate significantly more learning goals for the residents they will operate with than residents articulate for themselves. Our data suggest that residents and faculty align on some learning goals for the OR but residents tend to be more limited, focusing predominantly on technical aspects of the operation. Faculty members tend to hold a broader view of the learning potential of the OR. These discrepancies may present barriers to effective intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.


    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10 -6 or 10 -7 /yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4 /yr (health detriment), 2x10 -6 /yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10 -7 /yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD 50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent

  17. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals. (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T


    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ▿ (United States)

    Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.


    Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-κB pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis. PMID:21994447

  19. A Systematic Study of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Interactions (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Costa, Luís.; Rybski, Diego; Lucht, Wolfgang; Kropp, Jürgen P.


    Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have set the 2030 agenda to transform our world by tackling multiple challenges humankind is facing to ensure well-being, economic prosperity, and environmental protection. In contrast to conventional development agendas focusing on a restricted set of dimensions, the SDGs provide a holistic and multidimensional view on development. Hence, interactions among the SDGs may cause diverging results. To analyze the SDG interactions we systematize the identification of synergies and trade-offs using official SDG indicator data for 227 countries. A significant positive correlation between a pair of SDG indicators is classified as a synergy while a significant negative correlation is classified as a trade-off. We rank synergies and trade-offs between SDGs pairs on global and country scales in order to identify the most frequent SDG interactions. For a given SDG, positive correlations between indicator pairs were found to outweigh the negative ones in most countries. Among SDGs the positive and negative correlations between indicator pairs allowed for the identification of particular global patterns. SDG 1 (No poverty) has synergetic relationship with most of the other goals, whereas SDG 12 (Responsible consumption and production) is the goal most commonly associated with trade-offs. The attainment of the SDG agenda will greatly depend on whether the identified synergies among the goals can be leveraged. In addition, the highlighted trade-offs, which constitute obstacles in achieving the SDGs, need to be negotiated and made structurally nonobstructive by deeper changes in the current strategies.

  20. Treatment goals of pulmonary hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V


    With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m, normalization of right ventricular size and function on echocardiograph, a decreasing or normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and hemodynamics with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 mg\\/kg\\/min(2). However, to more effectively prognosticate in the current era of complex treatments, it is becoming clear that the "bar" needs to be set higher, with more robust and clearer delineations aimed at parameters that correlate with long-term outcome; namely, exercise capacity and right heart function. Specifically, tests that accurately and noninvasively determine right ventricular function, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and BNP\\/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, are emerging as promising indicators to serve as baseline predictors and treatment targets. Furthermore, studies focusing on outcomes have shown that no single test can reliably serve as a long-term prognostic marker and that composite treatment goals are more predictive of long-term outcome. It has been proposed that treatment goals be revised to include the following: modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance ≥ 380 to 440 m, cardiopulmonary exercise test-measured peak oxygen consumption >15 ml\\/min\\/kg and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide <45 l\\/min\\/l\\/min, BNP level toward "normal," echocardiograph and\\/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating normal\\/near-normal right ventricular size and function, and hemodynamics showing normalization of right ventricular function with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 to 3.0 l\\/min\\/m(2).

  1. Measuring what matters to patients: Using goal content to inform measure choice and development. (United States)

    Jacob, Jenna; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Law, Duncan; Wolpert, Miranda


    Personalised care requires personalised outcomes and ways of feeding back clinically useful information to clinicians and practitioners, but it is not clear how to best personalise outcome measurement and feedback using existing standardised outcome measures. The constant comparison method of grounded theory was used to compare goal themes derived from goals set at the outset of therapy for 180 children aged between 4 and 17 years, visiting eight child and adolescent mental health services, to existing standardised outcome measures used as part of common national datasets. In all, 20 out of 27 goal themes corresponded to items on at least one commonly used outcome measure. Consideration of goal themes helped to identify potential relevant outcome measures. However, there were several goal themes that were not captured by items on standardised outcome measures. These seemed to be related to existential factors such as understanding, thinking about oneself and future planning. This presents a powerful framework for how clinicians can use goals to help select a standardised outcome measure (where this is helpful) in addition to the use of a goal-based outcome measure and personalise choices. There may be areas not captured by standardised outcome measures that may be important for children and young people and which may only be currently captured in goal measurement. There is an indication that we may not be measuring what is important to children and young people. We may need to develop or look for new measures that capture these areas.

  2. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy


    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  3. Motivational Goal Bracketing: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We study in an online, real-effort experiment how the bracketing of non-binding goals affects performance in a work-leisure self-control problem. We externally induce the goal bracket - daily goals or a weekly goal - and within that bracket let subjects set goals for how much they want to work over...... a one-week period. Our theoretical model predicts (i) that weekly goals create incentives to compensate for a lower than desired performance today with the promise to work harder tomorrow, whereas daily goals exclude such excuses; (ii) that subjects with daily goals set higher goals in aggregate...... and work harder than those with weekly goals. Our data support these predictions. Surprisingly, however, when goals are combined with an externally enforced commitment that requires subjects to spend less than a minute each day on the task to get started working, performance deteriorates because of high...

  4. Goal conflict and goal facilitation in community-based cardiac rehabilitation: a theory-based interview study. (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Boyd, Emily; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F


    Theories often consider behaviors in isolation of conflicting and facilitating personal goals. We conducted interviews with 13 people in cardiac rehabilitation, investigating whether eliciting physical activity (PA) control beliefs sufficiently captures goal conflict and goal facilitation. We assessed PA, intention, and control beliefs using standard elicitation methods and then assessed goal conflict and goal facilitation. Twelve participants described conflicting, and all described facilitating, personal goals. Most goal facilitation (94%) and conflict (82%) beliefs were identified beyond the control belief elicitation. Goal facilitation and conflict are not captured in a standard control belief elicitation and may supplement single-behavior models to understand PA.

  5. Property company's sustainability goals. (United States)

    Ormsby, Kim


    In a keynote presentation on the second morning of this year's Healthcare Estates conference, Kim Ormsby (pictured), national corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability manager at NHS Property Services, discussed how, as part of its broader goals of 'supporting the NHS in delivering clinical services', and 'helping to enhance the experience' of patients visiting its buildings, the organization would continue to pursue and embed in its activities sustainable policies wherever and whenever possible, encouraging both its staff and tenants to take a similar approach. In an informative address, she highlighted some of the key steps the property company had already taken to encourage a proactive approach. Echoing the sentiments of Day One keynote speaker, Julian Hartley (see pages 55-60), she argued that one of the fundamentals to success was wide-ranging staff engagement.

  6. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello


    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  7. Seismic analysis - what goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagart, S.W.


    The seismic analysis of nuclear components is characterized today by extensive engineering computer calculations in order to satisfy both the component standard codes such as ASME III as well as federal regulations and guides. The current nuclear siesmic design procedure has envolved in a fragmented fashion and continues to change its elements as improved technology leads to changing standards and guides. The dominant trend is a monotonic increase in the overall conservation with time causing a similar trend in costs of nuclear power plants. Ironically the improvements in the state of art are feeding a process which is eroding the very incentives that attracted us to nuclear power in the first place. This paper examines the cause of this process and suggests that what is needed is a realistic goal which appropriately addresses the overall uncertainty of the seismic design process. (Auth.)

  8. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John


    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  9. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  10. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  11. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  12. An Introductory Review of Parallel Independent Component Analysis (p-ICA and a Guide to Applying p-ICA to Genetic Data and Imaging Phenotypes to Identify Disease-Associated Biological Pathways and Systems in Common Complex Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey D Pearlson


    Full Text Available Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010. Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g. genome wide association (GWA. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e. simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information independent component analysis (p-ICA, which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method.

  13. Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning. (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabanach, Ramón G; Núnez, José C; González-Pienda, Julio; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel


    The type of academic goals pursued by students is one of the most important variables in motivational research in educational contexts. Although motivational theory and research have emphasised the somewhat exclusive nature of two types of goal orientation (learning goals versus performance goals), some studies (Meece, 1994; Seifert, 1995, 1996) have shown that the two kinds of goals are relatively complementary and that it is possible for students to have multiple goals simultaneously, which guarantees some flexibility to adapt more efficaciously to various contexts and learning situations. The principal aim of this study is to determine the academic goals pursued by university students and to analyse the differences in several very significant variables related to motivation and academic learning. Participants were 609 university students (74% women and 26% men) who filled in several questionnaires about the variables under study. We used cluster analysis ('quick cluster analysis' method) to establish the different groups or clusters of individuals as a function of the three types of goals (learning goals, performance goals, and social reinforcement goals). By means of MANOVA, we determined whether the groups or clusters identified were significantly different in the variables that are relevant to motivation and academic learning. Lastly, we performed ANOVA on the variables that revealed significant effects in the previous analysis. Using cluster analysis, three groups of students with different motivational orientations were identified: a group with predominance of performance goals (Group PG: n = 230), a group with predominance of multiple goals (Group MG: n = 238), and a group with predominance of learning goals (Group LG: n = 141). Groups MG and LG attributed their success more to ability, they had higher perceived ability, they took task characteristics into account when planning which strategies to use in the learning process, they showed higher persistence

  14. Goal-oriëntation, goal-setting and goal-driven behavior in (minimalist) user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans


    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of

  15. GOAL-to-HAL translation study (United States)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.


    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  16. Undergraduate students' goals for chemistry laboratory coursework (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.

    Chemistry laboratory coursework has the potential to offer many benefits to students, yet few of these learning goals are realized in practice. Therefore, this study seeks to characterize undergraduate students' learning goals for their chemistry laboratory coursework. Data were collected by recording video of students completing laboratory experiments and conducting interviews with the students about their experiences that were analyzed utilizing the frameworks of Human Constructivism and Self-Regulated Learning. A cross-sectional sampling of students allowed comparisons to be made among students with varying levels of chemistry experience and interest in chemistry. The student goals identified by this study were compared to previously described laboratory learning goals of the faculty who instruct these courses in an effort to identify potential avenues to improve laboratory learning.

  17. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril


    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  18. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone


    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  19. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  20. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  1. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal


    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Yu. Lapigin


    Full Text Available Currently the tools to identify strategicallyimportant objectives of regional development is not enough to build a developmentperspective, relying on something special,what distinguishes each region from therest. The article discusses approaches to the formation of the regional developmentstrategy, which is based on goals set by the results of the analysis of the main factors inthe development of the region. The study is based on the methodology of systems theoryand methods of strategic management. The most important results should include tools tobuild the tree of strategic objectives resultingfrom the implementation of the algorithm forconstructing planes of analysis and development of the region. The results can be used to develop a strategy for the developmentof socio-economic systems of various typesand forms.

  3. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  4. Goal difficulty and openness to interpersonal goal support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.; Campbell, S.


    When people pursue important goals, they are often surrounded by close others who could provide help and support for the achievement of these goals. The present work investigated whether people are more likely to be open to such interpersonal goal support from a romantic partner when they perceive

  5. ORCID: Author Identifiers for Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn B. Reed


    Full Text Available Generating accurate publication lists by researchers can be challenging when faced with scholars who have common names or who have published under name variations. This article describes ORCID and the goal of generating author identifiers for scholars to connect their research outputs. Included are the reasons for having author identifiers as well as the types of information within individual profiles. This article includes information on how academic libraries are playing a role with ORCID initiatives as well as describing how publishers, institutions, and funders are employing ORCID in their workflows. Highlighted is material on academic institutions in Pennsylvania using ORCID. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of ORCID and its uses to inform librarians about this important initiative.

  6. TARGET Research Goals (United States)

    TARGET researchers use various sequencing and array-based methods to examine the genomes, transcriptomes, and for some diseases epigenomes of select childhood cancers. This “multi-omic” approach generates a comprehensive profile of molecular alterations for each cancer type. Alterations are changes in DNA or RNA, such as rearrangements in chromosome structure or variations in gene expression, respectively. Through computational analyses and assays to validate biological function, TARGET researchers predict which alterations disrupt the function of a gene or pathway and promote cancer growth, progression, and/or survival. Researchers identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers from the cancer-associated alterations.

  7. Making the Common Good Common (United States)

    Chase, Barbara


    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  8. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gaudreau


    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  9. Punishment goals of crime victims. (United States)

    Orth, Uli


    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  10. Teachers' goal orientations: Effects on classroom goal structures and emotions. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C


    Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However, empirical research evaluating possible causal ordering and mediation effects involving these variables in teachers is presently lacking. The present 6-month longitudinal study investigated the relations between varied motivational, behavioural, and emotional variables in practising teachers. More specifically, this study examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relations between teachers' achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and teaching-related emotions, as well as cumulative mediational models in which observed causal relations were evaluated. Participants were 495 practising teachers from Canada (86% female, M = 42 years). Teachers completed a web-based questionnaire at two time points assessing their instructional goals, perceived classroom goal structures, achievement emotions, and demographic items. Results from cross-lagged analyses and structural equation modelling showed teachers' achievement goals to predict their perceived classroom goal structures that, in turn, predicted their teaching-related emotions. The present results inform both Butler's (2012, Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 726) theory on teachers' achievement goals and Frenzel's (2014, International handbook of emotions in education, Routledge, New York, NY) model of teachers' emotions in showing teachers' instructional goals to both directly predict their teaching-related emotions, as well as indirectly through the mediating effects of classroom goal structures. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  12. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals


    Goedhart, Marc; Spronk, Jaap


    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  13. Common Banality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    , techniques important for the revolution of everyday life as it was put into practice by the Situationist and Debord. Chapter nine will identify how user generated content can become enclosed within capitalistic structures, thus transforming their practice into relations that resemble work. In mapping how...... with everyday photographers who document all the mundane and banal situations and contexts of their daily life. It is primarily analytic rather than theoretical in its approach. The analysis is centered on two main questions approached differently throughout the chapters: 1. How user generated media reconfigure...

  14. Using personal goal setting to promote the social inclusion of people with intellectual disability living in supported accommodation. (United States)

    McConkey, R; Collins, S


    The social exclusion of persons with intellectual disability is more marked in congregated than in individualised supported accommodation. Goal setting was used as a means of increasing individuals' choices and engaging support staff in personalised planning. Method People living in four different housing and support options were invited to identify up to three 'social inclusion' goals they wanted to achieve in the coming months. Nine months later, a review was undertaken to see if their goals had been attained and also to identify what had helped or hindered individuals in doing this. The goal selection was then repeated and reviewed again after a further 9 months. Results The most commonly chosen goals were around social activities with other people and over half the participants were reported to have attained at least one of their goals within 9 months, particularly those in supported living arrangements that had greater hours of individual staff support. In the second 9-month period, fewer people chose goals, although the same proportion as before were successful. The main reason given for goal attainment was the information and support provided by staff. Conclusions Goal setting seems a suitable way of promoting social inclusion as it can be tailored to the needs and aspirations of individuals, although extra efforts may be needed to implement and sustain it with staff across all accommodation options.

  15. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan


    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  16. (Goal Number 8) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) made a Millennium Declaration that commits governments across the globe to develop the lives of the people by 2015. This declaration is known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper will examine the role that every government has to play in achieving the goals by focusing ...

  17. Systemic consultation and goal setting


    Carr, Alan


    Over two decades of empirical research conducted within a positivist framework has shown that goal setting is a particularly useful method for influencing task performance in occupational and industrial contexts. The conditions under which goal setting is maximally effective are now clearly established. These include situations where there is a high level of acceptance and commitment, where goals are specific and challenging, where the task is relatively simple rather than ...



    Yurtkoru, E. Serra; Bozkurt, Tulay; Bekta, Fatos; Ahmed, Mahir Jibril; Kola, Vehap


    The purpose of this study is to test the goal theorymodel originally developed by Locke and Latham in organizational setting inTurkey, and explain its influence on job satisfaction and affective commitment.Also mediating role of task specific strategy and moderating role ofselfefficacy are examined. Locke and Latham’s goal setting measure is adaptedto Turkish. Survey method is employed to collect data from 222 respondents fromautomotive industry. Goal setting dimensions predicted affective co...

  19. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment


    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele


    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  20. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.


    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  1. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.


    Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management

  2. Handbook of critical issues in goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, C


    Goal Programming (GP) is perhaps the oldest and most widely used approach within the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) paradigm. GP combines the logic of optimisation in mathematical programming with the decision maker's desire to satisfy several goals. The primary purpose of this book is to identify the critical issues in GP and to demonstrate different procedures capable of avoiding or mitigating the inherent pitfalls associated with these issues. The outcome of a search of the literature shows many instances where GP models produced misleading or even erroneous results simply because

  3. Goals and Personality in Adolescents (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  4. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer


    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  5. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity. (United States)

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  6. Safety goals for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.


    The key policy question in managing hazardous technologies is often some variant of How safe is safe enough. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently broached this topic by adopting safety goals defining acceptable risk levels for nuclear power plants. These goals are analyzed here with a general theory of standard setting (Fischhoff, 1983) which asks: (1) Are standards an appropriate policy tool in this case. (2) Can the Commission's safety philosophy be defended. (3) Do the operational goals capture that philosophy. The anlaysis shows the safety goals proposal to be sophisticated in some respects, incomplete in others. More generally, it points to difficulties with the concept of acceptable risk and any attempt to build policy instruments around it. Although focused on the NRC's safety goals, the present analysis is a prototype of what can be learned by similarly detailed consideration of other standards, not only for nuclear power but also for other hazardous technologies, as well as for issues unrelated to safety

  7. Brief Report: IRF4 Newly Identified as a Common Susceptibility Locus for Systemic Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Cross-Disease Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Isac, Elena; Martín, Jose Ezequiel; Assassi, Shervin; Simeón, Carmen P.; Carreira, Patricia; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Freire, Mayka; Beltrán, Emma; Narváez, Javier; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; Ortiz, Ana M.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Santaniello, Alessandro; Bellocchi, Chiara; Lunardi, Claudio; Moroncini, Gianluca; Gabrielli, Armando; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Distler, Jörg H W; Riekemasten, Gabriella; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H.; de Vries-Bouwstra, Jeska; Magro-Checa, Cesar; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Vonk, Madelon C.; Molberg, Øyvind; Merriman, Tony; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Padyukov, Leonid; Herrick, Ariane; Eyre, Steve; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Denton, Christopher P.; Fonseca, Carmen; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Worthington, Jane; Mayes, Maureen D.; Martín, Javier; Ríos, Raquel; Callejas, Jose Luis; Hitos, José Antonio Vargas; Portales, Rosa García; Camps, María Teresa; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; González-Escribano, María F.; García-Hernández, Francisco José; Castillo, Ma Jesús; Ángeles Aguirre, Ma; Gómez-Gracia, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Peña, Paloma García de la; Vicente, Esther; Andreu, José Luis; de Castro, Mónica Fernández; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Lina; Fonollosa, Vicente; Guillén, Alfredo; Castellví, Iván; Espinosa, Gerard; Tolosa, Carlos; Pros, Anna; Carballeira, Mónica Rodríguez; Narváez, Francisco Javier; Rivas, Manel Rubio; Ortiz-Santamaría, Vera; Madroñero, Ana Belén; Díaz, Bernardino; Trapiella, Luis; Sousa, Adrián; Egurbide, María Victoria; Mateo, Patricia Fanlo; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Díaz, Federico; Hernández, Vanesa; Beltrán, Emma; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Grau, Elena; Alegre-Sancho, Juan José; Blanco García, Francisco J.; Oreiro, Natividad


    Objective: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are autoimmune diseases that have similar clinical and immunologic characteristics. To date, several shared SSc–RA genetic loci have been identified independently. The aim of the current study was to systematically search for new

  8. Urban Big Data and Sustainable Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities


    Kharrazi, A.; Qin, H.; Zhang, Y.


    Cities are perhaps one of the most challenging and yet enabling arenas for sustainable development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasize the need to monitor each goal through objective targets and indicators based on common denominators in the ability of countries to collect and maintain relevant standardized data. While this approach is aimed at harmonizing the SDGs at the national level, it presents unique challenges and opportunities for the development of innovative ur...

  9. Young Children Help Others to Achieve Their Social Goals (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda


    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…

  10. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.


    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  11. Goal setting: an integral component of effective diabetes care. (United States)

    Miller, Carla K; Bauman, Jennifer


    Goal setting is a widely used behavior change tool in diabetes education and training. Prior research found specific relatively difficult but attainable goals set within a specific timeframe improved performance in sports and at the workplace. However, the impact of goal setting in diabetes self-care has not received extensive attention. This review examined the mechanisms underlying behavioral change according to goal setting theory and evaluated the impact of goal setting in diabetes intervention studies. Eight studies were identified, which incorporated goal setting as the primary strategy to promote behavioral change in individual, group-based, and primary care settings among patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in diabetes-related self-efficacy, dietary intake, physical activity, and A1c were observed in some but not all studies. More systematic research is needed to determine the conditions and behaviors for which goal setting is most effective. Initial recommendations for using goal setting in diabetes patient encounters are offered.

  12. Goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation among engineering students: A review (United States)

    Benlahcene, Abderrahim; Lashari, Sana Anwar; Lashari, Tahira Anwar


    An aspect that has been exhaustively researched in the motivation of the higher education discipline is the engineering students’ process of goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation. However, the focus of those researchers as commonly the influence of goal orientations and epistemological beliefs on intrinsic motivation; they have not combined the two factors and examined relationships among goal orientation, epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, although there is a plethora of research on the matter in related disciplines, the researchers commonly do not have consensus on a term that could be used to discuss how engineering students are motivation. This paper identifies literature whose characteristics have focused on the concept of motivation. Attempts were made to retrieve related lietarure empirically examined motivation, extrinsic motivation, Goal orientation, Epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation to gain insight information. It is believed that the present study may help educators in organizing content, preparing curriculum, and evaluate student tasks, so that students can begin to develop more mature and effective epistemological beliefs and design their proper goals for their learning process.

  13. Goal setting with type 2 diabetes: a hermeneutic analysis of the experiences of diabetes educators. (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Boyd, Angela; Ballejos, Miriam; Kynast-Gales, Susan A; Malemute, Charlene L; Armstrong Shultz, Jill; Vandermause, Roxanne K


    The purpose of this study was to explicate and interpret common experiences of diabetes educators (DEs) with patient goal setting for patients with type 2 diabetes in diabetes education. Transcripts (n = 10) from semi-structured interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to more deeply explore the accounts of DEs' goal setting with patients with type 2 diabetes. The overarching pattern that emerged was "Striking a Balance," which subsumed 4 subthemes: Applying Theoretical-Practical Principles When Setting Goals, Identifying Idealistic-Realistic Expectations, Creating Patient-Educator-Centered Plans, and Readying-Living With Goal Setting. The pattern, "Striking a Balance," revealed a common meaning of DEs as experiences requiring balance and nuance in goal setting with patients. The results of this study combined with the tenets of the self-determination theory can provide the DEs with real-life exemplars and a theoretical framework to encourage their patients to self-manage, increase intrinsic motivation, and improve adherence related to their lifestyle changes and glycemic control. DEs, as facilitators of change, can implement these changes with flexible and reciprocal activities with their patients. The DEs owned these activities and they are: "building the bond," "sharing the session," "readying for change," "sending them home," and "bringing them back."

  14. Goal planning: a retrospective audit of rehabilitation process and outcome. (United States)

    Duff, Jane; Evans, Matthew J; Kennedy, Paul


    To consider the effectiveness of a goal planning programme for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and address some of the current evidence gaps in goal setting. Retrospective audit. Consecutive series of 65 newly injured SCI patients. The Needs Assessment Checklist (NAC) has been specifically developed for the SCI population, and is used to assess patient attainment in core rehabilitation areas. A 'Goal Planning Progress' form was also used to specifically detail the goal planning process. Across the 65 patients, 396 goal planning meetings were held with 6176 goals set in total. Seventy-two per cent of the goals set at the first goal planning meeting were achieved by the second meeting. The rate of achievement at subsequent meetings was 68%. Significant differences in the number of planned rehabilitation days, number of goal planning meetings, and goals set were identified between injury categories. Significant positive correlations were found between the number of goals set and achievement, as measured by the NAC, in certain rehabilitation domains. The findings of this study demonstrate that the Needs Assessment and Goal Planning framework is effective in planning SCI rehabilitation. The capacity of this goal planning system to reflect individual need has also been established. Further systematic analyses of this process could potentially lead to more efficient rehabilitation and the identification of care pathways within clinical areas.

  15. The actual goals of geoethics (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav


    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  16. Pengaruh Goal Setting terhadap Performance : Tinjauan Teoritis


    Ginting, Surya Dharma; Ariani, D. Wahyu


    This article is the conceptual view of goal setting theory and effects of goal setting on individual performance. Goal setting is recognized, and is a major theory of work motivation. Difficult goals have consistently been shown to lead to higher levels of performance than easy goals. If there is no commitment, a goal can have no motivational effect. Goals are central to current treatments of work motivation, and goal commitment is a necessary condition for difficult goals to result in higher...

  17. 34 CFR 361.29 - Statewide assessment; annual estimates; annual State goals and priorities; strategies; and... (United States)


    ... service and outcome goals and the time within which these goals may be achieved for individuals in each... section and achieve the goals and priorities identified in paragraph (c) of this section, including— (1... achievement of the goals and priorities; (C) To the extent to which the goals and priorities were not achieved...

  18. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  19. Requirements as Goals and Commitments Too (United States)

    Chopra, Amit K.; Mylopoulos, John; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo; Singh, Munindar P.

    In traditional software engineering research and practice, requirements are classified either as functional or non-functional. Functional requirements consist of all functions the system-to-be ought to support, and have been modeled in terms of box-and-arrow diagrams in the spirit of SADT. Non-functional requirements include desired software qualities for the system-to-be and have been described either in natural language or in terms of metrics. This orthodoxy was challenged in the mid-90 s by a host of proposals that had a common theme: all requirements are initially stakeholder goals and ought to be elicited, modeled and analyzed as such. Through systematic processes, these goals can be refined into specifications of functions the system-to-be needs to deliver, while actions assigned to external actors need to be executed. This view is dominating Requirements Engineering (RE) research and is beginning to have an impact on RE practice. We propose a next step along this line of research, by adopting the concept of conditional commitment as companion concept to that of goal. Goals are intentional entities that capture the needs and wants of stakeholders. Commitments, on the other hand, are social concepts that define the willingness and capability of an actor A to fulfill a predicate ϕ for the benefit of actor B, provided B (in return) fulfills predicate ψ for the benefit of actor A. In our conceptualization, goals are mapped to collections of commitments rather than functions, qualities, or actor assignments. We motivate the importance of the concept of commitment for RE through examples and discussion. We also contrast our proposal with state-of-the-art requirements modeling and analysis frameworks, such as KAOS, MAP, i * and Tropos.

  20. Goal-Oriented Ethics: Framing the Goal-Setting Concretely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Illathuparampil


    Full Text Available Joseph Selling, professor emeritus from KU Leuven, Belgium, recently made a significant contribution towards ethical methodology. It is in fact a continuation of the in-house conversations that have been in vogue about methods in moral reasoning since Vatican II in the discipline called theological ethics. What is specific about Selling’s attempt is that he re-orients or reframes the evaluation of the moral event to consider human intentionality or motivation before considering human behavior or human acts. He convincingly establishes his method by a meticulous reading of Thomas Aquinas. This paper is a response to the goal-oriented ethics that he has posited. As illustrated below, this paper evaluates the goal-oriented approach as solid and sufficient. While fully endorsing this approach, this paper argues that the process of ethical goal-setting is to be framed concretely. In a concrete historical context, so that a goal-oriented approach fully serves its purpose, this paper proposes that it is to be reinforced by four supportive pillars, which are in fact assumed by Selling in his work. They are openness to human sciences, conversation among various narratives, positing a theological frame for ethical reasoning, and recourse to non-discursive reasoning.

  1. Performance improvement program: goals and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, F. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Maces Bay, New Brunswick (Canada)


    Following long 54 month refurbishment outage at Point Lepreau Generating Station, operational performance had fallen below industry standards in a number of areas. Leadership development and succession planning had stalled. Operational focus was low primarily due to the construction focus during refurbishment. Condition of balance of plant was poor including several long standing deficiencies. In order to improve performance, the site implemented a framework based on INPO 12-011: Focus on Improving Behaviours; Set common goals and demonstrate results; Align and engage the organization; Drive to achieve high levels of performance and sustain performance.

  2. Performance improvement program: goals and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, F.


    Following long 54 month refurbishment outage at Point Lepreau Generating Station, operational performance had fallen below industry standards in a number of areas. Leadership development and succession planning had stalled. Operational focus was low primarily due to the construction focus during refurbishment. Condition of balance of plant was poor including several long standing deficiencies. In order to improve performance, the site implemented a framework based on INPO 12-011: Focus on Improving Behaviours; Set common goals and demonstrate results; Align and engage the organization; Drive to achieve high levels of performance and sustain performance.

  3. Clinically distinct trajectories of fatigue and their longitudinal relationship with the disturbance of personal goals following a cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Müller, Fabiola; Tuinman, Marrit A; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke; Hagedoorn, Mariët


    Most studies on fatigue in patients with cancer aggregate its prevalence and severity on a group level, ignoring the possibility that subgroups of patients may differ widely in their development of fatigue. This study aimed to identify subgroups of patients with clinically distinct trajectories of fatigue from diagnosis to 18 months post-diagnosis. As fatigue might trigger goal disturbance, the study also identified trajectories of concrete and abstract goal disturbance and longitudinally examined their co-occurrence with fatigue. Prospective design with quantitative and qualitative method of data collection. Patients with colorectal cancer (n = 183) reported on their levels of fatigue and goal disturbance shortly after diagnosis (T 1 ) and at 7 months (T 2 ) and 18 months (T 3 ) post-diagnosis. Growth mixture model analyses were performed to identify trajectories of fatigue and goal disturbance. Guidelines for the clinical relevance of fatigue were applied. Four clinically distinct trajectories of fatigue were identified as follows: (1) persistent severe fatigue (25.4%), (2) moderate fatigue (56.1%), (3) no fatigue (13.8%), and (4) rapidly improving fatigue (4.7%). The majority of patients with cancer reported high disturbance of their concrete goals, while high disturbance of abstract goals was less evident. Fatigue and concrete goal disturbance co-occurred longitudinally. The fatigue and goal disturbance experienced from diagnosis to 18 months post-diagnosis differ considerably for subgroups of patients with cancer. Fatigue and concrete goal disturbance are persistent burdens in the majority of patients. Investigating symptom burden beyond average trends can guide clinicians to identify patients most in need for treatment. Targeting goal disturbance might benefit the psychological well-being in patients suffering from persistent symptoms. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Fatigue is a common and distressing symptom at all

  4. Diagnostic screening identifies a wide range of mutations involving the SHOX gene, including a common 47.5 kb deletion 160 kb downstream with a variable phenotypic effect. (United States)

    Bunyan, David J; Baker, Kevin R; Harvey, John F; Thomas, N Simon


    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) results from heterozygous mutations of the SHOX gene, with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity resulting in the more severe form, Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). These mutations typically take the form of whole or partial gene deletions, point mutations within the coding sequence, or large (>100 kb) 3' deletions of downstream regulatory elements. We have analyzed the coding sequence of the SHOX gene and its downstream regulatory regions in a cohort of 377 individuals referred with symptoms of LWD, LMD or short stature. A causative mutation was identified in 68% of the probands with LWD or LMD (91/134). In addition, a 47.5 kb deletion was found 160 kb downstream of the SHOX gene in 17 of the 377 patients (12% of the LWD referrals, 4.5% of all referrals). In 14 of these 17 patients, this was the only potentially causative abnormality detected (13 had symptoms consistent with LWD and one had short stature only), but the other three 47.5 kb deletions were found in patients with an additional causative SHOX mutation (with symptoms of LWD rather than LMD). Parental samples were available on 14/17 of these families, and analysis of these showed a more variable phenotype ranging from apparently unaffected to LWD. Breakpoint sequence analysis has shown that the 47.5 kb deletion is identical in all 17 patients, most likely due to an ancient founder mutation rather than recurrence. This deletion was not seen in 471 normal controls (P<0.0001), providing further evidence for a phenotypic effect, albeit one with variable penetration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Common cause analysis of the TREAT upgrade reactor protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.J.; Kamis, G.J.; Marbach, R.A.; Mueller, C.J.


    A triply redundant reactor scram system (RSS) has been designed for the upgraded TREAT facility. The independent failures reliability goal for the RSS is <10/sup -9/ failures per demand. An independent failures analysis indicated that this goal would be met. In addition, however, recognizing that in heavily redundant systems common-cause failures dominate, a common cause analysis of the TREAT upgrade RSS was done. The objective was to identify those common-cause initiators which could affect the functioning of the RSS, and to subsequently modify the design of the RSS so that the effect was minimized. A number of common-cause initiators were identified which were capable of defeating the triple redundancy feature of the reactor scram system. By means of a systematic analysis of the effect these initiators could have on the system, it was possible to identify seven necessary design and procedural modifications that would greatly reduce the probability of the reactor being run while the RSS was in a faulted condition.

  6. Railway projects prioritisation for investment : application of goal programming


    Ahern, Aoife; Anandarajah, Gabrial


    This research develops a weighted integer goal-programming model for prioritising railway projects for investment. The goal of the model is to prioritise the identified projects for investment while maximising the objectives and meeting the budget limit for capital investment. The model minimises the goal deviations of the objectives. The objectives of the model include quantitative and qualitative attributes. The model is applied to prioritise the new railway projects, which have a total cos...

  7. Motivation and Goal-Setting in College Athletes


    Cash, Erin


    Motivation and goal-setting are important concepts in athletics and sport and exercise psychology. However, little research has compared motivation and goal-setting by gender. The self-determination theory was used and the purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between male and female athletes when looking at amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and goal-setting. One hundred and six student-athletes (fifty one males and f...

  8. Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges


    Full Text Available Multiple-goal pursuit and conflict between personal life-defining goals can be considered part of everyday business in most individuals' lives. Given the potentially detrimental effects of goal conflict—for example, impaired well-being or poor performance—the literature on goal conflict is surprisingly scattered due to heterogeneous methodological approaches and technical terms. Little empirical research has addressed the conceptualization of goal conflict against the background of differing understandings from a structure-like and a process-like perspective. In the present article, we outline theoretical foundations of goal conflict from two perspectives: a structure- and a process-like perspective. Based on a comparative analysis and integration of these two perspectives, we systematically review empirical studies on goal conflict over 30 years of research. In doing so, we identify and discuss important conceptual dimensions of goal conflict, namely, goal conflict as a cognitive construct and an experiential instance, a focus on goal interrelations or on specific goal properties, and resource vs. inherent conflict, and the potential of these distinctions to further research on goal conflict. Finally, we present major challenges and pose questions that need to be addressed by future research.

  9. Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals. (United States)

    Gorges, Julia; Grund, Axel


    Multiple-goal pursuit and conflict between personal life-defining goals can be considered part of everyday business in most individuals' lives. Given the potentially detrimental effects of goal conflict-for example, impaired well-being or poor performance-the literature on goal conflict is surprisingly scattered due to heterogeneous methodological approaches and technical terms. Little empirical research has addressed the conceptualization of goal conflict against the background of differing understandings from a structure-like and a process-like perspective. In the present article, we outline theoretical foundations of goal conflict from two perspectives: a structure- and a process-like perspective. Based on a comparative analysis and integration of these two perspectives, we systematically review empirical studies on goal conflict over 30 years of research. In doing so, we identify and discuss important conceptual dimensions of goal conflict, namely, goal conflict as a cognitive construct and an experiential instance, a focus on goal interrelations or on specific goal properties, and resource vs. inherent conflict, and the potential of these distinctions to further research on goal conflict. Finally, we present major challenges and pose questions that need to be addressed by future research.

  10. Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice (United States)

    Camp, Heather


    This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…

  11. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eBenn


    Full Text Available The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI while playing a game that involved monitoring progress towards either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress towards a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring.

  12. Tacit and transitionary: an exploration of patients' and primary care health professionals' goals in relation to asthma. (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Steven, Karen; Sullivan, Frank M


    Goal setting is recommended in UK health policy to make health care more patient-centred, to enhance the likelihood of behaviour change and to improve health outcomes. Patient-centred care is thought to be particularly important in the management of long term conditions such as asthma. We therefore explored and compared the asthma goals of both health professionals and people with asthma within the primary care clinical consultation, and identified the potential barriers to achieving shared goals and more patient-centred care provision. We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 15 people with asthma, 7 general practitioners and 6 primary care asthma nurses from Tayside, UK. The data were analysed using the 'Framework' methodology. Four potential barriers to the identification of goals were located. The first stemmed from the status and nature of patients' goals, while the remaining three related to the beliefs and practices of health professionals. These findings are discussed in relation to relevant sociological literature around the potential tensions between lay and professional knowledge, and also tensions in the relationship between knowledge and values. We conclude that barriers need to be recognised and addressed where possible before the achievement of shared asthma goals can become common practice. In particular, health professionals may require training in how to elicit goals with patients and how to differentiate between end states and goals that are in fact assumed to mediate the achievement of such desired end states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Goals for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.A.


    Establishing a publicly, politically, economically, and technologically acceptable waste management system for the fuel cycle is a necessary condition for accepting the nuclear program as a national energy option. Findings are given on the technology, politics, economics, morality, aesthetics, and societal impact of waste management. Proposed goals are outlined for the regulation of waste management

  14. New Goals of Sustainable Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Ursul


    Full Text Available This article investigates the process of transition from the Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The authors have set an objective to demonstrate that SD as a future form of development of civilization from the very beginning had a “target orientation” and from the beginning and anticipated realization and staging of the whole hierarchy of objectives needed for the establishment of an effective global governance. In the future, global development in its “anthropogenic” aspect will be to implement the goals and principles of SD, which will be updated with each new stage of the implementation of this kind of socio-natural evolution. The paper argues the position that the concept of SD should be radically transformed into a “global dimension.” Attention is drawn to the fact that Russia recognized another distant, but very important in the conceptual and theoretical perspective, global goal of “sustainable transition” — formation of the noosphere.

  15. A Goal for Nursing Education. (United States)

    Marcinkiw, Karen L.


    Culturally competent nurses enable clients to feel respected, valued, and motivated to achieve health goals. A model for nursing education should develop cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills; provide cultural immersion experiences; and foster the desire to work with diverse clients. (Contains 48 references.) (SK)

  16. Goal pursuit, goal adjustment, and affective well-being following lower limb amputation. (United States)

    Coffey, Laura; Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre; Ryall, Nicola


    This study examined the relationships between tenacious goal pursuit (TGP), flexible goal adjustment (FGA), and affective well-being in a sample of individuals with lower limb amputations. Cross-sectional, quantitative. Ninety-eight patients recently admitted to a primary prosthetic rehabilitation programme completed measures of TGP, FGA, positive affect, and negative affect. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that TGP and FGA accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in both positive and negative affect, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. TGP was significantly positively associated with positive affect, while FGA was significantly negatively associated with negative affect. Moderated regression analyses indicated that the beneficial effect of FGA on negative affect was strongest at high levels of amputation-related pain intensity and low levels of TGP. TGP and FGA appear to influence subjective well-being in different ways, with TGP promoting the experience of positive affect and FGA buffering against negative affect. TGP and FGA may prove useful in identifying individuals at risk of poor affective outcomes following lower limb amputation and represent important targets for intervention in this patient group. What is already known on this subject? The loss of a limb has a significant impact on several important life domains. Although some individuals experience emotional distress following amputation, the majority adjust well to their limb loss, with some achieving positive change or growth as a result of their experiences. Theories of self-regulation propose that disruptions in goal attainment have negative affective consequences. The physical, social, and psychological upheaval caused by limb loss is likely to threaten the attainment of valued goals, which may leave individuals vulnerable to negative psychosocial outcomes if they do not regulate their goals in response to these challenges. According to the dual

  17. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 2 - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.-E.; Bjoerkman, K.; Rossi, J.; Knochenhauer, M.; Xuhong He; Persson, A.; Gustavsson, H.


    The second phase of the project, the outcome of which is described in this project report has mainly dealt with four issues: 1) Consistency in the usage of safety goals 2) Criteria for assessment of results from PSA level 2 3) Overview of international safety goals and experiences from their use 4) Safety goals related to other man-made risks in society. Consistency in judgement over time has been perceived to be one of the main problems in the usage of safety goals. Safety goals defined in the 80ies were met in the beginning with PSA:s performed to the standards of that time, i.e., by PSA:s that were quite limited in scope and level of detail compared to today's state of the art. This issue was investigated by performing a comparative review was performed of three generations of the same PSA, focusing on the impact from changes over time in component failure data, IE frequency, and modelling of the plant, including plant changes and changes in success criteria. It proved to be very time-consuming and in some cases next to impossible to correctly identify the basic causes for changes in PSA results. A multitude of different sub-causes turned out to combined and difficult to differentiate. Thus, rigorous book-keeping is needed in order to keep track of how and why PSA results change. This is especially important in order to differentiate 'real' differences due to plant changes and updated component and IE data from differences that are due to general PSA development (scope, level of detail, modelling issues). (au)

  18. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 2 - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.-E.; Bjoerkman, K. Rossi, J. (VTT (Finland)); Knochenhauer, M.; Xuhong He; Persson, A.; Gustavsson, H. (Relcon Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))


    The second phase of the project, the outcome of which is described in this project report has mainly dealt with four issues: 1) Consistency in the usage of safety goals 2) Criteria for assessment of results from PSA level 2 3) Overview of international safety goals and experiences from their use 4) Safety goals related to other man-made risks in society. Consistency in judgement over time has been perceived to be one of the main problems in the usage of safety goals. Safety goals defined in the 80ies were met in the beginning with PSA:s performed to the standards of that time, i.e., by PSA:s that were quite limited in scope and level of detail compared to today's state of the art. This issue was investigated by performing a comparative review was performed of three generations of the same PSA, focusing on the impact from changes over time in component failure data, IE frequency, and modelling of the plant, including plant changes and changes in success criteria. It proved to be very time-consuming and in some cases next to impossible to correctly identify the basic causes for changes in PSA results. A multitude of different sub-causes turned out to combined and difficult to differentiate. Thus, rigorous book-keeping is needed in order to keep track of how and why PSA results change. This is especially important in order to differentiate 'real' differences due to plant changes and updated component and IE data from differences that are due to general PSA development (scope, level of detail, modelling issues). (au)

  19. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive? (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.


    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  20. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy]. (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime


    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  1. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. (United States)

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan


    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  2. Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics (United States)


    Researchers have used a variety of ways to represent such constraints (e.g., as a constraint satisfaction problem ( Scala , to appear), in PDDL (Vaquro...lifecycle to recent models of replanning (Talamadupala et al., 2013) and continual planning ( Scala , to appear). We described goal reasoning in...F., & Barreiro, J. (2013). Towards deliberative control in marine robotics. In Marine Robot Autonomy (pp. 91–175). Springer. Scala , E. (to appear

  3. Physics goals of future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, G.L.


    These lectures describe some of the physics goals that future colliders are designed to achieve. Emphasis is on the SSC, but its capabilities are compared to those of other machines, and set in a context of what will be measured before the SSC is ready. Physics associated with the Higgs sector is examined most thoroughly, with a survey of the opportunities to find evidence of extended gauge theories

  4. DRIS Analysis Identifies a Common Potassium Imbalance in Sweetgum Plantations (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; S.X. Chang; D.J. Robison


    DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and...

  5. A goal-based approach for qualification of new technologies: Foundations, tool support, and industrial validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad; Falessi, Davide; Briand, Lionel; Di Alesio, Stefano


    New technologies typically involve innovative aspects that are not addressed by the existing normative standards and hence are not assessable through common certification procedures. To ensure that new technologies can be implemented in a safe and reliable manner, a specific kind of assessment is performed, which in many industries, e.g., the energy sector, is known as Technology Qualification (TQ). TQ aims at demonstrating with an acceptable level of confidence that a new technology will function within specified limits. Expert opinion plays an important role in TQ, both to identify the safety and reliability evidence that needs to be developed and to interpret the evidence provided. Since there are often multiple experts involved in TQ, it is crucial to apply a structured process for eliciting expert opinions, and to use this information systematically when analyzing the satisfaction of the technology's safety and reliability objectives. In this paper, we present a goal-based approach for TQ. Our approach enables analysts to quantitatively reason about the satisfaction of the technology's overall goals and further to identify the aspects that must be improved to increase goal satisfaction. The approach is founded on three main components: goal models, expert elicitation, and probabilistic simulation. We describe a tool, named Modus, that we have developed in support of our approach. We provide an extensive empirical validation of our approach through two industrial case studies and a survey

  6. The 'factor 4' goal: what are we talking about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since the demonstration by scientists of the role of human activity in global warming, completed by the Stern report condemning the cost of inaction, France has set itself the goal of dividing by four its greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 with respect to its 1990 emissions volume. This goal, even if higher than the international goals, is justified by the common but differentiated liability principle enshrined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Some countries have to show the way, considering their volume of past emissions and their high level of development

  7. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis


    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  8. Managing common marital stresses. (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P


    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  9. Dynamics of multiple-goal pursuit. (United States)

    Louro, Maria J; Pieters, Rik; Zeelenberg, Marcel


    The authors propose and test a model of multiple-goal pursuit that specifies how individuals allocate effort among multiple goals over time. The model predicts that whether individuals decide to step up effort, coast, abandon the current goal, or switch to pursue another goal is determined jointly by the emotions that flow from prior goal progress and the proximity to future goal attainment, and proximally determined by changes in expectancies about goal attainment. Results from a longitudinal diary study and 2 experiments show that positive and negative goal-related emotions can have diametrically opposing effects on goal-directed behavior, depending on the individual's proximity to goal attainment. The findings resolve contrasting predictions about the influence of positive and negative emotions in volitional behavior, critically amend the goal gradient hypothesis, and provide new insights into the dynamics and determinants of multiple-goal pursuit.

  10. The impact of goal setting and goal orientation on performance during a clerkship surgical skills training program. (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Diesen, Diana L; Hogg, Deborah; Huerta, Sergio


    The purpose of this study was to integrate relevant goal-setting theory and to identify if trainees' goal orientations have an impact on the assigned goals-performance relationship. Trainees attended 1 of the 3 goal-training activities (do your best, performance, or learning goals) for knot tying (KT) and camera navigation (CN) during the 3rd-year clerkship rotation. Questionnaires and pretests and/or post-tests were completed. One twenty-seven 3rd-year medical students (age: 25 ± 2.6; 54% women) participated in the training program. Pretraining to post-training performance changes were significant for all groups on both tasks (P goals group (do your best: KTΔ = 2.14, CNΔ = 1.69; performance: KTΔ = 2.49, CNΔ = 2.24; learning: KTΔ = 3.04 CNΔ = 2.76). Correlations between goal orientations and improvement were examined, revealing a unique role of goal orientation for performance improvement. These data indicate that consideration of goal type and trainee goal orientation must be considered during curriculum development to maximize educational value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Goal adjustment strategies operationalised and empirically examined in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Moniek; Sulkers, Esther; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Fleer, Joke

    Adolescents facing cancer may need to adjust their personal life goals. Theories identified several goal adjustment strategies, but their use has not been tested. Therefore, this study operationalises goal adjustment strategies and examines their use. Adolescent cancer patients listed their goals 3

  12. Goals? What goals? Europeans to hear more about the world's millennium development goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.


    The European Union (EU) is quickly becoming the front-runner of development aid to regions in Africa and other developing countries. However, over three-quarters of EU citizens are unaware of development efforts being made on the part of the Union to Third World countries, according to a public opinion poll released by Eurobarometer. In light of the low awareness of the EU's development agenda and the United Nations's Millennium Development Goals, the EU Humanitarian Aid and Development Commission has employed a campaign to raise the level of awareness among the EU's 460 million citizens

  13. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving. (United States)

    Nelissen, Rob M A; de Vet, Emely; Zeelenberg, Marcel


    This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels depended on the perceived proximity to the goal. Participants with weight-loss intentions were randomly selected from an Internet panel and completed questionnaires at three points in time, baseline (T1; N= 725), 2 weeks later at T2 (N= 582) and again 2 months later at T3 (N= 528). Questionnaires assessed anticipated emotions (at T1) and experienced emotions (at T2) towards goal attainment and non-attainment. Goal proximity, goal desirability, and effort levels in striving for weight loss were assessed at both T1 and T2. Current and target weights were reported at all three assessments. In line with predictions, we found that negative anticipated emotions towards goal non-attainment resulted in increased effort but only if people perceived themselves in close proximity to their goal. Effort, in turn, predicted weight loss and goal achievement. The current data bear important practical implications as they identify anticipated emotions as targets of behaviour change interventions aimed to stimulate effort in striving for broad, health-related goals like weight loss. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The goal of ape pointing. (United States)

    Halina, Marta; Liebal, Katja; Tomasello, Michael


    Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their interactions with humans. However, the precise function of this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We investigated these two possibilities here by examining how the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Upon pointing to food, subjects were faced with a recipient who either looked at the indicated object (successful-look) or failed to look at the indicated object (failed-look). We predicted that, if apes point primarily to direct attention, subjects would spend more time pointing in the failed-look condition because the goal of their gesture had not been met. Alternatively, we expected that, if apes point primarily to request an object, subjects would not differ in their pointing behavior between the successful-look and failed-look conditions because these conditions differed only in the looking behavior of the recipient. We found that subjects did differ in their pointing behavior across the successful-look and failed-look conditions, but contrary to our prediction subjects spent more time pointing in the successful-look condition. These results suggest that apes are sensitive to the attentional states of gestural recipients, but their adjustments are aimed at multiple goals. We also found a greater number of individuals with a strong right-hand than left-hand preference for pointing.

  15. Group Therapy Goals: A Comparison of Group Therapy Providers and Male Inmates (United States)

    Morgan, Robert D.; Garland, J. Travis; Rozycki, Alicia T.; Reich, Darcy A.; Wilson, Scott


    This study was designed to identify important process and content goals from the perspective of inmates and compare these goals to the goals identified by group therapists in a previous study conducted by Winterowd, Morgan, and Ferrell (2001). Utilizing survey data from 156 incarcerated adult males, an initial confirmatory factor analysis…

  16. Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: the differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping. (United States)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A


    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated that why people stereotype determines how they stereotype: When a comprehension goal was salient, positive as well as negative stereotypes were applied, whereas a salient self-enhancement goal led to the application of negative but not positive stereotypes. Study 3 replicated these effects with different stereotypes. Study 4 replicated these effects and gave more insight in the consequences of goal fulfillment on stereotyping. Results indicated the fulfillment of a salient self-enhancement or comprehension goal led to the reduction of stereotyping. These effects were goal specific: Fulfillment of a self-enhancement goal decreased enhancement-driven but not comprehension-driven stereotyping; fulfillment of a comprehension goal decreased comprehension-driven but not enhancement-driven stereotyping.

  17. Goal-setting in clinical medicine. (United States)

    Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K


    The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.

  18. Illegitimacy Improves Goal Pursuit in Powerless Individuals


    Willis , Guillermo B.; Guinote , Ana; Rodríguez-Bailón , Rosa


    Abstract The effects of power legitimacy on self-regulation during goal pursuit were examined. Study 1 focused on goal-setting and goal-striving. Specifically, it examined how much time legitimate and illegitimate powerless individuals needed to set goals, and how many means they generated to pursue these goals. Study 2 examined persistence in the face of difficulties. Consistently across these studies illegitimacy improved self-regulation in powerless individuals. Illegitimate pow...

  19. Quantitative safety goals for the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; O'Donnell, L.F.


    The paper offers a brief summary of the current regulatory background in the USA, emphasizing nuclear, related to the establishment of quantitative safety goals as a way to respond to the key issue of 'how safe is safe enough'. General Atomic has taken a leading role in advocating the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the regulatory process. This has led to understanding of the importance of quantitative safety goals. The approach developed by GA is discussed in the paper. It is centred around definition of quantitative safety regions. The regions were termed: design basis, safety margin or design capability and safety research. The design basis region is bounded by the frequency of 10 -4 /reactor-year and consequences of no identifiable public injury. 10 -4 /reactor-year is associated with the total projected lifetime of a commercial US nuclear power programme. Events which have a 50% chance of happening are included in the design basis region. In the safety margin region, which extends below the design basis region, protection is provided against some events whose probability of not happening during the expected course of the US nuclear power programme is within the range of 50 to 90%. Setting the lower mean frequency to this region of 10 -5 /reactor-year is equivalent to offering 90% assurance that an accident of given severity will not happen. Rare events with a mean frequency below 10 -5 can be predicted to occur. However, accidents predicted to have a probability of less than 10 -6 are 99% certain not to happen at all, and are thus not anticipated to affect public health and safety. The area between 10 -5 and 10 -6 defines the frequency portion of the safety research region. Safety goals associated with individual risk to a maximum-exposed member of public, general societal risk and property risk are proposed in the paper

  20. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.


    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  1. Trading Speed for accuracy? Managing goal conflict and accomodation in the US Unemployment insurance program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenger, Jeffrey B.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.


    Public managers must often cope with competing and conflicting goals. The common formulation is to assume that managers must trade-off goals against each other. But is this always true? An alternative hypothesis is that sometimes managers may instead be able to improve outcomes on multiple goals

  2. Goal-based dictator game (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal


    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  3. Goal Development Practices of Physical Therapists Working in Educational Environments. (United States)

    Wynarczuk, Kimberly D; Chiarello, Lisa A; Gohrband, Catherine L


    The aims of this study were to (1) describe the practices that school-based physical therapists use in developing student goals, and (2) identify facilitators and barriers to development of goals that are specific to participation in the context of the school setting. 46 school-based physical therapists who participated in a previous study on school-based physical therapy practice (PT COUNTS) completed a questionnaire on goal development. Frequencies and cross tabulations were generated for quantitative data. Open-ended questions were analyzed using an iterative qualitative analysis process. A majority of therapists reported that they frequently develop goals collaboratively with other educational team members. Input from teachers, related services personnel, and parents has the most influence on goal development. Qualitative analysis identified five themes that influence development of participation-based goals: (1) school-based philosophy and practice; (2) the educational environment, settings, and routines; (3) student strengths, needs, and personal characteristics; (4) support from and collaboration with members of the educational team; and (5) therapist practice and motivation. Goal development is a complex process that involves multiple members of the educational team and is influenced by many different aspects of practice, the school environment, and student characteristics.

  4. Goal setting for health behavior change: evidence from an obesity intervention for rural low-income women. (United States)

    Ries, A V; Blackman, L T; Page, R A; Gizlice, Z; Benedict, S; Barnes, K; Kelsey, K; Carter-Edwards, L


    Rural, minority populations are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity and may benefit from lifestyle modification programs that are tailored to meet their unique needs. Obesity interventions commonly use goal setting as a behavior change strategy; however, few have investigated the specific contribution of goal setting to behavior change and/or identified the mechanisms by which goal setting may have an impact on behavior change. Furthermore, studies have not examined goal setting processes among racial/ethnic minorities. Using data from an obesity intervention for predominately minority women in rural North Carolina, this study sought to examine whether intervention participation resulted in working on goals and using goal setting strategies which in turn affected health behavior outcomes. It also examined racial/ethnic group differences in working on goals and use of goal setting strategies. Data came from a community-based participatory research project to address obesity among low-income, predominately minority women in rural North Carolina. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used. Participants included 485 women aged 18 years and over. Intervention participants (n=208) received health information and goal setting support through group meetings and tailored newsletters. Comparison participants (n = 277) received newsletters on topics unrelated to obesity. Surveys assessed physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, goal-related stage of change, and use of goal setting strategies. Chi squared statistics were used to assess intervention group differences in changes in goal-related stage of change and use of goal setting strategies as well as racial/ethnic group differences in stage of change and use of goal setting strategies at baseline. The causal steps approach of Baron and Kenny was used to assess mediation. Intervention compared to comparison participants were more likely to move from contemplation to action/maintenance for the

  5. Occupational Needs and Goals of Survivors of Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Javaherian-Dysinger, Heather; Krpalek, Dragana; Huecker, Esther; Hewitt, Liane; Cabrera, Michelle; Brown, Canique; Francis, Jason; Rogers, Katie; Server, Sage


    This study's purpose was to describe the occupational needs and goals of women residing in a domestic violence shelter and their self-perceived changes in satisfaction and occupational performance. Using a retrospective design, data from 68 occupational therapy evaluations from two domestic violence shelter settings were examined. Data were analyzed by coding problem areas and occupational goals and calculating frequencies for these variables. Where data were available, we also analyzed changes in pre- and postscores for self-perceived satisfaction and occupational performance (n = 25). The most common problem areas were leisure, education, work, child rearing, and health management. The most common goals were in the areas of education, work, health management, child rearing, and home management. Retrospective pre- and postchange scores in performance and satisfaction for 25 women were statistically significant. Findings provide direction for, and highlight the importance of occupational therapy services within domestic violence shelters as women regain their life skills.

  6. Goals and Strategies for the Human Lunar Reference Architecture (United States)

    Seaman, Calvin H.


    The presentation examines common goals for human lunar exploration and strategic guidance. Three major sections include illustrative example goals, introduction to the GPoD campaign, and GPoD overview. The first section includes slides about strategic view of partnerships, the moon as a stepping stone and a uniquely preserved record, human-robotic partnership, innovative engagement, strategic considerations, and evaluation of campaigns against common goals. The second section examines campaigns considered, the philosophy of GPoD, GPoD campaign phase definitions, and GPoD design decision points. The third section examines lunar exploration capabilities, extended stay-relocation exploration mode, notional campaign destinations for GPoD, early robotics phase, development of the GPoD early robotics phase, polar exploration/system validation phase, polar relocatability phase, non-polar relocatability phase, long duration phase, and return to evaluation of campaigns.

  7. Online dating across the life span: Users' relationship goals. (United States)

    Menkin, Josephine A; Robles, Theodore F; Wiley, Joshua F; Gonzaga, Gian C


    Utilizing data from an relationship questionnaire completed by new users (N = 5,434), this study identifies prioritized goals in new romantic relationships and whether importance of these goals differs by participants' age and gender. Overall, users valued interpersonal communication more than sex appeal. Older users rated sexual attraction as slightly less important than younger users did, but they still highly valued the goal. Women placed even greater emphasis on communication over sexual attraction compared to men. However, although men valued sexual attraction more than women at all ages, only the youngest women valued interpersonal communication more than young men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.


    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  9. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls. (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David


    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world.

  10. Some predictors of life goals in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Poljšak Škraban


    Full Text Available Personal goals and interests play an important role in human development because they orient people's life planning, decision-making and also, therefore, their future life course. The article presents the findings of a research which explores the eventual differences between Slovenian and Croatian sample in agency-oriented and communion-oriented life goals and the analysis of significant predictors of above mentioned life goals on both samples. The research included 924 adults of both genders, aged between 21 and 70 years from Slovenia and Croatia. In the study we used the scale of Goals (Pohlman and Brunstein, 1997 and a set of questions regarding various participant's life domains and their perceived importance. The results show significant differences on agency- oriented and communion-oriented life goals between the Slovenian and Croatian sample; in both cases croatian participants reach higher results than those from slovenina sample. As significant predictors in both samples were identified (a age and importance of effective use of free time for agency-oriented goals, and (b and gender, parenthood, importance of parenthood and importance of effective use of free time for communion-oriented life goals. The differences in results are explained by respective levels of social modernisation and social welfare, given the fact the Slovenian respondents are embedded in the social environment that offers more possibilities for fullfilment of their life goals, and are closer to postmaterialism and individualism.a

  11. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change. (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P


    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  12. Goal conflicts, attainment of new goals, and well-being among managers. (United States)

    Kehr, Hugo M


    Researchers widely understand that conflicts among goals inhibit the attainment of these goals. However, this notion comes close to tautological reasoning. To avert this problem, this study examined whether preexisting goal conflict also inhibits success in newly set goals. Using the context of management training, in which managers collectively set new goals, the study variables were assessed at 3 testing periods covering 5 months. Results indicate that goal conflicts that persevere over time were associated with inhibited attainment of new goals but not with decreased subjective well-being (SWB). Goal attainment, however, was positively related to SWB. Interactions of residual changes in goal conflict and goal attainment were associated with positive affect.

  13. Goals in Nutrition Science 2015–2020

    KAUST Repository

    Allison, David B.


    With the definition of goals in Nutrition Science, we are taking a brave step and a leap of faith with regard to predicting the scope and direction of nutrition science over the next 5 years. The content of this editorial has been discussed, refined, and evaluated with great care by the Frontiers in Nutrition editorial board. We feel the topics described represent the key opportunities, but also the biggest challenges in our field. We took a clean-slate, bottom-up approach to identify and address these topics and present them in eight categories. For each category, the authors listed take responsibility, and deliberately therefore this document is a collection of thoughts from active minds, rather than a complete integration or consensus. At Frontiers in Nutrition, we are excited to develop and share a platform for this discussion. Healthy Nutrition for all – an ambition too important to be handled by detached interest groups.

  14. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.; Bjornard, T.; Castle, B.


    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization's purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations' approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  15. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES (United States)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert


    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (, which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  16. Pro-Social Goals in Achievement Situations: Amity Goal Orientation Enhances the Positive Effects of Mastery Goal Orientation. (United States)

    Levontin, Liat; Bardi, Anat


    Research has neglected the utility of pro-social goals within achievement situations. In this article, four studies demonstrate that amity goal orientation, promoting mutual success of oneself together with others, enhances the utility of mastery goal orientation. We demonstrate this in longitudinally predicting performance (Studies 1 and 2) and in maintaining motivation after a disappointing performance (Studies 3 and 4). The studies demonstrate the same interaction effect in academic and in work achievement contexts. Specifically, whereas amity goal orientation did not predict achievement on its own, it enhanced the positive effect of mastery goal orientation. Together, these studies establish the importance of amity goal orientation while also advancing our understanding of the effects of other achievement goal orientations. We suggest future directions in examining the utility of amity goals in other contexts.

  17. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy. (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika


    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  18. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students. (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho


    Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.

  19. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia


    Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits...... of self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful...

  20. The Influence of Money on Goal Pursuit and Decision-Making: Understanding Money's Unique Impact on Goal Pursuit (United States)

    Moran, Nora

    Previous research suggests that activating concepts of money and wealth can increase motivation to achieve personal goals. In this dissertation, I investigate how money affects pursuit of important personal goals, and how this motivation may be affected by goal attainability. In eight studies, I show that priming concepts of money and wealth leads individuals to pursue important personal goals to a greater degree than control groups, but only when a goal is more attainable. In contrast, when a goal is less attainable, those primed with money will be less likely to work towards goals relative to control groups. Furthermore, I examine why money may have a detrimental effect on motivation when individuals are faced with less attainable but important goals, and argue those primed with money become more concerned with maintaining a sense of efficacy, and thus disengage from pursuit when success is less certain. Thus, this research identifies the needs made salient by activating money--validating one's abilities. Finally, I show the relevance of these findings for consumer behavior, and discuss the additional implications of this work, as well as future research directions.

  1. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby......The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...

  2. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being. (United States)

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P


    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  3. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  4. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School (United States)

    Madjar, Nir


    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  5. National Education Goals: Can We Afford Them? (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Financial estimates for achieving the six national education goals proposed at the Charlottesville Education Summit are provided in this paper. Specific objectives under each goal, as outlined by the National Goals Panel, are assessed. A conclusion is that although the cost estimates have involved huge assumptions and sometimes wide variations,…

  6. The selfish goal meets the selfish gene. (United States)

    Neuberg, Steven L; Schaller, Mark


    The connection between selfish genes and selfish goals is not merely metaphorical. Many goals that shape contemporary cognition and behavior are psychological products of evolutionarily fundamental motivational systems and thus are phenotypic manifestations of genes. An evolutionary perspective can add depth and nuance to our understanding of "selfish goals" and their implications for human cognition and behavior.

  7. From Desires, Obligations and Norms to Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Kinny, D.; Sonenberg, L.


    Traditional models of agents based on Beliefs, Desires and Intentions usually only include either desires or goals. Therefore the process whereby goals arise from desires is given scant attention. In this paper we argue that the inclusion of both desires and goals in the same model can be

  8. Goal Expectations as Predictors of Retirement Intentions (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.


    The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…




  10. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...... for self-regulation is too painful and the individual rather gives up....

  11. Cookery demonstrations in GOAL supported clinics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stunting are high, and various micronutrient deficiencies, including those of ... the household are the underlying causes seen in GOAL- assisted areas. ... feeding. Thus, the nutrition cookery demonstration activity has come to play an important role in mother and child health activities in GOAL-supported clinics and GOAL's.

  12. Development and application of nuclear safety goals in Japan. Lessons learnt from the case of 2003 draft safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu; Inamura, Tomoaki


    The Nuclear Safety Commission in Japan offered a detailed draft of nuclear safety goals to the public in 2003, though its position was ambiguous in nuclear safety regulation. This report shows the circumstances behind the development and application of 2003 draft safety goals based on our interviews with the experts who had been involved in making the draft. According to our interviews, they had intention to utilize safety goals for improving risk management of regulatory authority and nuclear energy industry, such as ameliorating deterministic regulations, accumulating experience of risk assessment and management, promoting related research, and communicating risks with general public. In practice, however, safety goals had functioned as a tool for emphasizing an assertion that 'nuclear power plants had already been safe enough'. We identified the following four major impediments to utilizing safety goals; 1) lack of sharing overall recognition of the importance of establishing safety goals among nuclear community, 2) excessive emphasis of internal event risks which leads to an inferior priority to tackle with the issue of external events risks, 3) adverse effect of 'tunnel-visioned incrementalism', that is, nuclear energy industrial entities are attracted their foci too much on what they have been told to do by regulators or local governments, and, 4) negative attitude to disclose the outcomes of risk assessment for fear of societal reactions. To encourage upcoming safety goals and risk management, this report provides the following points for overcoming these problems; 1) sharing insights on the reasons why nuclear community set up safety goals, 2) introducing the concept of adaptive risk management for maintaining questioning attitude, 3) conducting a periodic review of goal attainment level and also safety goals themselves from the eyes of a detached observer, and, 4) rebuilding relationship with society beginning with arguments with local stakeholders over

  13. Resident Self-Assessment and Learning Goal Development: Evaluation of Resident-Reported Competence and Future Goals. (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Paterniti, Debora A; Tancredi, Daniel J; Burke, Ann E; Trimm, R Franklin; Guillot, Ann; Guralnick, Susan; Mahan, John D


    To determine incidence of learning goals by competency area and to assess which goals fall into competency areas with lower self-assessment scores. Cross-sectional analysis of existing deidentified American Academy of Pediatrics' PediaLink individualized learning plan data for the academic year 2009-2010. Residents self-assessed competencies in the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency areas and wrote learning goals. Textual responses for goals were mapped to 6 ACGME competency areas, future practice, or personal attributes. Adjusted mean differences and associations were estimated using multiple linear and logistic regression. A total of 2254 residents reported 6078 goals. Residents self-assessed their systems-based practice (51.8) and medical knowledge (53.0) competencies lowest and professionalism (68.9) and interpersonal and communication skills (62.2) highest. Residents were most likely to identify goals involving medical knowledge (70.5%) and patient care (50.5%) and least likely to write goals on systems-based practice (11.0%) and professionalism (6.9%). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for postgraduate year (PGY), gender, and degree type (MD/DO), resident-reported goal area showed no association with the learner's relative self-assessment score for that competency area. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, with each learner serving as his or her own control, senior residents (PGY2/3+s) who rated themselves relatively lower in a competency area were more likely to write a learning goal in that area than were PGY1s. Senior residents appear to develop better skills and/or motivation to explicitly turn self-assessed learning gaps into learning goals, suggesting that individualized learning plans may help improve self-regulated learning during residency. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient-relevant needs and treatment goals in nail psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blome, C; Costanzo, A; Dauden, E.


    , but not with age or disease duration. Manual dexterity and social interaction were of particular importance. Goal importance and quality of life were associated, but not redundant (r = 0.612, p ...PURPOSE: Patient-centered health care implies that medical decisions are made jointly by physician and patient, based on patient needs. Aims were to (a) identify treatment goals for a new questionnaire on patient needs and benefits in nail psoriasis treatment; (b) analyze the importance...... of treatment goals in patients with nail psoriasis in general and in defined subgroups; and (c) determine the association between overall treatment goal importance and quality of life. METHODS: The study comprised the following steps: qualitative survey on needs and burdens in 120 patients; development...

  15. Quantitative HTGR safety and forced outage goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, W.J.; Parme, L.L.; Silady, F.A.


    A key step in the successful implementation of the integrated approach is the definition of the overall plant-level goals. To be effective, the goals should provide clear statements of what is to be achieved by the plant. This can be contrasted to the current practice of providing design-prescriptive criteria which implicitly address some higher-level objective but restrict the designer's flexibility. Furthermore, the goals should be quantifiable in such a way that satisfaction of the goal can be measured. In the discussion presented, two such plant-level goals adopted for the HTGR and addressing the impact of unscheduled occurrences are described. 1 fig

  16. Goals of measurement systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Montmollin, J.M.; Weinstock, E.V.


    The safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency are based on technical performance goals and criteria that have been developed, but not officially adopted by the Agency. The goals derive in part from the external consequences that safeguards are intended to prevent and in some cases on internal considerations of feasibility. To the extent that these goals may not be attainable, as may be the case with large-throughput bulk reprocessing plants, the Agency is placed in a difficult position. In this paper safeguards goals and criteria and their underlying rationales are critically examined. Suggestions for a more rational and workable structure of performance goals are offered

  17. Common modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Training simulators for nuclear power plant operating staff have gained increasing importance over the last twenty years. One of the recommendations of the 1983 IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulators in Helsinki was to organize a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on some aspects of training simulators. The goal statement was: ''To establish and maintain a common approach to modelling for nuclear training simulators based on defined training requirements''. Before adapting this goal statement, the participants considered many alternatives for defining the common aspects of training simulator models, such as the programming language used, the nature of the simulator computer system, the size of the simulation computers, the scope of simulation. The participants agreed that it was the training requirements that defined the need for a simulator, the scope of models and hence the type of computer complex that was required, the criteria for fidelity and verification, and was therefore the most appropriate basis for the commonality of modelling approaches. It should be noted that the Co-ordinated Research Programme was restricted, for a variety of reasons, to consider only a few aspects of training simulators. This report reflects these limitations, and covers only the topics considered within the scope of the programme. The information in this document is intended as an aid for operating organizations to identify possible modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants. 33 refs

  18. Safety goals for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.W.


    In its official policy statement on safety goals for the operation of nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) set two qualitative goals, supported by two quantitative objectives. These goals are that (1) individual members of the public should be provided a level of protection from the consequences of nuclear power plant operation such that individuals bear no significant additional risk to life and health; and (2) societal risks to life and health from nuclear power plant operation should be comparable to or less than the risks of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and should not be a significant addition to other societal risks. As an alternative, this study proposes four quantitative safety goals for nuclear power plants. It begins with an analysis of the NRC's safety-goal development process, a key portion of which was devoted to delineating criteria for evaluating goal-development methods. Based on this analysis, recommendations for revision of the NRC's basic benchmarks for goal development are proposed. Using the revised criteria, NRC safety goals are evaluated, and the alternative safety goals are proposed. To further support these recommendations, both the NRC's goals and the proposed goals are compared with the results of three major probabilistic risk assessment studies. Finally, the potential impact of these recommendations on nuclear safety is described

  19. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling. (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak


    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.

  20. The Interaction Between Landscape Architecture and Urban Development. Do we Have a Common Goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiva Deveikienė


    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of the relationship and interaction between urban design and landscape architecture. This refers to the period of the modern city from the late nineteenth century to the present day. There are presented and discussed urbanization processes and examples of solutions with emphasis on problems arising from the relationship between a city and nature as well as those related to urban landscape and sustainability of urban landscaping in the twentieth century.

  1. WE-G-19A-01: Radiologists and Medical Physicists: Working Together to Achieve Common Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A; Ma, J; Steele, J; Choi, H [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)


    It is vitally important that medical physicists understand the clinical questions that radiologists are trying to answer with patient images. Knowledge of the types of information the radiologist needs helps medical physicists configure imaging protocols that appropriately balance radiation dose, time, and image quality. The ability to communicate with radiologists and understand medical terminology, anatomy, and physiology is key to creating such imaging protocols. In this session, radiologists will present clinical cases and describe the information they are seeking in the clinical images. Medical physicists will then discuss how imaging protocols are configured. Learning Objectives: Understand the types of information that radiologists seek in medical images. Apply this understanding in configuring the imaging equipment to deliver this information. Develop strategies for working with physician colleagues.

  2. WE-G-19A-01: Radiologists and Medical Physicists: Working Together to Achieve Common Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A; Ma, J; Steele, J; Choi, H


    It is vitally important that medical physicists understand the clinical questions that radiologists are trying to answer with patient images. Knowledge of the types of information the radiologist needs helps medical physicists configure imaging protocols that appropriately balance radiation dose, time, and image quality. The ability to communicate with radiologists and understand medical terminology, anatomy, and physiology is key to creating such imaging protocols. In this session, radiologists will present clinical cases and describe the information they are seeking in the clinical images. Medical physicists will then discuss how imaging protocols are configured. Learning Objectives: Understand the types of information that radiologists seek in medical images. Apply this understanding in configuring the imaging equipment to deliver this information. Develop strategies for working with physician colleagues

  3. Locked vs. unlocked nucleic acids (LNA vs. UNA): contrasting structures work towards common therapeutic goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Wengel, Jesper


    Oligonucleotide chemistry has been developed greatly over the past three decades, with many advances in increasing nuclease resistance, enhancing duplex stability and assisting with cellular uptake. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a structurally rigid modification that increases the binding affinity...... of a modified-oligonucleotide. In contrast, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is a highly flexible modification, which can be used to modulate duplex characteristics. In this tutorial review, we will compare the synthetic routes to both of these modifications, contrast the structural features, examine...... the hybridization properties of LNA and UNA modified duplexes, and discuss how they have been applied within biotechnology and drug research. LNA has found widespread use in antisense oligonucleotide technology, where it can stabilize interactions with target RNA and protect from cellular nucleases. The newly...

  4. How to Reach Decision Makers: Build a network of educators and practitioners with common goals (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.


    In San Diego County, the Climate Education Partners (CEP) includes climate scientists, science educators, behavioral scientists, environmental practitioners and community organizations that are dedicated to providing local decision makers (elected officials, business leaders, community leaders) with sound climate science learning opportunities and resources that promote informed decision making. Their work over the past three years has found that effective climate education programs are designed for specific audiences with tailored information that is relevant to them, while simultaneously building community efficacy, identity and values. An integrated approach that blends rigorous scientific facts, local climate change impact, and social science education theory is contributing towards the development of a cadre of engaged leaders and communities. To track project progress and to inform the project strategy, local Key Influentials are being interviewed to gauge their current understanding of climate change and their interest in either becoming messengers to their community or becoming the portal to their constituency. Innovation comes from productive collaboration. For this reason, CEP has been working with leading scientists (climatologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, ecologists), environmental groups, museums and zoos, media experts and government agencies (Water Authority, CalFire) to develop and refine a program of learning activities and resources geared specifically for Key Influentials. For example, a water tour has been designed to bring 25 key influential leaders in San Diego County to a dam, a pumping station and a reservoir and provide climate change facts, impacts and potential solutions to the critical issue of water supply for the San Diego Region. While learning local facts about the causes and impacts of climate change, participants also learn about what they can do (increasing efficacy), that they can be a part of a solution centered community (building identity), and that everything - the education and the use of this knowledge to promote informed decisions - is connected to doing what is best for the next generation (tying learning to values). In addition, CEP developed locally focused videos, one on heat waves and one on water resources, which are being experimentally tested for their impact on informed decision-making and utilized with various KI audiences. Climate Education Partners is finding that linking excellent science with healthy community partnerships is resulting in San Diego leaders and their communities making more informed decisions on how to adapt to climate change and preserve the quality of life enjoyed in San Diego for all future generations.

  5. Integration of mouse and human genome-wide association data identifies KCNIP4 as an asthma gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Himes, Blanca E.; Sheppard, Keith; Berndt, Annerose; Leme, Adriana S.; Myers, Rachel A.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Levin, Albert M.; Gauderman, W. James; Yang, James J.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Romieu, Isabelle; Torgerson, Dara G.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Klanderman, Barbara; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Szefler, Stanley J.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Strunk, Robert C.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Boushey, Homer; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Israel, Elliot; Mauger, David; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A. E.; Vonk, Judith M.; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Peters, Stephen P.; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; London, Stephanie J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Gilliland, Frank D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Burchard, Esteban G.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Paigen, Beverly; Churchill, Gary; Shapiro, Steve D.; Weiss, Scott


    Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The genetics of asthma have been widely studied in mouse and human, and homologous genomic regions have been associated with mouse AHR and human asthma-related phenotypes. Our goal was to identify

  6. Self-regulation of unattainable goals in suicide attempters: the relationship between goal disengagement, goal reengagement and suicidal ideation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Rory C


    There is growing interest in models of adaptive self-regulation. Recent research suggests that goal disengagement and goal reengagement (i.e., goal adjustment) are implicated in the self-regulation of emotion. This study extends the self-regulation research to investigate the utility of goal adjustment in understanding suicidal risk. To this end, two hundred adults hospitalised following a suicidal episode completed a range of clinical and psychological measures in hospital and were followed up approximately 2.5 months after discharge (Time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal reengagement predicted suicidal ideation at Time 2. In addition, the lack of goal reengagement was especially pernicious when reported concomitantly with high disengagement. These predictive effects were independent of baseline mood, attempt status and suicidal intent. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Perceived Parenting Styles and Goal Orientations: A Study of Teacher Education Students in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui


    Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…

  8. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  9. How Common Is PTSD? (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  10. "Let's work together": what do infants understand about collaborative goals? (United States)

    Henderson, Annette M E; Woodward, Amanda L


    Collaboration is fundamental to our daily lives, yet little is known about how humans come to understand these activities. The present research was conducted to fill this void by using a novel visual habituation paradigm to investigate infants' understanding of the collaborative-goal structure of collaborative action. The findings of the three experiments reported here suggest that 14-month-old infants understand that the actions of collaborative partners are complementary and critical to the attainment of a common collaborative goal. Importantly, 14-month-olds do not interpret the actions of two individuals in terms of a collaborative goal when their actions are not causally related. The implications of our findings for theories of collaboration and folk psychology are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Structure for Population Education: Goals, Generalizations, and Behavioral Objectives. (United States)

    Lane, Mary Turner; Wileman, Ralph E.

    This book is written to assist anyone who wants to learn about, teach, or plan curricula for population education. A structure is provided that educators can use for first graders or for high school students. Chapter 1 identifies the population phenomenon and the need to study it. Chapter 2 gives the elements of the structure: goals,…

  12. Gender, Location and Rural-Urban Differences in the Goal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to identify critical factors necessary to improve the mandate attainment of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme informed this study on gender, location and rural-urban differences in the goal attainment of NYSC in South West Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 120 outgoing youth corps ...

  13. Methods for identifying 30 chronic conditions: application to administrative data. (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Fortin, Martin; Guthrie, Bruce; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; James, Matthew T; Klarenbach, Scott W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Manns, Braden J; Ronksley, Paul; Sargious, Peter; Straus, Sharon; Quan, Hude


    Multimorbidity is common and associated with poor clinical outcomes and high health care costs. Administrative data are a promising tool for studying the epidemiology of multimorbidity. Our goal was to derive and apply a new scheme for using administrative data to identify the presence of chronic conditions and multimorbidity. We identified validated algorithms that use ICD-9 CM/ICD-10 data to ascertain the presence or absence of 40 morbidities. Algorithms with both positive predictive value and sensitivity ≥70% were graded as "high validity"; those with positive predictive value ≥70% and sensitivity <70% were graded as "moderate validity". To show proof of concept, we applied identified algorithms with high to moderate validity to inpatient and outpatient claims and utilization data from 574,409 people residing in Edmonton, Canada during the 2008/2009 fiscal year. Of the 40 morbidities, we identified 30 that could be identified with high to moderate validity. Approximately one quarter of participants had identified multimorbidity (2 or more conditions), one quarter had a single identified morbidity and the remaining participants were not identified as having any of the 30 morbidities. We identified a panel of 30 chronic conditions that can be identified from administrative data using validated algorithms, facilitating the study and surveillance of multimorbidity. We encourage other groups to use this scheme, to facilitate comparisons between settings and jurisdictions.

  14. Common Law and Un-common Sense


    Ballard, Roger


    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  15. Integrated learning through student goal development. (United States)

    Price, Deborah; Tschannen, Dana; Caylor, Shandra


    New strategies are emerging to promote structure and increase learning in the clinical setting. Nursing faculty designed a mechanism by which integrative learning and situated coaching could occur more readily in the clinical setting. The Clinical Goals Initiative was implemented for sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students in their clinical practicums. Students developed weekly goals reflecting three domains of professional nursing practice. Goals were shared with faculty and staff nurse mentors at the beginning of the clinical day to help guide students and mentors with planning for learning experiences. After 6 weeks, faculty and students were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. Faculty indicated that goal development facilitated clinical learning by providing more student engagement, direction, and focus. Students reported that goal development allowed them to optimize clinical learning opportunities and track their growth and progress. Faculty and students indicated the goals promoted student self-learning, autonomy, and student communication with nurse mentors and faculty. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Safety goals for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.


    This talk presents technology goals developed for Generation IV nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier. These goals are defined in the broad areas of sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Sustainability goals focus on fuel utilization, waste management, and proliferation resistance. Safety and reliability goals focus on safe and reliable operation, investment protection, and essentially eliminating the need for emergency response. Economics goals focus on competitive life cycle and energy production costs and financial risk. Future reactors fall in three categories - those which are: Certified or derivatives; Designed to a reasonable extent and based on available technology; In conceptual form only with potential to most fully satisfy the GENIV goals

  17. Parental goals and talk with toddlers


    Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison


    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...

  18. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.


    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  19. Achievement goals and interpersonal behaviour: How mastery and performance goals shape information exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.


    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further

  20. Performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals and the adoption of personal achievement goals. (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim


    Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). This paper considered the relationship between students' perceptions of classroom goals and their endorsement of personal achievement goals. We proposed that three (instead of only two) classroom goals need to be distinguished. We aimed to provide evidence for this hypothesis by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also by divergent associations between the respective classroom goal and students' personal goal endorsement. A total of 871 (474 female) 10th grade students from several German high schools participated in this study. Students responded to items assessing their perception of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in the classroom. Additionally, the students reported how much they personally pursue mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. All items referred to German as a specific school subject. RESULTS.A CFA yielded empirical support for the proposed distinction of three (instead of only two) different kinds of classroom goals. Moreover, in hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) analyses all three classroom goals showed unique associations with students' personal goal adoption. The findings emphasized the need to distinguish performance-approach and PAVCG. Furthermore, our results suggest that multiple classroom goals have interactive effects on students' personal achievement strivings. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Reframing the goals of care conversation: "we're in a different place". (United States)

    Back, Anthony L; Trinidad, Susan B; Hopley, Elizabeth K; Edwards, Kelly A


    Existing recommendations for communicating with patients with metastatic cancer about redefining goals of care when anticancer treatment is unlikely to provide benefit are based on limited evidence. This study was designed to elicit patient and family views on commonly used communication practices. Participants were 37 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer and 20 bereaved family members who listened to audiorecordings of oncology fellows instructed to discuss a transition in goals of care with a standardized patient for whom evidence-based palliative chemotherapy was no longer effective. During semistructured qualitative interviews, participants commented on the audiorecordings to give feedback on what they liked or disliked about the oncologist's communication. These comments were transcribed and analyzed. Three preferred communication practices were identified from participants' comments. The first practice involves a necessary disruption of the patient's expectations about "trying another chemo" ("We're in a different place"). The second practice is offering actionable responses to the disruption ("Here's what we can do now"). The third practice is to find a new place that acknowledges death is closer yet still allows for "living forward" ("Use your inner wisdom"). This study of patient and family feedback indicates that patients and families perceive a conversation about goals of care to require disruption of an existing routine, followed by a process of searching and then reconfiguration, rather than a logical decision process. These findings suggest that assessing quality from patient perspectives must take into account a period of disruption and chaos.

  2. Millennium development goals and eye health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Faal


    Full Text Available In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020-VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1-the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.

  3. Leading Change: Transitioning to the Common Core (United States)

    Brandt, Brian


    For many school districts in the United States, making the transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is proving to be a challenge at a time when they are already facing many obstacles, not the least of which is dwindling financial resources. A change of this magnitude cannot be made haphazardly; to be successful in its goal of helping…

  4. Perception in the service of goal pursuit : Motivation to attain goals enhances the perceived size of goal instrumental objects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, M.; Aarts, H.; Custers, R.


    Two experiments tested the functional perception hypothesis (Bruner, 1957) according to which objects that are instrumental in attaining ones' goals are perceived to be bigger if one is motivated to attain these goals. Study 1 demonstrated that participants perceived a glass of water to be bigger

  5. Alignment of Software Product Quality Goals in Two Outsourcing Relationships


    Barney, Sebastian; Wohlin, Claes


    Background: Issues with software product quality are commonly reported when organisations engage in outsourcing relationships. To address this issue, value-based software engineering literature emphasises the need for all success-critical stakeholder groups to work towards a mutually agreed goal. Aim: This paper presents a case study that aims to compare and contrast the priority two groups place on software product quality — stakeholders internal to the development organisation, and stakehol...

  6. Goals and everyday problem solving: manipulating goal preferences in young and older adults. (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda


    In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.

  7. Attribute Framing and Goal Framing Effects in Health Decisions. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Carter, Patrick; Blair, Edward


    Levin, Schneider, and Gaeth (LSG, 1998) have distinguished among three types of framing-risky choice, attribute, and goal framing-to reconcile conflicting findings in the literature. In the research reported here, we focus on attribute and goal framing. LSG propose that positive frames should be more effective than negative frames in the context of attribute framing, and negative frames should be more effective than positive frames in the context of goal framing. We test this framework by manipulating frame valence (positive vs negative) and frame type (attribute vs goal) in a unified context with common procedures. We also argue that the nature of effects in a goal-framing context may depend on the extent to which the research topic has "intrinsic self-relevance" to the population. In the context of medical decision making, we operationalize low intrinsic self-relevance by using student subjects and high intrinsic self-relevance by using patients. As expected, we find complete support for the LSG framework under low intrinsic self-relevance and modified support for the LSG framework under high intrinsic self-relevance. Overall, our research appears to confirm and extend the LSG framework. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Identifying Needs and Opportunities for Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attainment of sustainable development goals and socio-ecological balance in ... However, policy and legislation fall short of identifying the range of a priori competences ..... the precautionary principle, risk identification, risk management and ...

  9. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Dunnivan


    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  10. The Goal Triad in Games. A Conceptual Map and Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kobiela


    Full Text Available Although the very existence and need for an exact definition of sport is still debatable, there is common agreement that competitive sport events on elite level are, among others, goal directed, rule-governed and institutionalized activities. These three facts will guide us in an analysis of the complex issue concerning the idea of goal in games. The first of these facts - that games are goal-oriented activities – is reflected in the very basic notion of prelusory goal. The fact that achieving the prelusory goal in games is rule-governed is reflected in the notion of a lusory goal. Finally, the institutionalized aspect of games is reflected in the notion of, nomen omen, an institutional goal.            The paper is thus devoted to detailed analysis of the notion of goal in games. It is argued that Suits' analysis which provides a distinction between prelusory goal and lusory goal is insufficient, and thus introduction of a third kind of goal is necessary. I suggest to call this third kind of goal institutional goal.The paper discusses the definition of this kind of goal as well as its relations to other kinds of goals in games and other elements of game-playing. These three goals create the goal triad, a conceptual map of all possible goal-related situations. Both Venn diagrams and Euler diagrams are used to represent this triad.            Various fields of these diagrams, which represent a spectrum of specific situations that occur in games, are illustrated by case-studies, taken mainly (although not exclusively from the history of association football (soccer. These examples are meant to test the usefulness of distinctions provided in the analytical part of the paper.

  11. Threads of common knowledge. (United States)

    Icamina, P


    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  12. The common good


    Argandoña, Antonio


    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  13. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals. (United States)


    ..., monitoring and assessment; (ii) Be provided to the independent scientific review panel established in.... The interim goals shall be developed through the use of appropriate models and tools and shall provide... to be required to meet long-term hydrological and ecological restoration goals, based on best...

  14. Management Matters: Planning Goals and Time (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    This article discusses the importance of setting and implementing goals that can help change and improve a library media program over time--goals that go beyond merely keeping the library media center running. Suggestions for developing an action plan and strategies for effective time management are also presented.

  15. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...

  16. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics learners with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... in recognising methods to direct learners' goals for better engagement with and improved results in mathematics, which could support learners to develop to their full potential in the subject.

  17. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.


    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  18. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative, exploratory research design was used. ... Goals affect how learners approach mathematics learning activities, which could ... research on academic success and ADHD has focused on reading ... from the data analysis process. ... Achievement goal orientation is based on a ...... Research design: Qualitative,.

  19. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs (United States)

    Lang, John


    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  20. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation (United States)

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn


    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  1. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings. (United States)

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier


    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  2. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis. (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias


    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis.

  3. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies]. (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu


    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  4. Development goals in the post-2015 world: whither Canada? (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald


    A new set of post-2015 development goals for the world is being negotiated. Several potential goals relating to sustainable development, poverty, the economy and health have been identified. Many of them have potential public health gains, although there are inadequacies in how several of them have been defined. In participating in finalization of these goals, Canada should strengthen its commitments to maternal/child health; promote its publicly funded health system as an important model for universal health coverage; incorporate stronger protections for public health in trade and investment treaties; use its foreign aid to help low- and middle-income countries build the transparent and progressive tax systems to mobilize domestic revenues for health; and promote global systems of taxation to prevent tax evasion and illicit capital flight.

  5. A Process Model for Goal-Based Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Hyman


    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the domain of information search and propose a "goal-based" approach to study search strategy. We describe "goal-based information search" using a framework of Knowledge Discovery. We identify two Information Retrieval (IR goals using the constructs of Knowledge Acquisition (KA and Knowledge Explanation (KE. We classify these constructs into two specific information problems: An exploration-exploitation problem and an implicit-explicit problem. Our proposed framework is an extension of prior work in this domain, applying an IR Process Model originally developed for Legal-IR and adapted to Medical-IR. The approach in this paper is guided by the recent ACM-SIG Medical Information Retrieval (MedIR Workshop definition: "methodologies and technologies that seek to improve access to medical information archives via a process of information retrieval."

  6. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.


    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results

  7. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator (United States)


    This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

  8. Hierarchical brain networks active in approach and avoidance goal pursuit. (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A


    Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal-pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal-pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures.

  9. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds


    Wifalin, Michelle


    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  10. Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao


    Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.

  11. Goals and status of the CBM experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger P.


    Full Text Available The goal of the heavy-ion collision program at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in Darmstadt (Germany is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of the highest baryon densities. The CBM research program addresses fundamental aspects of QCD such as the equation-of-state of highly compressed baryonic matter, the deconfinement phase transition and its critical endpoint, chiral symmetry restoration at high baryon densities, and the in-medium properties of hadrons. The corresponding key observables comprise low-mass vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs which serve as penetrating probes, hidden and open charm produced at threshold beam energies, (multi- strange particles, and global features like collective flow and event-by-event fluctuations. The experimental task is to identify both hadrons and leptons and to detect rare probes in a heavy-ion environment. The experimental challenge is to select rare events in nucleus-nucleus collisions with charged particle multiplicities of about 1000 per central event at reaction rates of up to 10 MHz. Such measurements require fast and radiation hard detectors, fast and selftriggered read-out electronics, a high-speed data acquisition system, and online event selection based on full track reconstruction. The layout of the CBM detector system and the results of feasibility studies will be presented. More than 400 scientists from 50 institutions and 15 countries actually participate in the realization of the CBM experiment which represents a major international effort in future heavy-ion physics.

  12. Framing the construct of life satisfaction in terms of older adults' personal goals. (United States)

    Rapkin, B D; Fischer, K


    Older adults' life satisfaction can be better understood in light of their personal goals. This study of 179 elders examined (a) how goals correlate with satisfaction, (b) whether elders maintain satisfaction by accommodating goals to past losses, and (c) how correlations between satisfaction and key predictors differ among groups with different goals. Satisfaction was related positively to social maintenance and energetic life-style goals and negatively to concerns for improvement, disengagement, stability, and reduced activity. Past losses were correlated with current goals but not with satisfaction, consistent with the notion of accommodation. A cluster analysis identified 5 patterns of goals: high demand, age prescribed, self-focused, socially engaged, and low demand. Correlations between satisfaction and other predictors differed by cluster, suggesting that the determinants of elders' satisfaction depend on personal goals.

  13. Enhancing Clients' Communication Regarding Goals for Using Psychiatric Medications. (United States)

    Deegan, Patricia E; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Drake, Robert E; Naslund, John A; Luciano, Alison; Hutchison, Shari L


    Discordance between psychiatric care providers' and clients' goals for medication treatment is prevalent and is a barrier to person-centered care. Power statements-short self-advocacy statements prepared by clients in response to a two-part template-offer a novel approach to help clients clarify and communicate their personal goals for using psychiatric medications. This study described the power statement method and examined a sample of power statements to understand clients' goals for medication treatment. More than 17,000 adults with serious mental illness at 69 public mental health clinics had the option to develop power statements by using a Web application located in the clinic waiting areas. A database query determined the percentage of clients who entered power statements into the Web application. The authors examined textual data from a random sample of 300 power statements by using content analysis. Nearly 14,000 (79%) clients developed power statements. Of the 277 statements in the sample deemed appropriate for content analysis, 272 statements had responses to the first part of the template and 230 had responses to the second part. Clients wanted psychiatric medications to help control symptoms in the service of improving functioning. Common goals for taking psychiatric medications (N=230 statements) were to enhance relationships (51%), well-being (32%), self-sufficiency (23%), employment (19%), hobbies (15%), and self-improvement (10%). People with serious mental illness typically viewed medications as a means to pursue meaningful life goals. Power statements appear to be a simple and scalable technique to enhance clients' communication of their goals for psychiatric medication treatment.

  14. Aiming for a healthier life: a qualitative content analysis of rehabilitation goals in patients with rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Berdal, Gunnhild; Sand-Svartrud, Anne-Lene; Bø, Ingvild; Dager, Turid N; Dingsør, Anne; Eppeland, Siv G; Hagfors, Jon; Hamnes, Bente; Nielsen, Merete; Slungaard, Bente; Wigers, Sigrid H; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Dagfinrud, Hanne S; Kjeken, Ingvild


    To explore and describe rehabilitation goals of patients with rheumatic diseases during rehabilitation stays, and examine whether goal content changed from admission to discharge. Fifty-two participants were recruited from six rehabilitation centers in Norway. Goals were formulated by the participants during semi-structured goal-setting conversations with health professionals trained in motivational interviewing. An inductive qualitative content analysis was conducted to classify and quantify the expressed goals. Changes in goal content from admission to discharge were calculated as percentage differences. Goal content was explored across demographic and contextual characteristics. A total of 779 rehabilitation goals were classified into 35 categories, within nine overarching dimensions. These goals varied and covered a wide range of topics. Most common at admission were goals concerning healthy lifestyle, followed by goals concerning symptoms, managing everyday life, adaptation, disease management, social life, and knowledge. At discharge, goals about knowledge and symptoms decreased considerably, and goals about healthy lifestyle and adaptation increased. The health profession involved and patient gender influenced goal content. The rehabilitation goals of the patients with rheumatic diseases were found to be wide-ranging, with healthy lifestyle as the most prominent focus. Goal content changed between admission to, and discharge from, rehabilitation stays. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation goals set by patients with rheumatic diseases most frequently concern healthy lifestyle changes, yet span a wide range of topics. Patient goals vary by gender and are influenced by the profession of the health care worker involved in the goal-setting process. To meet the diversity of patient needs, health professionals need to be aware of their potential influence on the actual goal-setting task, which may limit the range of topics patients present when they are

  15. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  16. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership (United States)


    Leadership and Turnover Among Managers ," Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10(1973), pp. 184-200; R. J. House, "A Path-Goal Theory of...of Leadership ." 6R. J. House and G. Dessler, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " R. M. Stqg- dill. Managers , Employees, Organization (Ohio State...of Control." 23 R. J. House, "Notes on the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " (University of Toronto, Faculty of Management Studies, May 1974). 24 R

  17. Analysis of the project synthesis goal cluster orientation and inquiry emphasis of elementary science textbooks (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation

  18. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback. (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E


    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  19. How the nursing profession can contribute to sustainable development goals. (United States)

    Benton, David; Shaffer, Franklin


    As of 1 January 2016, the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) became the focus of global efforts on a wide range of development agenda. The SDGs have subsumed the work of the UN millennium development goals (MDGs), so it is timely to reflect on the contribution made by nurses and midwives, so that we can optimise the profession's contribution to the 17 SDGs. This article reports the results of a scientometrics analysis of the published literature related to the MDGs and SDGs indexed in CINAHL, which identified the underlying themes addressed by nurses and midwives. It shows how analysis demonstrates that although nursing was slow to engage with the MDG agenda, it has made some progress in contributing to SDG scholarship. So far this contribution has been narrowly focused, but the profession could contribute to all 17 of the SDG goals. Routine updates of the analysis described here could help monitor progress, identify gaps in nursing's contributions to the goals, and provide further impetus to its engagement in this major global policy initiative.

  20. Using self-regulation theory to examine patient goals, barriers, and facilitators for taking medication. (United States)

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Thomas, Sheena; Bazzi, Abraham; Virant-Young, Deborah


    : Self-regulation theory predicts that patient behavior is determined by the patient's assessment of his/her condition (illness presentation) and related health goals. Patients will adapt their behavior to achieve those goals. However, there are multiple levels of goals. In such cases, those lower-level goals (health goals) that are strongly correlated with higher-level goals (i.e. quality of life [QOL]) are more likely to drive patient behavior. Medication non-compliance is a health behavior that challenges healthcare practitioners. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between the lower-level goals for taking medication with higher-level goals. This paper also identifies patient-perceived barriers and facilitators toward achieving goals as they may relate to patients' illness representation. : To identify lower- and higher-level goals associated with medication use for chronic conditions. To determine if there is a relationship between higher-level (global) goals and lower-level (health-related) goals. To identify patient-perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving those goals. : This was a prospective, observational study using a mailed survey. The setting was a US Midwestern state-wide survey. Participants were patients living in the community with hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or arthritis, and taking prescription medication for any one of those conditions. The main outcome measures were lower- and higher-level goals related to medication use. The survey asked the participants if they had achieved their goals and to identify factors that may pose as barriers or facilitators to achieving them. Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between the lower- and higher-level goals at p goals existed (p = 0.03). Preventing future health problems was the most important lower-level goal for almost half of the respondents. Approximately 43% of the respondents said 'improving or maintaining quality of

  1. Predicting race performance in triathlon: the role of perfectionism, achievement goals, and personal goal setting. (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Uphill, Mark A; Hotham, Sarah


    The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes' goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes' performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.

  2. Shopping the way to my goals: an analysis of purchase impact on perceived goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albornoz Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines the impact of goal related purchases on goal progress perception, and whether this perception depends on the strength of association between product and goal. To test how consumers perceive the act of purchasing goal-related products, three experiments were conducted in an online setting. Participants exposed to purchasing situations perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to usage situation or a control group. In addition, studies show that this effect is a result of strength of association between product and goal, since participants exposed to more instrumental products perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to less instrumental products. Therefore, these studies demonstrate how consumers interpret goal related purchases, and the mechanism that influences this interpretation.

  3. Urban Big Data and Sustainable Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi


    Full Text Available Cities are perhaps one of the most challenging and yet enabling arenas for sustainable development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs emphasize the need to monitor each goal through objective targets and indicators based on common denominators in the ability of countries to collect and maintain relevant standardized data. While this approach is aimed at harmonizing the SDGs at the national level, it presents unique challenges and opportunities for the development of innovative urban-level metrics through big data innovations. In this article, we make the case for advancing more innovative targets and indicators relevant to the SDGs through the emergence of urban big data. We believe that urban policy-makers are faced with unique opportunities to develop, experiment, and advance big data practices relevant to sustainable development. This can be achieved by situating the application of big data innovations through developing mayoral institutions for the governance of urban big data, advancing the culture and common skill sets for applying urban big data, and investing in specialized research and education programs.

  4. Integration of Millennium Development Goals into Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integration of Millennium Development Goals into Physical Education programme: ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... the UN in terms of sustainable human development and how graduates of physical education and ...

  5. Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public health ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The conference focused on transforming public health education and practice in the context of South Africa.

  6. Strategy for Meeting the Secretary of Energy and Hanford Site FY 2001 Pollution Prevention Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.E.


    The purpose of this strategy is to identify the Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Hanford Site waste reduction, sanitary recycling and affirmative procurement goals and identify the action required to ensure that the Secretary of Energy's FY 2005 pollution prevention and the FY 2001 Hanford Site goals are met. The strategy and plan to ensure that the Secretary of Energy's routine waste reduction, recycling, cleanup/stabilization waste and affirmative procurement goals are met consists of four phases. The first phase is to ensure that the infrastructure is in place to support planning and organization. This phase involves ensuring that roles and responsibilities are identified; requirement documents are current; goals and successes are communicated; and accurate and current waste information is available. Roles and responsibilities are identified and the RL requirement documents (i.e., the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation) will specify the Secretary of Energy's goals. Goals will be communicated formally and informally via the Hanford Reach, training sessions, meetings and correspondence. Sharing of pollution prevention successes and goal progress are encouraged at the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PZ/WMin) quarterly meetings. Existing site waste generation databases will be utilized to provide current waste generation data. The second phase of the strategy and plan is to establish and allocate goals by prime contractor (i.e. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI), and CH2MHill Hanford Group (CHG)). This requires determining current status toward meeting the Secretary of Energy's goals; establishing the Hanford Site FY goals, and allocating waste reduction goals by prime contractor. The third phase of the strategy and plan is goal implementation. This

  7. Goal-Directed Visual Attention Drives Health Goal Priming: An Eye-Tracking Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Laura N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Smeets, P.A.M.


    Objective: Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects

  8. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert


    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  9. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma


    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  10. Goal Conflict and Goal Commitment among Campus Parking Administrators in Higher Education (United States)

    McKinney, David R.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which campus parking administrators in public higher education perceive they are experiencing goal conflict and the degree to which they differ in commitment to goals related to generating revenue and goals related to academics and service. The study also sought to determine the relationship…

  11. Different Goals for Different Folks: A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Goals across Nine Cultures (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi


    Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…

  12. Goal Orientations of General Chemistry Students via the Achievement Goal Framework (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.


    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students' goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success…

  13. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.


    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  14. Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving. (United States)

    Mann, Traci; de Ridder, Denise; Fujita, Kentaro


    The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Achievement goals, self-handicapping, and performance: a 2 x 2 achievement goal perspective. (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Smith, Alison L


    Elliot and colleagues (2006) examined the effects of experimentally induced achievement goals, proposed by the trichotomous model, on self-handicapping and performance in physical education. Our study replicated and extended the work of Elliot et al. by experimentally promoting all four goals proposed by the 2 x 2 model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), measuring the participants' own situational achievement goals, using a relatively novel task, and testing the participants in a group setting. We used a randomized experimental design with four conditions that aimed to induce one of the four goals advanced by the 2 x 2 model. The participants (n = 138) were undergraduates who engaged in a dart-throwing task. The results pertaining to self-handicapping partly replicated Elliot and colleagues' findings by showing that experimentally promoted performance-avoidance goals resulted in less practice. In contrast, the promotion of mastery-avoidance goals did not result in less practice compared with either of the approach goals. Dart-throwing performance did not differ among the four goal conditions. Personal achievement goals did not moderate the effects of experimentally induced goals on self-handicapping and performance. The extent to which mastery-avoidance goals are maladaptive is discussed, as well as the interplay between personal and experimentally induced goals.

  16. Genomic Data Commons launches (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  17. Common Mental Health Issues (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi


    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  18. Five Common Glaucoma Tests (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  19. Common symptoms during pregnancy (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  20. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  1. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  2. Goals, Methods, and Progress in Neuroeconomics


    Colin F. Camerer


    Neuroeconomics shares the main goals of microeconomics: to understand what causes choices, and the welfare properties of choice. The novel goal is linking mathematical constructs and observable behavior to mechanistic details of neural circuitry. Several complementary methods are used. An initial insight from neuroscience is that distinct systems guide choice: Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning (learning) of state-value and response-value associations, overlearned habits, and model- (or ...

  3. Responding to the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig


    , disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination of women. These goals are now placed at the heart of the global agenda. The Summit’s Millennium Declaration also outlined a wide range of commitments in human rights, good governance, and democracy. This paper presents the Millennium Goals......-agencies and especially the World Bank to develop a FIG strategy and advise the FIG council on necessary actions....

  4. Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals (United States)


    discuss the political agreement.90 The Defence Chief of Staff is interviewed in the same paper along the same lines, where he provides an in- depth ...DRIVING DANISH DEFENCE TOWARDS POLITICAL GOALS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  5. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  6. Motivational Function of Plans and Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić


    Full Text Available The academic literature shows that by helping tune out distractions, goals can get individuals' to try harder, work longer, and achieve more. Goals that people set for themselves and that are devoted to attaining mastery are usually healthy. But goals imposed by others—sales targets, quarterly returns, standardized test scores—can sometimes have dangerous side effects (Pink, 2009. Because understanding action demands understanding intention, the idea of motivation is natural and readily expressed in everyday language. Cognitive mental events like goals and expectancies can function as a “spring to action”, a moving force that energizes and directs action in purposive ways (Reeve, 2005. Cognitive studies of motivation are dealing with relationship between cognition and action. Literature is indicating a few cognitive elements that can have motivational significance. The article presents the overview of theory and research about the motivational function of plans and goals, according to Goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990 and Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000. Suggestions for additional research are also indicated.

  7. An integrated framework for sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Griggs


    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN Rio+20 summit committed nations to develop a set of universal sustainable development goals (SDGs to build on the millennium development goals (MDGs set to expire in 2015. Research now indicates that humanity's impact on Earth's life support system is so great that further global environmental change risks undermining long-term prosperity and poverty eradication goals. Socioeconomic development and global sustainability are often posed as being in conflict because of trade-offs between a growing world population, as well as higher standards of living, and managing the effects of production and consumption on the global environment. We have established a framework for an evidence-based architecture for new goals and targets. Building on six SDGs, which integrate development and environmental considerations, we developed a comprehensive framework of goals and associated targets, which demonstrate that it is possible, and necessary, to develop integrated targets relating to food, energy, water, and ecosystem services goals; thus providing a neutral evidence-based approach to support SDG target discussions. Global analyses, using an integrated global target equation, are close to providing indicators for these targets. Alongside development-only targets and environment-only targets, these integrated targets would ensure that synergies are maximized and trade-offs are managed in the implementation of SDGs.

  8. The millennium development goals and tobacco control. (United States)

    Collishaw, Neil E


    The eight Millennium Development Goals were proposed by the UN Secretary-General in 2001. They are goals with measurable targets to be achieved by 2015 or earlier. The Goals were distilled from the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, a sweeping statement of development values, principles, objectives and proposed actions. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a demonstrable translation of some of the ideas in the Millennium Declaration into reality. With 165(i) Parties, the FCTC does more than just improve global tobacco control: * The FCTC contributes to achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and benefits from success in implementation of the Goals in other sectors. * The treaty itself is a demonstration of strengthened international and national rule of law, central tenets of the Millennium Declaration. * The FCTC expands international law into the health sector and provides better balance of international law among economic, environmental, social and health sectors. The Millennium Declaration calls for a more equitable distribution of the benefits of globalization, and the FCTC delivers this result. * The FCTC provides a model for addressing other unsolved global problems through greater use of international law. Alcohol control and dietary improvements including greater control of empty calories in manufactured foods are examples of problems that may benefit from greater governance by international law. Were that to come to pass, those new treaties would also improve implementation of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals.

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment goals in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.


    CANDU safety philosphy, both in design and in licensing, has always had a strong bias towards quantitative probabilistically-based goals derived from comparative safety. Formal probabilistic safety assessment began in Canada as a design tool. The influence of this carried over later on into the definition of the deterministic safety guidelines used in CANDU licensing. Design goals were further developed which extended the consequence/frequency spectrum of 'acceptable' events, from the two points defined by the deterministic single/dual failure analysis, to a line passing through lower and higher frequencies. Since these were design tools, a complete risk summation was not necessary, allowing a cutoff at low event frequencies while preserving the identification of the most significant safety-related events. These goals gave a logical framework for making decisions on implementing design changes proposed as a result of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis. Performing this analysis became a regulatory requirement, and the design goals remained the framework under which this was submitted. Recently, there have been initiatives to incorporate more detailed probabilistic safety goals into the regulatory process in Canada. These range from far-reaching safety optimization across society, to initiatives aimed at the nuclear industry only. The effectiveness of the latter is minor at very low and very high event frequencies; at medium frequencies, a justification against expenditures per life saved in other industries should be part of the goal setting

  10. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading. (United States)

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne


    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms. (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M


    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stressors and life goals of caregivers of individuals with disabilities. (United States)

    Raver, Sharon A; Michalek, Anne P M; Gillespie, Amy M


    Caregivers of individuals with disabilities can experience stress as they manage caregiving responsibilities while they attempt to balance family, work, and the satisfaction of their personal goals. In this pilot study, 31 caregivers of individuals with a variety of disabilities completed a quantitative-qualitative survey. A statistically significant relationship was found between the age and severity of disability of the family member receiving care, the length of time care had been provided, the educational level and the relationship of the caregiver to the family member and reported feelings of optimism, humbleness, quality of family relationships, financial concerns, loss of control, and hope. When life goals were probed, the most common reported were achieving financial stability, having a strong, healthy family, and experiencing happiness. The implications for supporting caregivers and their families are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina


    Full Text Available The world population has doubled since the 60’s, now reaching 7 billion – it is estimated it will continue growing. If in more advanced economies, the population is starting to grow old and even reduce in numbers, in less developed countries, population numbers are registering a fast growth. Across the world, the ecosystems are exposed to critical levels of pollution in more and more complex combinations. Human activities, population growth and shifting patterns in consumer nature are the main factors that are at the base of thin ever-growing burden on our environment. Globalization means that the consumer and production patterns from a country or a region contribute to the pressures on the environment in totally different parts of the world. With the rise of environmental problems, the search for solutions also begun, such as methods and actions aimed to protect the environment and to lead to a better correlation between economic growth and the environment. The common goals of these endeavors from participating states was to come up with medium and long term regulations that would lead to successfully solving environmental issues. In this paper, we have analyzed the way in which countries started collaborating in the 1970’s at an international level in order to come up with a common policy that would have a positive impact on the environment. The European Union has come up with its own common policy, a policy that each member state must implement. In this context, Romania has developed its National Strategy for Waste Management, a program that Romania wishes to use to reduce the quantity of waste and better dispose of it.

  14. Exploring Mathematics Achievement Goals Using Kolb’s Learning Style Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.


    Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.

  15. Goal conflict and goal facilitation as predictors of daily accelerometer-assessed physical activity. (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Tait, Richard I; Johnston, Derek W; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F


    To test whether perceptions of conflicting and facilitating personal goals, and actual daily time spent in their pursuit, predict accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). A prospective multilevel design with a daily accelerometer-based assessment of PA over 1 week was used (N = 106). Participants' personal goals were elicited using personal projects analysis. Participants then rated their personal goals in terms of how they were perceived to facilitate and conflict with their regular PA. Items assessing PA-specific intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were also embedded within the baseline measures. For the subsequent 7 consecutive days, participants completed a daily diary based on the day reconstruction method, indicating the time spent in daily episodes involving each of their personal goals, and wore an RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. The main outcome was accelerometer-assessed daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Random intercept multilevel models indicated that perceived goal facilitation, but not perceived goal conflict, predicted MVPA over and above intention and PBC. Daily time pursuing conflicting goals negatively predicted MVPA when subsequently added to the model and in so doing, attenuated the association between perceived goal facilitation and MVPA. Perceived goal facilitation predicts objectively measured PA over and above intention and PBC, but daily time spent in pursuit of conflicting personal goals provides a better account of how alternative goals relate to engaging in regular PA.

  16. Treatment goals in psoriasis routine care. (United States)

    Radtke, M A; Reich, K; Spehr, C; Augustin, Matthias


    The treatment goal algorithm for psoriasis, first originated in 2007, has ever since been adopted into treatment guidelines. It remained unclear how many patients have experienced the use of treatment goals in routine care and how these are perceived. The aim of the pilot study was to get first insight in the use and impact of therapeutic goals in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis in routine care. This study is a multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional health care study in n = 213 dermatology centers across Germany. A standardized physician and patient questionnaire was used, including demographics, disease and treatment characteristics. To evaluate patient treatment perception and satisfaction, a questionnaire (PsoSat) addressing 8 specific items was designed. Consistency and validity of the questionnaire were controlled by factor analyses and reliability tests. In total n = 1,883 patients were included for analysis (54.2% male). Mean age was 52 years, mean disease duration 19 years. In total 45.5% (n = 856) stated an improvement of psoriatic symptoms in the last 4 weeks. In patients including treatment goals, the course of psoriasis in the last 4 weeks was rated significantly better and predicted significantly higher patient satisfaction. Patients reporting periodic outcomes measurement of psoriasis treatment, also had significantly better course of disease, higher satisfaction and a lower psoriasis severity. A majority of patients experienced the use of treatment goals in practice. The association of using treatment goals with clinical outcomes and treatment satisfaction was markedly positive. These findings indicate that the use of treatment goals and outcome measurements in fact improve psoriasis management.

  17. Maternal Feeding Goals and Restaurant Menu Choices for Young Children. (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara


    Childhood obesity remains a major public health issue. One recent effort to improve the obesogenic environment is mandating that restaurants provide calorie and other nutritional content on menus. Little is known about whether maternal feeding for young children is influenced by calorie disclosure on menus. This study examined (1) whether maternal feeding goals associate with mothers' food selections for their young children and (2) whether mothers change entrée and side selections for their children when calories/fat grams are listed on menus. One-hundred seventy mothers of children ages of 3-6 years participated in an online survey. Most participants identified as white (76.5%), with a mean BMI of 25.68 (standard deviation=5.94). Mothers were presented two menus (one with and one without calorie/fat information). The goal of feeding for the child's familiarity with the food was significantly associated with mothers' selection of original side dish and entrées, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing high-calorie/-fat sides and entrées. Feeding for natural content was associated with mothers' selection of original entrée, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing low-calorie/-fat entrées. Significantly fewer mothers chose a higher-calorie entrée when there was menu labeling. Maternal feeding goals are associated with mothers' selection of entrée and side dishes on restaurant menus. Results from this study suggest that menu labeling of calories and fat grams may influence entrée choices by mothers. Targeting mothers' feeding goals and labeling restaurant menus may improve the diets of young children.

  18. Treatment-naïve Gaucher disease patients achieve therapeutic goals and normalization with velaglucerase alfa by 4years in phase 3 trials. (United States)

    Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Qin, Yulin; Dinh, Quinn; Turkia, Hadhami Ben


    Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency and commonly treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The efficacy of ERT with velaglucerase alfa was assessed based on the achievement of published therapeutic goals and the normalization of disease parameters in 39 treatment-naïve patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, 6 to 62years of age, enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials. After 4years of ERT, therapeutic goals for thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly had been achieved in 100% of patients; goals for anemia and hepatomegaly had been achieved in 95% and 94% of patients, respectively. Consistent with the goal for bone mineral density, lumbar spine bone density improved in 87% of patients ≥18years of age. At year 4, compared with clinical ranges for healthy individuals, 86% of patients with a low baseline hemoglobin concentration had normalized, 60% with a low baseline platelet count had normalized, 67% with baseline splenomegaly had normalized, 58% with hepatomegaly had normalized, and lumbar spine bone density had normalized in 53% of adults. The decade-old therapeutic goals do not reflect the potential for normalization of clinical parameters in ERT-treated patients. Goals consistent with normalization or near-normalization should be considered. identifiers: NCT00430625, NCT00553631, NCT00635427. Copyright © 2016 Shire Human Genetic Therapies, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Use of Personal Projects Analysis to Enhance Occupational Therapy Goal Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Egan


    Full Text Available Background: Client-centered occupational therapy begins with the identification of personally-relevant patient goals. This study aimed to determine whether the elicitation module of Personal Projects Analysis (PPA could help patients in an acquired brain injury day hospital program identify more meaningful goals than those identified using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM alone. Method: Ten patients completed the COPM. They rated the importance of each goal and their confidence that they could attain each goal. During the next session, using the elicitation module of PPA, they identified personal projects just prior to their brain injuries, current personal projects, and future desired personal projects. They were then invited to revise their COPM goals and re-rate them for importance and confidence. Results: Following completion of the elicitation module of PPA, seven participants changed at least one goal. Of the goals that were changed, half were revised to include the mention of another person. There were no significant changes in average goal importance or perceived attainability. Occupational therapists reported that the elicitation module of PPA helped them get to know their patients better and identify potential therapeutic occupations. Discussion: The elicitation module of PPA may help people develop goals that are more embedded in their social contexts.

  20. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP


    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  1. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  2. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities. (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar


    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.; Hayns, M.R.


    We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x 0 , for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station

  4. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.


    A special, seven member, interdisciplinary task group of consultants was established in January 1976 to propose goals for the national waste management program. This is the report of that group. The proposed goals are intended as a basis for the NRC to establish a policy by which to guide and coordinate the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations and analysis by the authors who examined selected primary literature and interviewed many individuals concerned with waste management. The authors extended the scope of their inquiry and proposed goals to cover 'all technical and societal aspects necessary to an operating waste management system, rather than dealing with the regulatory process alone.' The waste management goals as developed are simple statements of principles which appear to the authors to be important conditions to insure the proper establishment and operation of a system to manage radioactive wastes.' In brief, the goals are designed to protect people and things of value in an equitable manner

  5. Goal Setting to Promote a Health Lifestyle. (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J; Taylor, Wendell C; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Christie, Juliette


    The purpose of this parallel-group study was to determine whether a feasibility study based on newsletters and telephone counseling would improve goal- setting constructs; physical activity (PA); and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in a sample of older adults. Forty-three older adults ( M age = 70 years, >70% Asian, 54% female) living in Honolulu, Hawaii were recruited and randomly assigned to either a PA or F & V intake condition. All participants completed measures of PA, F & V intake, and goal setting mechanisms (i.e., specificity, difficulty, effort, commitment, and persistence) at baseline and 8-weeks. Paired t -tests were used to evaluate changes across time. We found that F & V participants significantly increased F & V intake and mean scores of goal specificity, effort, commitment, and persistence (all p goal setting mechanisms were observed for participants in the PA condition. Overall, our results show that a short-term intervention using newsletters and motivational calls based on goal- setting theory was effective in improving F & V intake; however, more research is needed to determine whether these strategies are effective for improving PA among a multiethnic sample of older adults.

  6. Criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.


    In order to discuss various criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals, the goals for actinide reduction must be defined themselves. In this context the term actinides is interpreted to mean plutonium and the so called ''minor actinides'' neptunium, americium and curium, but also protactinium. Some possible goals and the reasons behind these will be presented. On the basis of the suggested goals it is possible to analyze various types of devices for production of nuclear energy from uranium or thorium, such as thermal or fast reactors and accelerator driven system, with their associated fuel cycles with regard to their ability to reach the actinide reduction goals. The relation between necessary single cycle burn-up values, fuel cycle processing losses and losses to waste will be defined and discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to arrange the possible systems on order of performance with regard to their potential to reduce the actinide inventory and the actinide losses to wastes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.


    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  9. Identifying tier one key suppliers. (United States)

    Wicks, Steve


    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  10. Goals and plans in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Krantz


    Full Text Available We propose a constructed-choice model for general decision making. The model departs from utility theory and prospect theory in its treatment of multiple goals and it suggests several different ways in which context can affect choice. It is particularly instructive to apply this model to protective decisions, which are often puzzling. Among other anomalies, people insure against non-catastrophic events, underinsure against catastrophic risks, and allow extraneous factors to influence insurance purchases and other protective decisions. Neither expected-utility theory nor prospect theory can explain these anomalies satisfactorily. To apply this model to the above anomalies, we consider many different insurance-related goals, organized in a taxonomy, and we consider the effects of context on goals, resources, plans and decision rules. The paper concludes by suggesting some prescriptions for improving individual decision making with respect to protective measures.

  11. How the Organizational Goals Affect Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shong Lin


    Full Text Available How to enhance customer satisfaction and technology innovation have been topics of discussion for some time; however, few studies have explored the two issues by applying the knowledge creation theory, and analyzed their differences in knowledge creation activities. The present study aims to explore how the firm’s organizational goal affects its knowledge creation process. Based on Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory, questionnaires were developed and sent to Taiwanese firms in various industries, including the manufacturing and service industries. These questionnaires were collected either by mail or interview. Our findings suggest that externalization and combination activities should be emphasized when the organizational goal is innovation, whereas internalization activity should be emphasized when the organizational goal is customer satisfaction.

  12. 2023 Goals of Rectors in Universities Established After 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman DOĞAN


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the goals of the rectors of the universities established after 2006 and to identify what they can do in line with these goals. We also aimed to uncover the entrepreneurial qualities of the rectors having an administrative duty in the university climate and to determine the status of scientists who will guide the future of Turkey. The study was conducted between October 2014 and October 2016 through interviews with 37 rectors, 29 of which belonged to a state university and 8 of which belonged to a foundation university, among the total of 70 rectors from nationwide universities founded in every region of Turkey since 2006. The results of the study indicated that the various goals and visions of rectors included becoming a world university that is innovative and entrepreneurial, constructing the institutional identity of the university, being visionary and open to change and motivating the employees and students. It is considered that new universities will have an important catalyst role in local, regional and national development with the right development strategies. This research is important since there is no other study on university rectors’ 2023 visions and goals and also due to the contributions of the strategies to be developed in line with the findings of this study for the entrepreneurial and innovative university indexes.

  13. Common Privacy Myths (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  14. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.


    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  15. Common Breastfeeding Challenges (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  16. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond


    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  17. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael


    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael


    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  19. Data needs for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.W.; Paula, H.M.; Rasmuson, D.; Whitehead, D.


    The procedures guide for common cause failure analysis published jointly by USNRC and EPRI requires a detailed historical event analysis. Recent work on the further development of the cause-defense picture of common cause failures introduced in that guide identified the information that is necessary to perform the detailed analysis in an objective manner. This paper summarizes these information needs

  20. Path to development of quantitative safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; Houghton, W.J.


    There is a growing interest in defining numerical safety goals for nuclear power plants as exemplified by an ACRS recommendation. This paper proposes a lower frequency limit of approximately 10 -4 /reactor-year for design basis events. Below this frequency, down, to a small frequency such as 10 -5 /reactor-year, safety margin can be provided by, say, site emergency plans. Accident sequences below 10 -5 should not impact public safety, but it is prudent that safety research programs examine sequences with significant consequences. Once tentatively agreed upon, quantitative safety goals together with associated implementation tools would be factored into regulatory and design processes

  1. Common cause failure analysis methodology for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Cate, C.L.; Fussell, J.B.


    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complex system reliability analysis. This paper extends existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods presented here aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  2. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals


    Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues; Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi; Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann; Josicélia Dumet Fernandes; Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de Barros; Flávia Regina Souza Ramos


    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document re...

  3. Goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation for children with motor disabilities: a scoping review. (United States)

    Pritchard-Wiart, Lesley; Phelan, Shanon K


    The three objectives of this scoping review were to (1) identify key conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the extent to which they are used to inform goal setting related to rehabilitation goal setting with children with motor disabilities, (2) describe research that has evaluated goal setting processes and outcomes, and (3) summarize the purposes of goal setting described in paediatric rehabilitation literature. The scoping review process described by Arksey and O'Malley was used to guide article selection and data extraction. A total of 62 articles were included in the final review. While the concept of family-centered care was well represented, theoretical frameworks specific to goal setting (i.e. goal setting theory described by Locke and Latham, mastery motivation, social cognitive, personal construct, and self-determination theories) were rarely addressed. No articles reviewed addressed prominent behavior change theory. With the exception of the description of tools specifically designed for use with children, the role of the child in the goal setting process was generally absent or not well described. Few studies ( n = 6) discussed the linkage between goals and intervention strategies explicitly. Only two studies in the review evaluated outcomes associated with goal setting. The primary purpose for goal setting identified in the literature was to develop goals that are meaningful to families ( n = 49). The results highlight significant gaps in the literature explicating a sound theoretical basis for goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation and research evaluating the effects of goal qualities and goal setting processes on the achievement of meaningful outcomes.

  4. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies. (United States)

    Bruce, Paul


    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  5. Preferences, Paths, Power, Goals and Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oren, N.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.; Vasconcelos, W.


    This paper seeks to address the question of preference alignment in normative systems. We represent detached obligations and goals as preferences over outcomes, and describe when deterministic behaviour will occur within a MAS under specific system instantiations. We then investigate what

  6. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387


    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  7. Treatment goals and treatment in exercise therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.


    In the present study a quantitative description is given of treatment in exercise therapy according to Cesar and according to Mensendieck. Information was gathered from saurvey on exercise therapy in the Netherlands. Characteristics of treatment are described including treatment goals, emphasis of

  8. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen


    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  9. Detection of goal events in soccer videos (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas


    In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.

  10. Goal Setting to Increase Student Academic Performance (United States)

    Dotson, Ronnie


    Over the past two years, the teachers and students in Carter County, Kentucky have been utilizing goal setting. As a result, the district has shown tremendous growth on not only state assessments, but also on local assessments. Additionally, the number of students meeting benchmarks for college and career readiness has increased significantly. The…

  11. Achievement Goals of Medical Students and Physicians (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana; Daniels, Lia M.; White, Jonathan; Oswald, Anna; Ross, Shelley


    In achievement settings, the types of motivation individuals develop are crucial to their success and to the ways in which they respond to challenges. Considering the competitive nature of medical education and the high stakes of medical practice, it is important to know what types of motivation (conceptualized here as achievement goals) medical…

  12. Less Is Sometimes More: Goal Content Matters (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia; Lacante, Marlies


    According to expectancy-value theories, increasing the utility value of a learning activity should result in higher motivation and better learning. In contrast, self-determination theory posits that the content of the future goals (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) that enhance the utility value of the learning activity needs to be considered as well.…

  13. Sustainable development goals and inclusive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Vegelin, C.

    Achieving sustainable development has been hampered by trade-offs in favour of economic growth over social well-being and ecological viability, which may also affect the sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the member states of the United Nations. In contrast, the concept of inclusive

  14. Personality Types, Learning Styles, and Educational Goals. (United States)

    Miller, Alan


    Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…

  15. Children's Developing Commitments to Joint Goals (United States)

    Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael


    This study investigated young children's commitment to a joint goal by assessing whether peers in collaborative activities continue to collaborate until all received their rewards. Forty-eight 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children worked on an apparatus dyadically. One child got access to her reward early. For the partner to benefit as well, this child…

  16. Gender and the millenium development goals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E


    Full Text Available It has taken nearly half a century for the goals of poverty reduction and gender equality to achieve this prominence in mainstream policy concerns. In the process, the understanding of poverty has been transformed from the early equation with income...

  17. Appalachia: Goals, Objectives and Development Strategies (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Goals, objectives, and strategies for development in the 13 states involved in the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) are detailed in this document adopted by ARC in 1977. The regional development plan incorporates earlier evaluation and program design efforts, discussion from an issues report, state comments and development plans, and public…

  18. Ready for goal setting? Process evaluation of a patient-specific goal-setting method in physiotherapy. (United States)

    Stevens, Anita; Köke, Albère; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna


    Patient participation and goal setting appear to be difficult in daily physiotherapy practice, and practical methods are lacking. An existing patient-specific instrument, Patient-Specific Complaints (PSC), was therefore optimized into a new Patient Specific Goal-setting method (PSG). The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of the PSG in daily physiotherapy practice, and to explore the potential impact of the new method. We conducted a process evaluation within a non-controlled intervention study. Community-based physiotherapists were instructed on how to work with the PSG in three group training sessions. The PSG is a six-step method embedded across the physiotherapy process, in which patients are stimulated to participate in the goal-setting process by: identifying problematic activities, prioritizing them, scoring their abilities, setting goals, planning and evaluating. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected among patients and physiotherapists by recording consultations and assessing patient files, questionnaires and written reflection reports. Data were collected from 51 physiotherapists and 218 patients, and 38 recordings and 219 patient files were analysed. The PSG steps were performed as intended, but the 'setting goals' and 'planning treatment' steps were not performed in detail. The patients and physiotherapists were positive about the method, and the physiotherapists perceived increased patient participation. They became aware of the importance of engaging patients in a dialogue, instead of focusing on gathering information. The lack of integration in the electronic patient system was a major barrier for optimal use in practice. Although the self-reported actual use of the PSG, i.e. informing and involving patients, and client-centred competences had improved, this was not completely confirmed by the objectively observed behaviour. The PSG is a feasible method and tends to have impact on increasing patient participation in the goal

  19. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James


    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  20. Common anorectal disorders. (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D


    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  1. Assessing the Discipline: Aligning Curricular Structures and Student Learning with Disciplinary Goals in Political Science (United States)

    Desmond, Katie


    Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…

  2. Mother-Adolescent Conflict: Adolescent Goals, Maternal Perspective-Taking, and Conflict Intensity (United States)

    Lundell, Leah J.; Grusec, Joan E.; McShane, Kelly E.; Davidov, Maayan


    Younger and older adolescents were interviewed about their goals in recent disagreements with their mothers. Six goals were identified: instrumental (simply gaining their immediate desire); dyadic concern; achieving emotional support; autonomy; dominance; and nonengagement (avoidance of conflict). Younger adolescents reported significantly more…

  3. Do Adult ESL Learners' and Their Teachers' Goals for Improving Grammar in Writing Correspond? (United States)

    Zhou, Ally A.; Busch, Michael; Cumming, Alister


    Recent research has identified certain goals of adult second language (L2) learners and their teachers for writing instruction in English as a second language (ESL), yet questions remain as to whether students' and teachers' goals correspond in ways that achieve instructional objectives and facilitate L2 development. The present study compared L2…

  4. Shining lights and bad apples : The effect of goal setting on group performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Janssen, S.E.A.; Meeus, M.T.H.


    Management education programs increasingly use group work as a tool for developing teamwork knowledge and skills. A critical factor identified in prior research to influence group performance in student groups is goal-setting. We test in a sample of 37 groups the effect of group goal configurations

  5. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis (United States)

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku


    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  6. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.


    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  7. Goals and Methodology for a Surgery Residency Program: A Committee Approach. (United States)

    Knecht, Charles D.; And Others


    Written goals of a small animal residency program established by Purdue University are identified and an elaborate list of methodology for goals is provided. Tables include: summary of required activities of residents, checklist of residency progress, and comparable effort for surgery residency and masters program. (Author/MLW)

  8. Sustainable development goals and the human resources crisis. (United States)

    Freer, Joseph


    Achieving universal health coverage by 2030 requires that lessons from the Millennium Development Goals must be heeded. The most important lesson is that the workforce underpins every function of the health system, and is the rate-limiting step. The three dimensions that continue to limit the success of the development agenda are availability, distribution and performance of health workers - and the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without addressing all three. Hence, the traditional response of scaling up supply is inadequate: a paradigm shift is required in the design of systems that can properly identify, train, allocate and retain health workers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li


    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  10. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li


    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  11. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) - Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.


    One of the aims of the NEA's Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. MDEP is also interested in how its work can be extended to future reactors, which may use significantly different technology to the almost ubiquitous LWRs used today and in the next generation, building on the close co-operation within MDEP between the regulators who are currently engaged in constructing or carrying out design reviews on new designs. For two designs this work has involved several regulators sharing their safety assessments and in some cases issuing statements on issues that need to be addressed. Work is also progressing towards joint regulatory position statements on specific assessment areas. Harmonisation of safety goals will enhance the cooperation between regulators as further developments in design and technology occur. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel of a specific reactor type. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are often for a specific technology. Therefore a different approach is being investigated, starting with the top-level safety goals and try to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier

  12. Common Group Problems: A Field Study. (United States)

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others


    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  13. The Relationship between Future Goals and Achievement Goal Orientations: An Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation Perspective (United States)

    Lee, Jie Qi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ortiga, Yasmin P.


    This research aimed to study the relationships between students' future goals (FGs) and their immediate achievement goal orientations (AGOs) among 5733 Singaporean secondary school students (M age = 14.18, SD = 1.26; 53% boys). To this end, we hypothesized that the relationships between like valenced FGs and AGOs (both intrinsic or both extrinsic)…

  14. Psychological "gel" to bind individuals' goal pursuit: gratitude facilitates goal contagion. (United States)

    Jia, Lile; Tong, Eddie M W; Lee, Li Neng


    Past research demonstrates that gratitude affects individuals' self-regulation of behavior primarily through engendering a prosocial tendency. Based on theories proposing that gratitude plays an unique role in fostering communal relationship (e.g., Algoe, 2012), we propose that gratitude can have an incidental effect in facilitating goal contagion: automatically inferring and adopting the goal implied by a social other's behavior. This hypothesis is supported in 3 studies. In Study 1, after being exposed to the behaviors of a social target that implied either a cooperative or a competitive goal, individuals adopted the respective goal and behaved accordingly in a Resource Dilemma Task. This occurred, however, only when they were feeling gratitude and not when they were feeling joy or a neutral mood. In Study 2, after being exposed to a social target's behavior that implied the goal to make money, people feeling gratitude, as compared to those feeling pride or a neutral mood, strove for a future opportunity to earn money. Study 3 further demonstrated that individuals' goal striving behavior was mediated by a heightened level of goal activation. Finally, it was found that gratitude facilitated goal contagion only when the social target was a member of participants' own social group. Through this mechanism, gratitude, thus, seems to bind one's self-regulation with those of social others. Theoretical and practical implications of this new perspective are discussed.

  15. Predictors of Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement: Examining Achievement Goals, Classroom Goal Structures, and Culture (United States)

    Urdan, Tim


    The purposes of this study were to examine the predictors and achievement consequences of academic self-handicapping and to explore cultural variations in the pursuit and effects of performance goals and perceived classroom performance goal structures. Data were collected in 2 consecutive academic years from a diverse sample of high school…

  16. Shaped Goals: Teaching Undergraduates the Effects of Social Stratification on the Formulation of Goals (United States)

    Touzard, Giselle


    This article describes an in-class activity that helps undergraduate students to understand the effects of their socio-economic position on the formulation, pursuit, and achievement of goals. Social stratification and inequality have an initial impact on the formulation of goals. Through this exercise students will perceive the effects of having a…

  17. Life Goals Over Time Among Homeless Adults in Permanent Supportive Housing. (United States)

    Wenzel, S L; Rhoades, H; Moore, H; Lahey, J; Henwood, B; La Motte-Kerr, W; Bird, M


    Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is a widely-accepted solution to the challenge of chronic homelessness. While housing support and retention, physical health, and healthcare continue to be important for formerly homeless persons in PSH, "higher-order" and humanistic needs such as thriving have received less attention and as a result are less well understood in this population. One important indicator of thriving is the ability to establish and articulate life goals. This study utilizes longitudinal data from 421 formerly homeless adults prior to their move into PSH, and at 3-, 6- and 12-months after move-in (369 respondents completed all four interviews), to examine what life goals are articulated by this population and how those goals change over time. Prior to housing, most respondents articulated housing attainment as their primary life goal, whereas at follow-up interviews health goals, housing relocation, and financial goals became more prevalent. Aspirational goals (e.g., independence, self-improvement, artistic pursuits) were also common, but demonstrated a decrease over time in housing. Relationship goals remained common and consistent over time. Findings indicate that housing is a necessary, but perhaps not sufficient, step for improving thriving among formerly homeless adults. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  18. Common errors of drug administration in infants: causes and avoidance. (United States)

    Anderson, B J; Ellis, J F


    Drug administration errors are common in infants. Although the infant population has a high exposure to drugs, there are few data concerning pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, or the influence of paediatric diseases on these processes. Children remain therapeutic orphans. Formulations are often suitable only for adults; in addition, the lack of maturation of drug elimination processes, alteration of body composition and influence of size render the calculation of drug doses complex in infants. The commonest drug administration error in infants is one of dose, and the commonest hospital site for this error is the intensive care unit. Drug errors are a consequence of system error, and preventive strategies are possible through system analysis. The goal of a zero drug error rate should be aggressively sought, with systems in place that aim to eliminate the effects of inevitable human error. This involves review of the entire system from drug manufacture to drug administration. The nuclear industry, telecommunications and air traffic control services all practise error reduction policies with zero error as a clear goal, not by finding fault in the individual, but by identifying faults in the system and building into that system mechanisms for picking up faults before they occur. Such policies could be adapted to medicine using interventions both specific (the production of formulations which are for children only and clearly labelled, regular audit by pharmacists, legible prescriptions, standardised dose tables) and general (paediatric drug trials, education programmes, nonpunitive error reporting) to reduce the number of errors made in giving medication to infants.

  19. Does the Common Core Further Democracy? A Response to "The Common Core and Democratic Education: Examining Potential Costs and Benefits to Public and Private Autonomy" (United States)

    Neem, Johann N.


    The Common Core does not advance democratic education. Far from it, the opening section of the language standards argues that the goal of public K-12 education is "college and career readiness." Only at the end of their introductory section do the Common Core's authors suggest that K-12 education has any goals beyond the economic:…

  20. Achievement goals and perfectionism of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Milica


    Full Text Available This research has been investigating one of the most contemporary approaches of achievement motivation - Achievement Goal Theory, which uses the construct of achievement goals. The construct of achievement goals involves three types of achievement goals: mastery goals, performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals. The main goal of the research was to examine correlation between perfectionism and its aspects with particular types of achievement goals. Also, the goal was to investigate the difference concerning gender regarding the achievement goals. The sample consisted of 200 senior year high school participants. The following instruments were used: Multi-dimensional scale of perfectionism (MSP and Test of achievement goals (TCP. The research results indicate that there is significant positive correlation between: perfectionism with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, concern over mistakes and parental expectations with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, personal standards and organization with mastery goals and performance approach goals, parental criticism and doubts about action with performance avoidance goals. Significant negative correlation was found between parental criticism and mastery goals. The results concerning the second goal indicates the female subjects have higher average scores in mastery goals.

  1. Goal-Directed Decision Making with Spiking Neurons. (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Lengyel, Máté


    Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown. Here we present a spiking neural network that provably solves the difficult online value estimation problem underlying goal-directed decision making in a near-optimal way and reproduces behavioral as well as neurophysiological experimental data on tasks ranging from simple binary choice to sequential decision making. Our model uses local plasticity rules to learn the synaptic weights of a simple neural network to achieve optimal performance and solves one-step decision-making tasks, commonly considered in neuroeconomics, as well as more challenging sequential decision-making tasks within 1 s. These decision times, and their parametric dependence on task parameters, as well as the final choice probabilities match behavioral data, whereas the evolution of neural activities in the network closely mimics neural responses recorded in frontal cortices during the execution of such tasks. Our theory provides a principled framework to understand the neural underpinning of goal-directed decision making and makes novel predictions for sequential decision-making tasks with multiple rewards. Goal-directed actions requiring prospective planning pervade decision making, but their circuit-level mechanisms remain elusive. We show how a model circuit of biologically realistic spiking neurons can solve this computationally challenging problem in a novel way. The synaptic weights of our network can be learned using local plasticity rules

  2. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras


    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  3. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel


    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  4. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  5. Common sense and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.T.


    Since the dawn of the nuclear age nearly four decades ago, the United States has been firmly commited to the objective of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. That principle is embodied in the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), support for which has been a basic tenet of US foreign policy and a basic security interest of the world at large ever since. The Reagan administration remains firmly committed to the goal of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Such proliferation could trigger new and grave dangers for America's security and well-being and indeed for that of all the world's peoples. Desperate leaders in future high-stakes conflicts might not shrink from nuclear blackmail or even from the use of nuclear weapons if they were available. A conventional clash between nuclear-armed states in a conflict-prone region might escalate by accident or miscalculation to a local nuclear exchange. It cannot be discounted that such a nuclear clash might threaten to involve the superpowers themselves. With proliferation, also, terrorist groups could more easily acquire nuclear weapons to extort concessions. Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, then, is not solely of interest to the superpowers: it is vital to all countries and regions. The security of the countries in those regions to which nuclear weapons might spread would be most immediately and seriously affected. By their adherence to the NPT, more than 100 countries have recognized this fact

  6. Detrimental Effects of “Stretch” Goals in Specialty Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations (United States)

    Lemoine, G. James; Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.


    Background “Stretch” goals, a rarely examined concept that represents seemingly impossible, highly ambitious organizational goals ostensibly established to fill performance gaps and motivate employees, are examined within a sample of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers in the United States in terms of their prevalence and effects on organizational behavior. Stretch goals are defined as “seemingly impossible” goals intended to motivate employees to achieve high performance. In light of the high level of environmental change and unpredictability faced by SUD treatment centers in recent decades, we theorize that stretch goals would be both common and often detrimental (in terms of capacity utilization rate and efficiency) in these settings. Methods In a longitudinal analysis of data from leaders of a representative U. S. national sample of 219 SUD treatment centers characterized by entrepreneurial management structures, we examined the prevalence of stretch goals and their impact on key outcome variables of capacity utilization rate and efficiency. Results Widespread adoption of stretch goals was found, with 43% of our sample falling within the stretch category. Stretch goals had a negative main effect on capacity utilization rate as compared to less ambitious challenging goals. Stretch and prior performance interacted to further predict capacity utilization rate, whereas stretch and slack resource availability interacted to predict center efficiency. Discussion Although stretch goals are frequently used in the SUD treatment industry, we find them mostly detrimental to performance. Stretch goals may enhance the efficiency of treatment centers with prior limited resource availability, but they are negatively associated with capacity utilization, especially in centers with a record of already strong performance. Despite the high prevalence of such goals and positive values centered on aspirational behavior, these results strongly suggest caution in

  7. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior


    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda


    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process information and act upon it. Three goal frames are distinguished: a hedonic, gain, and normative goal frame. In general, multiple goals are active at any given time, which may (or may not) be compat...

  8. Linking quality goals and product development competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan


    Quality is a main determinant of consumer food choice. Product development is accordingly a key activity for companies, because it generates the products on the quality of which consumer choices are based. In this respect, product development managers have a focal role, as their personal quality......, including reversed laddering sessions with 18 product development managers. Discrepancies between managerial and consumer quality goals are uncovered. Furthermore, the results point to two general dilemmas faced by product development managers in relation to quality; an external stakeholder dilemma...... orientation influence the way product development is performed. The aim of this paper is to investigate managerial quality goals and how these may be linked to product development competences, which has not previously been studied. The study draws on an empirical, qualitative study in the Danish food industry...

  9. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics (United States)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.


    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  10. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism. (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J


    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  11. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini


    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  12. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio


    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  13. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming


    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi


    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  14. Advancing Normal Birth: Organizations, Goals, and Research


    Hotelling, Barbara A.; Humenick, Sharron S.


    In this column, the support for advancing normal birth is summarized, based on a comparison of the goals of Healthy People 2010, Lamaze International, the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services, and the midwifery model of care. Research abstracts are presented to provide evidence that the midwifery model of care safely and economically advances normal birth. Rates of intervention experienced, as reported in the Listening to Mothers survey, are compared to the forms of care recommended by ...

  15. Compatible Goals: Defense and Environmental Protection (United States)


    Remedial Action Site. AD-P004 146 Treatment of Wastewater (Red Water ) Resulti g from TNT Trinitrotoluene) Purification. AD-P004 147 Location of Volatile... Availabilit C040e3 _Vafl" -,ior OEC 5 1984 Ths document has been appeoved Dist Spool.A distribution.Is unlimiedL..... .. . COMFATABLE GOALS : DEFENSE AND...surface water to the same good biological quality as the water entering the installation. 4. Conserve fossil fuel energy to the highest degree possi

  16. Case-Based Policy and Goal Recognition (United States)


    Policy and Goal Recognizer (PaGR), a case- based system for multiagent keyhole recognition. PaGR is a knowledge recognition component within a decision...However, unlike our agent in the BVR domain, these recognition agents have access to perfect information. Single-agent keyhole plan recognition can be...listed below: 1. Facing Target 2. Closing on Target 3. Target Range 4. Within a Target’s Weapon Range 5. Has Target within Weapon Range 6. Is in Danger

  17. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graniere, R.J.


    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  18. Food-safety educational goals for dietetics and hospitality students. (United States)

    Scheule, B


    To identify food-safety educational goals for dietetics and hospitality management students. Written questionnaires were used to identify educational goals and the most important food safety competencies for entry-level dietitians and foodservice managers. The sample included all directors of didactic programs in dietetics approved by the American Dietetic Association and baccalaureate-degree hospitality programs with membership in the Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education. Fifty-one percent of the directors responded. Descriptive statistics were calculated. chi 2 analysis and independent t tests were used to compare educators' responses for discrete and continuous variables, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis grouped statements about food safety competence. Internal consistency of factors was measured using Cronbach alpha. Thirty-four percent of dietetics programs and 70% of hospitality programs required or offered food safety certification. Dietetics educators reported multiple courses with food safety information, whereas hospitality educators identified 1 or 2 courses. In general, the educators rated food-safety competencies as very important or essential. Concepts related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HAACP), irradiation, and pasteurization were rated less highly, compared with other items. Competencies related to reasons for outbreaks of foodborne illness were rated as most important. Food safety certification of dietitians and an increased emphasis on HAACP at the undergraduate level or during the practice component are suggested. Research is recommended to assess the level of food-safety competence expected by employers of entry-level dietitians and foodservice managers.

  19. Why People Stereotype Affects How They Stereotype : The Differential Influence of Comprehension Goals and Self-Enhancement Goals on Stereotyping (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A.

    In four studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that the way people stereotype is determined by the motives that instigate it. Study 1 measured and demonstrated the effectiveness of a commonly used priming technique to manipulate comprehension and self-enhancement goals. Study 2 demonstrated

  20. Passion and coping: relationships with changes in burnout and goal attainment in collegiate volleyball players. (United States)

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Gaudreau, Patrick; Crocker, Peter R E


    This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season.

  1. Does Context, Practice or Competition Affect Female Athletes’ Achievement Goal Dominance, Goal Pursuit, Burnout and Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Rio Javier


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7, mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion. Data analyses revealed that, both in practice and competition, these team-sport athletes overwhelmingly showed a strong mastery-approach achievement goal in dominance as well as in pursuit. A significant finding was that this group of national/international-level, professional/semi-professional athletes not only adopted a mastery-approach achievement goal, but they also actively pursued it. It is also remarkable that this profile remained stable at post-tests, even after a painful defeat in competition, which produced a significant negative effect on the athletes’ burnout (emotional and physical exhaustion and devaluation of sport participation and self-determined motivation. As expected, the difference between total recovery and perceived exertion significantly increased after practice and competition. National/international-level team-sport professional/semi-professional female athletes held and pursue stable mastery-approach goal dominance.

  2. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects


    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn


    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  3. A Goal-Function Approach to Analysis of Control Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten


    The concept of situations plays a central role in all theories of meaning and context. and serve to frame or group events and other occurrences into coherent meaningful wholes. Situations are typed, may be interconnected and organized into higher level structures. In operation of industrial...... processes situations should identify operational aspects relevant for control agent’s decision making in plant supervision and control. Control situations can be understood as recurrent and interconnected patterns of control with important implications for control and HMI design. Goal-Function approaches...

  4. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  5. Goals of Pugwash in its ninth quinquennium (1997-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The enduring goals of the Pugwash Conference are: to anticipate and to find ways to avoid or diminish the ways in which innovations in science and technology may imperil the human condition (above all the threat to the every existence of mankind from nuclear weapons); to identify, to develop and promote the possibilities for more effective application of science and technology for the improvement of human well-being; to promote reflection on the ethical responsibilities of scientists to consider the consequence of their work (possible intended or unintended consequences) and ti try to individually or collectively minimize the chance of destructive consequences

  6. Disscusion on the common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Negri


    Full Text Available In this interview taken shortly after the launch of the Italian translation of the Commonwealth, Antonio Negri, besides discussing details of his collaboration with Michael Hardt, addresses the most important topics of the book, which could remain unclear for the readers. He gives a wide range of answers for the questions on, for example, importance of revision and revitalization of seventeenth century’s categories, what does it mean to be a communist today, elaboration of the thesis of real subsumption. He also stresses the significance of the struggle over the common and processes of its institutionalization for contemporary revolutionary politics and faces criticism of the conception of immaterial and biopolitical labour.

  7. CPL: Common Pipeline Library (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team


    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  8. Common Superficial Bursitis. (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza


    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  9. Patients' perceptions of their roles in goal setting in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program. (United States)

    Draaistra, Harriett; Singh, Mina D; Ireland, Sandra; Harper, Theresa


    Goal setting is a common practice in rehabilitation, yet there is a paucity of literature exploring patients' perceptions of their roles in this process. This study was conducted using a qualitative descriptive methodology to explore patients' perceptions of their roles in setting goals in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program. Imogene King's theory of goal attainment was used to frame the study. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed using a content analysis. The results revealed four themes: Visioning, Redefining, Brainstorming, and Rebuilding Participants (n = 13) envisioned their roles as setting an overarching priority goal, defining detailed rehabilitation goals, sharing knowledge with the team, and rebuilding skills to attain goals. Implications for nursing practice include the need to understand patients' experiences and perceptions, share knowledge, and support effective communication to promote collaborative goal setting. A need to enhance health professionals' education to fully understand factors influencing patients' abilities to set rehabilitation goals, and future research in methods to promote patients' engagement in goal setting was also clearly indicated.

  10. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav


    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  11. Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.


    To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal

  12. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston


    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  13. Goal setting education and counseling practices of diabetes educators. (United States)

    Malemute, Charlene L; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Ballejos, Miriam; Butkus, Sue; Early, Kathaleen Briggs


    The purpose of this study was to identify goal setting education practices used by diabetes educators working with type 2 diabetes patients. Data were collected by a mail questionnaire with 179 diabetes educators purposively selected from the 2008 American Association of Diabetes Educators membership listing. Many diabetes educators (52%) reported that more than 75% of their patients set goals for diabetes control. Independent factor patterns for the frequency of information collected from the patient for the first diabetes education session showed that educators either focused on patients' self-management practices (exercise and dietary practices, knowledge, and social impacts of diabetes) or issues with learning about self-management, such as understanding the patient's learning style and motivation for managing diabetes. Factor patterns overall showed diverse approaches to working with patients, including strategies used with patients struggling with dietary goals and the importance of tasks to complete during the first patient session. Although most educators reported practices that were largely patient centered as promoted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and models of chronic disease management, patterns of practice suggest that diabetes educators vary considerably in how they apply education practices, especially with dietary self-management education.

  14. Hierarchical brain networks active in approach and avoidance goal pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Martin Spielberg


    Full Text Available Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal pursuit processes (e.g., motivation has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity vital to goal pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures.

  15. Conflicts in Everyday Life: The Influence of Competing Goals on Domestic Energy Conservation


    Anneli Selvefors; I. C. MariAnne Karlsson; Ulrike Rahe


    A common approach for understanding people’s domestic energy behavior is to study the influence of deterministic factors, such as attitudes, norms and knowledge, on behavior. However, few studies have succeeded in fully explaining people’s behavior based on these factors alone. To further the understanding of people’s everyday energy use, a goal-oriented approach based on activity theory has been applied to discuss energy conservation from a multiple goal perspective based on the findings fr...

  16. A model for predicting academic procrastination based on personality traits and achievement goals among school of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rastegar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying affecting factors on academic procrastination is considered as a common psychological trauma in academic environments. Thus, this study aimed to provide a model predicts academic procrastination on the basis of personality traits and achievement goals. Methods: This cross sectional analytic study consisted of 258 students of faculty of nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were chosen via randomized stratified ratio sampling and answered to a self-report questionnaire consisted of achievement goals, personality traits, and academic procrastination. Results: Analyzing the data showed that a neurosis personality trait had an indirect and positive effect on students’ academic procrastination. Also, the personality traits such as extraversion, consciousness, agreeableness and openness to experience had an indirect and negative effect on students’ academic procrastination. Conclusion: According to the findings, planners of nursing courses should provide a fresh scientific environment to create a bed for formation of positive personality traits in students so that they can provide a context for adopting an appropriate goal-setting pattern, and in turn, reducing academic procrastination. As well, with the implementation of personality measures and deeper understanding of the inner characteristics of learners’ personality, they can be kept safe from exposure to psychological traumas such as academic procrastination.

  17. The influence of information processing goal pursuit on postdecision affect and behavioral intentions. (United States)

    Laran, Juliano


    Two important forces in human behavior are action and inaction. Although action and inaction are commonly associated with the presence and the absence of behavioral activity, they can also be represented as information processing goals. Action (inaction) goals influence decision effort and increase satisfaction with environments that are structured to allow for more (less) processing (Studies 1 and 2). This increased satisfaction can transfer to the decision (Study 3) and can increase the intent to perform a decision-congruent behavior (Studies 4 and 6). Finally, the author shows escalation of action and inaction goals when they are not achieved (Study 5) and rebound of the alternative goal when the focal goal is achieved (Study 6).

  18. Transcriptional changes common to human cocaine, cannabis and phencyclidine abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lehrmann


    Full Text Available A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was employed to assay brain gene expression in postmortem anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC from 42 human cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine abuse cases and 30 control cases, which were characterized by toxicology and drug abuse history. Common transcriptional changes were demonstrated for a majority of drug abuse cases (N = 34, representing a number of consistently changed functional classes: Calmodulin-related transcripts (CALM1, CALM2, CAMK2B were decreased, while transcripts related to cholesterol biosynthesis and trafficking (FDFT1, APOL2, SCARB1, and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER functions (SEMA3B, GCC1 were all increased. Quantitative PCR validated decreases in calmodulin 2 (CALM2 mRNA and increases in apolipoprotein L, 2 (APOL2 and semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B mRNA for individual cases. A comparison between control cases with and without cardiovascular disease and elevated body mass index indicated that these changes were not due to general cellular and metabolic stress, but appeared specific to the use of drugs. Therefore, humans who abused cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine share a decrease in transcription of calmodulin-related genes and increased transcription related to lipid/cholesterol and Golgi/ER function. These changes represent common molecular features of drug abuse, which may underlie changes in synaptic function and plasticity that could have important ramifications for decision-making capabilities in drug abusers.

  19. MDEP Design-Specific Common Position CP-APR1400WG-01. Common position addressing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The MDEP APR1400 Working Group (APR1400WG) members consist of members from Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates, and the United States. A main objectives of MDEP is to encourage convergence of code, standard and safety goals with exploring the opportunities for harmonization of regulatory practice and cooperation on safety review of APR-1400 specific designs. This common position addressing is aimed at sharing knowledge, information and experience on safety improvement related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident or Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident-related issues amongst APR-1400 WG member states to achieve the MEDP goal. Because not all of these Regulators have completed the regulatory review of their APR1400 applications yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for APR1400 plants, as well as common general expectations for new nuclear power plants, as related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident or Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident-related issues. While some asymmetry exists among those of three Regulators in terms of design, regulatory practice and licensing milestone sharing information and common understanding on post-Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident enhancement would be promote resilient design for countering beyond design extreme external event like Fukushima Daiichi NPP nuclear disaster. This common position paper aims at identifying characteristics of post-Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident enhancements putting in place by each country and setting common position to achieve balanced and harmonized APR-1400 design. After the safety reviews of the APR1400 design applications that are currently in review are completed, the regulators will update this paper to reflect their safety conclusions regarding the APR1400 design and how the design could be enhanced to address Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident-related issues. The common preliminary approaches are organised into

  20. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe


    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.