WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify animal species

  1. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  2. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  3. Understanding Adolescents' Categorisation of Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Melanie; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2017-08-30

    Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents' spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6) participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain adolescents' categorisation. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analyses show a differentiation between farm animals, birds, pet animals, and wild animals possibly explaining MDS dimension 3. The results suggest that utility perceptions predominantly underlie adolescents' categorisations and become even more dominant in older adolescents, which potentially has an influence on attitudes to animals with implications for animal welfare, conservation, and education.

  4. Understanding Adolescents’ Categorisation of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Melanie; Lawrence, Alistair B.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary When people try to make sense of the world they often use categorisations, which are seen as a basic function of human cognition. People use specific attributes to categorise animals with young children using mostly visual cues like number of legs, whereas adults use more comprehensive attributes such as the habitat that the animal lives in. The aim of the present study was to investigate how adolescents categorise different types of animals. A card sorting exercise in combination with a survey questionnaire was implemented. Adolescents were asked to group images of a variety of common British farm, pet, and wild animals that were printed on cards. Furthermore, adolescents were asked to rate a number of animals regarding their utility, likability, and fear, which served as affective responses. Results show that adolescents primarily use an animal’s perceived utility as a means for their categorisation along with their affective feelings towards those animals. In other words, adolescents group animals into farm, pet, and wild animals with one exception, birds. Birds, regardless of their role in society (pet, farm, or wild animal), were mostly grouped together. The results are important to understand adolescents’ perception of animals, which may explain the different attitudes and behaviours towards animals. Abstract Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents’ spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6) participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain

  5. Identifying influential neighbors in animal flocking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools of fish and flocks of birds can move together in synchrony and decide on new directions of movement in a seamless way. This is possible because group members constantly share directional information with their neighbors. Although detecting the directionality of other group members is known to be important to maintain cohesion, it is not clear how many neighbors each individual can simultaneously track and pay attention to, and what the spatial distribution of these influential neighbors is. Here, we address these questions on shoals of Hemigrammus rhodostomus, a species of fish exhibiting strong schooling behavior. We adopt a data-driven analysis technique based on the study of short-term directional correlations to identify which neighbors have the strongest influence over the participation of an individual in a collective U-turn event. We find that fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time. Moreover, we find no correlation between the distance rank of a neighbor and its likelihood to be influential. We interpret our results in terms of fish allocating sequential and selective attention to their neighbors.

  6. Identifying influential neighbors in animal flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Giuggioli, Luca; Perna, Andrea; Escobedo, Ramón; Lecheval, Valentin; Sire, Clément; Han, Zhangang; Theraulaz, Guy

    2017-11-01

    Schools of fish and flocks of birds can move together in synchrony and decide on new directions of movement in a seamless way. This is possible because group members constantly share directional information with their neighbors. Although detecting the directionality of other group members is known to be important to maintain cohesion, it is not clear how many neighbors each individual can simultaneously track and pay attention to, and what the spatial distribution of these influential neighbors is. Here, we address these questions on shoals of Hemigrammus rhodostomus, a species of fish exhibiting strong schooling behavior. We adopt a data-driven analysis technique based on the study of short-term directional correlations to identify which neighbors have the strongest influence over the participation of an individual in a collective U-turn event. We find that fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time. Moreover, we find no correlation between the distance rank of a neighbor and its likelihood to be influential. We interpret our results in terms of fish allocating sequential and selective attention to their neighbors.

  7. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Identifying ambassador species for conservation marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation relies heavily on external funding, much of it from a supportive public. Therefore it is important to know which species are most likely to catalyse such funding. Whilst previous work has looked at the physical attributes that contribute to a species' appeal, no previous studies have tried to examine the extent to which a species' sympatriots might contribute to it's potential as flagship for wider conservation. Therefore, here we estimate ‘flexibility’ and ‘appeal’ scores for all terrestrial mammals (n = 4320 and identify which of these might serve as ambassadors (defined as both highly appealing and flexible. Relatively few mammals (between 240 and 331 emerged as ambassadors, with carnivores featuring heavily in this group (representing 5% of terrestrial mammals but 39% of ambassadors. ‘Top ambassadors’ were defined as those with both flexibility and appeal scores greater than 1 standard deviation above the mean. Less than a quarter of the 20 most endangered and evolutionary distinct species in this study were classed as ambassadors, highlighting the need for surrogate species to catalyse conservation effort in areas with such priority species. This is the first global analysis bringing together flexibility and appeal for all terrestrial mammals, and demonstrates an approach for determining how best to market species in order to achieve maximal conservation gain in a world with urgent conservation need but limited resources.

  9. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  10. evaluation of wildlife hunting and species of animals marketed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHILIP

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... killing and relying only on wild animals as bushmeat. Keyword: ... species that are sold or consumed include the size of the animal, appeal .... Religion. Frequency Percentage (%). Islamic. 22. 44%. Christianity. 28. 56%. Total.

  11. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  12. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  13. DNA Barcoding for the Identification and Authentication of Animal Species in Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal-based traditional medicine not only plays a significant role in therapeutic practices worldwide but also provides a potential compound library for drug discovery. However, persistent hunting and illegal trade markedly threaten numerous medicinal animal species, and increasing demand further provokes the emergence of various adulterants. As the conventional methods are difficult and time-consuming to detect processed products or identify animal species with similar morphology, developing novel authentication methods for animal-based traditional medicine represents an urgent need. During the last decade, DNA barcoding offers an accurate and efficient strategy that can identify existing species and discover unknown species via analysis of sequence variation in a standardized region of DNA. Recent studies have shown that DNA barcoding as well as minibarcoding and metabarcoding is capable of identifying animal species and discriminating the authentics from the adulterants in various types of traditional medicines, including raw materials, processed products, and complex preparations. These techniques can also be used to detect the unlabelled and threatened animal species in traditional medicine. Here, we review the recent progress of DNA barcoding for the identification and authentication of animal species used in traditional medicine, which provides a reference for quality control and trade supervision of animal-based traditional medicine.

  14. DNA Barcoding for the Identification and Authentication of Animal Species in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ding, Fei; Chen, Hong; He, Mingqi; Zhu, Shixin; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Li; Li, Haifeng

    2018-01-01

    Animal-based traditional medicine not only plays a significant role in therapeutic practices worldwide but also provides a potential compound library for drug discovery. However, persistent hunting and illegal trade markedly threaten numerous medicinal animal species, and increasing demand further provokes the emergence of various adulterants. As the conventional methods are difficult and time-consuming to detect processed products or identify animal species with similar morphology, developing novel authentication methods for animal-based traditional medicine represents an urgent need. During the last decade, DNA barcoding offers an accurate and efficient strategy that can identify existing species and discover unknown species via analysis of sequence variation in a standardized region of DNA. Recent studies have shown that DNA barcoding as well as minibarcoding and metabarcoding is capable of identifying animal species and discriminating the authentics from the adulterants in various types of traditional medicines, including raw materials, processed products, and complex preparations. These techniques can also be used to detect the unlabelled and threatened animal species in traditional medicine. Here, we review the recent progress of DNA barcoding for the identification and authentication of animal species used in traditional medicine, which provides a reference for quality control and trade supervision of animal-based traditional medicine.

  15. VT Biodiversity Project - Plant and Animal Species Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This database contains town-level totals of documented species records for several plant and animal taxa including vascular plants, trees,...

  16. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260...

  17. Rotavirus in various animal species in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... various healthy animals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: A total of 618 faeces samples from various animal species with .... Young and adult dog faeces were ... laboratory, where samples were processed for cloacal .... of virus propagation such as contaminated surface, foods.

  18. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mingyue; He, Jia; Lu, Haibing; Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small...

  19. Use of Animal Species Data in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J. Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people’s preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity.

  20. Sexual selection predicts species richness across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Tim; Ritchie, Michael G; Morrow, Edward H; Marie-Orleach, Lucas

    2018-05-16

    Our improving knowledge of the animal tree of life consistently demonstrates that some taxa diversify more rapidly than others, but what contributes to this variation remains poorly understood. An influential hypothesis proposes that selection arising from competition for mating partners plays a key role in promoting speciation. However, empirical evidence showing a link between proxies of this sexual selection and species richness is equivocal. Here, we collected standardized metrics of sexual selection for a broad range of animal taxa, and found that taxonomic families characterized by stronger sexual selection on males show relatively higher species richness. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that sexual selection elevates species richness. This could occur either by promoting speciation and/or by protecting species against extinction. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  3. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  4. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  5. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  6. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  7. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  8. Animal species endangerment: The role of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Fellows, Valerie L.; Bounds, Dixie L.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the decline of species. Habitat destruction is the primary factor that threatens species. affecting 73 % of endangered species. The second major factor causing species decline is the introduction of nonnative species. affecting 68% of endangered species. Pollution and overharvesting were identified as impacting, respectively, 38 and 15% of endangered species. Other factors affecting species decline include hybridization, competition, disease, and other interspecific interactions. Once a species is reduced to a remnant of its former population size and distribution, its vulnerability to catastrophic pollution events increases, frequently exceeding or replacing the factors responsible for the initial decline. Small, isolated populations are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic loss by an acute event. such as a chemical spill or pesticide application. However, when it comes to surviving a single disaster, widespread subpopulations of a species are far more resilient and ensure genetic survival. Hypothesizing theoretical concerns of potential factors that could affect an endangered species could predispose the scientific and political communities to jeopardizing threats. The user of recovery plans as a data source must be aware of the bias within the data set. These data should be used with the caveat that the source of information in recovery plans is not always based on scientific research and rigorous data collection. Over 58% of the information identifying species threats is based on estimates or personal communication. while only 42% is based on peer reviewed literature, academic research. or government reports. Many recovery plans were written when a species was initially listed in the 1970s or 1980s. Politics, human disturbance, and habitat demand issues evolve over a 20- to 30-year period. leaving much of the threats facing endangered species outdated and inadequate. These data are most valuable when used to facilitate reviews

  9. The nuclear question: rethinking species importance in multi-species animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel

    2010-09-01

    1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in

  10. Enrofloxacin: pharmacokinetics and metabolism in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cadenas, Cristina; Sierra-Vega, Matilde; García-Vieitez, Juan J; Diez-Liébana, M José; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana; Fernández-Martínez, Nélida

    2013-12-01

    Enrofloxacin is a fluorquinolone exclusively developed for use in veterinary medicine (1980). The kinetics of enrofloxacin are characterized, in general terms, by high bioavailability in most species and rapid absorption after IM, SC or oral administration. However, several studies reported that enrofloxacin showed low bioavailability after oral administration in ruminants. This drug has a broad distribution in the organism, excellent tissue penetration and long serum half-life. Also, enrofloxacin is characterized by a low host toxicity, a broad antibacterial spectrum and high bactericidal activity against major pathogenic bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative), and intracellular organisms found in diseased animals. The kinetics vary according to the route of administration, formulation, animal species, age, body condition, and physiological status, all of which contribute to differences in drug efficacy. The pharmacokinetic properties of drugs are closely related to their pharmacological efficiency, so it is important to know their behavior in each species that is used. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in several domestic animal species.

  11. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  12. Automated identification of animal species in camera trap images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Kays, R.; Jansen, P.A.; Wang, T.; Huang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Image sensors are increasingly being used in biodiversity monitoring, with each study generating many thousands or millions of pictures. Efficiently identifying the species captured by each image is a critical challenge for the advancement of this field. Here, we present an automated species

  13. Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of alien animal species registered in the Czech Republic, with data on their origin, date on the first observation, way of introduction (accidental, deliberate, spontaneous, invasive status (casual, non-invasive, post-invasive, invasive, habitat (eusynanthropic, urban, agricultural, natural, trophic requirements and possible influences (plant or stored-product pest, biodiversity influence. In total 595 species are listed, i.e. 1.8% of the fauna of this country; of these, 22 species of molluscs (8.8% of the local fauna, 451 spp. of arthropods (1.5%, 383 spp. of insects (1.4%, and 55 spp. of vertebrates (9.2%. Among the registered species, 248 spp. (41.8% are confined to closed and heated spaces by their occurrence, and 287 spp. have become naturalized (48.2%. Of these 113 spp. are considered invasive (19% of alien spp.. 65 spp. (10.9% of aliens are pests of stored products, 84 spp. (14.1% are parasites of important animals, 53 spp. (8.9% are pests of plants grown in heated rooms (above all, glasshouses, 28 ssp. (4.7% are agricultural or forest pests, and 39 spp. (6.6% may influence local biodiversity. The origin of the naturalized alien species is mostly in North America (70; 24.4%, the Mediterranean (61; 21.3%, E Asia (44; 15.4%, Central and SW Asia (43; 15%, and S or SE Asia (30; 10.5%.

  14. Bayesian inference for identifying interaction rules in moving animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    Full Text Available The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring such interactions from macroscopic group dynamics since these can be consistent with many underlying interaction models. We present a Bayesian framework for learning animal interaction rules from fine scale recordings of animal movements in swarms. We apply these techniques to the inverse problem of inferring interaction rules from simulation models, showing that parameters can often be inferred from a small number of observations. Our methodology allows us to quantify our confidence in parameter fitting. For example, we show that attraction and alignment terms can be reliably estimated when animals are milling in a torus shape, while interaction radius cannot be reliably measured in such a situation. We assess the importance of rate of data collection and show how to test different models, such as topological and metric neighbourhood models. Taken together our results both inform the design of experiments on animal interactions and suggest how these data should be best analysed.

  15. Connecting infrared spectra with plant traits to identify species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.

    2018-05-01

    Plant traits are used to define species, but also to evaluate the health status of forests, plantations and crops. Conventional methods of measuring plant traits (e.g. wet chemistry), although accurate, are inefficient and costly when applied over large areas or with intensive sampling. Spectroscopic methods, as used in the food industry and mineralogy, are nowadays applied to identify plant traits, however, most studies analysed visible to near infrared, while infrared spectra of longer wavelengths have been little used for identifying the spectral differences between plant species. This study measured the infrared spectra (1.4-16.0 μm) on individual, fresh leaves of 19 species (from herbaceous to woody species), as well as 14 leaf traits for each leaf. The results describe at which wavelengths in the infrared the leaves' spectra can differentiate most effectively between these plant species. A Quadratic Discrimination Analysis (QDA) shows that using five bands in the SWIR or the LWIR is enough to accurately differentiate these species (Kappa: 0.93, 0.94 respectively), while the MWIR has a lower classification accuracy (Kappa: 0.84). This study also shows that in the infrared spectra of fresh leaves, the identified species-specific features are correlated with leaf traits as well as changes in their values. Spectral features in the SWIR (1.66, 1.89 and 2.00 μm) are common to all species and match the main features of pure cellulose and lignin spectra. The depth of these features varies with changes of cellulose and leaf water content and can be used to differentiate species in this region. In the MWIR and LWIR, the absorption spectra of leaves are formed by key species-specific traits including lignin, cellulose, water, nitrogen and leaf thickness. The connection found in this study between leaf traits, features and spectral signatures are novel tools to assist when identifying plant species by spectroscopy and remote sensing.

  16. Cloth-based hybridization array system for expanded identification of the animal species origin of derived materials in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johanna; Armour, Jennifer; Blais, Burton W

    2007-12-01

    A cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS) previously developed for the detection of animal species for which prohibited materials have been specified (cattle, sheep, goat, elk, and deer) has been expanded to include the detection of animal species for which there are no prohibitions (pig and horse) in Canadian and American animal feeds. Animal species were identified by amplification of mitochondrial DNA sequences by PCR and subsequent hybridization of the amplicons with an array of species-specific oligonucleotide capture probes immobilized on a polyester cloth support, followed by an immunoenzymatic assay of the bound PCR products. The CHAS permitted sensitive and specific detection of meat meals from different animal species blended in a grain-based feed and should provide a useful adjunct to microscopic examination for the identification of prohibited materials in animal feeds.

  17. Investigation into the animal species contents of popular wet pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Isabella R; Atterbury, Robert; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-03-10

    The use of the generic term "meat and animal derivatives" in declared ingredient lists of pet foods in the European Union is virtually universal. In the wake of the 2013 "horse meat scandal" in the human food chain, we examined the presence and authenticity of animal sources (cow, chicken, pig and horse) of proteins in a range of popular wet pet foods in the United Kingdom. Seventeen leading dog and cat foods were sampled for the relative presence of DNA from each of the four animal species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No horse DNA was detected. However, there was detection at substantial levels of unspecified animal species in most products tested. In 14 out of 17 samples, bovine, porcine and chicken DNA were found in various proportions and combinations but were not explicitly identified on the product labels. Of the 7 products with prominent headline descriptions containing the term "with beef", only 2 were found to contain more bovine DNA (>50%) than pig and chicken DNA combined. There is a need for the pet food industry to show greater transparency to customers in the disclosure of the types of animal proteins (animal species and tissue types) in their products. Full disclosure of animal contents will (a) allow more informed choices to be made on purchases which are particularly important for pets with food allergies, (b) reduce the risk of product misinterpretation by shoppers, and (c) avoid potential religious concerns.

  18. Identifying the Species Threat Hotspots from Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Identifying species threat hotspots has been a successful approach for setting conservation priorities. One major challenge in conservation is that in many hotspots export industries continue to drive overexploitation. Conservation measures must consider not just the point of impact, but also the consumer demand that ultimately drives resource use. To understand which species threat hotspots are driven by which consumers, we have developed a new approach to link a set of biodiversity footprin...

  19. In vivo metabolism of clebopride in three animal species and in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Bakke, O M; Huizing, G; Beckett, A H

    1980-01-01

    Clebopride is extensively metabolized in the rat, rabbit, dog, and man. By use of chromatographic methods, up to 25 metabolites in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed urine have been detected. All four species produced the same main metabolites, as indicated by thin-layer chromatography. These, isolated from urine of the three animal species, were identified as N-(4'-piperidyl)-2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzamide, N-(4'-piperidyl-2'-one)-2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzamide, and N-(1'-alpha-hydroxybenzyl-4'-piperidyl)-2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzamide (tentative structure of a carbinolamine more stable than expected). In the dog, 2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid was also detected. N4-glucuronidation of clebopride and some of its metabolites has been shown to occur in the three animal species. The rabbit produced large amounts of these conjugates. Clebopride N4-sulfonate was not present in the urine of any of the species investigated.

  20. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, J Sean; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Clulow, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible. Confirming predator recovery requires longer-term study of populations with both baseline and immediate post-invasion densities. Previously, we quantified short-term impacts of invasive cane toads on animal communities over seven years at two sites in tropical Australia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that predators have begun to recover by repeating the study 12 yr after the initial toad invasion. The three predatory lizards that experienced 71-97% declines in the short-term study showed no sign of recovery, and indeed a worse fate: two of the three species were no longer detectable in 630 km of river surveys, suggesting local extirpation. Two mesopredators that had increased markedly in the short term due to these predator losses showed diverse responses in the medium term; a small lizard species increased by ~500%, while populations of a snake species showed little change. Our results indicate a system still in ecological turmoil, having not yet reached a "new equilibrium" more than a decade after the initial invasion; predator losses due to this toxic invasive species, and thus downstream effects, were not transient. Given that cane toads have proven too prolific to eradicate or control, we suggest that recovery of impacted predators must occur unassisted by evolutionary means: dispersal into extinction sites from

  1. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyue; He, Jia; Lu, Haibing; Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown. Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China. CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5'-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8-51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses. CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the current understanding of enteroviruses.

  2. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  3. Identifying species threat hotspots from global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2017-01-04

    Identifying hotspots of species threat has been a successful approach for setting conservation priorities. One important challenge in conservation is that, in many hotspots, export industries continue to drive overexploitation. Conservation measures must consider not just the point of impact, but also the consumer demand that ultimately drives resource use. To understand which species threat hotspots are driven by which consumers, we have developed a new approach to link a set of biodiversity footprint accounts to the hotspots of threatened species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The result is a map connecting consumption to spatially explicit hotspots driven by production on a global scale. Locating biodiversity threat hotspots driven by consumption of goods and services can help to connect conservationists, consumers, companies and governments in order to better target conservation actions.

  4. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Wang

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown.Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China.CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5'-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8-51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses.CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the current understanding of

  5. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown. Methods Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China. Results CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5’-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8–51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses. Conclusions CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the

  6. LC-MS/MS Identification of Species-Specific Muscle Peptides in Processed Animal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Daniela; Altomare, Alessandra; Gili, Marilena; Ostorero, Federica; Khadjavi, Amina; Corona, Cristiano; Ru, Giuseppe; Cappelletti, Benedetta; Gianelli, Silvia; Amadeo, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Casalone, Cristina

    2017-12-06

    An innovative analytical strategy has been applied to identify signature peptides able to distinguish among processed animal proteins (PAPs) derived from bovine, pig, fish, and milk products. Proteomics was first used to elucidate the proteome of each source. Starting from the identified proteins and using a funnel based approach, a set of abundant and well characterized peptides with suitable physical-chemical properties (signature peptides) and specific for each source was selected. An on-target LC-ESI-MS/MS method (MRM mode) was set up using standard peptides and was then applied to selectively identify the PAP source and also to distinguish proteins from bovine carcass and milk proteins. We believe that the method described meets the request of the European Commission which has developed a strategy for gradually lifting the "total ban" toward "species to species ban", therefore requiring official methods for species-specific discrimination in feed.

  7. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  8. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  9. An Annotated Checklist of the Human and Animal Entamoeba (Amoebida: Endamoebidae Species- A Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hooshyar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of valid of pathogen and non-pathogen species of Entamoeba has continuously increased in human and animals. This review is performed to provide an update list and some summarized information on Entamoeba species, which were identified up to the 2014.We evaluated the Entamoeba genus with a broad systematic review of the literature, books and electronic databases until February 2014. The synonyms, hosts, pathogenicity and geographical distribution of valid species were considered and recorded. Repeated and unrelated cases were excluded.Totally 51 defined species of Entamoeba were found and arranged by the number of nuclei in mature cyst according to Levin's grouping. Seven of these species within the 4 nucleate mature cysts group and 1 species with one nucleate mature cyst are pathogen. E. histolytica, E. invadence, E. rananrum and E. anatis causes lethal infection in human, reptiles, amphibians and brides respectively, four species causes non-lethal mild dysentery. The other species were non-pathogen and are important to differential diagnosis of amoebiasis.There are some unknown true species of Entamoeba that available information on the morphology, hosts, pathogenicity and distribution of them are still very limited and more considerable investigation will be needed in order to clarify the status of them.

  10. 21 CFR 516.125 - Investigational use of minor species new animal drugs to support indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for investigational use only in laboratory animals or for tests in vitro in support of index listing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investigational use of minor species new animal... DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor...

  11. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Converse, Sarah J.; Muths, Erin L.; Crockett, Harry J.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a salient threat to many animal taxa, causing local and global extinctions, altering communities and ecosystem function. The EID chytridiomycosis is a prominent driver of amphibian declines, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To guide conservation policy, we developed a predictive decision-analytic model that combines empirical knowledge of host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics with expert judgment regarding effects of management actions, to select from potential conservation strategies. We apply our approach to a boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) and Bd system, identifying optimal strategies that balance tradeoffs in maximizing toad population persistence and landscape-level distribution, while considering costs. The most robust strategy is expected to reduce the decline of toad breeding sites from 53% to 21% over 50 years. Our findings are incorporated into management policy to guide conservation planning. Our online modeling application provides a template for managers of other systems challenged by EIDs.

  12. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  13. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a) Background. (1) A variety of plant and animal species of the United States are so reduced in numbers that...

  14. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues.

  15. An Internet-Accessible DNA Sequence Database for Identifying Fusaria from Human and Animal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because less than one-third of clinically relevant fusaria can be accurately identified to species level using phenotypic data (i.e., morphological species recognition), we constructed a three-locus DNA sequence database to facilitate molecular identification of the 69 Fusarium species associated wi...

  16. Use of DNA from bite marks can determine species and individual animals that attack humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Sinnott, Rick; Coltrane, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2008, 6 documented attacks and close encounters with brown bears (Ursus arctos) occurred in the greater Anchorage, Alaska (USA) area. We discuss findings from 2 incidents in which people were mauled within 2 km of each other over a 6-week period and in which it was assumed that a single animal was responsible. To ensure public safety, authorities killed a brown bear implicated in the attacks by circumstantial evidence, though it was not known a priori that the animal was responsible. We extracted DNA from hairs and bite sites on the clothing of both victims and determined species and individual identity of the animal(s) involved in both incidents. Genetic data indicated the brown bear killed by authorities was responsible for one of the maulings, but not both. This research demonstrates that DNA-based techniques, with appropriate sampling, can provide unambiguous identification of animals involved in attacks, as well as provide reasonable justification for excluding others. Because DNA-based techniques can unequivocally identify individual bears carrying out attacks, they should be considered a standard method employed in wildlife attack investigations.

  17. Conservation genetics in the recovery of endangered animal species: a review of US endangered species recovery plans (1977-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyle, L. C.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The utility of genetic data in conservation efforts, particularly in comparison to demographic information, is the subject of ongoing debate. Using a database of information surveyed from 181 US endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we addressed the following questions concerning the use of genetic information in animal recovery plans: I. What is the relative prominence of genetic vs. demographic data in recovery plan development? and, II. When are genetic factors viewed as a threat, and how do plans respond to genetic threats? In general, genetics appear to play a minor and relatively ill-defined part in the recovery planning process; demographic data are both more abundant and more requested in recovery plans, and tasks are more frequently assigned to the collection / monitoring of demographic rather than genetic information. Nonetheless, genetic threats to species persistence and recovery are identified in a substantial minority (22% of recovery plans, although there is little uniform response to these perceived threats in the form of specific proposed recovery or management tasks. Results indicate that better guidelines are needed to identify how and when genetic information is most useful for species recovery; we highlight specific contexts in which genetics may provide unique management information, beyond that provided by other kinds of data.

  18. A Hidden Markov Movement Model for rapidly identifying behavioral states from animal tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whoriskey, Kim; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2017-01-01

    by fitting it to real tracks from a grey seal, lake trout, and blue shark, as well as to simulated data. 4. The HMMM is a fast and reliable tool for making meaningful inference from animal movement data that is ideally suited for ecologists who want to use the popular DCRWS implementation for highly accurate......1. Electronic telemetry is frequently used to document animal movement through time. Methods that can identify underlying behaviors driving specific movement patterns can help us understand how and why animals use available space, thereby aiding conservation and management efforts. For aquatic...... animal tracking data with significant measurement error, a Bayesian state-space model called the first-Difference Correlated Random Walk with Switching (DCRWS) has often been used for this purpose. However, for aquatic animals, highly accurate tracking data of animal movement are now becoming more common...

  19. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  20. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeevan Ratnasingham

    Full Text Available Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs, these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.

  1. Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of 72 invasive animals of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Dutch Caribbean, eleven of which are no longer present. All invasive animals that are principally agricultural pests and or animal and plant diseases (46 species) are excluded as these are discussed separately

  2. [Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for

  3. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  4. Identifying biodiversity hotspots for threatened mammal species in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farashi, Azita; Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Hosseini, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology has much more attention for biodiversity hot spots than before. In order to recognize the hotspots for Iranian terrestrial mammal species that are listed in any red list, nationally or globally, ten Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been applied. The SDMs evaluation

  5. Using participatory risk mapping (PRM to identify and understand people's perceptions of crop loss to animals in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Webber

    Full Text Available Considering how people perceive risks to their livelihoods from local wildlife is central to (i understanding the impact of crop damage by animals on local people and (ii recognising how this influences their interactions with, and attitudes towards, wildlife. Participatory risk mapping (PRM is a simple, analytical tool that can be used to identify and classify risk within communities. Here we use it to explore local people's perceptions of crop damage by wildlife and the animal species involved. Interviews (n = 93, n = 76 and seven focus groups were conducted in four villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda during 2004 and 2005. Farms (N = 129 were simultaneously monitored for crop loss. Farmers identified damage by wildlife as the most significant risk to their crops; risk maps highlighted its anomalous status compared to other anticipated challenges to agricultural production. PRM was further used to explore farmers' perceptions of animal species causing crop damage and the results of this analysis compared with measured crop losses. Baboons (Papio anubis were considered the most problematic species locally but measurements of loss indicate this perceived severity was disproportionately high. In contrast goats (Capra hircus were considered only a moderate risk, yet risk of damage by this species was significant. Surprisingly, for wild pigs (Potamochoerus sp, perceptions of severity were not as high as damage incurred might have predicted, although perceived incidence was greater than recorded frequency of damage events. PRM can assist researchers and practitioners to identify and explore perceptions of the risk of crop damage by wildlife. As this study highlights, simply quantifying crop loss does not determine issues that are important to local people nor the complex relationships between perceived risk factors. Furthermore, as PRM is easily transferable it may contribute to the identification and development of

  6. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  7. Predicting animal production on sourveld: a species-based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model was based upon measured ingestive and digestive characteristics of different grass species and incorporates an explicit digestive constraint based upon rumen mass and turnover rate. Illustrates with graphs, diagrams and tables. Keywords: ADG; Andropogon appendiculatus; Average daily gain; Cattle; Cynodon ...

  8. Binding Studies of Lamotrigine with Sera of Different Animal Species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, October 2009; 8 (5): 409-415. © Pharmacotherapy Group, ... determine the effect of species variation on drug plasma-protein interaction. Method: Binding data .... to membrane binding of drugs in each case. Another control ..... Goa KL, Ross SR, Chrisp P. Lamotrigine: a review.

  9. Determining the Ratio of Animal Species in the Herd of Pre-Class Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegantsev Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methodology of research of domestic animals herd composition in ancient societies, based on the materials of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age sites located in the Western part of forest-steppe and steppe of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan. The theoretical portion of the article demonstrates that percentage composition of the ancient herd can be restored only by taking into account the early maturation of the domestic ungulates forming its component part. The values of their early maturation depend on the distribution of animals by age. The formulas, derived through herd models developed, make it possible to determine the required distribution, based on the number of animal units of different ages in osteological collections. They are not affected by the type of herd reproduction. The application of the derived formulas in order to determine the early maturation of large and small cattle, and horses in the settlements of certain cultures in forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones, has confirmed the adequacy of the model in explaining the archaeological data. It has also been shown that economic specialization of successive Late Bronze and Early Iron Age cultures in the region was determined mainly by the horse. The study of different methods of determining ancient herd composition has made it possible to come to the following conclusion. The method of transition from identifiable bones in the excavation to the number of animal units corresponding to them, and then, by determining early maturation of different species, to their ratio in the ancient herd, has an absolute priority as compared to the method of transition from the identifiable bones directly to herd composition.

  10. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns...... of species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic...... for previously reported latitudinal patterns in species richness. For lotic species, richness declined with latitude, whereas there was no relationship between habitat availability and latitude. For lentic species, richness showed a hump-shaped relationship with latitude, whereas available habitat increased...

  11. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing

  12. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing.

  13. Species and tissues specific differentiation of processed animal proteins in aquafeeds using proteomics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, J D; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Fumière, O; Mauro, S; Palmblad, M; Raes, M; Berntssen, M H G

    2016-09-16

    The rapidly growing aquaculture industry drives the search for sustainable protein sources in fish feed. In the European Union (EU) since 2013 non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAP) are again permitted to be used in aquafeeds. To ensure that commercial fish feeds do not contain PAP from prohibited species, EU reference methods were established. However, due to the heterogeneous and complex nature of PAP complementary methods are required to guarantee the safe use of this fish feed ingredient. In addition, there is a need for tissue specific PAP detection to identify the sources (i.e. bovine carcass, blood, or meat) of illegal PAP use. In the present study, we investigated and compared different protein extraction, solubilisation and digestion protocols on different proteomics platforms for the detection and differentiation of prohibited PAP. In addition, we assessed if tissue specific PAP detection was feasible using proteomics tools. All work was performed independently in two different laboratories. We found that irrespective of sample preparation gel-based proteomics tools were inappropriate when working with PAP. Gel-free shotgun proteomics approaches in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to provide quality species and tissue specific data to complement and refine current methods of PAP detection and identification. To guarantee the safe use of processed animal protein (PAP) in aquafeeds efficient PAP detection and monitoring tools are required. The present study investigated and compared various proteomics workflows and shows that the application of shotgun proteomics in combination with direct comparison of spectral libraries provides for the desired species and tissue specific classification of this heat sterilized and pressure treated (≥133°C, at 3bar for 20min) protein feed ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Students' Perception of Plant and Animal Species: A Case Study from Rural Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nates, Juliana; Campos, Claudia; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Exotic species seriously affect local biodiversity in Argentina. This article investigates how students in San Juan province perceive native and exotic species. With the help of a written questionnaire, 865 students (9-17 years old) were asked to name the plant and animal they liked most, disliked most, and perceived as most useful, and to name…

  15. Climate change, animal species, and habitats: Adaptation and issues (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; D. Max Smith; Olivia LeDee; Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Mark A. Rumble

    2012-01-01

    Because the rate of anthropogenic climate change exceeds the adaptive capacity of many animal and plant species, the scientific community anticipates negative consequences for ecosystems. Changes in climate have expanded, contracted, or shifted the climate niches of many species, often resulting in shifting geographic ranges. In the Great Basin, for example, projected...

  16. Cyanobacteria species identified in the Weija and Kpong reservoirs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kpong and Weija reservoirs supply drinking water to Accra, Ghana. This study was conducted to identify the cyanobacteria present in these reservoirs and to ascertain whether current treatment processes remove whole cyanobacteria cells from the drinking water produced. Cyanotoxins are mostly cell bound and could ...

  17. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasaad Samer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.

  18. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer; Permunian, Roberto; Gakuya, Francis; Mutinda, Matthew; Soriguer, Ramón C; Rossi, Luca

    2012-07-09

    One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines' keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.

  19. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations. PMID:22776804

  20. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Han

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3 and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8, skunks (OR = 8.0, gray foxes (OR = 21.3, red foxes (OR = 10.4, woodchucks (OR = 4.7 and coyotes (OR = 27.6. While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001. The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs.

  1. Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Radbea, Gabriel; Rubel, Franz; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  2. Plant and animal species composition and heavy metal content in fly ash ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brieger, G.; Wells, J.R.; Hunter, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Plant and animal species present on a coal fly ash slurry pond site and a dry deposit site were surveyed and sampled during a two-day period in October. Elemental analyses were determined for most of the species encountered. A total of 48 plant species were observed on the two sites, with 35 species on the wet site, and 20 on the dry site. Eighteen terrestrial and 7 aquatic animal species were found on the wet site, exclusive of vertebrates which were not studied with the exception of a carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eleven terrestrial invertebrate and one aquatic species were observed on the dry site. Neutron activation analysis was carried out for: Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Co, Sb, Cd, and As. Using literature values for phytotoxicity, it is concluded that, in general, plants did not accumulate toxic levels of metals. Only one plant (Impatiens biflora Willd.) showed a significant level of Cd. Of 20 plants analyzed on the wet site, 10 had excessive Se concentrations (>5 ppm); on the dry site 6 out of 18 had high Se values. In animals (Gryllus sp.; Melanoplus sp.; Trachelipus sp; Lumbricus terrestris; Physa integra; Cyprinus carpio) the trace metal concentration was generally in between that of control animals and that of the fly ash itself. One exception included Zn, which, although the most variable element examined, was concentrated in all the terrestrial animals to levels higher than in fly ash. Crickets are the most consistent bioconcentrators with Cr, Se, and Zn at higher levels than for control animals. All animals species studied accumulated Se compared to controls. 48 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  4. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  5. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  6. Identifying the rooted species tree from the distribution of unrooted gene trees under the coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A

    2011-06-01

    Gene trees are evolutionary trees representing the ancestry of genes sampled from multiple populations. Species trees represent populations of individuals-each with many genes-splitting into new populations or species. The coalescent process, which models ancestry of gene copies within populations, is often used to model the probability distribution of gene trees given a fixed species tree. This multispecies coalescent model provides a framework for phylogeneticists to infer species trees from gene trees using maximum likelihood or Bayesian approaches. Because the coalescent models a branching process over time, all trees are typically assumed to be rooted in this setting. Often, however, gene trees inferred by traditional phylogenetic methods are unrooted. We investigate probabilities of unrooted gene trees under the multispecies coalescent model. We show that when there are four species with one gene sampled per species, the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the unrooted species tree topology and some, but not all, information in the species tree edges (branch lengths). The location of the root on the species tree is not identifiable in this situation. However, for 5 or more species with one gene sampled per species, we show that the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the rooted species tree topology and all its internal branch lengths. The length of any pendant branch leading to a leaf of the species tree is also identifiable for any species from which more than one gene is sampled.

  7. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Hefzi, Hooman; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gao, Xin; Gojobori, Takashi; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.; Jamshidi, Neema

    2018-01-01

    and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species

  8. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Reed, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Species distribution models are often used to characterize a species' native range climate, so as to identify sites elsewhere in the world that may be climatically similar and therefore at risk of invasion by the species. This endeavor provoked intense public controversy over recent attempts to model areas at risk of invasion by the Indian Python (Python molurus). We evaluated a number of MaxEnt models on this species to assess MaxEnt's utility for vertebrate climate matching. Methodology/Principal Findings: Overall, we found MaxEnt models to be very sensitive to modeling choices and selection of input localities and background regions. As used, MaxEnt invoked minimal protections against data dredging, multi-collinearity of explanatory axes, and overfitting. As used, MaxEnt endeavored to identify a single ideal climate, whereas different climatic considerations may determine range boundaries in different parts of the native range. MaxEnt was extremely sensitive to both the choice of background locations for the python, and to selection of presence points: inclusion of just four erroneous localities was responsible for Pyron et al.'s conclusion that no additional portions of the U.S. mainland were at risk of python invasion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt overfit the realized climate space, identifying models with about 60 parameters, about five times the number of parameters justifiable when optimized on the basis of Akaike's Information Criterion. Conclusions/Significance: When used with default settings, MaxEnt may not be an appropriate vehicle for identifying all sites at risk of colonization. Model instability and dearth of protections against overfitting, multi-collinearity, and data dredging may combine with a failure to distinguish fundamental from realized climate envelopes to produce models of limited utility. A priori identification of biologically realistic model structure, combined with computational protections against these

  9. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Rodda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species distribution models are often used to characterize a species' native range climate, so as to identify sites elsewhere in the world that may be climatically similar and therefore at risk of invasion by the species. This endeavor provoked intense public controversy over recent attempts to model areas at risk of invasion by the Indian Python (Python molurus. We evaluated a number of MaxEnt models on this species to assess MaxEnt's utility for vertebrate climate matching. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, we found MaxEnt models to be very sensitive to modeling choices and selection of input localities and background regions. As used, MaxEnt invoked minimal protections against data dredging, multi-collinearity of explanatory axes, and overfitting. As used, MaxEnt endeavored to identify a single ideal climate, whereas different climatic considerations may determine range boundaries in different parts of the native range. MaxEnt was extremely sensitive to both the choice of background locations for the python, and to selection of presence points: inclusion of just four erroneous localities was responsible for Pyron et al.'s conclusion that no additional portions of the U.S. mainland were at risk of python invasion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt overfit the realized climate space, identifying models with about 60 parameters, about five times the number of parameters justifiable when optimized on the basis of Akaike's Information Criterion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When used with default settings, MaxEnt may not be an appropriate vehicle for identifying all sites at risk of colonization. Model instability and dearth of protections against overfitting, multi-collinearity, and data dredging may combine with a failure to distinguish fundamental from realized climate envelopes to produce models of limited utility. A priori identification of biologically realistic model structure, combined with computational protections

  10. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Reed, Robert N

    2011-02-09

    Species distribution models are often used to characterize a species' native range climate, so as to identify sites elsewhere in the world that may be climatically similar and therefore at risk of invasion by the species. This endeavor provoked intense public controversy over recent attempts to model areas at risk of invasion by the Indian Python (Python molurus). We evaluated a number of MaxEnt models on this species to assess MaxEnt's utility for vertebrate climate matching. Overall, we found MaxEnt models to be very sensitive to modeling choices and selection of input localities and background regions. As used, MaxEnt invoked minimal protections against data dredging, multi-collinearity of explanatory axes, and overfitting. As used, MaxEnt endeavored to identify a single ideal climate, whereas different climatic considerations may determine range boundaries in different parts of the native range. MaxEnt was extremely sensitive to both the choice of background locations for the python, and to selection of presence points: inclusion of just four erroneous localities was responsible for Pyron et al.'s conclusion that no additional portions of the U.S. mainland were at risk of python invasion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt overfit the realized climate space, identifying models with about 60 parameters, about five times the number of parameters justifiable when optimized on the basis of Akaike's Information Criterion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt may not be an appropriate vehicle for identifying all sites at risk of colonization. Model instability and dearth of protections against overfitting, multi-collinearity, and data dredging may combine with a failure to distinguish fundamental from realized climate envelopes to produce models of limited utility. A priori identification of biologically realistic model structure, combined with computational protections against these statistical problems, may produce more robust models of invasion risk.

  11. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gress, J.; Silva, E.B. da; Oliveira, L.M. de; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G.; Heard, D.; Stuchal, L.D.; Ma, L.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0–110 mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46 mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6–111 μg/100 cm 2 , typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37 mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. - Highlights: • Daily inorganic As dose from zoo animal foods was 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/day. • Total As concentrations in soils of zoo animal enclosures were 1.0–110 mg/kg. • Endangered zoo animals live in soils with As above USEPA Eco-SSLs for avian and mammal species. • Dislodgeable As on CCA-wood beams where primates sit was 4.6–111 μg/100 cm 2 . • Marmoset hair had 6.37 mg/kg As compared to a reference value of 0.21 mg/kg.

  12. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gress, J. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Silva, E.B. da; Oliveira, L.M. de [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhao, Di [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Anderson, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Heard, D. [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Stuchal, L.D. [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ma, L.Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0–110 mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46 mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}, typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37 mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. - Highlights: • Daily inorganic As dose from zoo animal foods was 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/day. • Total As concentrations in soils of zoo animal enclosures were 1.0–110 mg/kg. • Endangered zoo animals live in soils with As above USEPA Eco-SSLs for avian and mammal species. • Dislodgeable As on CCA-wood beams where primates sit was 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}. • Marmoset hair had 6.37 mg/kg As compared to a reference value of 0.21 mg/kg.

  13. Determination and application of immunodominant regions of SARS coronavirus spike and nucleocapsid proteins recognized by sera from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meng; Stevens, Vicky; Berry, Jody D; Crameri, Gary; McEachern, Jennifer; Tu, Changchun; Shi, Zhengli; Liang, Guodong; Weingartl, Hana; Cardosa, Jane; Eaton, Bryan T; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2008-02-29

    Knowledge of immunodominant regions in major viral antigens is important for rational design of effective vaccines and diagnostic tests. Although there have been many reports of such work done for SARS-CoV, these were mainly focused on the immune responses of humans and mice. In this study, we aim to search for and compare immunodominant regions of the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins which are recognized by sera from different animal species, including mouse, rat, rabbit, civet, pig and horse. Twelve overlapping recombinant protein fragments were produced in Escherichia coli, six each for the S and N proteins, which covered the entire coding region of the two proteins. Using a membrane-strip based Western blot approach, the reactivity of each antigen fragment against a panel of animal sera was determined. Immunodominant regions containing linear epitopes, which reacted with sera from all the species tested, were identified for both proteins. The S3 fragment (aa 402-622) and the N4 fragment (aa 220-336) were the most immunodominant among the six S and N fragments, respectively. Antibodies raised against the S3 fragment were able to block the binding of a panel of S-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to SARS-CoV in ELISA, further demonstrating the immunodominance of this region. Based on these findings, one-step competition ELISAs were established which were able to detect SARS-CoV antibodies from human and at least seven different animal species. Considering that a large number of animal species are known to be susceptible to SARS-CoV, these assays will be a useful tool to trace the origin and transmission of SARS-CoV and to minimise the risk of animal-to-human transmission.

  14. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2015-02-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura , using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology. The identification of T. trichiura eggs indicates that human fecal material is present and, hence, that the Ascaris sp. haplotype 07 was most likely a human variant in Viking-age Denmark. The location of the F. hepatica finding suggests that sheep or cattle are the most likely hosts. Further, we sequenced the Ascaris sp. 18S rRNA gene in recent isolates from humans and pigs of global distribution and show that this is not a suited marker for species-specific identification. Finally, we discuss ancient parasitism in Denmark and the implementation of aDNA analysis methods in paleoparasitological studies. We argue that when employing species-specific identification, soil samples offer excellent opportunities for studies of human parasite infections and of human and animal interactions of the past.

  15. Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-02-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication.

  16. Verification of animal species in ham and salami by dna microarray and real time pcr methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Drdolová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer protection and detecting of adulteration is very important and has a wide societal impact in the economic sphere. Detection of animal species in meat products and the use of combining different methods is one of the means to achieve relevant product status. The aim of this study was to reveal whether or not the products label clearly meets the content declared by producer. In our study, 29 samples of meat products such as salami and ham obtained from stores and supermarkets in Slovakia were analyzed to detect the existing animal species according to the product label the use of Chipron LCD Array Analysis System, Meat 5.0. Products in which the presence of non-declared animal species has been detected were subjected to testing by the innuDETECT PCR Real-Time Kit, repeatedly. The results showed that 20 (68.96% samples were improperly labeled. From in total 14 tested ham samples 11 (78.57% products exhibited non-conformity with declared composition. Tested salami samples (15 revealed 9 (60% incorrectly labelled products. The results obtained by DNA Microarray and Real Time PCR methods were identical, and both methods should be extensively promoted for the detection of animal species in the meat and meat products. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  18. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther

    2017-10-01

    DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Applying network theory to animal movements to identify properties of landscape space use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Blake, Stephen; Northrup, Joseph M; Wittemyer, George

    2018-04-01

    Network (graph) theory is a popular analytical framework to characterize the structure and dynamics among discrete objects and is particularly effective at identifying critical hubs and patterns of connectivity. The identification of such attributes is a fundamental objective of animal movement research, yet network theory has rarely been applied directly to animal relocation data. We develop an approach that allows the analysis of movement data using network theory by defining occupied pixels as nodes and connection among these pixels as edges. We first quantify node-level (local) metrics and graph-level (system) metrics on simulated movement trajectories to assess the ability of these metrics to pull out known properties in movement paths. We then apply our framework to empirical data from African elephants (Loxodonta africana), giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.), and mule deer (Odocoileous hemionus). Our results indicate that certain node-level metrics, namely degree, weight, and betweenness, perform well in capturing local patterns of space use, such as the definition of core areas and paths used for inter-patch movement. These metrics were generally applicable across data sets, indicating their robustness to assumptions structuring analysis or strategies of movement. Other metrics capture local patterns effectively, but were sensitive to specified graph properties, indicating case specific applications. Our analysis indicates that graph-level metrics are unlikely to outperform other approaches for the categorization of general movement strategies (central place foraging, migration, nomadism). By identifying critical nodes, our approach provides a robust quantitative framework to identify local properties of space use that can be used to evaluate the effect of the loss of specific nodes on range wide connectivity. Our network approach is intuitive, and can be implemented across imperfectly sampled or large-scale data sets efficiently, providing a

  20. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  1. DNA barcoding of shark meats identify species composition and CITES-listed species from the markets in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yin Vanson Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing awareness of the vulnerability of sharks to exploitation by shark finning has contributed to a growing concern about an unsustainable shark fishery. Taiwan's fleet has the 4th largest shark catch in the world, accounting for almost 6% of the global figures. Revealing the diversity of sharks consumed by Taiwanese is important in designing conservation plans. However, fins make up less than 5% of the total body weight of a shark, and their bodies are sold as filets in the market, making it difficult or impossible to identify species using morphological traits. METHODS: In the present study, we adopted a DNA barcoding technique using a 391-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene to examine the diversity of shark filets and fins collected from markets and restaurants island-wide in Taiwan. RESULTS: Amongst the 548 tissue samples collected and sequenced, 20 major clusters were apparent by phylogenetic analyses, each of them containing individuals belonging to the same species (most with more than 95% bootstrap values, corresponding to 20 species of sharks. Additionally, Alopias pelagicus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca consisted of 80% of the samples we collected, indicating that these species might be heavily consumed in Taiwan. Approximately 5% of the tissue samples used in this study were identified as species listed in CITES Appendix II, including two species of Sphyrna, C. longimanus and Carcharodon carcharias. CONCLUSION: DNA barcoding provides an alternative method for understanding shark species composition when species-specific data is unavailable. Considering the global population decline, stock assessments of Appendix II species and highly consumed species are needed to accomplish the ultimate goal of shark conservation.

  2. DNA barcoding of shark meats identify species composition and CITES-listed species from the markets in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Chan, Chia-Ling Carynn; Lin, Oceana; Hu, Chieh-Shen; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2013-01-01

    An increasing awareness of the vulnerability of sharks to exploitation by shark finning has contributed to a growing concern about an unsustainable shark fishery. Taiwan's fleet has the 4th largest shark catch in the world, accounting for almost 6% of the global figures. Revealing the diversity of sharks consumed by Taiwanese is important in designing conservation plans. However, fins make up less than 5% of the total body weight of a shark, and their bodies are sold as filets in the market, making it difficult or impossible to identify species using morphological traits. In the present study, we adopted a DNA barcoding technique using a 391-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to examine the diversity of shark filets and fins collected from markets and restaurants island-wide in Taiwan. Amongst the 548 tissue samples collected and sequenced, 20 major clusters were apparent by phylogenetic analyses, each of them containing individuals belonging to the same species (most with more than 95% bootstrap values), corresponding to 20 species of sharks. Additionally, Alopias pelagicus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca consisted of 80% of the samples we collected, indicating that these species might be heavily consumed in Taiwan. Approximately 5% of the tissue samples used in this study were identified as species listed in CITES Appendix II, including two species of Sphyrna, C. longimanus and Carcharodon carcharias. DNA barcoding provides an alternative method for understanding shark species composition when species-specific data is unavailable. Considering the global population decline, stock assessments of Appendix II species and highly consumed species are needed to accomplish the ultimate goal of shark conservation.

  3. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  4. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  5. Stimulation of flower nectar replenishment by removal: A survey of eleven animal-pollinated plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between reward-seeking flower feeding animals and plants requires consideration of the dynamic nature of nectar secretion. Studies on several plants suggest that nectar secretion may increase in response to its removal, but it is not clear whether the phenomenon is widespread. We determined whether 11 species of Colorado mountain wildflowers showed removal-enhanced nectar replenishment (RENR. We measured floral phenology, nectar volumes, rate of replenishment, and compared the cumulative nectar produced following five hourly removals with that accumulated after five hours. Nectar replenishment occurred rapidly, within minutes; statistically significant RENR was observed in 9 of our 11 study species, with the strongest effects in bee-pollinated species. We discuss the implications of RENR in plant species on the measurement of nectar, the adaptive advantage of RENR, and the energetic costs of RENR.

  6. Molecular marker to identify radiolarian species -toward establishment of paleo-environmental proxy-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fossilized unicellular plankton are known to have many genetically divergent species (biological species) in the single morphological species and these biological species show the species-specific environments much more precisely than that of morphological species. Among these plankton, Radiolaria are one of the best candidates for time- and environmental-indicators in the modern and past oceans, because radiolarians are the only group which represent entire water column from shallow to deep waters. However, the ecology and evolution of radiolarian were traditionally studied in paleontology and paleoceanography by morphological species. Even Radiolaria has a huge potential for novel proxy of wide and deep environments, there is no criterion to identify the biological species. The motivation for this study is setting the quantitative delimitation to establish the biological species of radiolarians based on molecular data, for leading the future ecological and paleo-environmental study. Identification of the biological species by ribosomal DNA sequences are mainly based on two ways: one is the evolutionary distance of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1 and 2), and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA; and the other is the secondary structure of ITS2. In the present study, all four possible genetic markers (SSU, ITS1, ITS2, and LSU rDNA) were amplified from 232 individuals of five radiolarian morphological species and applied to examine the evolutionary distance and secondary structure of rDNA. Comprehensive survey clearly shows that evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA and the secondary structure of ITS2 is good to identify the species. Notably, evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA is possible to set the common delimitation to identify the biological species, as 0.225 substitution per site. The results show that the ITS1 and ITS 2 rDNA could be the criterion for radiolarian species identification.

  7. Occurrence, species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagcigil, Funda A.; Moodley, Arshnee; Baptiste, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    beta-Lactams and macrolides are important antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, species distribution and clonality of methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of dogs......, horses, pigs, and cattle in Denmark. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 400 animals, including 100 individuals of each species. Methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci were isolated on selective media, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) harbouring mecA were isolated from horses (50%) and dogs (13%), but not from food animals. The species identified were S. haemolyticus (n = 21), S. vitulinus (n = 19), S. sciuri (n = 13), S. epidermidis (n = 8), and S. warneri (n...

  8. To eat and not be eaten: modelling resources and safety in multi-species animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.

  9. In situ, measurements on plutonium concentration, in vegetal and animal marine species as a function of their phylogenetic position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, Albert; Guary, J.-C.

    1975-10-01

    The accumulation of plutonium by 31 vegetal and animal marine species belonging to a large number of phyla was demonstrated in a reference coastal site. Fixation levels ranging from 171.6pCi/kg fresh weight for a lichen to 0.04pCi/k fresh weight for a fish showed that the retention of the radionuclide by the organisms studied was related to their phylogenetic position. Biological indicators especially suitable for monitoring coastal plutonium radioactivity has been identified [fr

  10. 76 FR 50220 - Availability of Draft ICCVAM Recommendations on Using Fewer Animals to Identify Chemical Eye...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... per test from 6 to 3. The Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq) and the Public Health Service (PHS....niehs.nih.gov/go/167 . References AWA. 2010. Animal Welfare Act. 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq. Public Law 89- 544. Available: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/awa/awa.pdf . CPSC. 2010. Hazardous...

  11. Neptunium-237 in the marine environment determination in animal and plant species in the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germian, P.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of 237 Np was studied in marine plants and animals belonging to several phyla. Samples were collected from the end of January 1986 to March 1986 in a sampling station near the fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. 237 Np was determined by neutron activation analysis. The transfer modes of 237 Np to the various species as a function of their trophic levels are discussed as well as the distribution among the organs in the species consumed and the radiological impact of human consumption. (author) 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Animal culture impacts species' capacity to realise climate-driven range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keith, Sally A.; Bull, Joseph William

    2017-01-01

    Ecological predictions of how species will shift their geographical distributions under climate change generally consider individuals as machines that respond optimally to changing environmental conditions. However, animals frequently make active behavioural decisions based on imperfect information...... about their external environment, potentially mediated by information transmitted through social learning (i.e. culture). Vertical transmission of culture (between generations) might encourage conservative behaviour, constraining the ability of a species to respond, whilst horizontal transmission...... (within generations) can encourage innovation and so facilitate dynamic responses to a changing environment. We believe that the time is right to unite recent advances in ecological modelling and behavioural understanding to explicitly incorporate the influence of animal culture into future predictions...

  13. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of the 16S Ribosomal Gene to Detect and Identify Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Colombian Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez Sánchez, Ronald G; Quintero, Juan Álvaro López; Pereira, Martha María; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad

    2017-05-01

    AbstractIt is important to identify the circulating Leptospira agent to enhance the performance of serodiagnostic tests by incorporating specific antigens of native species, develop vaccines that take into account the species/serovars circulating in different regions, and optimize prevention and control strategies. The objectives of this study were to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for differentiating between species of the genus Leptospira and to verify its usefulness in identifying unknown samples to species level. A set of primers from the initial region of the 16S ribosomal gene was designed to detect and differentiate the 22 species of Leptospira . Eleven reference strains were used as controls to establish the reference species and differential melting curves. Twenty-five Colombian Leptospira isolates were studied to evaluate the usefulness of the PCR-HRM assay in identifying unknown samples to species level. This identification was confirmed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene. Eleven Leptospira species were successfully identified, except for Leptospira meyeri / Leptospira yanagawae because the sequences were 100% identical. The 25 isolates from humans, animals, and environmental water sources were identified as Leptospira santarosai (twelve), Leptospira interrogans (nine), and L. meyeri / L. yanagawae (four). The species verification was 100% concordant between PCR-HRM and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene. The PCR-HRM assay designed in this study is a useful tool for identifying Leptospira species from isolates.

  14. Animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Woźniakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. The members of Herpesviridae are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. The objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. In humans, the most epidemiologically important herpesviruses are represented by Human herepesvirus-1 and Human herpesvirus-2, which are commonly known as herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella-zooster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, cytomegalovirus (CMV, as well as Human herpesviruses: HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. However, in terms of the potential to cross the species barrier, there are a few herpesviruses, including B virus disease (CeHV-1, Marek’s disease virus (MDV, Equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1 or pseudorabies virus (PRV, which are potentially able to infect different hosts. To summarize, in advantageous conditions the host specific herpesviruses may pose a threat for public health but also may exert a negative impact on the economical aspects of animal production. The most probable of these are zoonotic infections caused by B virus disease; however, close contact between infected animal hosts and humans may lead to transmission and replication of other Herpesviridae members.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  16. Differences in pathogenicity of three animal isolates of Mycobacterium species in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodi Dong

    Full Text Available Animal mycobacterioses are among the most important zoonoses worldwide. These are generally caused by either Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, M. bovis (MBO or M. avium (MAV. To test the hypothesis that different species of pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from varied anatomic locations or animal species differ in virulence and pathogenicity, we performed experiments with three mycobacteria strains (NTSE-3(MTB, NTSE-4(MBO and NTSE-5 (MAV obtained from animal species. Spoligotyping analysis was used to confirm both MTB and MBO strains while the MAV strain was confirmed by 16s rDNA sequencing. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with the three strains at low and high CFU doses to evaluate variations in pathogenicity. Clinical and pathological parameters were assessed. Infected mice were euthanized at 80 days post-inoculation (dpi. Measures of lung and body weights indicated that the MBO infected group had higher mortality, more weight loss, higher bacterial burden and more severe lesions in lungs than the other two groups. Cytokine profiles showed higher levels of TNF-α for MBO versus MTB, while MAV had the highest amounts of IFN-β in vitro and in vivo. In vitro levels of other cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, and IFN-β showed that Th1 cells had the strongest response in MBO infected mice and that Th2 cells were inhibited. We found that the level of virulence among the three isolates decreased in the following order MBO>MTB>MAV.

  17. Choosing the best animal species to mimic clinical colon anastomotic leakage in humans: a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Rosenberg, J; Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are valuable for studying pathogenic factors and preventive measures for colon anastomotic leakage. The suitability of the species as models varies greatly; however, no consensus exists on which species to use. The aim of this review was to evaluate different experimental animals...... for the study of clinical colon anastomotic leakage....

  18. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed,

  19. Choosing the best animal species to mimic clinical colon anastomotic leakage in humans: a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, J; Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are valuable for studying pathogenic factors and preventive measures for colon anastomotic leakage. The suitability of the species as models varies greatly; however, no consensus exists on which species to use. The aim of this review was to evaluate different experimental animals fo...

  20. Boys Will Be Boys; Cows Will Be Cows: Children's Essentialist Reasoning about Gender Categories and Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marianne G.; Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies (N = 456) compared the development of concepts of animal species and human gender, using a switched-at-birth reasoning task. Younger children (5- and 6-year-olds) treated animal species and human gender as equivalent; they made similar levels of category-based inferences and endorsed similar explanations for development in these 2…

  1. Comparative analyses identified species-specific functional roles in oral microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsute; Gajare, Prasad; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The advent of next generation sequencing is producing more genomic sequences for various strains of many human oral microbial species and allows for insightful functional comparisons at both intra- and inter-species levels. This study performed in-silico functional comparisons for currently available genomic sequences of major species associated with periodontitis including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Treponema denticola (TD), and Tannerella forsythia (TF), as well as several cariogenic and commensal streptococcal species. Complete or draft sequences were annotated with the RAST to infer structured functional subsystems for each genome. The subsystems profiles were clustered to groups of functions with similar patterns. Functional enrichment and depletion were evaluated based on hypergeometric distribution to identify subsystems that are unique or missing between two groups of genomes. Unique or missing metabolic pathways and biological functions were identified in different species. For example, components involved in flagellar motility were found only in the motile species TD, as expected, with few exceptions scattered in several streptococcal species, likely associated with chemotaxis. Transposable elements were only found in the two Bacteroidales species PG and TF, and half of the AA genomes. Genes involved in CRISPR were prevalent in most oral species. Furthermore, prophage related subsystems were also commonly found in most species except for PG and Streptococcus mutans, in which very few genomes contain prophage components. Comparisons between pathogenic (P) and nonpathogenic (NP) genomes also identified genes potentially important for virulence. Two such comparisons were performed between AA (P) and several A. aphrophilus (NP) strains, and between S. mutans + S. sobrinus (P) and other oral streptococcal species (NP). This comparative genomics approach can be readily used to identify functions unique to

  2. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  3. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  4. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  5. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  6. Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Wiens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of species loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For example, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of species that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored. Specifically, overall range shifts can include range contractions at the "warm edges" of species' ranges (i.e., lower latitudes and elevations, contractions which occur through local extinctions. Here, data on climate-related range shifts were used to test the frequency of local extinctions related to recent climate change. The results show that climate-related local extinctions have already occurred in hundreds of species, including 47% of the 976 species surveyed. This frequency of local extinctions was broadly similar across climatic zones, clades, and habitats but was significantly higher in tropical species than in temperate species (55% versus 39%, in animals than in plants (50% versus 39%, and in freshwater habitats relative to terrestrial and marine habitats (74% versus 46% versus 51%. Overall, these results suggest that local extinctions related to climate change are already widespread, even though levels of climate change so far are modest relative to those predicted in the next 100 years. These extinctions will presumably become much more prevalent as global warming increases further by roughly 2-fold to 5-fold over the coming decades.

  7. Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: Relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovnik, Petra; Arrebola, Juan P.; Serafimovski, Todor; Dolenec, Tadej; Šmuc, Nastja Rogan; Dolenec, Matej; Mutch, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages. -- Highlights: •The study merges the accumulation of PTE in animal species, sediments, soils and water. •Correlation between different media and their impact to living organisms'. •Considerably high health risks for inhabitants. -- In the Makedonska Kamenica region had been described several potential sources of exposure therefore exists the potential threat to human health

  8. Intersecting Spaces and Species: Women´s Bodies and the Domestic Sphere in Animal Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alonso Recarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to explore how current animal rights activism draws on images of women-animal corporeal hybrids to articulate a plight for animals, and how the domestic setting used in such campaigns is strategically conveyed to either instill sympathy or abhorrence at the ‘miscegenation’ of species within a single bodily space. I begin with a few observations on the matter of animal ontology in accordance with the muchdebated notion of commonness with humans (and in particular women. I then make a comparative analysis between video campaigns by two major animal rights organizations, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA to evaluate how their rhetoric of species hybridism conveys different assumptions regarding womanhood, and how domestic settings serve as instrumental tools through which to strengthen their rhetoric of animal liberation.

  9. On the potential of using peculiarities of the protein intrinsic disorder distribution in mitochondrial cytochrome b to identify the source of animal meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Haitham A.; Sadek, Mahmoud A.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to identify the source of animal meat based on the peculiarities of protein intrinsic disorder distribution in mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCyt-b). The analysis revealed that animal and avian species can be discriminated based on the proportions of the two groups of residues, Leu+Ile, and Ser+Pro+Ala, in the amino acid sequences of their mtCyt-b. Although levels of the overall intrinsic disorder in mtCyt-b is not very high, the peculiarities of disorder distribution within the sequences of mtCyt-b from different species varies in a rather specific way. In fact, positions and intensities of disorder/flexibility “signals” in the corresponding disorder profiles are relatively unique for avian and animal species. Therefore, it is possible to devise a set of simple rules based on the peculiarities of disorder profiles of their mtCyt-b proteins to discriminate among species. This intrinsic disorder-based analysis represents a new technique that could be used to provide a promising solution for identification of the source of meats. PMID:28331777

  10. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  11. Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela; Patriarca, Andrea

    Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (a wmin , a wmax , a wopt ) and the specific growth rate at the optimum a w (μ opt ). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal a w to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Tree diversity and species identity effects on soil fungi, protists and animals are context dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Põlme, Sergei; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Anslan, Sten; Harend, Helery; Buegger, Franz; Pritsch, Karin; Koricheva, Julia; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2016-02-01

    Plant species richness and the presence of certain influential species (sampling effect) drive the stability and functionality of ecosystems as well as primary production and biomass of consumers. However, little is known about these floristic effects on richness and community composition of soil biota in forest habitats owing to methodological constraints. We developed a DNA metabarcoding approach to identify the major eukaryote groups directly from soil with roughly species-level resolution. Using this method, we examined the effects of tree diversity and individual tree species on soil microbial biomass and taxonomic richness of soil biota in two experimental study systems in Finland and Estonia and accounted for edaphic variables and spatial autocorrelation. Our analyses revealed that the effects of tree diversity and individual species on soil biota are largely context dependent. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling suggested that biomass, soil pH, nutrients and tree species directly affect richness of different taxonomic groups. The community composition of most soil organisms was strongly correlated due to similar response to environmental predictors rather than causal relationships. On a local scale, soil resources and tree species have stronger effect on diversity of soil biota than tree species richness per se.

  13. Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Jonsson, Tomas; Taylor, Astrid; Winqvist, Camilla; Fischer, Christina; Slade, Eleanor M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Emmerson, Mark; Potts, Simon G; Tscharntke, Teja; Weisser, Wolfgang; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-02-22

    Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach, predicts seven ecosystem functions below- and above-ground. Trait-based indices consistently provided greater explanatory power than species richness or abundance. The frequency distributions of single or multiple traits in the community were the best predictors of ecosystem functioning. This implies that the ecosystem functions we investigated were underpinned by the combination of trait identities (i.e. single-trait indices) and trait complementarity (i.e. multi-trait indices) in the communities. Our study provides new insights into the general mechanisms that link biodiversity to ecosystem functioning in natural animal communities and suggests that the observed responses were due to the identity and dominance patterns of the trait composition rather than the number or abundance of species per se. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative review of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eVAURE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, along with several other components of pathogens and endogenous molecules produced during abnormal situations, such as tissue damage. Evolution across species can lead to substantial diversity in the TLR4’s affinity and specificity to its ligands, the TLR4 gene and cellular expression patterns and tissue distribution. Consequently, TLR4 functions vary across different species. In recent years, the use of synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants has emerged as a realistic therapeutic goal, notably for the development of vaccines against poorly immunogenic targets. Given that an adjuvanted vaccine must be assessed in pre-clinical animal models before being tested in humans, the extent to which an animal model represents and predicts the human condition is of particular importance. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the critical points of divergence between human and the mammalian species commonly used in vaccine research and development (non-human primate, mouse, rat, rabbit, swine and dog, in terms of molecular, cellular and functional properties of TLR4.

  15. Identifying the main mosquito species in China based on DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are insects of the Diptera, Nematocera, and Culicidae families, some species of which are important disease vectors. Identifying mosquito species based on morphological characteristics is difficult, particularly the identification of specimens collected in the field as part of disease surveillance programs. Because of this difficulty, we constructed DNA barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, the COI gene, for the more common mosquito species in China, including the major disease vectors. A total of 404 mosquito specimens were collected and assigned to 15 genera and 122 species and subspecies on the basis of morphological characteristics. Individuals of the same species grouped closely together in a Neighborhood-Joining tree based on COI sequence similarity, regardless of collection site. COI gene sequence divergence was approximately 30 times higher for species in the same genus than for members of the same species. Divergence in over 98% of congeneric species ranged from 2.3% to 21.8%, whereas divergence in conspecific individuals ranged from 0% to 1.67%. Cryptic species may be common and a few pseudogenes were detected.

  16. Development of Multiplexed Marker Sets to Identify the Most Relevant Poplar Species for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the genus Populus, about 30 species are classified into six sections, of which some are cross-compatible. Besides naturally occurring hybrids, huge breeding programs have led to a high number of artificially produced hybrids, for which the determination of genetically involved species by morphological characteristics is often difficult. This necessitates the use of molecular markers for the identification of both maternal as well as paternal species, and in the case of complex hybrids, the genealogy. For this reason, we developed new chloroplast and nuclear markers for the differentiation of up to 19 poplar species, with one to 32 individuals per species regularly used in breeding programs based on already known barcoding, other chloroplast regions, and nuclear genes of interest. We developed methods to identify species by either species-specific nucleotide variations or, when no initial information for the species was given, by using a set of markers either in a procedure of exclusion or in a multiplexed marker set. The developed markers can all be used with low-cost equipment, and some can additionally be applied using a genetic analyzer. We combined these markers in multiplexes for a very fast and easy-to-use application for the identification of poplar species and their hybrids.

  17. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  18. Use of a mitochondrial COI sequence to identify species of the subtribe Aphidina (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng WANG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids of the subtribe Aphidina are found mainly in the North Temperate Zone. The relative lack of diagnostic morphological characteristics has obscured the identification of species in this group. However, DNA-based taxonomic methods can clarify species relationships within this group. Sequence variation in a partial segment of the mitochondrial COI gene was highly effective for resolving species relationships within Aphidina. Forty-five species were correctly identified in a neighbor-joining tree. Mean intraspecific sequence divergence was 0.17%, with a range of 0.00% to 1.54%. Mean interspecific divergence within previously recognized genera or morphologically similar species groups was 4.54%, with variation mainly in the range of 3.50% to 8.00%. Possible reasons for anomalous levels of mean nucleotide divergence within or between some taxa are discussed.

  19. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  20. ARIES: an expert system supporting legislative tasks. Identifying animal materials using the Linnaeus II software

    OpenAIRE

    van Raamsdonk, Leo W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad cow disease) is generally considered to be caused by recycling animal by-products as ingredient in animal, especially ruminant, feed. Feed bans were enforced to minimize the risk on infections, and monitoring programs are effectuated for controlling the ban. The only official detection method is visual (microscopic) examination of the presence of primarily bone fragments, but muscle fibres, hairs, feather filaments, and fish bones a...

  1. Using citizen science data to identify the sensitivity of species to human land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Rose, Jonathan P; Price, Steven J; Dorcas, Michael E

    2016-12-01

    Conservation practitioners must contend with an increasing array of threats that affect biodiversity. Citizen scientists can provide timely and expansive information for addressing these threats across large scales, but their data may contain sampling biases. We used randomization procedures to account for possible sampling biases in opportunistically reported citizen science data to identify species' sensitivities to human land use. We analyzed 21,044 records of 143 native reptile and amphibian species reported to the Carolina Herp Atlas from North Carolina and South Carolina between 1 January 1990 and 12 July 2014. Sensitive species significantly associated with natural landscapes were 3.4 times more likely to be legally protected or treated as of conservation concern by state resource agencies than less sensitive species significantly associated with human-dominated landscapes. Many of the species significantly associated with natural landscapes occurred primarily in habitats that had been nearly eradicated or otherwise altered in the Carolinas, including isolated wetlands, longleaf pine savannas, and Appalachian forests. Rare species with few reports were more likely to be associated with natural landscapes and 3.2 times more likely to be legally protected or treated as of conservation concern than species with at least 20 reported occurrences. Our results suggest that opportunistically reported citizen science data can be used to identify sensitive species and that species currently restricted primarily to natural landscapes are likely at greatest risk of decline from future losses of natural habitat. Our approach demonstrates the usefulness of citizen science data in prioritizing conservation and in helping practitioners address species declines and extinctions at large extents. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Abercrombie, Debra L; Eng, Rowena; Feldheim, Kevin; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias). Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins"). Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples).

  3. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Fields

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias. Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins". Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples.

  4. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  5. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli, Bovicola bovis (B. bovis and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001 higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1% and keds (86.4% including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001. Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001. Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  7. The voice of emotion across species: how do human listeners recognize animals' affective states?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scheumann

    Full Text Available Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context. Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew. Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence or affiliative (positive emotional valence context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM. Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms.

  8. Whole genome analysis of selected human and animal rotaviruses identified in Uganda from 2012 to 2014 reveals complex genome reassortment events between human, bovine, caprine and porcine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwogi, Josephine; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Karamagi, Charles; Byarugaba, Denis K; Namuwulya, Prossy; Baliraine, Frederick N; Desselberger, Ulrich; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses of species A (RVA) are a common cause of diarrhoea in children and the young of various other mammals and birds worldwide. To investigate possible interspecies transmission of RVAs, whole genomes of 18 human and 6 domestic animal RVA strains identified in Uganda between 2012 and 2014 were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The backbone of the human RVA strains had either a Wa- or a DS-1-like genetic constellation. One human strain was a Wa-like mono-reassortant containing a DS-1-like VP2 gene of possible animal origin. All eleven genes of one bovine RVA strain were closely related to those of human RVAs. One caprine strain had a mixed genotype backbone, suggesting that it emerged from multiple reassortment events involving different host species. The porcine RVA strains had mixed genotype backbones with possible multiple reassortant events with strains of human and bovine origin.Overall, whole genome characterisation of rotaviruses found in domestic animals in Uganda strongly suggested the presence of human-to animal RVA transmission, with concomitant circulation of multi-reassortant strains potentially derived from complex interspecies transmission events. However, whole genome data from the human RVA strains causing moderate and severe diarrhoea in under-fives in Uganda indicated that they were primarily transmitted from person-to-person.

  9. Analysis of ecological context for identifying vegetation and animal conservation planning foci: An example from the arid South-western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, T.; Thompson, B.C.; Locke, B.A.; Boykin, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    In developing conservation strategies, it is important to maximize effects of conservation within a specified land tract and to maximize conservation effects on surrounding area (ecological context). The authors proposed two criteria to select biotic entities for conservation foci: (1) the relative occurrence of fauna or flora in a tract is greater than that of an ecological context region; and (2) occurrence of the fauna or flora is relatively limited in the ecological context region. Using extensive spatial data on vegetation and wildlife habitat distribution, the authors identified strategic vegetation and fauna conservation foci for the 400 000 ha Fort Bliss military reservation in New Mexico and Texas relative to a 164 km radius ecological context region intersecting seven ecological zones and the predicted habitat distribution of 616 animal species. The authors set two specific criteria: (1) predicted area of a species' occurrence is 5% (Fort Bliss is 4.2% of the region). These criteria selected one vegetation class and 40 animal species. Further, these vegetation and animal foci were primarily located in two areas of Fort Bliss. Sensitivity analyses with other analytical radii corroborated the context radius used. Conservation of the two areas and associated taxa will maximize the contribution of Fort Bliss's conservation efforts in its ecological proximity. This relatively simple but information-rich process represents economical and defensible preliminary contextual analysis for detailed conservation planning.

  10. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal

    2018-02-01

    -induced toxicosis in different species of animals but will also be helpful in the making of health policy for domestic animals at state and national level for the mitigation of hydrofluorosis in India.

  11. Dinucleotide Composition in Animal RNA Viruses Is Shaped More by Virus Family than by Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-04-15

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and

  12. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  13. Occurrence of Putative Virulence Genes in Arcobacter Species Isolated from Humans and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douidah, Laid; de Zutter, Lieven; Baré, Julie; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Vandenberg, Olivier; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Interest in arcobacters in veterinary and human public health has increased since the first report of the isolation of arcobacters from food of animal origin. Since then, studies worldwide have reported the occurrence of arcobacters on food and in food production animals and have highlighted possible transmission, especially of Arcobacter butzleri, to the human population. In humans, arcobacters are associated with enteritis and septicemia. To assess their clinical relevance for humans and animals, evaluation of potential virulence factors is required. However, up to now, little has been known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity. Because of their close phylogenetic affiliation to the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter and their similar clinical manifestations, the presence of nine putative Campylobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, irgA, mviN, pldA, and tlyA) previously identified in the recent Arcobacter butzleri ATCC 49616 genome sequence was determined in a large set of human and animal Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii strains after the development of rapid and accurate PCR assays and confirmed by sequencing and dot blot hybridization. PMID:22170914

  14. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  15. Review: To be or not to be an identifiable model. Is this a relevant question in animal science modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tamayo, R; Puillet, L; Daniel, J B; Sauvant, D; Martin, O; Taghipoor, M; Blavy, P

    2018-04-01

    What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published

  16. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Alasaad, Samer; Permunian, Roberto; Gakuya, Francis; Mutinda, Matthew N.; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Rossi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key ...

  17. Potential use of ionic species for identifying source land-uses of stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-02-01

    Identifying critical land-uses or source areas is important to prioritize resources for cost-effective stormwater management. This study investigated the use of information on ionic composition as a fingerprint to identify the source land-use of stormwater runoff. We used 12 ionic species in stormwater runoff monitored for a total of 20 storm events at five sites with different land-use compositions during the 2012-2014 wet seasons. A stepwise forward discriminant function analysis (DFA) with the jack-knifed cross validation approach was used to select ionic species that better discriminate the land-use of its source. Of the 12 ionic species, 9 species (K + , Mg 2+ , Na + , NH 4 + , Br - , Cl - , F - , NO 2 - , and SO 4 2- ) were selected for better performance of the DFA. The DFA successfully differentiated stormwater samples from urban, rural, and construction sites using concentrations of the ionic species (70%, 95%, and 91% of correct classification, respectively). Over 80% of the new data cases were correctly classified by the trained DFA model. When applied to data cases from a mixed land-use catchment and downstream, the DFA model showed the greater impact of urban areas and rural areas respectively in the earlier and later parts of a storm event.

  18. PCR-RFLP diagnostic method for identifying Globodera species in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa ŠIRCA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification within the genus Globodera is based on the morphological and morphometrical characters of the cysts and second stage juveniles, and these are included in the majority of identification keys. Morphometrical methods are fast and can be applied to most of samples but they demand a trained and experienced specialist. Furthermore, some morphometrical characters may overlap between populations and beetwen species, leading to inaccurate identification. To confirm and complement the morphometrical identification of Globodera species molecular methods have been developed. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the rDNA gene cluster proved to be useful for identifying nematode species identification. A PCR-RFLP molecular method was used to identify Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae. Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae can be distinguished with PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA ITS fragment using five restriction enzymes. The RFLP patterns of G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. achilleae were species-specific, while those of G. pallida varied. South American populations of G. pallida differed from other populations as their RFLP patterns were demonstrated to be distinct by in silico restriction of the ITS sequences deposited at NCBI.

  19. Comparative analyses of Legionella species identifies genetic features of strains causing Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valero, Laura; Rusniok, Christophe; Rolando, Monica; Neou, Mario; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Demirtas, Jasmin; Rouy, Zoe; Moore, Robert J; Chen, Honglei; Petty, Nicola K; Jarraud, Sophie; Etienne, Jerome; Steinert, Michael; Heuner, Klaus; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Médigue, Claudine; Glöckner, Gernot; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The genus Legionella comprises over 60 species. However, L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae alone cause over 95% of Legionnaires’ disease. To identify the genetic bases underlying the different capacities to cause disease we sequenced and compared the genomes of L. micdadei, L. hackeliae and L. fallonii (LLAP10), which are all rarely isolated from humans. We show that these Legionella species possess different virulence capacities in amoeba and macrophages, correlating with their occurrence in humans. Our comparative analysis of 11 Legionella genomes belonging to five species reveals highly heterogeneous genome content with over 60% representing species-specific genes; these comprise a complete prophage in L. micdadei, the first ever identified in a Legionella genome. Mobile elements are abundant in Legionella genomes; many encode type IV secretion systems for conjugative transfer, pointing to their importance for adaptation of the genus. The Dot/Icm secretion system is conserved, although the core set of substrates is small, as only 24 out of over 300 described Dot/Icm effector genes are present in all Legionella species. We also identified new eukaryotic motifs including thaumatin, synaptobrevin or clathrin/coatomer adaptine like domains. Legionella genomes are highly dynamic due to a large mobilome mainly comprising type IV secretion systems, while a minority of core substrates is shared among the diverse species. Eukaryotic like proteins and motifs remain a hallmark of the genus Legionella. Key factors such as proteins involved in oxygen binding, iron storage, host membrane transport and certain Dot/Icm substrates are specific features of disease-related strains.

  20. A Canine Audience: The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Reading Progress among Students Identified with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, Julie Omodio

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the…

  1. Validation of the ITS2 region as a novel DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilin; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Liu, Chang; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Gao, Ting; Pang, Xiaohui; Luo, Kun; Li, Ying; Li, Xiwen; Jia, Xiaocheng; Lin, Yulin; Leon, Christine

    2010-01-07

    The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due to the low identification rate, and the search is not over. Here, we compared seven candidate DNA barcodes (psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL, rpoC1, ycf5, ITS2, and ITS) from medicinal plant species. Our ranking criteria included PCR amplification efficiency, differential intra- and inter-specific divergences, and the DNA barcoding gap. Our data suggest that the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA represents the most suitable region for DNA barcoding applications. Furthermore, we tested the discrimination ability of ITS2 in more than 6600 plant samples belonging to 4800 species from 753 distinct genera and found that the rate of successful identification with the ITS2 was 92.7% at the species level. The ITS2 region can be potentially used as a standard DNA barcode to identify medicinal plants and their closely related species. We also propose that ITS2 can serve as a novel universal barcode for the identification of a broader range of plant taxa.

  2. PCR-RFLP Method to Identify Salmonid Species of Economic Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different fish species by molecular methods has become necessary to avoid both the incorrect labelling of individuals involved in repopulation programmes and the commercial frauds on the fish market. Different fish species of great economical importance, like the salmonids, which are very much requested for their meat, can be identified using molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP. The method is based on the amplification of a target region from the genome by PCR reaction followed by endonucleases digestion to detect the polymorphism of restriction fragments. In our study we analysed the following salmonid species from Romania: Salmo trutta fario, Salmo labrax, Salvelinus fontinalis, Onchorhynchus mykiss, Thymallus thymallus and Hucho hucho. In order to discriminate between the analysed species we amplified a fragment of mitochondrial genome comprising tRNAGlu/ cytochrome b/ tRNAThr/ tRNAPro/ D-loop/ tRNAPhe, followed by digestion with a specific restriction enzyme. The direct digestion of unpurified PCR products generated species-specific restriction patterns and proved to be a simple, reliable, inexpensive and fast method. Thus, it may be successfully utilized in specialized laboratories for the correct identification of the fish species for multiple purposes, including the traceability of fish food products.

  3. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the

  4. Mental representations of animal and plant species in their social contexts: Results from a survey across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.; Langers, F.; Bednar-Friedl, B.; Geamana, N.; Skogen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on public views on biodiversity and nature, our understanding of public attitudes towards animal and plant species is still rudimentary. This study investigates mental representations, constituted by beliefs, of three types of species (a large mammal, a spider

  5. A rapid method for selecting suitable animal species for studying pathogen interactions with plasma protein ligands in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Schumski, Ariane; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Herwald, Heiko; Smeds, Emanuel

    2017-05-01

    Species tropism constitutes a serious problem for developing relevant animal models of infection. Human pathogens can express virulence factors that show specific selectivity to human proteins, while their affinity for orthologs from other species can vary significantly. Suitable animal species must be used to analyse whether virulence factors are potential targets for drug development. We developed an assay that rapidly predicts applicable animal species for studying virulence factors binding plasma proteins. We used two well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus proteins, SSL7 and Efb, to develop an ELISA-based inhibition assay using plasma from different animal species. The interaction between SSL7 and human C5 and the binding of Efb to human fibrinogen and human C3 was studied. Affinity experiments and Western blot analyses were used to validate the assay. Human, monkey and cat plasma interfered with binding of SSL7 to human C5. Binding of Efb to human fibrinogen was blocked in human, monkey, gerbil and pig plasma, while human, monkey, gerbil, rabbit, cat and guinea pig plasma inhibited the binding of Efb to human C3. These results emphasize the importance of choosing correct animal models, and thus, our approach is a rapid and cost-effective method that can be used to prevent unnecessary animal experiments. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TEUŞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today nanotechnology represents a domain that is rapidly developing because nanoparticles are being used in a very large range of products with biomedical applications. Every year, new products, containing nanoparticles (NP appear on the market. Most of the products containing such nanomaterials come to be used by consumers without a previous and careful testing. Therefore, the effects they may have upon human health should be thoroughly investigated, the toxicological potential of NP upon the reproduction function (nanoreprotoxicity in particular, as any possible noxious effect will be reflected in the new generation. Most of the research papers that exist refer on the effects of silver, gold and titanium dioxide NP on embryo development. In this review paper we present the effects of less studied metal NP (platinum, aluminium, cerium oxide, tin oxide, nickel and indium on different species of animal embryos (Gallus domesticus – different hybrids, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis

  7. Effects of forage species or concentrate finishing on animal performance, carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, S K; Neel, J P S; Lewis, R M; Fontenot, J P; Clapham, W M

    2013-03-01

    Angus-cross steers (n = 128; initial BW = 270 ± 3.8 kg) were used in a 3-yr study to assess effects of forage species grazed before slaughter versus concentrate finishing on carcass and meat quality. At the completion of the stockering phase, steers were randomly allotted to mixed pasture (MP; n = 36/yr) or corn-silage concentrate (CON; n = 12/yr) finishing treatments. At 40 d before harvest, MP steers were randomly divided into 3 forage species treatments: alfalfa (AL), pearl millet (PM), or mixed pasture (MP). Average daily BW gain was greater (P = 0.001) for CON than for forage-finished (FOR) steers during the early and overall finishing phase. During the late finishing phase when FOR steers were grazing difference forage species, ADG was greater (P = 0.03) for PM than MP or AL. Harvest weight and HCW were greater (P animal performance. Total fat percentage of the 9th to 11th rib section was 46% less(P = 0.028) for FOR than CON due to reductions (P 0.78) between CON and FOR and were not altered (P > 0.40) by forage species. Trained sensory panel juiciness, initial tenderness, and overall tenderness scores did not differ (P > 0.17) by finishing treatment or forage species. Beef flavor intensity was greater (P 0.05) total lipid content of the LM. Oleic acid concentration and total MUFA of the LM were 21% and 22% less (P = 0.001) for FOR than CON. Concentrations of all individual [linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosadexaenoic (DHA) acids] and total n-3 fatty acids were greater (P carcass weight with same time endpoints and accelerates deposition of MUFA in comparison with FOR, which reduces carcass weight and fat deposition but maintains high concentrations of n-3 and CLA fatty acids. Finishing system or forage species grazed 40 d before slaughter did not alter beef tenderness but FOR had greater off-flavors according to both trained and descriptive sensory panelists.

  8. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1∶20 to 1∶160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ≧20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (≧12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR) = 9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola.

  9. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  10. PLANT SPECIES, USING AGAINST VIROUS INFECTIONS OF MAN AND ANIMALS: REGULARITIES OF THE DISTRIBUTION IN THE PHYLOGENETIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Popov P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The list of 674 species of flowering plants, using against 21 virous infections of man and animals is presented. Systematic units of high levels (classes, subclasses) are defined by frequency of such species. Frequency (distinction of percentage parts of species with certain use between the systematic unit and the rest of flora of flowering plants) was estimated by Fisher's statistical criterion. Subclasses Lamiidae and Asteridae, latter in the evolution range, are most rich by uses against v...

  11. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  12. Analysis of sequence diversity through internal transcribed spacers and simple sequence repeats to identify Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y T; Chen, R K; Lin, S J; Chen, Y C; Chin, S W; Chen, F C; Lee, C Y

    2014-04-08

    The Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. The Dendrobium genus has high economic potential as ornamental plants and for medicinal purposes. In addition, the species of this genus are able to produce large crops. However, many Dendrobium varieties are very similar in outward appearance, making it difficult to distinguish one species from another. This study demonstrated that the 12 Dendrobium species used in this study may be divided into 2 groups by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Red and yellow flowers may also be used to separate these species into 2 main groups. In particular, the deciduous characteristic is associated with the ITS genetic diversity of the A group. Of 53 designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, 7 pairs were polymorphic for polymerase chain reaction products that were amplified from a specific band. The results of this study demonstrate that these 7 SSR primer pairs may potentially be used to identify Dendrobium species and their progeny in future studies.

  13. Cordia verbenacea and secretion of mast cells in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Déborah Mara Costa; Luchini, Ana Carolina; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Gomes, José Carlos; Crespo-López, María Elena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2011-05-17

    Different plant species from Cordia genera are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory medication throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant known as "erva-baleeira". The alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions with leaves of C. verbenacea are used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of cough, pneumonia, parasitic diseases and, especially, the inflammatory processes. Anti-inflammatory activity was already demonstrated; however, molecular mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Considering the importance of histamine in early events of inflammation and in allergic diseases, we evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of leaves of C. verbenacea on histamine release (in vitro and in vivo studies) from different types of mast cells induced by chemical agents using several species of rodents. The extraction and quantification of histamine were performed by using an automatic fluorometric continuous flow system. The extract of C. verbenacea (30 μg/ml) reduced the in vitro secretion of histamine from rat mast cells induced by ionophore A23187, concanavalin A and compound 48/80, respectively, to 22.1 ± 2.2%, 24.3 ± 2.5% and 21.4 ± 2.1%. At the same concentration, the extract also inhibited the secretion of histamine from mast cells of guinea pig induced by ionophore A23187 to 33.3 ± 2.2%, and mast cells of hamster induced by ionophore A23187 and concanavalin A to 15.8 ± 2.5% and 10.8 ± 2.6%, respectively. The oral treatment with the extract (300 mg/kg) also inhibited the secretion of histamine induced by A23187 about to 36.3 ± 3.2% in rats. C. verbenacea inhibits the in vitro secretion of histamine from mast cells of different animal species, as well as the secretion of mast cells from animals treated with the extract, which gives not only the proven anti-inflammatory effect of the plant, but also anti-allergic effect, opening new possibilities for future anti

  14. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [99mTc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Linda C.; Romano, Jan E.; Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis; Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: 99m Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for α IIb β 3 (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [ 99m Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind to activated platelets in vivo in patients with acute

  15. DISCONTOOLS: a database to identify research gaps on vaccines, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics for the control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane

    2017-01-03

    The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.

  16. Nordic-Baltic Student Teachers' Identification of and Interest in Plant and Animal Species: The Importance of Species Identification and Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberg, Irmeli; Berg, Ida; Jeronen, Eila; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Norrgård-Sillanpää, Pia; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of species, interest in nature, and nature experiences are the factors that best promote interest in and understanding of environmental issues, biodiversity and sustainable life. The aim of this study is to investigate how well student teachers identify common local species, their interest in and ideas about species identification, and…

  17. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  18. Microsatellite Primers Identified by 454 Sequencing in the Floodplain Tree Species Eucalyptus victrix (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Nevill

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Eucalyptus victrix (Myrtaceae to evaluate the population and spatial genetic structure of this widespread northwestern Australian riparian tree species, which may be impacted by hydrological changes associated with mining activity. Methods and Results: 454 GS-FLX shotgun sequencing was used to obtain 1895 sequences containing putative microsatellite motifs. Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified and screened for variation in individuals from two populations in the Pilbara region. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.44 to 0.91 (mean: 0.66 and the number of alleles per locus ranged from five to 25 (average: 11. Conclusions: These microsatellite loci will be useful in future studies of population and spatial genetic structure in E. victrix, and inform the development of seed sourcing strategies for the species.

  19. A suite of molecular markers for identifying species, detecting introgression and describing population structure in spadefoot toads (Spea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Karin S; Allenby, Ashley; Martin, Ryan A; Monroy, Anaïs; Jones, Corbin D

    2012-09-01

    Two congeneric species of spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons, have been the focus of hybridization studies since the 1970s. Because complex hybrids are not readily distinguished phenotypically, genetic markers are needed to identify introgressed individuals. We therefore developed a set of molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphism) for identifying pure-species, F1 hybrids and more complex introgressed types. To do so, we tested a series of markers across both species and known hybrids using populations in both allopatry and sympatry. We retained those markers that differentiated the two pure-species and also consistently identified known species hybrids. These markers are well suited for identifying hybrids between these species. Moreover, those markers that show variation within each species can be used in conjunction with existing molecular markers in studies of population structure and gene flow. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Ashbrook

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis.We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1 and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum.

  1. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  2. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction to identify and determine the toxigenicity of Corynebacterium spp with zoonotic potential and an overview of human and animal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene de Fátima Costa Torres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis constitute a group of potentially toxigenic microorganisms that are related to different infectious processes in animal and human hosts. Currently, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of disease caused by these pathogens, which is partially due to a reduction in the frequency of routine laboratory testing. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR assay that can simultaneously identify and determine the toxigenicity of these corynebacterial species with zoonotic potential was developed. This assay uses five primer pairs targeting the following genes: rpoB (Corynebacterium spp, 16S rRNA (C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis, pld (C. pseudotuberculosis, dtxR (C. diphtheriae and tox [diphtheria toxin (DT ]. In addition to describing this assay, we review the literature regarding the diseases caused by these pathogens. Of the 213 coryneform strains tested, the mPCR results for all toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C . diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were in 100% agreement with the results of standard biochemical tests and PCR-DT. As an alternative to conventional methods, due to its advantages of specificity and speed, the mPCR assay used in this study may successfully be applied for the diagnosis of human and/or animal diseases caused by potentially toxigenic corynebacterial species.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical Nocardia species identified by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Compendium of Immune Signatures Identifies Conserved and Species-Specific Biology in Response to Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Jernej; Tan, Yan; Liberzon, Arthur; Tamayo, Pablo; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Butte, Atul J; Mesirov, Jill P; Haining, W Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    Gene-expression profiling has become a mainstay in immunology, but subtle changes in gene networks related to biological processes are hard to discern when comparing various datasets. For instance, conservation of the transcriptional response to sepsis in mouse models and human disease remains controversial. To improve transcriptional analysis in immunology, we created ImmuneSigDB: a manually annotated compendium of ∼5,000 gene-sets from diverse cell states, experimental manipulations, and genetic perturbations in immunology. Analysis using ImmuneSigDB identified signatures induced in activated myeloid cells and differentiating lymphocytes that were highly conserved between humans and mice. Sepsis triggered conserved patterns of gene expression in humans and mouse models. However, we also identified species-specific biological processes in the sepsis transcriptional response: although both species upregulated phagocytosis-related genes, a mitosis signature was specific to humans. ImmuneSigDB enables granular analysis of transcriptomic data to improve biological understanding of immune processes of the human and mouse immune systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying Chloris Species from Cuban Citrus Orchards and Determining Their Glyphosate-Resistance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo R. Bracamonte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chloris genus is a C4 photosynthetic species mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Populations of three Chloris species occurring in citrus orchards from central Cuba, under long history glyphosate-based weed management, were studied for glyphosate-resistant status by characterizing their herbicide resistance/tolerance mechanisms. Morphological and molecular analyses allowed these species to be identified as C. ciliata Sw., Chloris elata Desv., and Chloris barbata Sw. Based on the glyphosate rate that causes 50% mortality of the treated plants, glyphosate resistance (R was confirmed only in C. elata, The R population was 6.1-fold more resistant compared to the susceptible (S population. In addition, R plants of C. elata accumulated 4.6-fold less shikimate after glyphosate application than S plants. Meanwhile, populations of C. barbata and C. ciliata with or without glyphosate application histories showed similar LD50 values and shikimic acid accumulation rates, demonstrating that resistance to glyphosate have not evolved in these species. Plants of R and S populations of C. elata differed in 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation. The R population exhibited 27.3-fold greater 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity than the S population due to a target site mutation corresponding to a Pro-106-Ser substitution found in the EPSPS gene. These reports show the innate tolerance to glyphosate of C. barbata and C. ciliata, and confirm the resistance of C. elata to this herbicide, showing that both non-target site and target-site mechanisms are involved in its resistance to glyphosate. This is the first case of herbicide resistance in Cuba.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of listeria species from ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Taddese, Ayele; Biru, Tigist; Nigatu, Seleshe; Kebede, Elias; Ejo, Mebrat; Fikru, Abraham; Birhanu, Tamiru

    2015-05-12

    Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Listeria species isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin from public dinning places in Gondar town, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study on ready-toeat foods of animal origin sampled from major supermarkets, butcher shops, pastry shops, restaurants and hotels was carried out. Culture, biochemical and sugar tests were conducted for listeria species identification and disc diffusion test was performed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 384 food samples examined, 96 (25%) were positive for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 24 (6.25%) of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cake, raw meat, ice cream, minced beef, fish, unpasteurized milk and pizza in that order from higher to lower rate. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes revealed the presence of four multi-drug resistant isolates. The higher resistance rate was recorded for penicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, in decreasing order. All L. monocytogenes identified in the current study were sensitive to amoxicillin, cephalothin, cloxacillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and vancomycin. The presence of L. monocytogenes including drug resistant and multidrug resistant isolates in some ready-to-eat food items is an indicator of the presence of public health hazards to the consumer, particularly to the high-risk groups. Hence awareness creation on food safety and implementation of regulations

  7. Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients of Domestic Reference Animal and Plants for Dose Assessment of Non-human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, radiation protection has been focused on a radiation exposure of human beings. In the international radiation protection community, one of the recent key issues is to establish the methodology for assessing the radiological impact of an ionizing radiation on non-human species for an environmental protection. To assess the radiological impact to non-human species dose conversion coefficients are essential. This paper describes the methodology to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficient for non-human species and presents calculated internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides for 8 domestic reference animal and plants

  8. Endogenous cellulases in animals: Isolation of β-1,4-endoglucanase genes from two species of plant-parasitic cyst nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smant, Geert; Stokkermans, Jack P. W. G.; Yan, Yitang; de Boer, Jan M.; Baum, Thomas J.; Wang, Xiaohong; Hussey, Richard S.; Gommers, Fred J.; Henrissat, Bernard; Davis, Eric L.; Helder, Johannes; Schots, Arjen; Bakker, Jaap

    1998-01-01

    β-1,4-Endoglucanases (EGases, EC 3.2.1.4) degrade polysaccharides possessing β-1,4-glucan backbones such as cellulose and xyloglucan and have been found among extremely variegated taxonomic groups. Although many animal species depend on cellulose as their main energy source, most omnivores and herbivores are unable to produce EGases endogenously. So far, all previously identified EGase genes involved in the digestive system of animals originate from symbiotic microorganisms. Here we report on the synthesis of EGases in the esophageal glands of the cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and Heterodera glycines. From each of the nematode species, two cDNAs were characterized and hydrophobic cluster analysis revealed that the four catalytic domains belong to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolases (EC 3.2.1, 3.2.2, and 3.2.3). These domains show 37–44% overall amino acid identity with EGases from the bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi, Clostridium acetobutylicum, and Bacillus subtilis. One EGase with a bacterial type of cellulose-binding domain was identified for each nematode species. The leucine-rich hydrophobic core of the signal peptide and the presence of a polyadenylated 3′ end precluded the EGases from being of bacterial origin. Cyst nematodes are obligatory plant parasites and the identified EGases presumably facilitate the intracellular migration through plant roots by partial cell wall degradation. PMID:9560201

  9. Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir Rajiv

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression technologies have the ability to generate vast amounts of data, yet there often resides only limited resources for subsequent validation studies. This necessitates the ability to perform sorting and prioritization of the output data. Previously described methodologies have used functional pathways or transcriptional regulatory grouping to sort genes for further study. In this paper we demonstrate a comparative genomics based method to leverage data from animal models to prioritize genes for validation. This approach allows one to develop a disease-based focus for the prioritization of gene data, a process that is essential for systems that lack significant functional pathway data yet have defined animal models. This method is made possible through the use of highly controlled spotted cDNA slide production and the use of comparative bioinformatics databases without the use of cross-species slide hybridizations. Results Using gene expression profiling we have demonstrated a similar whole transcriptome gene expression patterns in prostate cancer cells from human and rat prostate cancer cell lines both at baseline expression levels and after treatment with physiologic concentrations of the proposed chemopreventive agent Selenium. Using both the human PC3 and rat PAII prostate cancer cell lines have gone on to identify a subset of one hundred and fifty-four genes that demonstrate a similar level of differential expression to Selenium treatment in both species. Further analysis and data mining for two genes, the Insulin like Growth Factor Binding protein 3, and Retinoic X Receptor alpha, demonstrates an association with prostate cancer, functional pathway links, and protein-protein interactions that make these genes prime candidates for explaining the mechanism of Selenium's chemopreventive effect in prostate cancer. These genes are subsequently validated by western blots showing Selenium based induction and using

  10. Identifying conservation and restoration priorities for saproxylic and old-growth forest species: a case study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Thibault; Bütler, Rita

    2009-07-01

    Saproxylic (dead-wood-associated) and old-growth species are among the most threatened species in European forest ecosystems, as they are susceptible to intensive forest management. Identifying areas with particular relevant features of biodiversity is of prime concern when developing species conservation and habitat restoration strategies and in optimizing resource investments. We present an approach to identify regional conservation and restoration priorities even if knowledge on species distribution is weak, such as for saproxylic and old-growth species in Switzerland. Habitat suitability maps were modeled for an expert-based selection of 55 focal species, using an ecological niche factor analyses (ENFA). All the maps were then overlaid, in order to identify potential species' hotspots for different species groups of the 55 focal species (e.g., birds, fungi, red-listed species). We found that hotspots for various species groups did not correspond. Our results indicate that an approach based on "richness hotspots" may fail to conserve specific species groups. We hence recommend defining a biodiversity conservation strategy prior to implementing conservation/restoration efforts in specific regions. The conservation priority setting of the five biogeographical regions in Switzerland, however, did not differ when different hotspot definitions were applied. This observation emphasizes that the chosen method is robust. Since the ENFA needs only presence data, this species prediction method seems to be useful for any situation where the species distribution is poorly known and/or absence data are lacking. In order to identify priorities for either conservation or restoration efforts, we recommend a method based on presence data only, because absence data may reflect factors unrelated to species presence.

  11. Proteomics approach to identify unique xylem sap proteins in Pierce's disease-tolerant Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sheikh M; Mazhar, Hifza; Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N

    2010-03-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a destructive bacterial disease of grapes caused by Xylella fastidiosa which is xylem-confined. The tolerance level to this disease varies among Vitis species. Our research was aimed at identifying unique xylem sap proteins present in PD-tolerant Vitis species. The results showed wide variation in the xylem sap protein composition, where a set of polypeptides with pI between 4.5 and 4.7 and M(r) of 31 kDa were present in abundant amount in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia, PD-tolerant), in reduced levels in Florida hybrid bunch (Vitis spp., PD-tolerant) and absent in bunch grapes (Vitis vinifera, PD-susceptible). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins revealed their similarity to beta-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, and a subunit of oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, which are known to play role in defense and oxygen generation. In addition, the amount of free amino acids and soluble sugars was found to be significantly lower in xylem sap of muscadine genotypes compared to V. vinifera genotypes, indicating that the higher nutritional value of bunch grape sap may be more suitable for Xylella growth. These data suggest that the presence of these unique proteins in xylem sap is vital for PD tolerance in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes.

  12. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses of pathogenic bacterial secretomes identified by mass spectrometry in Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao Thi; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Jaehan; Seo, Young-Su; Heo, Muyoung

    2017-07-01

    Secreted proteins (secretomes) play crucial roles during bacterial pathogenesis in both plant and human hosts. The identification and characterization of secretomes in the two plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae BGR1 and B. gladioli BSR3, which cause diseases in rice such as seedling blight, panicle blight, and grain rot, are important steps to not only understand the disease-causing mechanisms but also find remedies for the diseases. Here, we identified two datasets of secretomes in B. glumae BGR1 and B. gladioli BSR3, which consist of 118 and 111 proteins, respectively, using mass spectrometry approach and literature curation. Next, we characterized the functional properties, potential secretion pathways and sequence information properties of secretomes of two plant pathogens in a comparative analysis by various computational approaches. The ratio of potential non-classically secreted proteins (NCSPs) to classically secreted proteins (CSPs) in B. glumae BGR1 was greater than that in B. gladioli BSR3. For CSPs, the putative hydrophobic regions (PHRs) which are essential for secretion process of CSPs were screened in detail at their N-terminal sequences using hidden Markov model (HMM)-based method. Total 31 pairs of homologous proteins in two bacterial secretomes were indicated based on the global alignment (identity ≥ 70%). Our results may facilitate the understanding of the species-specific features of secretomes in two plant pathogenic Burkholderia species.

  13. Cross-species epigenetics identifies a critical role for VAV1 in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, J C; Kawauchi, D; Schwalbe, E C; Solecki, D J; Selby, M P; McKinnon, P J; Olson, J M; Hayden, J T; Grundy, R G; Ellison, D W; Williamson, D; Bailey, S; Roussel, M F; Clifford, S C

    2015-09-03

    The identification of key tumorigenic events in Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastomas (MBSHH) will be essential for the development of individualized therapies and improved outcomes. However, beyond confirmation of characteristic SHH pathway mutations, recent genome-wide sequencing studies have not revealed commonly mutated genes with widespread relevance as potential therapeutic targets. We therefore examined any role for epigenetic DNA methylation events in MBSHH using a cross-species approach to candidate identification, prioritization and validation. MBSHH-associated DNA methylation events were first identified in 216 subgrouped human medulloblastomas (50 MBSHH, 28 Wnt/Wingless, 44 Group 3 and 94 Group 4) and their conservation then assessed in tumors arising from four independent murine models of Shh medulloblastoma, alongside any role in tumorigenesis using functional assessments in mouse and human models. This strategy identified widespread regional CpG hypo-methylation of VAV1, leading to its elevated expression, as a conserved aberrant epigenetic event, which characterizes the majority of MBSHH tumors in both species, and is associated with a poor outcome in MBSHH patients. Moreover, direct modulation of VAV1 in mouse and human models revealed a critical role in tumor maintenance, and its abrogation markedly reduced medulloblastoma growth. Further, Vav1 activity regulated granule neuron precursor germinal zone exit and migration initiation in an ex vivo model of early postnatal cerebellar development. These findings establish VAV1 as a critical epigenetically regulated oncogene with a key role in MBSHH maintenance, and highlight its potential as a validated therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for the improved therapy of medulloblastoma.

  14. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenicspeciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no singletechnique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complexe...

  15. Approaches for quantifying antimicrobial consumption per animal species based on national sales data: a Swiss example, 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Luís P; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Müntener, Cedric; Chevance, Anne; Moulin, Gérard; Magouras, Ioannis

    2017-02-09

    Antimicrobial use in animals is known to contribute to the global burden of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, it is critical to monitor antimicrobial sales for livestock and pets. Despite the availability of veterinary antimicrobial sales data in most European countries, surveillance currently lacks consumption monitoring at the animal species level. In this study, alternative methods were investigated for stratifying antimicrobial sales per species using Swiss data (2006-2013). Three approaches were considered: (i) Equal Distribution (ED) allocated antimicrobial sales evenly across all species each product was licensed for; (ii) Biomass Distribution (BMD) stratified antimicrobial consumption, weighting the representativeness of each species' total biomass; and (iii) Longitudinal Study Extrapolation (LSE) assigned antimicrobial sales per species based on a field study describing prescription patterns in Switzerland. LSE is expected to provide the best estimates because it relies on field data. Given the Swiss example, BMD appears to be a reliable method when prescription data are not available, whereas ED seems to underestimate consumption in species with larger populations and higher treatment intensity. These methods represent a valuable tool for improving the monitoring systems of veterinary antimicrobial consumption across Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuny, Christiane; Friedrich, Alexander; Kozytska, Svetlana; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Ohlsen, Knut; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar; Witte, Wolfgang

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals such as horses, pet animals and productive livestock has raised questions of a probable human origin and in more general of host specificity of S. aureus. Particular clonal lineages are obviously specific for humans (e.g.

  17. Assessing the human-animal relationship in farmed species: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiblinger, S.; Boivin, X.; Pedersen, V.; Tosi, M.; Janczak, A.M.; Visser, E.K.; Jones, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on six main issues. First, we briefly explain why an increased understanding of the human¿animal relationship (HAR) is an essential component of any strategy intended to improve the welfare of farmed animals and their stockpersons. Second, we list the main internal and

  18. Imaging mass spectrometry identifies prognostic ganglioside species in rodent intracranial transplants of glioma and medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ermini

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-MSI allows us to investigate the distribution of lipid molecules within tissues. We used MALDI-MSI to identify prognostic gangliosides in tissue sections of rat intracranial allografts of rat glioma and mouse intracranial xenografts of human medulloblastoma. In the healthy adult rodent brain, GM1 and GD1 were the main types of glycolipids. Both gangliosides were absent in both intracranial transplants. The ganglioside GM3 was not present in the healthy adult brain but was highly expressed in rat glioma allografts. In combination with tandem mass spectrometry GM3 (d18:1/C24:0 was identified as the most abundant ganglioside species in the glioma allotransplant. By contrast, mouse xenografts of human medulloblastoma were characterized by prominent expression of the ganglioside GM2 (d18:0/C18:0. Together, these data demonstrate that tissue-based MALDI-MSI of gangliosides is able to discriminate between different brain tumors and may be a useful clinical tool for their classification and grading.

  19. Comparison of bacteroides-prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Voytek, Mary A

    2005-10-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  20. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  1. Melanins in Fossil Animals: Is It Possible to Infer Life History Traits from the Coloration of Extinct Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Juan J; Finlayson, Clive; Galván, Ismael

    2018-01-23

    Paleo-colour scientists have recently made the transition from describing melanin-based colouration in fossil specimens to inferring life-history traits of the species involved. Two such cases correspond to counter-shaded dinosaurs: dark-coloured due to melanins dorsally, and light-coloured ventrally. We believe that colour reconstruction of fossils based on the shape of preserved microstructures-the majority of paleo-colour studies involve melanin granules-is not without risks. In addition, animals with contrasting dorso-ventral colouration may be under different selection pressures beyond the need for camouflage, including, for instance, visual communication or ultraviolet (UV) protection. Melanin production is costly, and animals may invest less in areas of the integument where pigments are less needed. In addition, melanocytes exposed to UV radiation produce more melanin than unexposed melanocytes. Pigment economization may thus explain the colour pattern of some counter-shaded animals, including extinct species. Even in well-studied extant species, their diversity of hues and patterns is far from being understood; inferring colours and their functions in species only known from one or few specimens from the fossil record should be exerted with special prudence.

  2. Melanins in Fossil Animals: Is It Possible to Infer Life History Traits from the Coloration of Extinct Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Juan J.; Finlayson, Clive; Galván, Ismael

    2018-01-01

    Paleo-colour scientists have recently made the transition from describing melanin-based colouration in fossil specimens to inferring life-history traits of the species involved. Two such cases correspond to counter-shaded dinosaurs: dark-coloured due to melanins dorsally, and light-coloured ventrally. We believe that colour reconstruction of fossils based on the shape of preserved microstructures—the majority of paleo-colour studies involve melanin granules—is not without risks. In addition, animals with contrasting dorso-ventral colouration may be under different selection pressures beyond the need for camouflage, including, for instance, visual communication or ultraviolet (UV) protection. Melanin production is costly, and animals may invest less in areas of the integument where pigments are less needed. In addition, melanocytes exposed to UV radiation produce more melanin than unexposed melanocytes. Pigment economization may thus explain the colour pattern of some counter-shaded animals, including extinct species. Even in well-studied extant species, their diversity of hues and patterns is far from being understood; inferring colours and their functions in species only known from one or few specimens from the fossil record should be exerted with special prudence. PMID:29360744

  3. Melanins in Fossil Animals: Is It Possible to Infer Life History Traits from the Coloration of Extinct Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Negro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paleo-colour scientists have recently made the transition from describing melanin-based colouration in fossil specimens to inferring life-history traits of the species involved. Two such cases correspond to counter-shaded dinosaurs: dark-coloured due to melanins dorsally, and light-coloured ventrally. We believe that colour reconstruction of fossils based on the shape of preserved microstructures—the majority of paleo-colour studies involve melanin granules—is not without risks. In addition, animals with contrasting dorso-ventral colouration may be under different selection pressures beyond the need for camouflage, including, for instance, visual communication or ultraviolet (UV protection. Melanin production is costly, and animals may invest less in areas of the integument where pigments are less needed. In addition, melanocytes exposed to UV radiation produce more melanin than unexposed melanocytes. Pigment economization may thus explain the colour pattern of some counter-shaded animals, including extinct species. Even in well-studied extant species, their diversity of hues and patterns is far from being understood; inferring colours and their functions in species only known from one or few specimens from the fossil record should be exerted with special prudence.

  4. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully...... selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology...

  5. Competitive interactions between co-occurring invaders: identifying asymmetries between two invasive crayfish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudina, S.; Galic, N.G.; Roessink, I.; Hock, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems today increasingly suffer invasions by multiple invasive species. Complex interactions between invasive species can have different fitness implications for each invader, which can in turn determine the future progression of their invasions and result in differential impacts on native

  6. Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttika Suwannasai

    Full Text Available Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI, we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1 Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2 Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3 Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in

  7. Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannasai, Nuttika; Martín, María P; Phosri, Cherdchai; Sihanonth, Prakitsin; Whalley, Anthony J S; Spouge, John L

    2013-01-01

    Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI), we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1) Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2) Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3) Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in Annulohypoxylon and

  8. Rarity, Species Richness, and the Threat of Extinction—Are Plants the Same as Animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa). IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely followi...

  9. Using single strand conformational polymorphisms (SSCP) to identify Phytophthora species in Oregon forests affected by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Hansen; C. Hesse; P. Reeser; W. Sutton; L. Winton

    2006-01-01

    Phytophthora species are abundant in streams, widespread in soils and occasionally found in diseased plants in the tanoak forests of southwestern Oregon. It is time-consuming and expensive to identify hundreds of isolates to species using morphology or internal transribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. We modified a published Phytophthora...

  10. Identifying human disease genes through cross-species gene mapping of evolutionary conserved processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Poot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding complex networks that modulate development in humans is hampered by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity within and between populations. Here we present a method that exploits natural variation in highly diverse mouse genetic reference panels in which genetic and environmental factors can be tightly controlled. The aim of our study is to test a cross-species genetic mapping strategy, which compares data of gene mapping in human patients with functional data obtained by QTL mapping in recombinant inbred mouse strains in order to prioritize human disease candidate genes.We exploit evolutionary conservation of developmental phenotypes to discover gene variants that influence brain development in humans. We studied corpus callosum volume in a recombinant inbred mouse panel (C57BL/6J×DBA/2J, BXD strains using high-field strength MRI technology. We aligned mouse mapping results for this neuro-anatomical phenotype with genetic data from patients with abnormal corpus callosum (ACC development.From the 61 syndromes which involve an ACC, 51 human candidate genes have been identified. Through interval mapping, we identified a single significant QTL on mouse chromosome 7 for corpus callosum volume with a QTL peak located between 25.5 and 26.7 Mb. Comparing the genes in this mouse QTL region with those associated with human syndromes (involving ACC and those covered by copy number variations (CNV yielded a single overlap, namely HNRPU in humans and Hnrpul1 in mice. Further analysis of corpus callosum volume in BXD strains revealed that the corpus callosum was significantly larger in BXD mice with a B genotype at the Hnrpul1 locus than in BXD mice with a D genotype at Hnrpul1 (F = 22.48, p<9.87*10(-5.This approach that exploits highly diverse mouse strains provides an efficient and effective translational bridge to study the etiology of human developmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.

  11. Toward a cross-species neuroscientific understanding of the affective mind: do animals have emotional feelings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-06-01

    Do we need to consider mental processes in our analysis of brain functions in other animals? Obviously we do, if such BrainMind functions exist in the animals we wish to understand. If so, how do we proceed, while still retaining materialistic-mechanistic perspectives? This essay outlines the historical forces that led to emotional feelings in animals being marginalized in behavioristic scientific discussions of why animals behave the way they do, and why mental constructs are generally disregarded in modern neuroscientific analyses. The roots of this problem go back to Cartesian dualism and the attempt of 19th century physician-scientists to ground a new type of medical curriculum on a completely materialistic approach to body functions. Thereby all vitalistic principles were discarded from the lexicon of science, and subjective experience in animals was put in that category and discarded as an invalid approach to animal behavior. This led to forms of rigid operationalism during the era of behaviorism and subsequently ruthless reductionism in brain research, leaving little room for mentalistic concepts such as emotional feelings in animal research. However, modern studies of the brain clearly indicate that artificially induced arousals of emotional networks, as with localized electrical and chemical brain stimulation, can serve as "rewards" and "punishments" in various learning tasks. This strongly indicates that animal brains elaborate various experienced states, with those having affective contents being easiest to study rigorously. However, in approaching emotional feelings empirically we must pay special attention to the difficulties and vagaries of human language and evolutionary levels of control in the brain. We need distinct nomenclatures from primary (unconditioned phenomenal experiences) to tertiary (reflective) levels of mind. The scientific pursuit of affective brain processes in other mammals can now reveal general BrainMind principles that also apply

  12. Cross-species microarray hybridization to identify developmentally regulated genes in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. Several regulatory genes essential for fruiting body development were previously isolated by complementation of the sterile mutants pro1, pro11 and pro22. To establish the genetic relationships between these genes and to identify downstream targets, we have conducted cross-species microarray hybridizations using cDNA arrays derived from the closely related fungus Neurospora crassa and RNA probes prepared from wild-type S. macrospora and the three developmental mutants. Of the 1,420 genes which gave a signal with the probes from all the strains used, 172 (12%) were regulated differently in at least one of the three mutants compared to the wild type, and 17 (1.2%) were regulated differently in all three mutant strains. Microarray data were verified by Northern analysis or quantitative real time PCR. Among the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the mutant strains are genes encoding the pheromone precursors, enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis and a lectin-like protein. Analysis of gene expression in double mutants revealed a complex network of interaction between the pro gene products.

  13. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost.

  14. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Bong Mei; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Sulong, Ghazali; Baker, Thar; Tully, David

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost. PMID:29420568

  15. Identifying and characterizing the most significant β-glucosidase of the novel species Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Anette; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Lubeck, Mette; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Culley, David E.; Lubeck, Peter S.

    2012-08-20

    A newly discovered fungal species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus, was found to produce a culture broth rich in beta-glucosidase activity. In this present work, the main beta-glucosidase of A. saccharolyticus responsible for the efficient hydrolytic activity was identified, isolated, and characterized. Ion exchange chromatography was used to fractionate the culture broth, yielding fractions with high beta-glucosidase activity and only one visible band on an SDS-PAGE gel. Mass spectrometry analysis of this band gave peptide matches to beta-glucosidases from aspergilli. Through a PCR approach using degenerate primers and genome walking, a 2919 base pair sequence encoding the 860 amino acid BGL1 polypeptide was determined. BGL1 of A. saccharolyticus has 91% and 82% identity with BGL1 from Aspergillus aculeatus and BGL1 from Aspergillus niger, respectively, both belonging to Glycoside hydrolase family 3. Homology modeling studies suggested beta-glucosidase activity with preserved retaining mechanism and a wider catalytic pocket compared to other beta-glucosidases. The bgl1 gene was heterologously expressed in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, purified, and characterized by enzyme kinetics studies. The enzyme can hydrolyze cellobiose, pNPG, and cellodextrins. The enzyme showed good thermostability, was stable at 50°C, and at 60°C it had a half-life of approximately 6 hours.

  16. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  17. Natural mixing of species: novel plant–animal communities on Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; T.A. Carlo; Jr. Wunderle

    2012-01-01

    Global anthropogenic activities are responsible for the modification of landscapes, creation of novel environments and movement of species across biogeographic regions. A consequence of this activity is the mixing of native and introduced species and the formation of novel biotic communities. We review the ecological consequences of the mixing of native and introduced...

  18. Searching for animal models and potential target species for emerging pathogens: Experience gained from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Until December 2016, MERS has accounted for more than 1800 cases and 35% fatality rate. Finding an animal model of disease is key to develop vaccines or antivirals against such emerging pathogens and to understand its pathogenesis. Knowledge of the potential role of domestic livestock and other animal species in the transmission of pathogens is of importance to understand the epidemiology of the disease. Little is known about MERS-CoV animal host range. In this paper, experimental data on potential hosts for MERS-CoV is reviewed. Advantages and limitations of different animal models are evaluated in relation to viral pathogenesis and transmission studies. Finally, the relevance of potential new target species is discussed.

  19. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation is a cornerstone of systematic conservation planning. However, biodiversity, or even the distribution of all species, cannot be directly quantified, due to the inherent complexity of natural systems. Species indicator groups may...... serve as important tools for the identification of priority areas for conservation. Yet, it is unclear which factors make certain indicator groups perform better than others. In this study, using data on the Danish distribution of 847 species of plants, vertebrates and insects, we assessed whether...... the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  20. Rarity, species richness, and the threat of extinction--are plants the same as animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa. IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.

  1. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GeMMs of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1, choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5 metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  2. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.

    2018-01-04

    Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1), choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5) metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  3. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  4. Do Animals Make Art or the Evolutionary Continuity of Species: A Case for Uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Luty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When Władysław Tatarkiewicz wrote that there are only two things that can be said about art: that it is a human activity, not a product of nature, and that it is a conscious activity (or its product, adding that every statement about art different from the ones mentioned above was always finally overthrown (Tatarkiewicz, 1980, p. 37, he probably did not think that the first claim could be questioned by anyone. In the following paper, I will trace the history of observations of “artistic behaviors” that were made by animal ethologists and then processed by evolutionary art philosophers who may lead to the hypothesis about the validity of assigning artistic abilities to animals. In respect to this article is aimed at a wide audience. I will also demonstrate that the question: whether, and in what sense, animals create art is in fact a question about a definition of art that could include this type of intentional animal acts.

  5. Clostridium difficile Infection in Production Animals and Avian Species: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moono, Peter; Foster, Niki F; Hampson, David J; Knight, Daniel R; Bloomfield, Lauren E; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized humans. Recently, C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of neonatal enteritis in food animals such as pigs, resulting in stunted growth, delays in weaning, and mortality, as well as colitis in large birds such as ostriches. C. difficile is a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, which produces two toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) as its main virulence factors. The majority of strains isolated from animals produce an additional binary toxin (C. difficile transferase) that is associated with increased virulence. C. difficile is ubiquitous in the environment and has a wide host range. This review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical presentations, risk factors, and laboratory diagnosis of CDI in animals. Increased awareness by veterinarians and animal owners of the significance of clinical disease caused by C. difficile in livestock and avians is needed. Finally, this review provides an overview on methods for controlling environmental contamination and potential therapeutics available.

  6. Sensitivity, specificity and comparison of three commercially available immunological tests in the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danišová, Olga; Halánová, Monika; Valenčáková, Alexandra; Luptáková, Lenka

    The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN ® Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA ® QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the entire group determined by enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-chromatographic test and polymerase chain reaction was 34.17%, 27.84%, 6.33% and 27.84%, respectively. Sensitivity of animal samples with enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and immuno-chromatographic test was 63.6%, 40.9% and 22.7%, resp., when questionable samples were considered positive, whereas specificity of enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuno-chromatographic test was 75.9%, 78.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were different for all the tests. These differences results are controversial and therefore reliability and reproducibility of immunoassays as the only diagnostic method is questionable. The use of various Cryptosporidium species in diagnosis based on immunological testing and different results obtained by individual tests indicate potential differences in Copro-antigens produced by individual Cryptosporidium species. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Status of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Stephen J. Lewis; Janet D. Green; David N. Ewert

    1993-01-01

    We ranked species of neotropical migrant landbirds by decreasing management concern for their viability in the Midwest. This was part of a coordinated effort by regional working groups of the Partners In Flight Program, an interagency program for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs). Species were ranked by seven criteria, developed by working group...

  8. Iodine metabolism and thyroid functions in various species of domestic animals and poultry birds. I - Species difference in thyroid status as reflected by triiodothyronine 131I uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setia, M.S.; Parshad, Omkar; Varman, P.N.

    1974-01-01

    In vitro triiodothyronine- 131 I uptake, by red blood cells was studied in buffaloes, buffaloe calves, cross-bred calves, rams, goats, piglets and also in pure white leg horn and cross-bred birds. Results revealed that buffalo calves have the lowest uptake values, whereas piglets appeared to have the highest values as compared to other species. Distinct differences in the uptake of T 3 - 131 I by the erythrocytes were observed to exist within as well as amongst the species of farm animals and poultry birds studied. Cross-breds exhibited higher degree of T 3 - 131 I uptake as compared to pure-breds. This test offers promise where more tedious methods may not be possible for conducting the survey on the thyroid status and iodine metabolism on large population of live-stock. (author)

  9. The Healing Species: Animal-Assisted Character Education for Improving Student Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda J. Pearson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Healing Species program aims to reduce disruptive behaviors at school by increasing students’ abilities to avoid conflict when possible and to resolve conflicts peaceably when they occur. The program’s 11 lessons incorporate elements of behavior theory that postulate behavior follows belief. This study hypothesized that 5th and 6th grade students who completed the Healing Species curriculum would show fewer normative beliefs favoring aggression, greater empathy, and fewer disciplinary infractions, than a comparable group of students who did not receive the Healing Species program. Lessons included the participation of rescued dogs to emphasize compassion, empathy, responsibility, and forgiveness. Study results offered evidence of improved overall behavior and specific reductions in violence and aggression.

  10. [The susceptibility of different animal species to synanthropic and natural populations of Trichinella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Iu G; Artemenko, L P

    1997-01-01

    Pigs have been found to be highly susceptible to the synanthropic (domestic) population of Trichinella [correction of Trachina] and weakly susceptible to the natural (native) one. Fur-bearing animals (polar foxes and foxes) are more susceptible to the natural population of Trichinella [correction of Trachina], but minks are equally sensible to the two variants of T. spiralis. In the host's body, synanthropic Trichinella [correction of Trachinas] form capsules of lemon-like, less frequently, oval shape, but the native population do round capsules. There is larval adaptation when Trichinella [correction of Trachina] larvae enter the nonspecific host's body after their prepassage through the organism of domestic carnivorous animals (cats, dogs). The pig is successfully infected with T. spiralis nativa via the cat or dog; the infection rate is approximately close to that observed during control infection of pigs with synanthropic Trichinella [correction of Trachina].

  11. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher brain regions. Such findings suggest

  12. Recently Identified Mutations in the Ebola Virus-Makona Genome Do Not Alter Pathogenicity in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marzi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ebola virus (EBOV, isolate Makona, the causative agent of the West African EBOV epidemic, has been the subject of numerous investigations to determine the genetic diversity and its potential implication for virus biology, pathogenicity, and transmissibility. Despite various mutations that have emerged over time through multiple human-to-human transmission chains, their biological relevance remains questionable. Recently, mutations in the glycoprotein GP and polymerase L, which emerged and stabilized early during the outbreak, have been associated with improved viral fitness in cell culture. Here, we infected mice and rhesus macaques with EBOV-Makona isolates carrying or lacking those mutations. Surprisingly, all isolates behaved very similarly independent of the genotype, causing severe or lethal disease in mice and macaques, respectively. Likewise, we could not detect any evidence for differences in virus shedding. Thus, no specific biological phenotype could be associated with these EBOV-Makona mutations in two animal models. : Marzi et al. demonstrate that recently identified mutations in the EBOV-Makona genome, which appeared during the West African epidemic, do not significantly alter pathogenicity in IFNAR−/− mice and rhesus macaques. Other factors may have been more important for increased case numbers, case fatalities, and human-to-human transmission during this unprecedented epidemic. Keywords: Ebola virus, Ebola Makona, glycoprotein GP, polymerase L, GP mutation A82V, L mutation D759G, West African epidemic, pathogenicity

  13. Identifying keystone species in the human gut microbiome from metagenomic timeseries using sparse linear regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K Fisher

    Full Text Available Human associated microbial communities exert tremendous influence over human health and disease. With modern metagenomic sequencing methods it is now possible to follow the relative abundance of microbes in a community over time. These microbial communities exhibit rich ecological dynamics and an important goal of microbial ecology is to infer the ecological interactions between species directly from sequence data. Any algorithm for inferring ecological interactions must overcome three major obstacles: 1 a correlation between the abundances of two species does not imply that those species are interacting, 2 the sum constraint on the relative abundances obtained from metagenomic studies makes it difficult to infer the parameters in timeseries models, and 3 errors due to experimental uncertainty, or mis-assignment of sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units, bias inferences of species interactions due to a statistical problem called "errors-in-variables". Here we introduce an approach, Learning Interactions from MIcrobial Time Series (LIMITS, that overcomes these obstacles. LIMITS uses sparse linear regression with boostrap aggregation to infer a discrete-time Lotka-Volterra model for microbial dynamics. We tested LIMITS on synthetic data and showed that it could reliably infer the topology of the inter-species ecological interactions. We then used LIMITS to characterize the species interactions in the gut microbiomes of two individuals and found that the interaction networks varied significantly between individuals. Furthermore, we found that the interaction networks of the two individuals are dominated by distinct "keystone species", Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroided stercosis, that have a disproportionate influence on the structure of the gut microbiome even though they are only found in moderate abundance. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the abundances of certain keystone species may be responsible for individuality in

  14. gyrB analysis as a tool for identifying Nocardia species and exploring their phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Gema; Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2015-03-01

    gyrB is used to improve the identification of the Nocardia species N. brasiliensis, N. higoensis, N. ignorata, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. paucivorans, N. pneumoniae, N. puris, N. takedensis, N. veterana, and N. vinacea, but it does not improve the identification of another 12 Nocardia studied species. gyrB provides typing and phylogenetic markers for N. carnea, N. transvalensis, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitidiscaviarum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  16. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. VIII. Species difference on biological half life of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakubo, G; Hasegawa, A; Ikebuchi, H; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    About 30 -- 60 ..mu..Ci/0.15 mg Cd/kg of cadmium chloride solution containing sup(115m)Cd was injected intraperitoneally to mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and quails, and thereafter the whole body retention of Cd was measured continuously for 60 -- 92 days in order to find the biological half lives of the metal in these animals. The whole body retention was determined by whole body counting of radioactivity in mice, rats, guinea pigs and quails, but in the case of rabbit it was determined by counting rates of excreta. The biological half lives thus obtained in mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and quail were 220, 150 and 181, 334, 299 and 367 days, respectively. Namely, an apparent species difference was observed even under the same conditions such as sex of animal, dose of metal per kg and dosing route.

  17. Identifying the World's Most Climate Change Vulnerable Species: A Systematic Trait-Based Assessment of all Birds, Amphibians and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foden, Wendy B.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Stuart, Simon N.; Vié, Jean-Christophe; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Angulo, Ariadne; DeVantier, Lyndon M.; Gutsche, Alexander; Turak, Emre; Cao, Long; Donner, Simon D.; Katariya, Vineet; Bernard, Rodolphe; Holland, Robert A.; Hughes, Adrian F.; O’Hanlon, Susannah E.; Garnett, Stephen T.; Şekercioğlu, Çagan H.; Mace, Georgina M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on species’ biological traits and their modeled exposure to projected climatic changes. In the largest such assessment to date, we applied this approach to each of the world’s birds, amphibians and corals (16,857 species). The resulting assessments identify the species with greatest relative vulnerability to climate change and the geographic areas in which they are concentrated, including the Amazon basin for amphibians and birds, and the central Indo-west Pacific (Coral Triangle) for corals. We found that high concentration areas for species with traits conferring highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity differ from those of highly exposed species, and we identify areas where exposure-based assessments alone may over or under-estimate climate change impacts. We found that 608–851 bird (6–9%), 670–933 amphibian (11–15%), and 47–73 coral species (6–9%) are both highly climate change vulnerable and already threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List. The remaining highly climate change vulnerable species represent new priorities for conservation. Fewer species are highly climate change vulnerable under lower IPCC SRES emissions scenarios, indicating that reducing greenhouse emissions will reduce climate change driven extinctions. Our study answers the growing call for a more biologically and ecologically inclusive approach to assessing climate change vulnerability. By facilitating independent assessment of the three dimensions of climate change vulnerability

  18. The investigation of interspecies diversity of erythrocyte aggregation properties by two different photometric methods in four animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, F; Toth, E; Peto, K; Miko, I; Nemeth, N

    2015-12-01

    Among the haemorheological parameters, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation shows the largest interspecies diversity, and often controversial data can be found in the literature, besides the methodology-dependent issues. In this present investigation, we compared four experimental/laboratory animal species' RBC aggregation by two different photometric methods for better revealing the differences. Blood samples (K3-EDTA, 1.5 mg/ml) were taken from female animals: 16 inbred mice (Mus musculus, cardiac puncture), 15 outbred rats (Rattus norvegicus, caudal caval vein puncture), 15 beagle dogs (Canis canis, cephalic vein) and 23 juvenile pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, medial saphenous vein). Haematological parameters (microcell counter) and RBC aggregation (light transmission and syllectometry-laser backscatter methods) were determined within 2 h after sampling. Describing the first 5-10 s of the aggregation process, additional parameters were calculated out of the syllectometric raw data. Standardized difference was calculated to determine the sensitivity of the two devices. Parameters describing the extent and magnitude of red blood cell aggregation showed the lowest values in the rat and the highest in the pig and canine blood. In turn, parameters describing the kinetics of aggregation showed the lowest values in the mouse and the highest in the rat. The standardized difference values for the laser backscattering method were 2-4 times larger vs. the light transmission one. The magnitude of the differences was not consequent in the aggregation parameters. These comparative results show that the laser backscattering method can detect the RBC aggregation differences between the investigated species more sensitively than the light transmission method. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10 -4 ; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10 -4 . Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10 -4 . Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10 -4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10 -4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Panksepp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1 It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB; these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2 These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3 All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4 Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5 Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1, which are regulated by

  1. Use of DNA sequences to identify forensically important fly species and their distribution in the coastal region of Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Angie; Honda, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Forensic entomology has gained prominence in recent years, as improvements in DNA technology and molecular methods have allowed insect and other arthropod evidence to become increasingly useful in criminal and civil investigations. However, comprehensive faunal inventories are still needed, including cataloging local DNA sequences for forensically significant Diptera. This multi-year fly-trapping study was built upon and expanded a previous survey of these flies in Santa Clara County, including the addition of genetic barcoding data from collected species of flies. Flies from the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were trapped in meat-baited traps set in a variety of locations throughout the county. Flies were identified using morphological features and confirmed by molecular analysis. A total of 16 calliphorid species, 11 sarcophagid species, and four muscid species were collected and differentiated. This study found more species of flies than previous area surveys and established new county records for two calliphorid species: Cynomya cadaverina and Chrysomya rufifacies. Differences were found in fly fauna in different areas of the county, indicating the importance of microclimates in the distribution of these flies. Molecular analysis supported the use of DNA barcoding as an effective method of identifying cryptic fly species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of in vivo selective binding of [11C]doxepin to histamine H1 receptors in five animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Wang Weifang; Tsukada, Hideo; Harada, Norihiro; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kimura, Yuichi; Ishii, Kenji; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    The specific binding of [ 11 C]doxepin, which has been used as a radioligand for mapping histamine H 1 receptors in human brain by positron emission tomography, was evaluated in five animal species. In mice the [ 11 C]doxepin uptake was reduced by treatment with cold doxepin and two H 1 receptor antagonists, but not with H 2 /H 3 antagonists. The specific binding evaluated with treatment with (+)-chlorpheniramine (H 1 antagonist) was in the range of 10-30% in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey, but was not detected in guinea pig

  3. Species-specific detection of processed animal proteins in feed by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrile, Luisa; Amato, Giuseppina; Marchis, Daniela; Martra, Gianmario; Rossi, Andrea Mario

    2017-08-15

    The existing European Regulation (EC n° 51/2013) prohibits the use of animals meals in feedstuffs in order to prevent Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy infection and diffusion, however the legislation is rapidly moving towards a partial lifting of the "feed ban" and the competent control organisms are urged to develop suitable analytical methods able to avoid food safety incidents related to animal origin products. The limitations of the official methods (i.e. light microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction) suggest exploring new analytic ways to get reliable results in a short time. The combination of spectroscopic techniques with optical microscopy allows the development of an individual particle method able to meet both selectivity and sensitivity requirements (0.1%w/w). A spectroscopic method based on Fourier Transform micro-Raman spectroscopy coupled with Discriminant Analysis is here presented. This approach could be very useful for in-situ applications, such as customs inspections, since it drastically reduces time and costs of analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  6. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for Central European beetles with a focus on Germany: adding more than 3500 identified species to BOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Lars; Morinière, Jérôme; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Hebert, Paul D N; Hausmann, Axel; Köhler, Frank; Balke, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Beetles are the most diverse group of animals and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. In many countries, they are well established for environmental impact assessment, but even in the well-studied Central European fauna, species identification can be very difficult. A comprehensive and taxonomically well-curated DNA barcode library could remedy this deficit and could also link hundreds of years of traditional knowledge with next generation sequencing technology. However, such a beetle library is missing to date. This study provides the globally largest DNA barcode reference library for Coleoptera for 15 948 individuals belonging to 3514 well-identified species (53% of the German fauna) with representatives from 97 of 103 families (94%). This study is the first comprehensive regional test of the efficiency of DNA barcoding for beetles with a focus on Germany. Sequences ≥500 bp were recovered from 63% of the specimens analysed (15 948 of 25 294) with short sequences from another 997 specimens. Whereas most specimens (92.2%) could be unambiguously assigned to a single known species by sequence diversity at CO1, 1089 specimens (6.8%) were assigned to more than one Barcode Index Number (BIN), creating 395 BINs which need further study to ascertain if they represent cryptic species, mitochondrial introgression, or simply regional variation in widespread species. We found 409 specimens (2.6%) that shared a BIN assignment with another species, most involving a pair of closely allied species as 43 BINs were involved. Most of these taxa were separated by barcodes although sequence divergences were low. Only 155 specimens (0.97%) show identical or overlapping clusters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  8. Use of DNA barcodes to identify invasive armyworm Spodoptera species in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification of d...

  9. Using aflp to identify genetic relationships in cassia species from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihanat, A.; Rungsihirunrat, K.; Chareonsap, P. P.; Ruangrungsi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Several species of Cassia are used in Thai folk medicine as a laxative and a treatment for skin infections. However, the taxonomy of the GenusCassia is quite complex and intriguing. Thus, the correct identification of the species of this genus is necessary for efficacy and safety. The phylogenetic relationships among the 16 species of Cassiagenus existing in Thailand were evaluated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Combinations of 70 primers were screened and eleven primer combinations produced a total of 849 distinct and reproducible bands ranging from 60 to 100 bands with an average of 77.18 bands per primer combination. The genetic distances were calculated based on the AFLP bands that had been amplified using the eleven primer combinations. The similarity indices (SI) ranged from 0.25 to 0.78. The dendrogram was created using the Unweighted Pair Group Method of the Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) and the genotypes were divided into two major groups. The results indicate that the phylogenetic relationships are associated with the morphological characterization. In conclusion, an AFLP marker could be an efficient and reliable tool for the identification of a Cassia species. (author)

  10. A new approach to horizon-scanning: identifying potentially invasive alien species and their introduction pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Beringen, Ruud; Creemers, Raymond; Hollander, Hans; van Kessel, Nils; van Kleef, Hein; de Koppel, Sander van; Lemaire, Adrienne J. J.; Ode, Baudewijn; Verbrugge, Laura N. H.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Schipper, Aafke M.; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S. E. W.

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered an important threat to global biodiversity due to major ecological impacts. In 2014, the European Union (EU) introduced a regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of IAS. The first risk prioritized list

  11. PLANT SPECIES, USING AGAINST VIROUS INFECTIONS OF MAN AND ANIMALS: REGULARITIES OF THE DISTRIBUTION IN THE PHYLOGENETIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov P.L.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The list of 674 species of flowering plants, using against 21 virous infections of man and animals is presented. Systematic units of high levels (classes, subclasses are defined by frequency of such species. Frequency (distinction of percentage parts of species with certain use between the systematic unit and the rest of flora of flowering plants was estimated by Fisher's statistical criterion. Subclasses Lamiidae and Asteridae, latter in the evolution range, are most rich by uses against virous infections in general, and especially against respiratory infections, jaundices, hydrophobia, rare virous infections. Subclasses Magnoliidae and Ranunculidae, beginning the evolutional range, are characterized high frequency of uses against measles, smallpox, jaundices. Subclasses Caryophyllidae, Hamamelidae, Dillenidae, Rosidae, middle in the evolution range, are characterized by middle or low frequency of uses against majority of virous infections. Twin relations between 6-th basic virous infections on intersecting complexes of plant species, applied against these infections, were characterized by Fisher's statistical criterion. Connections «respiratory infections - hydrophobia», «respiratory infections - measles», «measles - hydrophobia», «jaundices - hydrophobia», «respiratory infections - jaundices», «respiratory infections - warts», «respiratory infections - smallpox», «jaundices - warts», «measles - smallpox» are confident.

  12. Forensic analysis of bone in Regio antebrachii of deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine origin of animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are frequent cases of poaching in which it is necessary to determine to which animal species the prey belonged on the basis of morphological characteristics of the bone. In this case, the Department of Forensic Medicine received material for giving an expert opinion on the left and right forearm (radius and ulna and twelve pieces of the ribs. The ribs were completely broken, so in order to identify the bones as belonging to a particular animal species, only the radius and ulna were used. Forensic analysis was perfomed by comparing the osteological features of the delivered bones with those of museum specimens of deer and sheep bones. The forearm (ossa antebrachii of the deer is slender and thin, and it is massive and heavier in sheep. There are two interosseus spaces (spatium interosseum antebrachii of the forearm in the deer and only one in the sheep. The olecranon tuber (tuber olecrani of the sheep is triangular in shape, and in deer it is divided into cranial and caudal prominences. The radial tuberosity (tuberositas radii of the sheep is better defined. Based on morphological characteristics of the disputed bones we found that the submitted material originated from a doe.

  13. Using combined morphological, allometric and molecular approaches to identify species of the genus Raillietiella (Pentastomida.

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    Crystal Kelehear

    Full Text Available Taxonomic studies of parasites can be severely compromised if the host species affects parasite morphology; an uncritical analysis might recognize multiple taxa simply because of phenotypically plastic responses of parasite morphology to host physiology. Pentastomids of the genus Raillietiella are endoparasitic crustaceans primarily infecting the respiratory system of carnivorous reptiles, but also recorded from bufonid anurans. The delineation of pentastomids at the generic level is clear, but the taxonomic status of many species is not. We collected raillietiellids from lungs of the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina, the invasive Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus, and a native tree frog (Litoria caerulea in tropical Australia, and employed a combination of genetic analyses, and traditional and novel morphological methods to clarify their identity. Conventional analyses of parasite morphology (which focus on raw values of morphological traits revealed two discrete clusters in terms of pentastome hook size, implying two different species of pentastomes: one from toads and a tree frog (Raillietiella indica and another from lizards (Raillietiella frenatus. However, these clusters disappeared in allometric analyses that took pentastome body size into account, suggesting that only a single pentastome taxon may be involved. Our molecular data revealed no genetic differences between parasites in toads versus lizards, confirming that there was only one species: R. frenatus. This pentastome (previously known only from lizards clearly is also capable of maturing in anurans. Our analyses show that the morphological features used in pentastomid taxonomy change as the parasite transitions through developmental stages in the definitive host. To facilitate valid descriptions of new species of pentastomes, future taxonomic work should include both morphological measurements (incorporating quantitative measures of body size and hook bluntness and

  14. Structure of nucleoli in first-order spermatocytes of selected free-living animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Ceranka, Mariola; Larisch, Agnieszka

    2015-10-01

    Nucleoli are the product of the activity of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in certain chromosomes. Their main functions are the formation of ribosomal subunits from ribosomal protein molecules and the transcription of genes encoding rRNA. Nucleoli are present in the nuclei of nearly all eukaryotic cells because they contain housekeeping genes. The size and number of nucleoli gradually decrease during spermatogenesis. Some of the material originating in the nucleolus probably migrates to the cytoplasm and takes part in the formation of chromatoid bodies (CB). Nucleolus fragmentation and CB assembly take place at the same stage of spermatogenesis. CB are involved in the formation of the acrosome, the migration of mitochondria to the midpiece, and the formation of the sperm tail fibrous sheath. The aim of the study was to characterize the nucleoli in the early prophase of spermatogenesis in the wild boar and the roe deer. The roe deer cells have larger nucleoli and a larger cell nucleus than the wild boar cells. The area of the nucleolus as a percentage of the total area of the nucleus was larger as well. The coefficients of variation for all parameters were higher in the roe deer. In the wild boar cells the nucleoli were mainly regularly shaped. The size of the nucleolus and the nucleus of the spermatocyte is a species-specific trait associated with karyotype and the number of nucleolar organizer regions in a given species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell Cycle Control in the Early Embryonic Development of Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Joseph C.; Clowdus, Emily A.; Sansam, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle is integrated with many aspects of embryonic development. Not only is proper control over the pace of cell proliferation important, but also the timing of cell cycle progression is coordinated with transcription, cell migration, and cell differentiation. Due to the ease with which the embryos of aquatic organisms can be observed and manipulated, they have been a popular choice for embryologists throughout history. In the cell cycle field, aquatic organisms have been extremely important because they have played a major role in the discovery and analysis of key regulators of the cell cycle. In particular, the frog Xenopus laevis has been instrumental for understanding how the basic embryonic cell cycle is regulated. More recently, the zebrafish has been used to understand how the cell cycle is remodeled during vertebrate development and how it is regulated during morphogenesis. This review describes how some of the unique strengths of aquatic species have been leveraged for cell cycle research and suggests how species such as Xenopus and zebrafish will continue to reveal the roles of the cell cycle in human biology and disease. PMID:26475527

  16. Identifying designatable units for intraspecific conservation prioritization: a hierarchical approach applied to the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Bernatchez, Louis; Reist, Jim D; Rogers, Sean M; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    The concept of the designatable unit (DU) affords a practical approach to identifying diversity below the species level for conservation prioritization. However, its suitability for defining conservation units in ecologically diverse, geographically widespread and taxonomically challenging species complexes has not been broadly evaluated. The lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.) is geographically widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains a great deal of variability in ecology and evolutionary legacy within and among populations, as well as a great deal of taxonomic ambiguity. Here, we employ a set of hierarchical criteria to identify DUs within the Canadian distribution of the lake whitefish species complex. We identified 36 DUs based on (i) reproductive isolation, (ii) phylogeographic groupings, (iii) local adaptation and (iv) biogeographic regions. The identification of DUs is required for clear discussion regarding the conservation prioritization of lake whitefish populations. We suggest conservation priorities among lake whitefish DUs based on biological consequences of extinction, risk of extinction and distinctiveness. Our results exemplify the need for extensive genetic and biogeographic analyses for any species with broad geographic distributions and the need for detailed evaluation of evolutionary history and adaptive ecological divergence when defining intraspecific conservation units.

  17. A novel computational method identifies intra- and inter-species recombination events in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sanguinetti

    Full Text Available Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have determined an explosion in the number of sequenced bacterial genomes. Comparative sequence analysis frequently reveals evidences of homologous recombination occurring with different mechanisms and rates in different species, but the large-scale use of computational methods to identify recombination events is hampered by their high computational costs. Here, we propose a new method to identify recombination events in large datasets of whole genome sequences. Using a filtering procedure of the gene conservation profiles of a test genome against a panel of strains, this algorithm identifies sets of contiguous genes acquired by homologous recombination. The locations of the recombination breakpoints are determined using a statistical test that is able to account for the differences in the natural rate of evolution between different genes. The algorithm was tested on a dataset of 75 genomes of Staphylococcus aureus and 50 genomes comprising different streptococcal species, and was able to detect intra-species recombination events in S. aureus and in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Furthermore, we found evidences of an inter-species exchange of genetic material between S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis, a closely related commensal species that colonizes the same ecological niche. The method has been implemented in an R package, Reco, which is freely available from supplementary material, and provides a rapid screening tool to investigate recombination on a genome-wide scale from sequence data.

  18. Cholinergic markers in the cortex and hippocampus of some animal species and their correlation to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Cuellar-Lemus, C A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Feria-Velasco, A I

    2014-10-01

    The cholinergic system includes neurons located in the basal forebrain and their long axons that reach the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. This system modulates cognitive function. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ageing, cognitive impairment is associated with progressive damage to cholinergic fibres, which leads us to the cholinergic hypothesis for AD. The AD produces alterations in the expression and activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), enzymes specifically related to cholinergic system function. Both proteins play a role in cholinergic transmission, which is altered in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus due to ageing and AD. Dementia disorders are associated with the severe destruction and disorganisation of the cholinergic projections extending to both structures. Specific markers, such as anti-ChAT and anti-AChE antibodies, have been used in light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays to study this system in adult members of certain animal species. This paper reviews the main immunomorphological studies of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in some animal species with particular emphasis on the cholinergic system and its relationship with the AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  20. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of pollen identifies plant species and genus as well as environmental conditions.

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    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. METHODOLOGY: The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids. RESULTS: The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities.

  2. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-10-04

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain.

  3. Use of 75Se-labelled selenite ion for metabolic studies in various animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, A.G.; Benard, P.; Braun, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    This work was carried out by autoradiography (mice, pigs) and liquid scintillation (rats, rabbits, pigs, ewes). The results obtained show that after intramuscular administration sodium selenite is rapidly absorbed. It is distributed in the different organs, preferentially in the liver, kidney, bone-marrow and heart, where it remains fixed for a long time. In the blood it decreases only slowly. Much of the selenium is excreted, partly during the first 48 hours in urine (20-30%, depending on species), mainly in the seleniate form, and partly in the faecal matter, the latter type of excretion being spread over a longer time (5-8 days). Transfer to milk in the ewes is only slight. From these results it can be stated with certainty that the selenium that is not excreted during the first few hours in the urine or faeces is translocated to the cell structure, particularly the proteic structures. Its chemical relationship to sulphur easily explains this metabolic peculiarity. (author)

  4. The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

  5. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  6. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  7. When alcohol is the answer: Trapping, identifying and quantifying simple alkylating species in aqueous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Philip G; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Baumann, Raymond P; Zhu, Rui; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Sartorelli, Alan C; Ratner, Elena S

    2016-09-01

    Alkylating agents are a significant class of environmental carcinogens as well as commonly used anticancer therapeutics. Traditional alkylating activity assays have utilized the colorimetric reagent 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (4NBP). However, 4NBP based assays have a relatively low sensitivity towards harder, more oxophilic alkylating species and are not well suited for the identification of the trapped alkyl moiety due to adduct instability. Herein we describe a method using water as the trapping agent which permits the trapping of simple alkylating electrophiles with a comparatively wide range of softness/hardness and permits the identification of donated simple alkyl moieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells morphometry on the species determinism of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Adili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This survey was realized on cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and dogs, in order to study the influence of three morphometric parameters: the diameter, the circumference and the surface of red blood cells on the determinism of these species. Materials and Methods: For each species, blood samples were taken from 15 adult female by jugular venipuncture with confection of blood smears on microscope slides immediately after blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the software OPTIKA Pro Vision. To better describe the results, the statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive Boxplots test, ANOVA, and the Student's t-test. Results: The morphometric parameters of red blood cells are biggest in dogs followed by horses, cattle, and sheep, while goats have the lowest ones. Conclusion: This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea about the animal species taking into account the diameter, the circumference, and the surface of erythrocytes.

  9. Presence and analysis of plasmids in human and animal associated arcobacter species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laid Douidah

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the screening of four Arcobacter species for the presence of small and large plasmids. Plasmids were present in 9.9% of the 273 examined strains. One Arcobacter cryaerophilus and four Arcobacter butzleri plasmids were selected for further sequencing. The size of three small plasmids isolated from A. butzleri and the one from A. cryaerophilus strains ranged between 4.8 and 5.1 kb, and the size of the large plasmid, isolated from A. butzleri, was 27.4 kbp. The G+C content of all plasmids ranged between 25.4% and 26.2%. A total of 95% of the large plasmid sequence represents coding information, which contrasts to the 20 to 30% for the small plasmids. Some of the open reading frames showed a high homology to putative conserved domains found in other related organisms, such as replication, mobilization and genes involved in type IV secretion system. The large plasmid carried 35 coding sequences, including seven genes in a contiguous region of 11.6 kbp that encodes an orthologous type IV secretion system found in the Wolinella succinogenes genome, Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni plasmids, which makes this plasmid interesting for further exploration.

  10. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2001-01-01

    of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and pectin...... variation when they were probed with the pelA gene. The secondary-metabolite profiles supported division of the isolates into the two species and differed from those of other black aspergilli. The strains classified as A. japonicus produced indole alkaloids and a polar metabolite, while the A. aculeatus...... lyase A (pelA) and Agaricus bisporus 28S rRNA genes, which were used as probes in the RFLP analysis, revealed clear polymorphism between these two taxa. The A. niger pkiA and pelA probes placed six strains in an A. japonicus group and 12 isolates in an A. aculeatus group, which exhibited intraspecific...

  11. Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

  12. High-resolution melting of 12S rRNA and cytochrome b DNA sequences for discrimination of species within distinct European animal families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Naue

    Full Text Available The cheap and easy identification of species is necessary within multiple fields of molecular biology. The use of high-resolution melting (HRM of DNA provides a fast closed-tube method for analysis of the sequence composition of the mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA and cytochrome b. We investigated the potential use of HRM for species identification within eleven different animal groups commonly found in Europe by animal-group-specific DNA amplification followed by DNA melting. Influence factors as DNA amount, additional single base alterations, and the existence of mixed samples were taken into consideration. Visual inspection combined with mathematical evaluation of the curve shapes did resolve nearly all species within an animal group. The assay can therefore not only be used for identification of animal groups and mixture analysis but also for species identification within the respective groups. The use of a universal 12S rRNA system additionally revealed a possible approach for species discrimination, mostly by exclusion. The use of the HRM assay showed to be a reliable, fast, and cheap method for species discrimination within a broad range of different animal species and can be used in a flexible "modular" manner depending on the question to be solved.

  13. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project ‘Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming‘ (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues...... in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent: 1) The climatic, physical and socio-economic conditions vary considerably throughout Europe, leading to different livestock farming systems. This limits the possibility for technology transfer between regions...

  14. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order...... of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any to other within the order....

  15. COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

  16. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  17. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.; Christensen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a 8904-nt sequence of the central part of the RNA genome of a novel virus with a filovirus-like, nonidentical morphology named Taastrup virus (TV) detected in the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Sequence analysis identified five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. Sequence analyses reveal an unusually large glycoprotein (G) containing both potential O-linked (14) and N-linked (9) glycosylation sites--a feature shared with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any, to other within the order

  18. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  19. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J W; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-12-29

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  20. Identifying the principal driving factors of water ecosystem dependence and the corresponding indicator species in a pilot City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Shao, N. F.; Yang, S. T.; Xiang, H.; Lou, H. Z.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, C. B.; Yu, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The world's aquatic ecosystems yield numerous vital services, which are essential to human existence but have deteriorated seriously in recent years. By studying the mechanisms of interaction between ecosystems and habitat processes, the constraining factors can be identified, and this knowledge can be used to improve the success rate of ecological restoration initiatives. At present, there is insufficient data on the link between hydrological, water quality factors and the changes in the structure of aquatic communities to allow any meaningful study of driving factors of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the typical monitoring stations were selected by fuzzy clustering analysis based on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water ecology in Jinan City, the first pilot city for the construction of civilized aquatic ecosystems in China. The dominant species identification model was used to identify the dominant species of the aquatic community. The driving effect of hydrological and water quality factors on dominant species was analyzed by Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Then, the principal factors of aquatic ecosystem dependence were selected. The results showed that there were 10 typical monitoring stations out of 59 monitoring sites, which were representative of aquatic ecosystems, 9 dominant fish species, and 20 dominant invertebrate species. The selection of factors for aquatic ecosystem dependence in Jinan were highly influenced by its regional conditions. Chemical environmental parameters influence the temporal and spatial variation of invertebrate much more than that of fish in Jinan City. However, the methodologies coupling typical monitoring stations selection, dominant species determination and driving factors identification were certified to be a cost-effective way, which can provide in-deep theoretical and technical directions for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems elsewhere.

  1. Application of representational difference analysis to identify genomic differences between Bradyrhizobium elkanii and B. Japonicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, René Arderius; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Bradyrhizobium elkanii is successfully used in the formulation of commercial inoculants and, together with B. japonicum, it fully supplies the plant nitrogen demands. Despite the similarity between B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, several works demonstrated genetic and physiological differences between them. In this work Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) was used for genomic comparison between B. elkanii SEMIA 587, a crop inoculant strain, and B. japonicum USDA 110, a reference strain. Two hundred sequences were obtained. From these, 46 sequences belonged exclusively to the genome of B. elkanii strain, and 154 showed similarity to sequences from B. japonicum genome. From the 46 sequences with no similarity to sequences from B. japonicum, 39 showed no similarity to sequences in public databases and seven showed similarity to sequences of genes coding for known proteins. These seven sequences were divided in three groups: similar to sequences from other Bradyrhizobium strains, similar to sequences from other nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and similar to sequences from non nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These new sequences could be used as DNA markers in order to investigate the rates of genetic material gain and loss in natural Bradyrhizobium strains.

  2. Vulnerabilities to climate change of Massachusetts animal species of greatest conservation need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hector; Morelli, Toni L.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has addressed the potential and actual impacts of climate change on state flora and fauna. The state’s involvement began in 2007 when, led by the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (DFW) and assisted by Manomet Center for Con-servation Research, it carried out one of the first habitat vulnerability assessments in North America (Manomet, 2010). The new methods and processes that resulted were later applied to vulnerability assessments in North America and elsewhere. In 2011, the state assisted the North-eastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (NEAFWA) in organizing and leading a pio-neering three-year, thirteen-state research effort to evaluate the vulnerabilities of fish and wild-life habitats to climate change in the northeast, from Maine south to West Virginia (NEAFWA, 2012). This focus on climate change vulnerabilities led to three important early realizations: (1) simply categorizing and scoring vulnerabilities might not lead to better conservation outcomes. It was vital to also understand why some resources were more or less vulnerable to climate change in order to identify potential intervention points on which conservation actions and strategies could be based. (2) simply producing research results was not enough; these results had to be cast as specific conservation actions. Moreover (3), these actions needed to be communicated in a useful form to conservation “actors”, such as state agencies, land trusts, land managers, etc. These real-izations led to the next step on the Commonwealth’s journey to effective conservation in an age of climate change - the Massachusetts Wildlife Climate Action Tool (CAT).

  3. Characterization, isolation and culture of primordial germ cells in domestic animals: recent progress and insights from the ovine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, S; Bogliolo, L; Bebbere, D; Ariu, F; Pirino, S

    2010-09-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) allocation, characterization, lineage restriction, and differentiation have been extensively studied in the mouse. Murine PGC can be easily identified using markers as alkaline phosphatase content or the expression of pluripotent markers such as Pou5f1, Nanog, Sox2, Kit, SSEA1, and SSEA4. These tools allowed us to clarify certain aspects of the complex interactions of somatic and germinal cells in the establishment of the germ cell lineage, its segregation from the neighbouring somatic tissue, and the guidance mechanisms during migration that direct most of the germ cells into the genital ridges. Few data are available from other domestic animals and here we reported our preliminary studies on the isolation, characterization, and in vitro culture of sheep PGCs. Sheep PGCs can be identified with the markers previously used in mouse, but, in some cases, these markers are not coherently expressed in the same cell depending on the grade of differentiation and on technical problems related to commercial antibodies used. Pluripotency of PGCs in culture (EGCs) from domestic animals also needs further evaluation even though the derivation of embryonic pluripotent cell lines from large mammals may be an advantage as they are more physiologically similar to the human and perhaps more relevant for clinical translation studies. Comprehensive epigenetic reprogramming of the genome in early germ cells, and derived EGCs including extensive erasure of epigenetic modifications, may be relevant for gaining insight into events that lead to reprogramming and establishment of totipotency. EGCs can differentiate in vitro in a various range of tissues, form embryonic bodies, but in many cases failed to generate tumours when transplanted into immunodeficient mice and are not able to generate germline chimeric animals after their transfer. Such incomplete information clearly indicates the urge to improve the studies on derivation of stem cells in farm animals and

  4. A Simple Key for Identifying the Sibling Species of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae (Giles Complex by Polytene Chromosome Cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Music Temitope OBEMBE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that Anopheles gambiae complex sibling species are the major Plasmodium malaria vectors in Africa; however, not all the sibling species transmit the infection. Easier molecular methods, PCR-based assays, have been developed to distinguish the several members of the A. gambiae complex. However, malaria vector research in less developed countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is being hampered by the lack of PCR facilities in laboratories and the cost of carrying out the assay within lack of funding. Hence, the present study was designed to develop a simple identification key, based on an affordable method of polytene chromosome cytotaxonomy, for identifying the major P. falciparum vectors. The Identification Key was successfully used to identify two members of the A. gambiae complex, A. gambiae sensu stricto and A. arabiensis, which are the most potent malaria vectors in Africa; even so, it could not be used to establish the infective and the refractory strains.

  5. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  6. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  7. Understanding the limits of animal models as predictors of human biology: lessons learned from the sbv IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Bilal, Erhan; Norel, Raquel; Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Dulize, Rémi H J; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Alexopoulos, Leonidas; Rice, J Jeremy; Peitsch, Manuel C; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-02-15

    Inferring how humans respond to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses or hormones is an essential question in biomedicine. Very often, however, this question cannot be addressed because it is not possible to perform experiments in humans. A reasonable alternative consists of generating responses in animal models and 'translating' those results to humans. The limitations of such translation, however, are far from clear, and systematic assessments of its actual potential are urgently needed. sbv IMPROVER (systems biology verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) was designed as a series of challenges to address translatability between humans and rodents. This collaborative crowd-sourcing initiative invited scientists from around the world to apply their own computational methodologies on a multilayer systems biology dataset composed of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human and rat bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to 52 different stimuli under identical conditions. Our aim was to understand the limits of species-to-species translatability at different levels of biological organization: signaling, transcriptional and release of secreted factors (such as cytokines). Participating teams submitted 49 different solutions across the sub-challenges, two-thirds of which were statistically significantly better than random. Additionally, similar computational methods were found to range widely in their performance within the same challenge, and no single method emerged as a clear winner across all sub-challenges. Finally, computational methods were able to effectively translate some specific stimuli and biological processes in the lung epithelial system, such as DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, translation, immune/inflammation and growth factor/proliferation pathways, better than the expected response similarity between species. pmeyerr@us.ibm.com or Julia

  8. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)], E-mail: lknight@temple.edu; Romano, Jan E. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis [University Laboratory Animal Resources, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 99m}Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind

  9. Uterine responses to early pre-attachment embryos in the domestic dog and comparisons with other domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubner, Felix R; Gram, Aykut; Kautz, Ewa; Bauersachs, Stefan; Aslan, Selim; Agaoglu, Ali R; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2017-08-01

    In the dog, there is no luteolysis in the absence of pregnancy. Thus, this species lacks any anti-luteolytic endocrine signal as found in other species that modulate uterine function during the critical period of pregnancy establishment. Nevertheless, in the dog an embryo-maternal communication must occur in order to prevent rejection of embryos. Based on this hypothesis, we performed microarray analysis of canine uterine samples collected during pre-attachment phase (days 10-12) and in corresponding non-pregnant controls, in order to elucidate the embryo attachment signal. An additional goal was to identify differences in uterine responses to pre-attachment embryos between dogs and other mammalian species exhibiting different reproductive patterns with regard to luteolysis, implantation, and preparation for placentation. Therefore, the canine microarray data were compared with gene sets from pigs, cattle, horses, and humans. We found 412 genes differentially regulated between the two experimental groups. The functional terms most strongly enriched in response to pre-attachment embryos related to extracellular matrix function and remodeling, and to immune and inflammatory responses. Several candidate genes were validated by semi-quantitative PCR. When compared with other species, best matches were found with human and equine counterparts. Especially for the pig, the majority of overlapping genes showed opposite expression patterns. Interestingly, 1926 genes did not pair with any of the other gene sets. Using a microarray approach, we report the uterine changes in the dog driven by the presence of embryos and compare these results with datasets from other mammalian species, finding common-, contrary-, and exclusively canine-regulated genes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction.

  10. Ochratoxigenic Black Species of Aspergilli in Grape Fruits of Northern Italy Identified by an Improved PCR-RFLP Procedure

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    Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 356 isolates of Aspergillus spp. collected during 2006 and 2007 from grapevines in northern Italy were identified through Internal Transcribed Spacer based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP and tested for ochratoxin A (OTA production. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the ITS products using the endonucleases HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, distinguished five different RFLPs. From each pattern, three samples were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences showed different species corresponding to Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. aculeatus. By comparing the sequences of the ITS regions, also the uniseriate species A. japonicus and A. aculeatus could be differentiated by HinfI digestion of the ITS products. Among the aspergilli, A. niger was the major species associated with grapes during 2006 (57.4%, while A. carbonarius was the major species during 2007 (46.6%. All the strains of Aspergillus were tested for their ability to produce OTA on Yeast extract sucrose medium (YES, as it was tested as an optimal substrate for the evaluation of OTA production by black aspergilli. Out of 356 isolates, 63 (17.7% isolates produced OTA ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 µg mL−1. Most of the ochratoxigenic isolates were A. carbonarius (46 in both years, but also some strains of A. tubingensis (11 and A. japonicus (6 produced lower amounts of OTA.

  11. The effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of four animal species in a Danish landscape

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    Forchhammer Mads C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in carrying capacity and population return rates is generally ignored in traditional studies of population dynamics. Variation is hard to study in the field because of difficulties controlling the environment in order to obtain statistical replicates, and because of the scale and expense of experimenting on populations. There may also be ethical issues. To circumvent these problems we used detailed simulations of the simultaneous behaviours of interacting animals in an accurate facsimile of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of skylarks Alauda arvensis, voles Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify and evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of the four species. Results Both spatial and temporal heterogeneity affected the relationship between population growth rate and population density in all four species. Spatial heterogeneity accounted for 23–30% of the variance in population growth rate after accounting for the effects of density, reflecting big differences in local carrying capacity associated with the landscape features important to individual species. Temporal heterogeneity accounted for 3–13% of the variance in vole, skylark and spider, but 43% in beetles. The associated temporal variation in carrying capacity would be problematic in traditional analyses of density dependence. Return rates were less than one in all species and essentially invariant in skylarks, spiders and beetles. Return rates varied over the landscape in voles, being slower where there were larger fluctuations in local population sizes. Conclusion Our analyses estimated the traditional parameters of carrying capacities and return rates, but these are now seen as varying continuously over the landscape depending on habitat quality and the mechanisms

  12. Full genome sequencing and genetic characterization of Eubenangee viruses identify Pata virus as a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha N Belaganahalli

    Full Text Available Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS. Eubenangee virus (EUBV, Tilligery virus (TILV, Pata virus (PATAV and Ngoupe virus (NGOV are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia show high levels of aa sequence identity (>92% in the conserved polymerase VP1(Pol, sub-core VP3(T2 and outer core VP7(T13 proteins, and are therefore appropriately classified within the same virus species. However, they show much lower amino acid (aa identity levels in their larger outer-capsid protein VP2 (<53%, consistent with membership of two different serotypes - EUBV-1 and EUBV-2 (respectively. In contrast PATAV showed significantly lower levels of aa sequence identity with either EUBV or TILV (with <71% in VP1(Pol and VP3(T2, and <57% aa identity in VP7(T13 consistent with membership of a distinct virus species. A proposal has therefore been sent to the Reoviridae Study Group of ICTV to recognise 'Pata virus' as a new Orbivirus species, with the PATAV isolate as serotype 1 (PATAV-1. Amongst the other orbiviruses, PATAV shows closest relationships to Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV, with 80.7%, 72.4% and 66.9% aa identity in VP3(T2, VP1(Pol, and VP7(T13 respectively. Although Ngoupe virus was not available for these studies, like PATAV it was isolated in Central Africa, and therefore seems likely to also belong to the new species, possibly as a distinct 'type'. The data presented will facilitate diagnostic assay design and the identification of additional isolates of these viruses.

  13. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miksik, I.; Deyl, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well

  14. Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species by self-organizing feature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the dominant organic components of processed animal proteins, however there has been limited investigation of differences in their composition between various protein sources. Information on these differences will not only be helpful for their further utilization but also provide fundamental information for developing species-specific identification methods. In this study, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM were used to visualize amino acid composition of fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM produced from poultry, ruminants and swine. SOFM display the similarities and differences in amino acid composition between protein sources and effectively improve data transparency. Amino acid composition was shown to be useful for distinguishing fish meal from MBM due to their large concentration differences between glycine, lysine and proline. However, the amino acid composition of the three MBMs was quite similar. The SOFM results were consistent with those obtained by analysis of variance and principal component analysis but more straightforward. SOFM was shown to have a robust sample linkage capacity and to be able to act as a powerful means to link different sample for further data mining.

  15. Genotyping-by-sequencing in an orphan plant species Physocarpus opulifolius helps identify the evolutionary origins of the genus Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Matteo; Sargent, Daniel J; Mhelembe, Khethani G; Delfino, Pietro; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Velasco, Riccardo

    2016-05-11

    The Rosaceae family encompasses numerous genera exhibiting morphological diversification in fruit types and plant habit as well as a wide variety of chromosome numbers. Comparative genomics between various Rosaceous genera has led to the hypothesis that the ancestral genome of the family contained nine chromosomes, however, the synteny studies performed in the Rosaceae to date encompass species with base chromosome numbers x = 7 (Fragaria), x = 8 (Prunus), and x = 17 (Malus), and no study has included species from one of the many Rosaceous genera containing a base chromosome number of x = 9. A genetic linkage map of the species Physocarpus opulifolius (x = 9) was populated with sequence characterised SNP markers using genotyping by sequencing. This allowed for the first time, the extent of the genome diversification of a Rosaceous genus with a base chromosome number of x = 9 to be performed. Orthologous loci distributed throughout the nine chromosomes of Physocarpus and the eight chromosomes of Prunus were identified which permitted a meaningful comparison of the genomes of these two genera to be made. The study revealed a high level of macro-synteny between the two genomes, and relatively few chromosomal rearrangements, as has been observed in studies of other Rosaceous genomes, lending further support for a relatively simple model of genomic evolution in Rosaceae.

  16. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, S. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Strata-G, Knoxville, TN (United States); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these

  17. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria R Ghai

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans. However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum.We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively, and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis, and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species. Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates.Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of this neglected STH among primates, including zoonotic

  19. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  20. Multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping identifies emperors and large-eye breams (Teleostei : Lethrinidae) from New Caledonia and reveals new large-eye bream species

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Philippe; Collet, Adeline; Carassou, Laure; Ponton, Dominique; Chen, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Species identification is fundamental to address questions about community ecology, biodiversity, conservation and resource management, at any life history stage. Current studies on fish larval ecology of tropical species are hampered by the lack of reliable and effective tools for identifying larvae at the species level. Emperors and large-eye breams comprise fish species from the perciform fish family Lethrinidae. They inhabit coastal and coral-reef habitats of the t...

  1. Cross-sectional study to identify staphylococcal species isolated from teat and inguinal skin of different-aged dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, P R F; Dufour, S; Spain, J N; Calcutt, M J; Reilly, T J; Stewart, G C; Middleton, J R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of staphylococcal species on the teat and inguinal skin of dairy heifers across the various stages of the heifer life cycle. The cross-sectional study included 106 Holstein heifers with an age range of 0 d to 27 mo that were selected from 11 different groups, based on housing type and age, on a single dairy operation. A composite swabbing sample including all 4 teats and a second composite sample including both inguinal regions of each heifer were collected using gas-sterilized electrostatic dusters (Swiffers; Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH). Swabbing samples were mixed with 10 mL of sterile saline, agitated, and cultured on mannitol salt agar plates. At 24 h, plates were read and up to 10 staphylococcal colonies were saved for further analysis. Staphylococcal isolates were speciated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or PCR amplification and partial sequencing of rpoB or tuf. The prevalence of staphylococci was compared between the inguinal and teat regions using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test, as applicable. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between a heifer's age (treated as a quantitative continuous variable) and the probability of isolating a given staphylococcal species from a given body site (inguinal region or teats). Overall, the most common species identified were Staphylococcus haemolyticus followed by Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus devriesei, and Staphylococcus sciuri. Staphylococcus aureus was more prevalent on the teat than in the inguinal region, whereas Staphylococcus arlettae was more prevalent in the inguinal region than on the teat. All other staphylococcal species were as likely to be found on the teat skin as the inguinal region skin. Isolation from the inguinal and teat skin was associated with age for Staphylococcus agnetis, S. chromogenes

  2. Relationship between variations in the level of endogenous thiols and antioxidant activity of lipids and radiosensitivity of animals of different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1978-01-01

    Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant activity (AOA) of lipids of the spleen and liver are measured in animals of different species. Radiosensitivity of animals is assessed by the value of LDsub(50/30). No reliable correlation has been revealed between initial levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids. There is a positive correlation between AOA of the spleen lipids and LDsub(50/30) as well as between the level of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the animal species under study. It is likely that the level of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids reflect various aspects of cellular metabolism which is responsible for radioresistance of the organism

  3. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta-analysis in humans and other animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, Kristina A; Bouma, Anke; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-04-12

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically testosterone. With the discovery that lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour among vertebrates, it has now become possible to experimentally test such hypotheses in animal models. The use of different taxa, humans, other mammalian species and birds (with oestradiol and not testosterone involved in sexual differentiation in birds) facilitates to differentiate between the hypotheses. We used meta-analyses for analysing papers that provided sufficient information, and a semi-quantitative approach based on all relevant studies that we extracted from the literature. We tested the predictions of these hypotheses regarding strength and direction of lateralization for motor output, language and visuospatial cognition in these three taxa. We tested for sex differences and early organizational effects of testosterone (both correlative and experimental studies). We found sex differences in the direction of lateralization for non-human mammals (motor biases similar to humans) and in direction and strength in birds (visual cognitive tasks). However, the prediction that prenatal testosterone exposure affects the direction of lateralization was not supported for humans. In birds and non-human mammals, opposite trends were found, with the effect in non-human mammals being opposite to the expectation based on sex differences. None of the four hypotheses was sufficiently supported and more studies, testing a wider array of functions in different taxa while reporting the data more completely are needed.

  4. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J; Harris, Stephen J

    2015-11-13

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. The novel primers for mammal species identification-based mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence: implication for reserved wild animals in Thailand and endangered mammal species in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Amano, Akira; Sukmak, Manakorn

    2018-01-01

    We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers. The forward and reverse primers were 94.2 and 93.2%, respectively, by the average value of the sequence identity among 77 species sequences, and the overall mean distance was 35.9%. This development technique could provide rapid, simple, and reliable tools for species confirmation. Especially, it could recognize the problematic biological specimens contained less DNA material from illegal products and assist with wildlife crime investigation of threatened species and related forensic casework.

  7. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  8. A novel synthetic peptide microarray assay detects Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Schnee, Christiane; Müller, Elke; Peisker, Madlen; Schumacher, Thomas; Schubert, Evelyn; Ruettger, Anke; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Ehricht, Ralf

    2018-03-16

    Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined. For instance, the specific humoral response of sheep to treatment with a C. abortus vaccine has been visualized against a background of C. pecorum carriership. In samples from humans, dual infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae could be demonstrated. The experiments revealed that the peptide microarray assay was capable of simultaneously identifying specific antibodies to each Chlamydia spp. The actual assay represents an open platform test that can be complemented through future advances in Chlamydia proteome research. The concept of the highly parallel multi-antigen microarray proven in this study has the potential to enhance our understanding of antibody responses by defining not only a single quantitative response, but also the pattern of this response. The added value of using peptide antigens will consist in unprecedented serodiagnostic specificity.

  9. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci from humans, food and different animal species according to data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Jánosi, Sz; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Agost, Gizella; Semjén, G

    2003-01-01

    Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

  10. Comparative characteristics of shoulder blade (Scapula) and shoulder bone (Humerus) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in order to determine the animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Miloš; Nikolić Zora; Prokić Bogomir Bolka; Ćupić-Miladinović Dejana

    2016-01-01

    In illegal hunting it is often possible only on the basis of morphological characteristics to determine the animal species. By the method of comparison there was performed the forensic analysis of roe deer and sheep osteological features. For the purpose of investigating the shoulder blade (Scapula) and shoulder bone (Humerus) comparative characteristics, there were used 6 shoulder blades and 6 shoulder bones of roe deer and 8 shoulder blades and 8 shoulder...

  11. Comparison of tropical and temperate freshwater animal species' acute sensitivities to chemicals: implications for deriving safe extrapolation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.W.H.; Leung, K.M.Y.; Lui, G.S.G.; Chu, V.K.H.; Lam, P.K.S.; Morritt, D.; Maltby, L.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.; Warne, M.S.J.; Crane, M.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicity data for tropical species are often lacking for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, tropical and subtropical countries use water quality criteria (WQC) derived from temperate species (e.g., United States, Canada, or Europe) to assess ecological risks in their aquatic systems, leaving

  12. Validation of a Commercially Available Enzyme ImmunoAssay for the Determination of Oxytocin in Plasma Samples from Seven Domestic Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienboire-Frosini, Cecile; Chabaud, Camille; Cozzi, Alessandro; Codecasa, Elisa; Pageat, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) has a broad range of behavioral effects in mammals. It modulates a multitude of social behaviors, e.g., affiliative and sexual interactions. Consequently, the OT role in various animal species is increasingly explored. However, several issues have been raised regarding the peripheral OT measurement. Indeed, various methods have been described, leading to assay discrepancies and inconsistent results. This highlights the need for a recognized and reliable method to measure peripheral OT. Our aim was to validate a method combining a pre-extraction step, previously demonstrated as essential by several authors, and a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for OT measurement, using plasma from seven domestic species (cat, dog, horse, cow, pig, sheep, and goat). The Oxytocin EIA kit (EnzoLifeSciences) was used to assay the solid-phase extracted samples following the manufacturer's instructions with slight modifications. For all species except dogs and cats, concentration factors were applied to work above the kit's sensitivity (15 pg/ml). To validate the method, the following performance characteristics were evaluated using Validation Samples (VS) at various concentrations in each species: extraction efficiency via spiking tests and intra- and inter-assay precision, allowing for the calculation of total errors. Parallelism studies to assess matrix effects could not be performed because of too low basal concentrations. Quantification ranges and associated precision profiles were established to account for the various OT plasma concentrations in each species. According to guidelines for bioanalytical validation of immunoassays, the measurements were sufficiently precise and accurate in each species to achieve a total error ≤30% in each VS sample. In each species, the inter-assay precision after 3 runs was acceptable, except in low concentration samples. The linearity under dilution of dogs and cats' samples was verified. Although

  13. Validation of a Commercially Available Enzyme ImmunoAssay for the Determination of Oxytocin in Plasma Samples from Seven Domestic Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Bienboire-Frosini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neurohormone oxytocin (OT has a broad range of behavioral effects in mammals. It modulates a multitude of social behaviors, e.g., affiliative and sexual interactions. Consequently, the OT role in various animal species is increasingly explored. However, several issues have been raised regarding the peripheral OT measurement. Indeed, various methods have been described, leading to assay discrepancies and inconsistent results. This highlights the need for a recognized and reliable method to measure peripheral OT. Our aim was to validate a method combining a pre-extraction step, previously demonstrated as essential by several authors, and a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA for OT measurement, using plasma from seven domestic species (cat, dog, horse, cow, pig, sheep, and goat. The Oxytocin EIA kit (EnzoLifeSciences was used to assay the solid-phase extracted samples following the manufacturer's instructions with slight modifications. For all species except dogs and cats, concentration factors were applied to work above the kit's sensitivity (15 pg/ml. To validate the method, the following performance characteristics were evaluated using Validation Samples (VS at various concentrations in each species: extraction efficiency via spiking tests and intra- and inter-assay precision, allowing for the calculation of total errors. Parallelism studies to assess matrix effects could not be performed because of too low basal concentrations. Quantification ranges and associated precision profiles were established to account for the various OT plasma concentrations in each species. According to guidelines for bioanalytical validation of immunoassays, the measurements were sufficiently precise and accurate in each species to achieve a total error ≤30% in each VS sample. In each species, the inter-assay precision after 3 runs was acceptable, except in low concentration samples. The linearity under dilution of dogs and cats' samples was

  14. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  15. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  16. Chemicals identified in feral and food animals: a data base. First annual report, October 1981. Volume I. Records 1-532

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, M.V.; Faust, R.A.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1981-12-01

    This data file is a companion to Chemicals Identified in Human Biological Media, A Data Base, and follows basically the same format. The data base on human burden is in its third year of publication. This is the first annual report for the feral and food animal file. Data were obtained primarily from the open literature through manual searches (retrospective to 1979) of the journals listed in Appendix A. The data base now contains information on 60 different substances. Chemicals are listed by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry numbers and preferred names in Appendix B. For the user's convenience, cross-referenced chemical lists of CAS preferred and common names are provided in Appendix C. The animals, tissues, and body fluids found to be contaminated by these chemicals are listed in Appendix D. The data base is published annually in tabular format with indices and chemical listings that allow specific searching. A limited number of custom computer searches of the data base are available in special cases when the published format does not allow for retrieval of needed information

  17. Chemicals identified in feral and food animals: a data base. First annual report, October 1981. Volume I. Records 1-532

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, M.V.; Faust, R.A.; Baldauf, M.F. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    This data file is a companion to Chemicals Identified in Human Biological Media, A Data Base, and follows basically the same format. The data base on human burden is in its third year of publication. This is the first annual report for the feral and food animal file. Data were obtained primarily from the open literature through manual searches (retrospective to 1979) of the journals listed in Appendix A. The data base now contains information on 60 different substances. Chemicals are listed by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry numbers and preferred names in Appendix B. For the user's convenience, cross-referenced chemical lists of CAS preferred and common names are provided in Appendix C. The animals, tissues, and body fluids found to be contaminated by these chemicals are listed in Appendix D. The data base is published annually in tabular format with indices and chemical listings that allow specific searching. A limited number of custom computer searches of the data base are available in special cases when the published format does not allow for retrieval of needed information.

  18. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant

  19. Identifying barriers to effective management of widespread invasive alien trees: Prosopis species (mesquite) in South Africa as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, RT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available and in some cases improve the benefits that some invasive species can provide. This study assesses the barriers that hinder the effective management of widespread tree invasions, drawing insights from a case study of invasions of Prosopis species (mesquite...

  20. Learning from Nature: the use of non-model species to identify novel acclimations to flooding stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Laurentius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074850849; van Veen, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330541897; Sasidharan, Rashmi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313968594

    2014-01-01

    Excess water in the form of waterlogged soil or deeper submergence (generically termed ‘flooding’) influences plant growth, survival and species distribution in many natural ecosystems. It also has a negative impact on crop growth and yield since many agricultural species are flooding intolerant.

  1. Multi-locus DNA barcoding identifies matK as a suitable marker for species identification in Hibiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Stalin, Nithaniyal; Balaji, Raju; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hibiscus L. includes several taxa of medicinal value and species used for the extraction of natural dyes. These applications require the use of authentic plant materials. DNA barcoding is a molecular method for species identification, which helps in reliable authentication by using one or more DNA barcode marker. In this study, we have collected 44 accessions, representing 16 species of Hibiscus, distributed in the southern peninsular India, to evaluate the discriminatory power of the two core barcodes rbcLa and matK together with the suggested additional regions trnH-psbA and ITS2. No intraspecies divergence was observed among the accessions studied. Interspecies divergence was 0%-9.6% with individual markers, which increased to 0%-12.5% and 0.8%-20.3% when using two- and three-marker combinations, respectively. Differentiation of all the species of Hibiscus was possible with the matK DNA barcode marker. Also, in two-marker combinations, only those combinations with matK differentiated all the species. Though all the three-marker combinations showed 100% species differentiation, species resolution was consistently better when the matK marker formed part of the combination. These results clearly showed that matK is more suitable when compared to rbcLa, trnH-psbA, and ITS2 for species identification in Hibiscus.

  2. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays To Identify and Quantify Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifid...

  3. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  4. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mortelliti, Alessio; Kay, Geoffrey M; Florance, Daniel; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation. We used dynamic occupancy models to investigate the effects of multiple threats (tree cover, grazing, and presence of an hyperaggressive competitor, the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala) on bird-population dynamics in an endangered woodland community in southeastern Australia. The 3 threatening processes had different effects on different species. We used predicted patch-colonization probabilities to estimate the benefit to each species of removing one or more threats. We then determined the complementary set of threat-mitigation strategies that maximized colonization of all species while ensuring that redundant actions with little benefit were avoided. The single action that resulted in the highest colonization was increasing tree cover, which increased patch colonization by 5% and 11% on average across all species and for declining species, respectively. Combining Noisy Miner control with increasing tree cover increased species colonization by 10% and 19% on average for all species and for declining species respectively, and was a higher priority than changing grazing regimes. Guidance for prioritizing threat mitigation is critical in the face of cumulative threatening processes. By incorporating population dynamics in prioritization of threat management, our approach helps ensure funding is not wasted on ineffective management programs that target the wrong threats or species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghestem, Murielle; Cao, Kunfang; Ma, Wenzhang; Rowe, Nick; Leclerc, Raphaëlle; Gadenne, Clément; Stokes, Alexia

    2014-01-01

    Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, root mechanical and physiological traits were then measured at two adjacent field sites. One site was highly unstable, with severe soil slippage and erosion. The second site had been replanted 8 years previously and appeared to be physically stable. How root traits differed between sites, season, depth in soil and distance from the plant stem were determined. Root system morphology was analysed by considering architectural traits (root angle, depth, diameter and volume) both up- and downslope. Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species. We estimated the most useful architectural and mechanical traits for physically fixing soil in place. We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity. Scores were assigned to each species based on traits. No one species possessed a suite of highly desirable traits, therefore mixtures of species should be used on vulnerable slopes. We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

  6. A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Ghestem

    Full Text Available Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, root mechanical and physiological traits were then measured at two adjacent field sites. One site was highly unstable, with severe soil slippage and erosion. The second site had been replanted 8 years previously and appeared to be physically stable. How root traits differed between sites, season, depth in soil and distance from the plant stem were determined. Root system morphology was analysed by considering architectural traits (root angle, depth, diameter and volume both up- and downslope. Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species. We estimated the most useful architectural and mechanical traits for physically fixing soil in place. We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity. Scores were assigned to each species based on traits. No one species possessed a suite of highly desirable traits, therefore mixtures of species should be used on vulnerable slopes. We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

  7. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  8. A new species of Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (Gastropoda, Cassidae from the Philippines identified by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedosov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (family Cassidae is widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific and has been documented from some Atlantic localities as well. Two Casmaria species, C. erinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. ponderosa (Gmelin, 1791, are common in Indo-Pacific shallow-water sandy bottom communities and are characterized by high morphological variability; both species encompass multiple, often sympatric forms of uncertain status. In the present study we carry out a phylogenetic analysis of some Philippine Casmaria morphs and demonstrate that one of the distinctive morphs earlier assigned to Casmaria ponderosa is in fact a different species, which we describe as Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. The smooth form of Casmaria ponderosa, C. ponderosa ponderosa, and the solid nodulose form, widely called “form nodulosa” despite being strikingly different in shell morphology, are shown to be conspecific. Studied specimens of these two morphs even from different localities share the same haplotype of the CO1 gene. In light of these new data on the morphological variability of Casmaria species, we discuss criteria of species delimitation in the genus Casmaria and possible affinities of Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. within the genus.

  9. Using SSR-HRM to Identify Closely Related Species in Herbal Medicine Products: A Case Study on Licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; He, Xia; Lu, Zhaocen; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines have played important roles in the ways of life of people around the world since ancient times. Despite the advanced medical technology of the modern world, herbal medicines are still used as popular alternatives to synthetic drugs. Due to the increasing demand for herbal medicines, plant species identification has become an important tool to prevent substitution and adulteration. Here we propose a method for biological assessment of the quality of prescribed species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by use of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of microsatellite loci. We tested this method on licorice, a traditional herbal medicine with a long history. Results showed that nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers produced distinct melting curve profiles for the five licorice species investigated using HRM analysis. These results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. We applied this protocol to commercially available licorice products, thus enabling the consistent identification of 11 labels with non-declared Glycyrrhiza species. This novel strategy may thus facilitate DNA barcoding as a method of identification of closely related species in herbal medicine products. Based on this study, a brief operating procedure for using the SSR-HRM protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  10. Species-specific control of cellular proliferation and the impact of large animal models for the use of olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells in spinal cord repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewetzer, Konstantin; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Autologous transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells (SCs) is considered a promising option to promote axonal regrowth and remyelination after spinal cord injury in humans. However, if the experimental data from the rodent model can be directly extrapolated to humans, as widely believed, remains to be established. While limitations of the rodent system have recently been discussed with regard to the distinct organization of the motor systems, the question whether OECs and SCs may display species-specific properties has not been fully addressed. Prompted by recent studies on canine and porcine glia, we performed a detailed analysis of the in vitro and in vivo properties of OECs and SCs and show that rodent but not human, monkey, porcine, and canine glia require mitogens for in vitro expansion, display a complex response to elevated intracellular cAMP, and undergo spontaneous immortalization upon prolonged mitogen stimulation. These data indicate fundamental inter-species differences of the control of cellular proliferation. Whether OECs and SCs from large animals and humans share growth-promoting in vivo properties with their rodent counterpart is not yet clear. Autologous implantation studies in humans did not reveal adverse effects of cell transplantation so far. However, in vivo studies of large animal or human glia and rodent recipients mainly focused on the remyelinating potential of the transplanted cells. Thus, further experimental in vivo studies in large animals are essential to fully define the axonal growth-promoting potential of OECs and SCs. Based on the homology of the in vitro growth control between porcine, canine and human glia, it is concluded that these species may serve as valuable translational models for scaling up human procedures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Understanding olfactory ensheathing glia and their prospect for nervous system repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Development of standardized methodology for identifying toxins in clinical samples and fish species associated with tetrodotoxin-borne poisoning incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin in food, especially in puffer fish. TTX poisoning is observed frequently in South East Asian regions. In TTX-derived food poisoning outbreaks, the amount of TTX recovered from suspicious fish samples or leftovers, and residual levels from biological fluids of victims are typically trace. However, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods have been demonstrated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine TTX in clinical samples from victims. Identification and validation of the TTX-originating seafood species responsible for a food poisoning incident is needed. A polymerase chain reaction-based method on mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identification of fish species. This review aims to collect pertinent information available on TTX-borne food poisoning incidents with a special emphasis on the analytical methods employed for TTX detection in clinical laboratories as well as for the identification of TTX-bearing species.

  12. Rapid approach to identify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ruge, Winfried; Kuballa, Thomas; Ilse, Maren; Winkelmann, Ole; Diehl, Bernd; Thomas, Freddy; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2015-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy was used to verify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee. Lipophilic extracts of authentic roasted and green coffees showed the presence of established markers for Robusta (16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC)) and for Arabica (kahweol). The integration of the 16-OMC signal (δ 3.165 ppm) was used to estimate the amount of Robusta in coffee blends with an approximate limit of detection of 1-3%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 77 commercial coffee samples (coffee pods, coffee capsules, and coffee beans). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectra of lipophilic and aqueous extracts of 20 monovarietal authentic samples. Clusters of the two species were observed. NMR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid prescreening tool to discriminate Arabica and Robusta coffee species before the confirmation applying the official method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of in vivo selective binding of [{sup 11}C]doxepin to histamine H{sub 1} receptors in five animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi E-mail: ishiwata@pet.tmig.or.jp; Kawamura, Kazunori; Wang Weifang; Tsukada, Hideo; Harada, Norihiro; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kimura, Yuichi; Ishii, Kenji; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2004-05-01

    The specific binding of [{sup 11}C]doxepin, which has been used as a radioligand for mapping histamine H{sub 1} receptors in human brain by positron emission tomography, was evaluated in five animal species. In mice the [{sup 11}C]doxepin uptake was reduced by treatment with cold doxepin and two H{sub 1} receptor antagonists, but not with H{sub 2}/H{sub 3} antagonists. The specific binding evaluated with treatment with (+)-chlorpheniramine (H{sub 1} antagonist) was in the range of 10-30% in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey, but was not detected in guinea pig.

  14. Melanins in Fossil Animals: Is It Possible to Infer Life History Traits from the Coloration of Extinct Species?

    OpenAIRE

    Negro, Juan J.; Fynlayson, Clive; Galván, Ismael

    2018-01-01

    Paleo-colour scientists have recently made the transition from describing melanin-based colouration in fossil specimens to inferring life-history traits of the species involved. Two such cases correspond to counter-shaded dinosaurs: dark-coloured due to melanins dorsally, and light-coloured ventrally. We believe that colour reconstruction of fossils based on the shape of preserved microstructures—the majority of paleo-colour studies involve melanin granules—is not without risks. In addition, ...

  15. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen deposition, climate and tree species on epiphytic lichens across the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, N A; Wolseley, P A; Ashmore, M R

    2018-01-01

    A national citizen survey quantified the abundance of epiphytic lichens that are known to be either sensitive or tolerant to nitrogen (N) deposition. Records were collected across the UK from over 10,000 individual trees of 22 deciduous species. Mean abundance of tolerant and sensitive lichens was related to mean N deposition rates and climatic variables at a 5 km scale, and the response of lichens was compared on the three most common trees (Quercus, Fraxinus and Acer) and by assigning all 22 tree species to three bark pH groups. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks decreased with increasing total N deposition, while that of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks was reduced close to a busy road, while the abundance of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-tolerant lichen species on trunks was lower on Quercus and other low bark pH species, but the abundance of N-sensitive lichens was similar on different tree species. Lichen abundance relationships with total N deposition did not differ between tree species or bark pH groups. The response of N-sensitive lichens to reduced nitrogen was greater than to oxidised N, and the response of N-tolerant lichens was greater to oxidised N than to reduced N. There were differences in the response of N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichens to rainfall, humidity and temperature. Relationships with N deposition and climatic variables were similar for lichen presence on twigs as for lichen abundance on trunks, but N-sensitive lichens increased, rather than decreased, on twigs of Quercus/low bark pH species. The results demonstrate the unique power of citizen science to detect and quantify the air pollution impacts over a wide geographical range, and specifically to contribute to understanding of lichen responses to different chemical forms of N deposition, local pollution sources and bark chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool.

  17. Application of CHD1 Gene and EE0.6 Sequences to Identify Sexes of Several Protected Bird Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-C. Lin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many bird species, for example: Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya, Collared Scops (Owl Otus bakkamoena, Tawny Fish Owl (Ketupa flavipes, Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus, and Grass Owl (Tyto longimembris... etc, are monomorphic, which is difficult to identify their sex simply by their outward appearance. Especially for those monomorphic endangered species, finding an effective tool to identify their sex beside outward appearance is needed for further captive breeding programs or other conservation plans. In this study, we collected samples of Black Swan (Cygmus atratus and Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica, two aviaries introduced monomorphic species served as control group, and Crested Serpent Eagle, Collared Scops Owl, Tawny Fish Owl, Crested Goshawk, and Grass Owl, five protected monomorphic species in Taiwan. We used sex-specific primers of avian CHD1 (chromo-helicase-DNA-binding gene and EE0.6 (EcoRI 0.6-kb fragment sequences to identify the sex of these birds. The results showed that CHD1 gene primers could be used to correctly identify the sex of Black Swans, Nicobar Pigeons and Crested Serpent Eagles, but it could not be used to correctly identify sex in Collared Scops Owls, Tawny Fish Owls, and Crested Goshawks. In the sex identification using EE0.6 sequence fragment, A, C, D and E primer sets could be used for sexing Black Swans; A, B, C, and D primer sets could be used for sexing Crested Serpent Eagles; and E primer set could be used for sexing Nicobar Pigeons and the two owl species. Correct determination of sex is the first step if a captive breeding measure is required. We have demonstrated that several of the existing primer sets can be used for sex determination of several captive breeding and indigenous bird species.

  18. Yarrowia divulgata f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species from animal-related and marine sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Edina; Niss, Marete; Dlauchy, Dénes

    2013-01-01

    Five yeast strains, phenotypically indistinguishable from Yarrowia lipolytica and Yarrowia deformans, were recovered from different animal-related samples. One strain was isolated from a bacon processing plant in Denmark, two strains from chicken liver in the USA, one strain from chicken breast...... the genotypically closest relative (LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 and ITS region similarity of 97.0 and 93.7 %, respectively). Yarrowia divulgata f.a., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains with F6-17(T) ( = CBS 11013(T) = CCUG 56725(T)) as the type strain. Some D1/D2 sequences of yeasts from marine habitats were...

  19. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different...... of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible...

  20. Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2014-10-01

    A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative

  1. Similar patterns of frequency-dependent selection on animal personalities emerge in three species of social spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J L L; Pruitt, J N

    2015-06-01

    Frequency-dependent selection is thought to be a major contributor to the maintenance of phenotypic variation. We tested for frequency-dependent selection on contrasting behavioural strategies, termed here 'personalities', in three species of social spiders, each thought to represent an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. The evolution of sociality in the spider genus Anelosimus is consistently met with the emergence of two temporally stable discrete personality types: an 'aggressive' or 'docile' form. We assessed how the foraging success of each phenotype changes as a function of its representation within a colony. We did this by creating experimental colonies of various compositions (six aggressives, three aggressives and three dociles, one aggressive and five dociles, six dociles), maintaining them in a common garden for 3 weeks, and tracking the mass gained by individuals of either phenotype. We found that both the docile and aggressive phenotypes experienced their greatest mass gain in mixed colonies of mostly docile individuals. However, the performance of both phenotypes decreased as the frequency of the aggressive phenotype increased. Nearly identical patterns of phenotype-specific frequency dependence were recovered in all three species. Naturally occurring colonies of these spiders exhibit mixtures dominated by the docile phenotype, suggesting that these spiders may have evolved mechanisms to maintain the compositions that maximize the success of the colony without compromising the expected reproductive output of either phenotype. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Environmental Status of the Lake Michigan Region Volume 11. Natural Areas of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin and Endangered or Threatened Plant and Animal Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Forest [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lindsley, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation a.re now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endange~ ed or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  3. Using otolith morphometric and morphology characteristics to identify carangids species in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Mansourkiaei, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In a survey on 524 specimens from 18 different species belonging to the Carangidae family collected from The Persian Gulf, otolithes (Sagittae) are extracted from under gills region. After washing, their morphometric parameters measured. These parameters are otolith length, width, weight and length of antirostrum, width and length of rostrum, width in right and left sagittae. In addition to the otolith outline, mode position and mode opening of the Sulcus acusticus was examined. Data indicate...

  4. PRE-CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS FROM BETEL-LIKE SCENT PIPER SPECIES IDENTIFIED POTENTIAL CANCER TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanubol, Arisa; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2017-01-01

    Nine Piper species with betel-like scents are sources of industrial and medicinal aromatic chemicals, but there is lack of information on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for human safety, including how these plants impact human cervical cancer cell line. Plant leaves were extracted with hexane and hydro-distilled for essential oils. The extracts and oils were pre-clinically studied based on cyto - and genotoxicity using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and comet assays. The crude extracts showed an IC 50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 58.59-97.31 mg/ml and 34.91-101.79 mg/ml, the LD 50 is higher than 5000 mg/kg. With lower values than the crude extracts, the essential oils showed an IC 50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 0.023-0.059 μg/ml and 0.025-0.043 μg/ml the LD 50 is less than 50 mg/kg. IC 50 values showed that the essential oils were highly toxic than the crude extracts. At the level of human genetic materials, the crude extracts of two species, including P. betloides and P. crocatum , showed a significant toxicity ( p Piper species showed insignificant toxicity in leukocytes. For HeLa cells, the eight-studied species showed significant toxicity in HeLa cells, whereas only P. submultinerve showed insignificant toxicity. The crude extracts and essential oils should be tested as putative cervical cancer treatments due to less toxicity in human normal cells.

  5. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  6. Use of Whole-Genus Genome Sequence Data To Develop a Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool That Accurately Identifies Yersinia Isolates to the Species and Subspecies Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Miquette; Chattaway, Marie A.; Reuter, Sandra; Savin, Cyril; Strauch, Eckhard; Carniel, Elisabeth; Connor, Thomas; Van Damme, Inge; Rajakaruna, Lakshani; Rajendram, Dunstan; Jenkins, Claire; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Yersinia is a large and diverse bacterial genus consisting of human-pathogenic species, a fish-pathogenic species, and a large number of environmental species. Recently, the phylogenetic and population structure of the entire genus was elucidated through the genome sequence data of 241 strains encompassing every known species in the genus. Here we report the mining of this enormous data set to create a multilocus sequence typing-based scheme that can identify Yersinia strains to the species level to a level of resolution equal to that for whole-genome sequencing. Our assay is designed to be able to accurately subtype the important human-pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica to whole-genome resolution levels. We also report the validation of the scheme on 386 strains from reference laboratory collections across Europe. We propose that the scheme is an important molecular typing system to allow accurate and reproducible identification of Yersinia isolates to the species level, a process often inconsistent in nonspecialist laboratories. Additionally, our assay is the most phylogenetically informative typing scheme available for Y. enterocolitica. PMID:25339391

  7. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  9. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. FRATTO, Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms, those with dark, or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating, especially if they live in warm climates, because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate. However, experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent, or minimize heat stress, although it is not clear what properties do so. Here, we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers, which would create a lighter (in terms of weight coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative coo- ling. We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger, a species native to the United States and one that displays brown, grey or all-black pelage color, and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail. From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown, 9 black and 15 grey, and 1,720 hairs, we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs, but significant differences in hair fiber widths. Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner, but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker than the others. Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation, we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day. The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation, since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies. These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6: 731–736, 2011].

  10. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  11. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  12. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  13. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woollett Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR

  14. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Tiamulin Metabolites in Various Species of Farm Animals Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Yang, Shupeng; Zhang, Huiyan; Zhou, Jinhui; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Zhanhui; Li, Yanshen; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-01-11

    Tiamulin is an antimicrobial widely used in veterinary practice to treat dysentery and pneumonia in pigs and poultry. However, knowledge about the metabolism of tiamulin is very limited in farm animals. To better understand the biotransformation of tiamulin, in the present study, in vitro and in vivo metabolites of tiamulin in rats, chickens, swine, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/time-of-flight. As a result, a total of 26 metabolites of tiamulin, identified in vitro and in vivo, and majority of metabolites were revealed for the first time. In all farm animals, tiamulin undergoes phase I metabolic routes of hydroxylation in the mutilin part (the ring system), S-oxidation and N-deethylation on side chain, and no phase II metabolite was detected. Among these, 2β- and 8α-hydroxylation and N-deethylation were the main metabolic pathways of tiamulin in farm animals. In addition, we have put forward that 8a-hydroxy-tiamulin and 8a-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin could be hydroxylated into 8a-hydroxy-mutilin, the marker residue of tiamulin in swine. Furthermore, a significant interspecies difference was observed on the metabolism of tiamulin among various farm animals. The possible marker residues for tiamulin in swine were 8α-hydroxy-tiamulin, N-deethyl-tiamulin, and 8α-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin, which were consistent with the hypothesis proposed by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. However, results in present study indicated that three metabolites (2β-hydroxy-tiamulin, N-deethyl-tiamulin, and 2β-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin) of tiamulin in chickens had larger yields, which implied that 2β-hydroxy-mutilin or N-deethyl-tiamulin was more likely to be regarded as the potential marker residue of tiamulin in chickens.

  16. Potential bacterial core species associated with digital dermatitis in cattle herds identified by molecular profiling of interdigital skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    of different molecular methods. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1–V2 showed that Treponema, Mycoplasma, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas were the genera best differentiating the DD samples from the controls. Additional deep sequencing analysis of the most abundant genus, Treponema...... in the epidermal lesions and were present in only a subset of samples. RT-qPCR analysis showed that treponemes were also actively expressing a panel of virulence factors at the site of infection. Our results further support the hypothesis that species belonging to the genus Treponema are major pathogens of DD...... and also provide sufficient clues to motivate additional research into the role of M. fermentans, F. necrophorum and P. levii in the etiology of DD....

  17. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  18. A safer, urea-based in situ hybridization method improves detection of gene expression in diverse animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Thiel, Daniel; Hejnol, Andreas; Houliston, Evelyn; Leclère, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical. When applied to the soft-bodied hydrozoan medusa Clytia hemisphaerica, we found that this traditional hybridization approach was not fully satisfactory, causing extensive deterioration of morphology and tissue texture which compromised our observation and interpretation of results. We thus tested alternative solutions for in situ detection of gene expression and, inspired by optimized protocols for Northern and Southern blot analysis, we substituted the 50% formamide with an equal volume of 8M urea solution in the hybridization buffer. Our new protocol not only yielded better morphologies and tissue consistency, but also notably improved the resolution of the signal, allowing more precise localization of gene expression and reducing aspecific staining associated with problematic areas. Given the improved results and reduced manipulation risks, we tested the urea protocol on other metazoans, two brachiopod species (Novocrania anomala and Terebratalia transversa) and the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus, obtaining a similar reduction of aspecific probe binding. Overall, substitution of formamide by urea during in situ hybridization offers a safer alternative, potentially of widespread use in research, medical and teaching contexts. We encourage other workers to test this approach on their study organisms, and hope that they will also

  19. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.; Haveri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP...... of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without...... treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45...

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V.; Waardenberg, Ashley J.; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W.; Graham, Mark E.; Lavin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  2. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Periodontitis-associated septic pulmonary embolism caused by Actinomyces species identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shun; Mishima, Eikan; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Ohi, Takashi; Ishida, Masatsugu; Yanai, Masaru; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Nagasawa, Tasuku; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Periodontal disease is a less common but important cause of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE). However, the pathogens causing periodontal disease-associated SPE (PD-SPE) have been poorly understood. Actinomyces species are resident microbiota in the oral cavity. Here we report a case of PD-SPE caused by Actinomyces species, which was identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). A 64-year-old Asian man, complicated with severe chronic periodontitis, was admitted with chest pain and fever. Chest CT revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules located subpleurally. We diagnosed the case as SPE associated with periodontitis. Although blood cultures were negative for the usual 5-day incubation, anaerobic culture of the BAL fluid sample yielded Actinomyces species. Antibacterial therapy alone did not ameliorate the symptoms; however, additional dental treatment, including tooth extraction, promptly did. The patient was discharged 23 days after admission. The 3-month follow-up revealed no recurrence of the symptoms and complete resolution of the lung lesions. This case demonstrated that Actinomyces species can cause PD-SPE. Additionally, clinicians should consider performing appropriate anaerobic culture of BAL fluid to identify the pathogen of SPE, and to ordering dental treatment, if necessary, in addition to antibiotics for the initial management of PD-SPE.

  4. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  5. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  6. ApicoAP: the first computational model for identifying apicoplast-targeted proteins in multiple species of Apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokcen Cilingir

    Full Text Available Most of the parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa contain a relict prokaryotic-derived plastid called the apicoplast. This organelle is important not only for the survival of the parasite, but its unique properties make it an ideal drug target. The majority of apicoplast-associated proteins are nuclear encoded and targeted post-translationally to the organellar lumen via a bipartite signaling mechanism that requires an N-terminal signal and transit peptide (TP. Attempts to define a consensus motif that universally identifies apicoplast TPs have failed.In this study, we propose a generalized rule-based classification model to identify apicoplast-targeted proteins (ApicoTPs that use a bipartite signaling mechanism. Given a training set specific to an organism, this model, called ApicoAP, incorporates a procedure based on a genetic algorithm to tailor a discriminating rule that exploits the known characteristics of ApicoTPs. Performance of ApicoAP is evaluated for four labeled datasets of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii, Babesia bovis, and Toxoplasma gondii proteins. ApicoAP improves the classification accuracy of the published dataset for P. falciparum to 94%, originally 90% using PlasmoAP.We present a parametric model for ApicoTPs and a procedure to optimize the model parameters for a given training set. A major asset of this model is that it is customizable to different parasite genomes. The ApicoAP prediction software is available at http://code.google.com/p/apicoap/ and http://bcb.eecs.wsu.edu.

  7. The use of ecological theory and autecological datasets in studies of endangered plant and animal species and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson, John G.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Few, if any, European habitats have been unaffected by modern land-use and the problems of conserving the diversity of the European flora and fauna are both urgent and immense. This paper describes a simple method for analyzing floristic change that is hoped will prove useful for assessing the nature and severity of these threats. The method involves the use of ecological theory and the collection of simple autecological data. Examples are given to illustrate how this approach can be used both to identify reasons for floristic change and to provide functional analyses of phytosociological data. Also, as a result of analyses of reasons for commonness and rarity in butterflies and birds, it is argued that similar functional interpretations of zoological datasets may soon be possible.

    [es] Considerando que prácticamente todos los hábitats de Europa han sido afectados por los usos de la tierra modernos, la conservación de la diversidad de su flora y fauna se presenta como un problema muy grave y urgente. En este artículo se describe un método simple para analizar cambios florísticos, contemplando el uso de la teoría ecológica y la colección de datos autoecológicos sencillos. Dicho método constituye una herramienta para evaluar la naturaleza y severidad de procesos de pérdida de la diversidad biológica. Se dan ejemplos ilustrando el uso de este enfoque en la identificación de las causas de cambios florísticos y en el análisis funcional de datos fitosociológicos. Se presentan, además, las razones que explican la presencia de especies raras o muy comunes de mariposas y aves. A partir de estos últimos resultados, se concluye que en breve será posible realizar una interpretación funcional similar de datos zoológicos.
    [de] Nur wenige, wenn überhaupt, der Lebensrame in Europa sind unberührt von moderner Landnutzung und die Probleme der Erhaltung der Vielfalt in der Flora und Fauna sind sowohl dringend als auch immens

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I and II in 14 animal species and man as determined by three radioligand assays and two bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangger, I.; Zapf, J.; Froesch, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF I and II) were determined by five different assays in human serum, in the sera of ten mammalian species and in chicken, turtle, and frog serum. Sera of all tested mammals contain two different IGFs corresponding to human immunoreactive IGF I and receptor reactive IGF II. Receptor reactive IGF II of most animal species does not show significant cross-reactivity in the RIA for human IGF II. IGF activity was also detected in sera of non-mammals, such as chicken and turtles, but not in frog serum. The IGF values obtained with the different assay system corresponded rather well: there is a good correlation between the values obtained in the protein binding and the fat cell assay, and between the results of the latter assays and the sum of immunoreactive IGF I and receptor reative IGF II. The results suggest that those regions in the IGF I and II molecules which are responsible for reactivity with the type I IGF and the insulin receptor have not essentially changed during evolution. Similarly, the C-region, which mainly determines the immunological properties of IGFs, appears to have remained relatively constant in the IGF I, but not in the IGF II molecule.

  9. Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Bellante, Simona; Ventura, Salvatore; Canepari, Silvia; Curini, Roberta

    2013-02-27

    This paper describes a novel and efficient analytical method to define the profile of fat-soluble micronutrients in milk from different animal species. Overnight cold saponification was optimized as a simultaneous extraction procedure. Analytes were separated by nonaqueous reversed-phase (NARP) chromatography: carotenoids on a C(30) column and fat-soluble vitamins on a tandem C(18) column system. Besides 12 target analytes for which standards are available (all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin, all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, phylloquinone, and menaquinone-4), the DAD-MS combined detection allowed the provisional identification of other carotenoids on the basis of the expected retention times, the absorbance spectra, and the mass spectrometric data. Retinol and α-tocopherol were the most abundant fat-soluble micronutrients and the only ones found in donkey's milk along with γ-tocopherol. Ewe's milk also proved to be a good source of vitamin K vitamers. Bovine milk showed a large variety of carotenoids that were absent in milk samples from other species with the only exception of all-trans-lutein and all-trans-zeaxanthin.

  10. Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, W. John; Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Zimmer, Elizabeth A.; Weigt, Lee A.; Janzen, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Methods for identifying species by using short orthologous DNA sequences, known as “DNA barcodes,” have been proposed and initiated to facilitate biodiversity studies, identify juveniles, associate sexes, and enhance forensic analyses. The cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence, which has been found to be widely applicable in animal barcoding, is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene evolution in higher plants than in animals. We ther...

  11. Evaluation of 5.8S rRNA to identify Penaeus semisulcatus and its subspecies, Penaeus semisulcatus persicus (Penaeidae and some Decapoda species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Noroozi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus is one of the most important members of the family Penaeidae in the Persian Gulf. Based on the morphological characteristics, two groups, including P. semisulcatus and its subspecies viz. P. s. persicus are recognized. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic distance between P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus by analyzing partial sequence of 5.8S rRNA. Another objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of 5.8S rRNA to identify the species of Decapoda. The results indicated that the 5.8S rRNA gene of both P. semisulcatus and P. s. persicus were exactly identical, and sequence variation was not observed. The results also indicated that 5.8S rRNA sequences between species of the same genus of analysed species of Decapoda are conserved, and no genetic distance was observed in species level. The low evolutionary rate and efficient conservation of the 5.8S rRNA can be attributed to its role in the translation process.

  12. Identifying the Achilles heel of multi-host pathogens: the concept of keystone ‘host’ species illustrated by Mycobacterium ulcerans transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Benjamin; Eric Benbow, M; Merritt, Richard; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie; Small, Pamela L C; Williamson, Heather; Guégan, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens that use multiple host species are an increasing public health issue due to their complex transmission, which makes them difficult to mitigate. Here, we explore the possibility of using networks of ecological interactions among potential host species to identify the particular disease-source species to target to break down transmission of such pathogens. We fit a mathematical model on prevalence data of Mycobacterium ulcerans in western Africa and we show that removing the most abundant taxa for this category of pathogen is not an optimal strategy to decrease the transmission of the mycobacterium within aquatic ecosystems. On the contrary, we reveal that the removal of some taxa, especially Oligochaeta worms, can clearly reduce rates of pathogen transmission, and these should be considered as keystone organisms for its transmission because they lead to a substantial reduction in pathogen prevalence regardless of the network topology. Besides their potential application for the understanding of M. ulcerans ecology, we discuss how networks of species interactions can modulate transmission of multi-host pathogens. (letter)

  13. Characterization of Staphylococcus spp. strains in milk from buffaloes with mastitis in Brazil: the need to identify to species level to avoid misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coimbra-e-Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that affects dairy cattle worldwide causing economic losses. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are the predominant cause of this type of infection. We have recently showed that coagulase-positive staphylococci could be misidentified. So, the aim of this study was to characterize the Staphylococcus spp. strains initially classified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci, isolated from buffalo with subclinical mastitis. Milk of buffaloes with mastitis in herds was collected and 9 strains were identified as CNS by phenotypic tests. Molecular methodologies latter identified the strains as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus chromogenes (5, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus (2 and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (2. Our results strongly support the need to identify the isolates to a species level in order to avoid misidentification and to be aware of the classification using the coagulase test alone.

  14. An Active-Radio-Frequency-Identification system capable of identifying co-locations and social-structure: validation with a wild free-ranging animal

    OpenAIRE

    Ellwood, SA; Newman, C; Montgomery, RA; Nicosia, V; Buesching, CD; Markham, A; Mascolo, C; Trigoni, N; Pasztor, B; Dyo, V; Latora, V; Baker, SE; Macdonald, DW

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly res...

  15. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and protein structure modelling identifies distinct Ca(2+)/Cation antiporters and conservation of gene family structure within Arabidopsis and rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jon K; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2016-12-01

    The Ca(2+)/Cation Antiporter (CaCA) superfamily is an ancient and widespread family of ion-coupled cation transporters found in nearly all kingdoms of life. In animals, K(+)-dependent and K(+)-indendent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX and NCX) are important CaCA members. Recently it was proposed that all rice and Arabidopsis CaCA proteins should be classified as NCX proteins. Here we performed phylogenetic analysis of CaCA genes and protein structure homology modelling to further characterise members of this transporter superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis of rice and Arabidopsis CaCAs in comparison with selected CaCA members from non-plant species demonstrated that these genes form clearly distinct families, with the H(+)/Cation exchanger (CAX) and cation/Ca(2+) exchanger (CCX) families dominant in higher plants but the NCKX and NCX families absent. NCX-related Mg(2+)/H(+) exchanger (MHX) and CAX-related Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-like (NCL) proteins are instead present. Analysis of genomes of ten closely-related rice species and four Arabidopsis-related species found that CaCA gene family structures are highly conserved within related plants, apart from minor variation. Protein structures were modelled for OsCAX1a and OsMHX1. Despite exhibiting broad structural conservation, there are clear structural differences observed between the different CaCA types. Members of the CaCA superfamily form clearly distinct families with different phylogenetic, structural and functional characteristics, and therefore should not be simply classified as NCX proteins, which should remain as a separate gene family.

  17. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  18. EcoIP: An Open Source Image Analysis Toolkit to Identify Different Stages of Plant Phenology for Multiple Species with Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Joel; Bonnet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Because of the increased number of cameras employed in environmental sensing and the tremendous image output they produce, we have created a flexible, open-source software solution called EcoIP to help automatically determine different phenophases for different species from digital image sequences....... Onset and ending dates are calculated through an iterative process: (1) training images are chosen and areas of interest identified, (2) separation of foreground and background is accomplished based on a naive Bayesian method, (3) a signal is created based on the separation model and (4) it is then fit...... to a sigmoid that contains the dates of interest. Results using different phenological events of different species indicate that estimated dates fall within a few days of the observed dates for most cases. Our experiments indicate that color separability and scene illumination are contributing factors...

  19. Comparative characteristics of shoulder blade (Scapula and shoulder bone (Humerus of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine the animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In illegal hunting it is often possible only on the basis of morphological characteristics to determine the animal species. By the method of comparison there was performed the forensic analysis of roe deer and sheep osteological features. For the purpose of investigating the shoulder blade (Scapula and shoulder bone (Humerus comparative characteristics, there were used 6 shoulder blades and 6 shoulder bones of roe deer and 8 shoulder blades and 8 shoulder bones of sheep. After the skin, muscles, arterial, venous and lymphatic vessels as well as nerves were removed from the bones, they were thermally treated in an autoclave. Subsequently, the bones were placed in 3% solutioin of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 for bleaching and degreasing. Then they were air dried and then photographed. Shoulder blade (Scapula is a bone plate (Ossa plana roughly triangular in shape. Scapular spine (Spina scapulae is much more prominent in roe deer with acromion blade in the form of spike, while in sheep it is shorter and ends with acrimion at a right angle. Shoulder blade cup (Cavitas glenoidalis in roe deer is round in shape, and in sheep it is oval. Tuberculum supraglenoidale and Processus coracoideus in sheep are more and in roe deer less developed. Shoulder bone (Humerus in roe deer is relatively long, slender bone with proximal convexity turned cranially in regard to the same bone in sheep, which is stronger and heavier. Tuberculum majus in roe deer is less developed, and in sheep it is in a form of solid bone protuberance. Tuberculum minus and Tuberositas deltoidea in sheep are more developed than in roe deer. At medial condyle (Condylus medialis in sheep there is shallow and wide groove, while in roe deer it is deeper and narrower. On the basis of morphological differences of roe deer and sheep bones, it can be determined with certainty which animal spesies they belong to.

  20. The Psycho-Neurology of Cross-Species Affective/Social Neuroscience: Understanding Animal Affective States as a Guide to Development of Novel Psychiatric Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.

  1. Linking the Salt Transcriptome with Physiological Responses of a Salt-Resistant Populus Species as a Strategy to Identify Genes Important for Stress Acclimation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Monika; Brosché, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-Ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A.; Cullmann, Andreas D.; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified. PMID:20959419

  2. Linking the salt transcriptome with physiological responses of a salt-resistant Populus species as a strategy to identify genes important for stress acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Monika; Brosché, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-Ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A; Cullmann, Andreas D; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified.

  3. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzón, Jorge H C

    2013-04-05

    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  4. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzó n, Jorge H C; Sampayo, Eugenia M.; Cox, Evelyn F.; Chauka, Leonard J.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Voolstra, Christian R.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  5. Comparative characteristics of metatarsal bones (Ossa metatarsi) and finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in orderto determine animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Miloš; Nikolić Zora; Zorić Zoran; Ćupić-Miladinović Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Metatarsal bones and finger articles of roe deer and sheep are rarely used for animal identification. In practice there are frequent cases where on a corpse the head and distal parts of the limbs are missing. That is in order to prevent the identification of the bones, by which it is easiest to determine the animal species. For identification of metatarsal bones (Ossa metatarsi) as well as finger articles (Os­sa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum) ther...

  6. Comparative characteristics of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi) and finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in order to determine animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Miloš; Nikolić Zora; Zorić Zoran; Prokić Bogomir Bolka; Ćupić-Miladinović Dejana

    2016-01-01

    The method of determining which animal species the bones, on the basis of mor­phological characteristics, belong to, is one of the most commonly used in forensic cases (poaching, fraud, theft, counterfeiting of food of animal origin).For identification of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi) as well as finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum) there were used distal parts of front limb bones, taken from 6 roe deers and 7 sheep. Afer the se...

  7. In silico study of protein to protein interaction analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase and mitochondrial activity in three different farm animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, S.; Widyas, N.

    2018-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is cellular energy censor which works based on ATP and AMP concentration. This protein interacts with mitochondria in determine its activity to generate energy for cell metabolism purposes. For that, this paper aims to compare the protein to protein interaction of AMPK and mitochondrial activity genes in the metabolism of known animal farm (domesticated) that are cattle (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa) and chicken (Gallus gallus). In silico study was done using STRING V.10 as prominent protein interaction database, followed with biological function comparison in KEGG PATHWAY database. Set of genes (12 in total) were used as input analysis that are PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAB2, PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3, PPARGC1, ACC, CPT1B, NRF2 and SOD. The first 7 genes belong to gene in AMPK family, while the last 5 belong to mitochondrial activity genes. The protein interaction result shows 11, 8 and 5 metabolism pathways in Bos taurus, Sus scrofa and Gallus gallus, respectively. The top pathway in Bos taurus is AMPK signaling pathway (10 genes), Sus scrofa is Adipocytokine signaling pathway (8 genes) and Gallus gallus is FoxO signaling pathway (5 genes). Moreover, the common pathways found in those 3 species are Adipocytokine signaling pathway, Insulin signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway. Genes clustered in Adipocytokine and Insulin signaling pathway are PRKAA2, PPARGC1A, PRKAB1 and PRKAG2. While, in FoxO signaling pathway are PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAG2. According to that, we found PRKAA2, PRKAB1 and PRKAG2 are the common genes. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we can demonstrate that protein to protein interaction shows distinct different of metabolism in different species. However, further validation is needed to give a clear explanation.

  8. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  9. Compression as a Universal Principle of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni; Lusseau, David; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J.; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A key aim in biology and psychology is to identify fundamental principles underpinning the behavior of animals, including humans. Analyses of human language and the behavior of a range of non-human animal species have provided evidence for a common pattern underlying diverse behavioral phenomena: Words follow Zipf's law of brevity (the…

  10. HOW DO WE IDENTIFY MICRONYCTERIS (SCHIZONYCETRIS SANBORNI SIMMONS, 1996 (CHIROPTERA, PHYLLOSTOMIDAE RELIABLY AND WHERE WE CAN FIND THIS SPECIES IN BRAZIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON FEIJÓ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.

  11. Animal-Assisted Literacy Instruction for Students with Identified Learning Disabilities: Examining the Effects of Incorporating a Therapy Dog into Guided Oral Reading Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Wendy Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Literacy acquisition is imperative to successful academic progress and to successful participation in our society. Students with identified learning disabilities are often among those who struggle to acquire literacy skills. The following dissertation shares the results of a reading intervention study in which nine students with identified…

  12. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  13. Validation of the Explorer® 2.0 test coupled to e-Reader® for the screening of antimicrobials in muscle from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Sanz, David; Razquin, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The Explorer(®) 2.0 tube test is a microbial inhibition test for the screening of antimicrobial residues in food samples. The new e-Reader(®) device coupled to Explorer(®) 2.0 operates by incubation at a selected temperature, determination of the endpoint of the assay and interpretation to generate results. This system was validated for muscle samples according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Sensitivity towards 25 substances from several groups of antimicrobials was investigated in a first step. Detection capabilities for six substances representing the six major antimicrobial groups were also determined in bovine muscle. The detection capabilities for amoxicillin (10 µg l(-1)), cefalexin (200 µg l(-1)), doxycyclin (100 µg l(-1)), sulfamethazine (100 µg l(-1)), tylosin (100 µg l(-1)) and neomycin (200 µg l(-1)) were in all cases at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). Specificity and applicability of the test were demonstrated with muscle samples from four animal species (bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry) and results were found to be satisfactory. Ruggedness was evaluated on negative and spiked samples with sulfamethazine as a representative antimicrobial. Neither false-positives nor false-negatives were detected when varying the sample volume, the time of pre-incubation, the temperature of incubation and the batch of the test. These results prove that Explorer(®) 2.0 coupled to e-Reader(®) is a valuable tool for the screening of a broad range of antimicrobials in muscle. This new methodology simplifies the analysis and increases the accuracy of interpretation of the test results since the endpoint of the assay is automatically determined and results are interpreted objectively.

  14. BLAST screening of chlamydial genomes to identify signature proteins that are unique for the Chlamydiales, Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydophila and Chlamydia groups of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Radhey S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae species are of much importance from a clinical viewpoint. Their diversity both in terms of their numbers as well as clinical involvement are presently believed to be significantly underestimated. The obligate intracellular nature of chlamydiae has also limited their genetic and biochemical studies. Thus, it is of importance to develop additional means for their identification and characterization. Results We have carried out analyses of available chlamydiae genomes to identify sets of unique proteins that are either specific for all Chlamydiales genomes, or different Chlamydiaceae family members, or members of the Chlamydia and Chlamydophila genera, or those unique to Protochlamydia amoebophila, but which are not found in any other bacteria. In total, 59 Chlamydiales-specific proteins, 79 Chlamydiaceae-specific proteins, 20 proteins each that are specific for both Chlamydia and Chlamydophila and 445 ORFs that are Protochlamydia-specific were identified. Additionally, 33 cases of possible gene loss or lateral gene transfer were also detected. Conclusion The identified chlamydiae-lineage specific proteins, many of which are highly conserved, provide novel biomarkers that should prove of much value in the diagnosis of these bacteria and in exploration of their prevalence and diversity. These conserved protein sequences (CPSs also provide novel therapeutic targets for drugs that are specific for these bacteria. Lastly, functional studies on these chlamydiae or chlamydiae subgroup-specific proteins should lead to important insights into lineage-specific adaptations with regards to development, infectivity and pathogenicity.

  15. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  16. Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Fatokun, Christian; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2012-06-12

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54 cM to 67.54 cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96 cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.

  17. High throughput phenotypic selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants with impaired resistance to reactive oxygen species identifies genes important for intracellular growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mestre

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the remarkable capacity to survive within the hostile environment of the macrophage, and to resist potent antibacterial molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS. Thus, understanding mycobacterial resistance mechanisms against ROS may contribute to the development of new anti-tuberculosis therapies. Here we identified genes involved in such mechanisms by screening a high-density transposon mutant library, and we show that several of them are involved in the intracellular lifestyle of the pathogen. Many of these genes were found to play a part in cell envelope functions, further strengthening the important role of the mycobacterial cell envelope in protection against aggressions such as the ones caused by ROS inside host cells.

  18. Identifying genetic signatures of selection in a non-model species, alpine gentian (Gentiana nivalis L.), using a landscape genetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothwell, H.; Bisbing, S.; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that most plant populations are locally adapted. Yet, understanding how environmental forces give rise to adaptive genetic variation is a challenge in conservation genetics and crucial to the preservation of species under rapidly changing climatic conditions. Environmental...... loci, we compared outlier locus detection methods with a recently-developed landscape genetic approach. We analyzed 157 loci from samples of the alpine herb Gentiana nivalis collected across the European Alps. Principle coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), eigenvectors that quantify multi...... variables identified eight more potentially adaptive loci than models run without spatial variables. 3) When compared to outlier detection methods, the landscape genetic approach detected four of the same loci plus 11 additional loci. 4) Temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation were the three major...

  19. Fungal Peritonitis Due to Fusarium solani Species Complex Sequential Isolates Identified with DNA Sequencing in a Kidney Transplant Recipient in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Zuza-Alves, Diana Luzia; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-12-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare serious complication most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients under peritoneal dialysis. Nevertheless, this clinical condition is more difficult to treat than bacterial peritonitis. Bacterial peritonitis followed by the use of antibiotics is the main risk factor for developing fungal peritonitis. Candida spp. are more frequently isolated, and the isolation of filamentous fungi is only occasional. Here we describe a case of Fusarium solani species complex peritonitis associated with bacterial peritonitis in a female kidney transplant recipient with previous history of nephrotic syndrome. The patient has had Enterobacter sp. endocarditis and was hypertensive and diabetic. Two sequential isolates of F. solani were recovered from cultures and identified with different molecular techniques. She was successfully treated with 50 mg daily amphotericin B for 4 weeks.

  20. Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Hametner, Christian; Nagl, Veronika; Fiby, Iris; Macheiner, Lukas; Winkler, Janine; Dänicke, Sven; Clark, Erica; Pestka, James J; Berthiller, Franz

    2017-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i.p. injection; pigs: 74 µg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; cows: 5.2 mg DON/kg dry mass, oral for 13 weeks) revealed additional DON and deepoxy-DON (DOM) glucuronides. To elucidate their structures, DON and DOM were incubated with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Besides the expected DON/DOM-3- and 15-GlcAc, minor amounts of four DON- and four DOM glucuronides were formed. Isolation and enzymatic hydrolysis of four of these compounds yielded iso-DON and iso-DOM, the identities of which were eventually confirmed by NMR. Incubation of iso-DON and iso-DOM with RLM and HLM yielded two main glucuronides for each parent compound, which were isolated and identified as iso-DON/DOM-3-GlcAc and iso-DON/DOM-8-GlcAc by NMR. Iso-DON-3-GlcAc, most likely misidentified as DON-7-GlcAc in the literature, proved to be a major DON metabolite in rats and a minor metabolite in pigs. In addition, iso-DON-8-GlcAc turned out to be one of the major DON metabolites in mice. DOM-3-GlcAc was the dominant DON metabolite in urine of cows and an important DON metabolite in rat urine. Iso-DOM-3-GlcAc was detected in urine of DON-treated rats and cows. Finally, DON-8,15-hemiketal-8-glucuronide, a previously described by-product of DON-3-GlcAc production by RLM, was identified in urine of DON-exposed mice and rats. The discovery of several novel DON-derived glucuronides in animal urine requires adaptation of

  1. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  2. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  3. LC-QTOF-MS identification of porcine-specific peptide in heat treated pork identifies candidate markers for meat species determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, S A; Faradalila, W N; Salwani, M S; Amin, I; Karsani, S A; Sazili, A Q

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify porcine-specific peptide markers from thermally processed meat that could differentiate pork from beef, chevon and chicken meat. In the initial stage, markers from tryptic digested protein of chilled, boiled and autoclaved pork were identified using LC-QTOF-MS. An MRM method was then established for verification. A thorough investigation of LC-QTOF-MS data showed that only seven porcine-specific peptides were consistently detected. Among these peptides, two were derived from lactate dehydrogenase, one from creatine kinase, and four from serum albumin protein. However, MRM could only detect four peptides (EVTEFAK, LVVITAGAR, FVIER and TVLGNFAAFVQK) that were consistently present in pork samples. In conclusion, meat species determination through a tandem mass spectrometry platform shows high potential in providing scientifically valid and reliable results even at peptide level. Besides, the specificity and selectivity offered by the proteomics approach also provide a robust platform for Halal authentication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  5. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  6. Interspecies comparison of probiotics isolated from different animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. Abdou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring probiotic Lactobacillus species in different animals with the different environmental background including fish, and farm animals to investigate interspecies differences in probiotics on the species level. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 fecal and milk samples were collected under aseptic conditions from cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, goats, and fish. The samples were cultured, and the isolated strains were confirmed biochemically and molecularly using 16S rRNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis following DNA extraction from the bacterial isolates. Results: A total of 31 isolates identified as lactobacilli were isolated from cattle milk, goat feces, sheep feces, fish feces, buffalo milk, camel milk, and goats' milk. Lactobacillus species were identified based on the size of the PCR product. The results showed that different species were different in their lactobacilli content. At the same time, there were some differences between individuals of the same species. Conclusion: The diversity of probiotic strains isolated from different animal species implies different types of benefits to the host. Although it would be both money - and time-consuming research, discovering the benefit of each of these strains may provide very important information for the health of both human and animal. Furthermore, transferring these beneficial effects either to individuals within the same species or between different species would be of great importance.

  7. Animal science: Isotopes and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercoe, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    In many regions of the world, animal production is limited by poor growth, reproductive performance and milk output of livestock, thus limiting the availability of animal products such as meat, milk, leather, etc., for use by man. Reduced animal production results from inadequate or unbalanced nutrition, lack of adaptation to climatic conditions, and parasitic and other diseases The production from animals can be improved on the one hand by improving genotypes (the breeds and strains within a given species) to make them better suited to the environment to which they are exposed, and on the other hand by modifying the components of the environment which are limiting the production. In practice, a combination of these two strategies is usually desirable but the relative importance of each is determined by short- and long-term economic considerations and the likely environmental consequences. Isotopes and radiation play an important part in identifying and alleviating the genetic and environmental limitations to animal production

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Members Adapted to Wild and Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kerri M; Gordon, Stephen V

    2017-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M. microti, M. pinnipedii, the Dassie bacillus, M. mungi, M. caprae, M. orygis and M. suricattae. This chapter outlines the events resulting in the identification of each of these animal-adapted species, their close genetic relationships, and how genome-based phylogenetic analyses of species-specific variation amongst MTBC members is beginning to unravel the events that resulted in the evolution of the MTBC and the observed host tropism between the human- and animal-adapted member species.

  9. Urban Animals and Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    species. But instead of teaching animals like the parrot to mimic and understand people, the sound conducted by humans become translated into non-human message through the ‘BirdFlute’. 3) The experiment 'InterFed' explores power relationships through the device ‘PhotoTwin’ - that traps both animal...

  10. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  11. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  12. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Natasha A; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D) polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  13. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  14. Consumption and digestion of animal food by rocky intertidal herbivores: an evaluation of digestive flexibility and omnivory in three grazing species Consumo y digestión de alimento animal por herbívoros del intermareal rocoso: evaluación de flexibilidad digestiva y omnivoría en tres especies de pastoreadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio A Camus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of invertebrates by herbivores on rocky intertidal shores is traditionally considered a casual phenomenon. However, a recent study of 29 species in northern Chile shows that animal consumption is widespread, consistent, and important, suggesting that some of these herbivores may actually be omnivores. Therefore, we examined the capability of three common Chilean herbivores (the key-hole limpets Fissurella limbata and Fissurella pida and the polyplacophoran Chiton granosus to digest animal food. For each species, we conducted no-choice feeding experiments using artificial foods based on either algal or animal tissue from one of their frequent prey (Ulva rigida, Perumytilus purpuratus. After the feeding trials, we evaluated the total proteolytic activity (availability of free amino acids in the digestive contents of the species studied and, as a reference, we evaluated this activity in animals obtained directly from the field. We found that all three species were able to eat animal food, and this consumption was not significantly different from that of algal food, suggesting that both foods were not only edible but at least similarly palatable. In addition, we detected comparable levels of proteolytic activity under the three feeding conditions for the three species. No statistical differences were found for C. granosus, but activity was significantly higher with animal food in F. limbata and with algal food in F. pida. Our data show the high digestive flexibility of these species, suggesting their ability for adaptive modulation and the possibility that they are true omnivorous consumers. We discuss the implications of these results for our current view of the structure of rocky intertidal food webs.La ingestión de invertebrados por herbívoros de costas intermareales rocosas se considera tradi-cionalmente un fenómeno casual. Sin embargo, un estudio reciente en 29 especies del norte de Chile muestra que el consumo animal es

  15. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  16. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi, G.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Department. Samples were collected between 19.02.2010 and 20.05.2011. The samples and animals were examined by dissection and flotation methods. In this study only one species of nematodes (Passalorus ambiguus: 6.9%; one species of protozoa (Eimeria spp.: 21.8% in rabbits and one species of nematodes (Paraspidodera Uncinata: 24.7%; one species of protozoa (Balantidium coli: 11.4% in guinea pigs were identified. However, there was not any cestodes or trematodes identified from this group of laboratory animals.

  17. DNA from the past informs ex situ conservation for the future: an "extinct" species of Galápagos tortoise identified in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Russello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although not unusual to find captive relicts of species lost in the wild, rarely are presumed extinct species rediscovered outside of their native range. A recent study detected living descendents of an extinct Galápagos tortoise species (Chelonoidis elephantopus once endemic to Floreana Island on the neighboring island of Isabela. This finding adds to the growing cryptic diversity detected among these species in the wild. There also exists a large number of Galápagos tortoises in captivity of ambiguous origin. The recently accumulated population-level haplotypic and genotypic data now available for C. elephantopus add a critical reference population to the existing database of 11 extant species for investigating the origin of captive individuals of unknown ancestry.We reanalyzed mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes of 156 captive individuals using an expanded reference database that included all extant Galápagos tortoise species as well as the extinct species from Floreana. Nine individuals (six females and three males exhibited strong signatures of Floreana ancestry and a high probability of assignment to C. elephantopus as detected by Bayesian assignment and clustering analyses of empirical and simulated data. One male with high assignment probability to C. elephantopus based on microsatellite genotypic data also possessed a "Floreana-like" mitochondrial DNA haplotype.Historical DNA analysis of museum specimens has provided critical spatial and temporal components to ecological, evolutionary, taxonomic and conservation-related research, but rarely has it informed ex situ species recovery efforts. Here, the availability of population-level genotypic data from the extinct C. elephantopus enabled the identification of nine Galápagos tortoise individuals of substantial conservation value that were previously misassigned to extant species of varying conservation status. As all captive individuals of C

  18. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  19. Rural and urban differences in the commission of animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.

  20. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  1. Identifying the best season for mapping evergreen swamp and mangrove species using leaf-level spectra in an estuarine system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available would provide the best discrimination of six evergreen tree species, associated with swamp (Ficus Trichopoda), mangrove (Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Hibiscus tiliaceus), wetlands in adjacent woodlands (Syzygium cordatum) and coastal...

  2. Common antigenic determinants of haemoglobin as basis of immunological cross-reactivity between chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae): studies with human and animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Dewair, M; Haegele, K; Prelicz, H; Scholl, A; Tichy, H

    1983-01-01

    Chironomids, of which approximately 10,000 species exist, are reported to cause severe immediate type allergic diseases in man. In the present study, immunological cross-reactivity between 14 chironomid species from different continents was proven by RAST inhibition, double immunodiffusion and a new allergoprint technique, based upon PAGE separation of insect crude extracts. Using isolated chironomid haemoglobins and sera of sensitized persons, as well as rabbit antibodies against larval crude extract or against the haemoglobin fraction of Chironomus thummi, it could be proven that cross-reactivity derives at least predominantly from haemoglobin components with common antigenic determinants in the different species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6197219

  3. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  4. Morphology, songs and genetics identify two new cicada species from Morocco: Tettigettalna afroamissa sp. nov. and Berberigetta dimelodica gen. nov. & sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadettini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gonçalo João; Nunes, Vera L; Marabuto, Eduardo; Mendes, Raquel; Laurentino, Telma G; Quartau, José Alberto; Paulo, Octávio S; Simões, Paula Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Morocco has been the subject of very few expeditions on the last century with the objective of studying small cicadas. In the summer of 2014 an expedition was carried out to Morocco to update our knowledge with acoustic recordings and genetic data of these poorly known species. We describe here two new small-sized cicadas that could not be directly assigned to any species of North African cicadas: Tettigettalna afroamissa sp. nov. and Berberigetta dimelodica gen. nov. & sp. nov. In respect to T. afroamissa it is the first species of the genus to be found outside Europe and we frame this taxon within the evolutionary history of the genus. Acoustic analysis of this species allows us to confidently separate T. afroamissa from its congeners. With B. dimelodica, a small species showing a remarkable calling song characterized by an abrupt frequency modulation, a new genus had to be erected. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses with DNA-barcode sequences of Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 support the monophyly of both species, their distinctness and revealed genetic structure within B. dimelodica. Alongside the descriptions we also provide GPS coordinates of collection points, distributions and habitat preferences.

  5. Systematic status of Philometra jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) and some other congeneric species previously identified as Philometra lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935) (Nematoda: Philometridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 159-160 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * marine fish * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  6. Comparative characteristics of metatarsal bones (Ossa metatarsi and finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in orderto determine animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metatarsal bones and finger articles of roe deer and sheep are rarely used for animal identification. In practice there are frequent cases where on a corpse the head and distal parts of the limbs are missing. That is in order to prevent the identification of the bones, by which it is easiest to determine the animal species. For identification of metatarsal bones (Ossa metatarsi as well as finger articles (Os­sa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum there were used distal parts of hindlimb bones, taken from 6 roe deers and 7 sheep. Afer the separation from the soft tissues, the bones were boiled in an autoclave, and for bleaching and degreasing they were kept in 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The bones were air dried, and then photographed. In roe deer, four metatarsal bones are developed: the second (Os metatarsale secundum, the third (Os metatarsale tertium, the fourth (Os metatarsale quartum and the fifth (Os metatarsale quintum. In sheep, the third (Os metatarsale tertium and the fourth (Os metatarsale quartum metatarsal bones are developed. Both in roe deer and sheep, the third and the fourth metatarsal bones are fused into one single bone - main metatarsal bone. In sheep, on dorsal and plantar side of these bones there are grooves which are more shallow and wider than in roe deer. In roe deer, hindlimbs have four fingers, and in sheep two. In roe deer there is also the difference in the number of articles on the second and fifth finger. In this animal the second and fifth finger have coalesced the first and second article (Ph1 + Ph2 and the third article(Ph3. Based on the third article of the third and fourth finger, it may be distinguished one animal from another. Margo solearis in roe deer is peaky and in sheep it is blunt. In roe deer Processus extensorius is peaky on Margo coronalis, while in shee it is blunt. In the cases when material (fresh meat, blood, hair necessary for some laboratory methods is missing, there is used

  7. Peptidomic Approach to Developing ELISAs for the Determination of Bovine and Porcine Processed Animal Proteins in Feed for Farmed Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Anne-Catherine; Charlier, Caroline; Deckers, Elise; Marbaix, Hélène; Raes, Martine; Mauro, Sergio; Delahaut, Philippe; Gillard, Nathalie

    2016-11-30

    The European Commission (EC) wants to reintroduce nonruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) safely into the feed chain. This would involve replacing the current ban in feed with a species-to-species ban which, in the case of nonruminants, would only prohibit feeding them with proteins from the same species. To enforce such a provision, there is an urgent need for species-specific methods for detecting PAPs from several species in animal feed and in PAPs from other species. Currently, optical microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction are the officially accepted methods, but they have limitations, and alternative methods are needed. We have developed immunoassays using antibodies raised against targets which are not influenced by high temperature and pressure. These targets were identified in a previous study based on an experimental approach. One optimized competitive ELISA detects bovine PAPs at 2% in plant-derived feed. The detection capability demonstrated on blind samples shows a good correlation with mass spectrometry results.

  8. Terrain and vegetation structural influences on local avian species richness in two mixed-conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody C. Vogeler; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Jeffrey Evans; Patricia Green; Kerri T. Vierling

    2014-01-01

    Using remotely-sensed metrics to identify regions containing high animal diversity and/or specific animal species or guilds can help prioritize forest management and conservation objectives across actively managed landscapes. We predicted avian species richness in two mixed conifer forests, Moscow Mountain and Slate Creek, containing different management contexts and...

  9. DNA Barcodes of the animal species occurring in Italy under the European “Habitats Directive” (92/43/EEC: a reference library for the Italian National Biodiversity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Cesaroni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the development of a public project addressed to build up and publish a DNA barcode reference library for the animal species occurring in Italy listed in the II, IV and V Annexes of the “Habitats Directive” 92/43/EEC. DNA barcoding is a global standard, namely a procedure based on a gene sequence located in a standardized genome region as a diagnostic biomarker for species. DNA barcodes data have been either produced in our laboratories or collected from the literature and international gene databases. They were subsequently used to assemble a database containing both genetic data and information related to the origin of the data. This project represents the first pilot store of DNA sequence data built-in interoperability within the portal of the National Network of Biodiversity of the Italian Ministry of the Environment. The archive, called "DNA Barcode Database of Italian Nature 2000 animal species" (owned by the Zoology and Evolutionary Biology group at Tor Vergata University, was implemented in a relational DBMS with a free license program (PostgreSQL v9.3.4, mapped using the schema ABCD and the extension DNA, and then made interoperable using the software BioCASE (v3.6.0.

  10. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  11. Assessment of PCR-DGGE for the identification of diverse Helicobacter species, and application to faecal samples from zoo animals to determine Helicobacter prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Soud, W.; Bennedsen, M.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2003-01-01

    bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus in a Nile crocodile, Helicobacter cinaedi in a baboon and a red panda, and Helicobacter felis in a wolf and a Taiwan beauty snake. All of these PCR products (similar to400 bp) showed 100 % sequence similarity to 16S rDNA sequences of the mentioned species. These results...

  12. 9 CFR 53.6 - Disinfection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of animals. 53.6 Section 53.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... of animals. Animals of species not susceptible to the disease for which a quarantine has been...

  13. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  14. Why Animal Agriculture is Unsustainable

    OpenAIRE

    Heppner, Janae

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture causes many unsustainable, destructive problems to individuals, the environment, and the economy. The amount of destruction that animal agriculture does to the planet, to environments and to species is devastating as animal agriculture is the root problem for the worlds increasing temperatures, species extinction, deforestation, and water quality. These issues should come to light when the University of California, Merced talks about its 2020 Project; however, these problem...

  15. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  16. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  17. Initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro: Pulse-chase experiments identify the first labeled species as topologically unwound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, P.A.; Seo, Yeon Soo; Hurwitz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A distinct unwound form of DNA containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin is produced in replication reactions carried out in mixtures containing crude fractions prepared from HeLa cells. This species, termed form U R , comigrates on chloroquine-containing agarose gels with the upper part of the previously described heterogeneous highly unwound circular DNA, form U. As with form U, formation of form U R is dependent upon the SV40 tumor (T) antigen. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that the first species to incorporate labeled deoxyribonucleotides comigrates with form U R . Restriction analyses of the products of the pulse-chase experiments show that initiation occurs at the SV40 origin and then proceeds outward in a bidirectional manner. These experiments establish form U R as the earliest detectable substrate for SV40 DNA replication and suggest that SV40 DNA replication initiates on an unwound species

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus (NCIMB 30044) as a silage additive for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2014-01-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus is a technological additive intended to improve the ensiling process at a minimum proposed dose of 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg fresh material. The P. pentosaceus strain was found to be resistant to tetracycline by an unidentified mechanism and thus may pose a risk for the spread of genes coding for resistance to an antibiotic of human and veterinary importance. Thus, the additive containing this strain is not considered safe for the target animals and consume...

  19. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.

  20. Linking functional traits and species preferences to species’ abundance and occupancy trends through time to identify habitat changes in coastal ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakeman, Robin J.; Hewison, Richard; Lewis, Robert John

    2017-01-01

    . In general, there has been a shift towards taller species with more exploitative growth forms and an increase in indicators of unfavourable habitat condition according to criteria for assessing sites designated for nature protection as part of the EU Natura 2000 network, particularly tall grasses...

  1. Alternative polymerase chain reaction method to identify Plasmodium species in human blood samples: the semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR (SnM-PCR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio, J.M.; Post, R.J.; Docters van Leeuwen, W.M.; Henry, M.C.; Lindergard, G.; Hommel, M.

    2002-01-01

    A simplified protocol for the identification of Plasmodium species by semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) in human blood samples is compared with microscopical examination of thin and thick blood films in 2 field trials in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. Also, dried blood spots or

  2. What does it take to resolve relationships and to identify species with molecular markers? An example from the epiphytic Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Nadja; Borsch, Thomas; Quandt, Dietmar; Taylor, Nigel P; Müller, Kai F; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-09-01

    The Cactaceae are a major New World plant family and popular in horticulture. Still, taxonomic units and species limits have been difficult to define, and molecular phylogenetic studies so far have yielded largely unresolved trees, so relationships within Cactaceae remain insufficiently understood. This study focuses on the predominantly epiphytic tribe Rhipsalideae and evaluates the utility of a spectrum of plastid genomic regions. • We present a phylogenetic study including 52 of the 53 Rhipsalideae species and all the infraspecific taxa. Seven regions (trnK intron, matK, rbcL, rps3-rpl16, rpl16 intron, psbA-trnH, trnQ-rps16), ca. 5600 nucleotides (nt) were sequenced per sample. The regions used were evaluated for their phylogenetic performance and performance in DNA-based species recognition based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined beforehand. • The Rhipsalideae are monophyletic and contain five clades that correspond to the genera Rhipsalis, Lepismium, Schlumbergera, Hatiora, and Rhipsalidopsis. The species-level tree was well resolved and supported; the rpl16 and trnK introns yielded the best phylogenetic signal. Although the psbA-trnH and trnQ-rps16 spacers were the most successful individual regions for OTU identification, their success rate did not significantly exceed 70%. The highest OTU identification rate of 97% was found using the combination of psbA-trnH, rps3-rpl16, trnK intron, and trnQ-rps16 as a minimum possible marker length (ca. 1660 nt). • The phylogenetic performance of a marker is not determined by the level of sequence variability, and species discrimination power does not necessarily correlate with phylogenetic utility.

  3. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  4. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty, and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Pediococcus acidilactici (NCIMB 30005) as a silage additive for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2014-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici is a technological additive intended to improve the ensiling process at a minimum proposed dose of 1.0 ×  108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg fresh material. The bacterial species P. acidilactici is considered by the European Food Safety Authority to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the strain has been clearly established and as no antibiotic resistance of concern was detected, the use of the strain in...

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum (DSMZ 16627) as a silage additive for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a technological additive intended to improve the ensiling process at a minimum proposed dose of 1.0 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg fresh material. The bacterial species L. plantarum is considered by the European Food Safety Authority to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the strain has been clearly established and as no antibiotic resistance of concern was detected, the use of the strain in the ...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei (NCIMB 30151) as a silage additive for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus paracasei is a technological additive intended to improve the ensiling process at a minimum proposed dose of 1.0 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg fresh material. The bacterial species L. paracasei is considered by the European Food Safety Authority to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the strain has been clearly established and as no antibiotic resistance of concern was detected, the use of the strain in the ...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIMB 40027) as a silage additive for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    The strain of Lactobacillus plantarum is intended to improve the ensiling process at proposed doses ranging from 1 x 108 to 1 x 109 CFU/kg fresh material. This speciesis considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the strain has been established and as no antibiotic resistance of concern was detected, the use of the strain in the production of silage is presumed safe for livestock species, for consumers of product...

  9. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  10. Produção animal em misturas forrageiras de estação fria semeadas em uma pastagem natural Animal production in mixtures of temperate species seeded in a natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roblein Cristal Coelho Filho

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar alguns parâmetros de produção e qualidade de forragem e a análise econômica da pastagem, realizou-se um trabalho na área experimental do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, entre maio e novembro de 1993. Os tratamentos foram aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb + azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. com: l trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi e 2 ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L., sobressemeadas em campo nativo e sendo pastejadas por terneiras cruza Nelore x Charolês. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualisado, com duas repetições, que foram potreiros de 1,5ha aproximadamente. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável, mantendo-se a disponibilidade de forragem entre 1500 e 2000kg/ha de Matéria Seca (MS, com uma pressão de pastejo real em tomo de 10%. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, sendo os animais pesados a cada 28 dias, para o ajuste de lotação. Para os parâmetros ganho médio diário de peso, ganho de peso vivo por área, taxa de acúmulo e produção de MS da pastagem, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. O tratamento com ervilhaca mostrou-se superior quanto ao teor de proteína bruta e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (P Aiming to evaluate parameters of forage production and quality and the economic analysis of pasture, a trial was conducted in the experimental área of the Animal Science Department of UFSM, Brazil, between May and November of 1993. The mixtures were constituited by oat (Avena strigosa Schreb + Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. with: 1 arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and 2 Yetch (Vicia sativa L., seeded in a natural pasture and grazed by Nelore x Charolês calves. The experiment was a completely randomized design, with two replications, characterized by paddocks of 1.5ha approximately. The grazing system was continuous with stocking rate variable, for mantaining the forage availability between 1500 and 2000kg Dry

  11. [(≡SiO)TaV (=CH2)Cl2], the first tantalum methylidene species prepared and identified on the silica surface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2013-11-01

    A novel surface tantalum methylidene [(≡SiO)TaV (=CH 2)Cl2] was obtained via thermal decomposition of the well-defined surface species [(≡SiO)TaVCl2Me 2]. This first surface tantalum methylidene ever synthesized has been fully characterized and the kinetics of the a-hydrogen abstraction reaction has also been investigated in the heterogeneous system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [(≡SiO)TaV (=CH2)Cl2], the first tantalum methylidene species prepared and identified on the silica surface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Callens, Emmanuel; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    A novel surface tantalum methylidene [(≡SiO)TaV (=CH 2)Cl2] was obtained via thermal decomposition of the well-defined surface species [(≡SiO)TaVCl2Me 2]. This first surface tantalum methylidene ever synthesized has been fully characterized and the kinetics of the a-hydrogen abstraction reaction has also been investigated in the heterogeneous system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  14. A Concise Review of Amyloidosis in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis refers to a group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of a particular amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of animals and humans. Various types and clinical forms of amyloidosis, in which the pathology and pathogenesis is diverse depending upon the underlying causes and species affected, are reported in domestic and wild animals. The clinical findings are also quite variable consequent to the variation of the tissues and organs involved and the extent of functional disruption of the affected organs in various animal species. The affected organs may be enlarged and exhibit variable pallor grossly, or the amyloid deposit may be discernible only after microscopic examination of the affected tissues. Amyloid appears as a pale eosinophilic homogenous extracellular deposit in tissues. However, microscopic examination and Congo red staining with green birefringence under polarized light are needed to confirm amyloid and differentiate it from other apparently similar extracellular deposits such as collagen and fibrin. Identifying the type of amyloid deposit needs immunohistochemical staining, ultrastructural characterization of the amyloid fibril, and if feasible also genetic studies of the involved species for clinical and prognostic purposes. This paper provides a concise review of the occurrence of amyloidosis in domestic and wild animals.

  15. Near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of amyloid beta species and monitoring therapy in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Zhang, Can; Tian, Xiaoyu; Ross, Alana W.; Moir, Robert D.; Sun, Hongbin; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging has been widely applied to monitoring therapy of cancer and other diseases in preclinical studies; however, this technology has not been applied successfully to monitoring therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several NIRF probes for detecting amyloid beta (Aβ) species of AD have been reported, none of these probes has been used to monitor changes of Aβs during therapy. In this article, we demonstrated that CRANAD-3, a curcumin analog, is capable of detecting both soluble and insoluble Aβ species. In vivo imaging showed that the NIRF signal of CRANAD-3 from 4-mo-old transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice was 2.29-fold higher than that from age-matched wild-type mice, indicating that CRANAD-3 is capable of detecting early molecular pathology. To verify the feasibility of CRANAD-3 for monitoring therapy, we first used the fast Aβ-lowering drug LY2811376, a well-characterized beta-amyloid cleaving enzyme-1 inhibitor, to treat APP/PS1 mice. Imaging data suggested that CRANAD-3 could monitor the decrease in Aβs after drug treatment. To validate the imaging capacity of CRANAD-3 further, we used it to monitor the therapeutic effect of CRANAD-17, a curcumin analog for inhibition of Aβ cross-linking. The imaging data indicated that the fluorescence signal in the CRANAD-17–treated group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the result correlated with ELISA analysis of brain extraction and Aβ plaque counting. It was the first time, to our knowledge, that NIRF was used to monitor AD therapy, and we believe that our imaging technology has the potential to have a high impact on AD drug development. PMID:26199414

  16. Integrative research identifies 71 new plant species records in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil) and enhances a small herbarium collection during a funding shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versieux, Leonardo M; Dávila, Nállarett; Delgado, Geadelande C; de Sousa, Valdeci F; de Moura, Edweslley Otaviano; Filgueiras, Tarciso; Alves, Marccus V; Carvalho, Eric; Piotto, Daniel; Forzza, Rafaela C; Calvente, Alice; Jardim, Jomar G

    2017-01-01

    A National Forest Inventory (NFI) encompassing the entire territory of Brazil is in progress. It is coordinated and promoted by the Brazilian Forest Service of the Ministry of Environment. In each state, the NFI collaborates with local herbaria by receiving collected plant material and performing species identification. Consultants are hired by the NFI and work at the local herbaria under the supervision of a curator. In exchange for curatorial assistance, the NFI provides equipment and consumables for the herbarium. Other public projects collaborating with NFI are Reflora and the Brazilian Biodiversity Information System (SiBBr). Both projects have online platforms that seek to connect herbaria and make all their data freely available, including high quality digital images of specimens. Through inter-institutional collaboration, the joint interests of NFI, Reflora, SiBBr and local herbaria have improved collections, expanded the online Reflora database, and provided the NFI with verified species lists. These strategic uses of public funding are positively affecting Botany, particularly during a period of economic crisis and cuts in research. Here, we illustrate the increase in floristic knowledge through the improvement of a herbarium collection in Rio Grande do Norte (RN) - the Brazilian state with the lowest levels of plant richness. We report 71 new occurrences of vascular plants for RN, belonging mainly to the Poaceae, Fabaceae and Malvaceae. Most of the species with new occurrences have a Neotropical distribution (21 spp.) and only seven are restricted to the Brazilian Northeast. Our findings highlight previous gaps in RN's floristic knowledge. The partnership NFI, Reflora, SiBBr and the UFRN herbarium improved herbarium curation, digital collection, and quality of data. Finally, a fellowship provided by Reflora and SiBBr allowed improving curation by distributing duplicates and incorporating the Herbarium of Câmara Cascudo Museum.

  17. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Gara Fergal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catabolite repression control (CRC is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas

  18. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Patrick; Barret, Matthieu; O'Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P

    2010-11-25

    Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate nutritional status cues with the regulation

  19. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, Patrick

    2010-11-25

    Abstract Background Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5\\' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate

  1. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  2. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Vinita; Abrams, Natalie F; Hostetler, Jessica; Paukstelis, Paul J; Pakala, Suchitra; Pakala, Suman B; Zafar, Nikhat; Abolude, Olukemi O; Payne, Gary; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Denning, David W; Nierman, William C

    2012-12-12

    The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus), A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum). The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25-36 Kb) among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin) and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum) do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus), contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent annotations for future genetic, evolutionary and population

  3. Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.

    2014-01-01

    For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their

  4. Isolation of Ovicidal Fungi from Fecal Samples of Captive Animals Maintained in a Zoological Park

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, José A.; Vázquez-Ruiz, Rosa A.; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F.; Valderrábano, Esther; Arroyo, Fabián L.; Francisco, Iván; Miguélez, Silvia; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Arias, María S.

    2017-01-01

    There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To identify and isolate ovicidal fungi in the feces of wild captive animals, a total of 60 fecal samples were taken from different wild animals kept captive in the Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park (Lugo, Spain). After the serial culture of the...

  5. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  6. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  7. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  8. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  9. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  10. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  11. Comparative Genomics of H. pylori and Non-Pylori Helicobacter Species to Identify New Regions Associated with Its Pathogenicity and Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Min Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helicobacter is a group of Gram-negative, helical-shaped pathogens consisting of at least 36 bacterial species. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, infecting more than 50% of the human population, is considered as the major cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, the genetic underpinnings of H. pylori that are responsible for its large scale epidemic and gastrointestinal environment adaption within human beings remain unclear. Core-pan genome analysis was performed among 75 representative H. pylori and 24 non-pylori Helicobacter genomes. There were 1173 conserved protein families of H. pylori and 673 of all 99 Helicobacter genus strains. We found 79 genome unique regions, a total of 202,359bp, shared by at least 80% of the H. pylori but lacked in non-pylori Helicobacter species. The operons, genes, and sRNAs within the H. pylori unique regions were considered as potential ones associated with its pathogenicity and adaptability, and the relativity among them has been partially confirmed by functional annotation analysis. However, functions of at least 54 genes and 10 sRNAs were still unclear. Our analysis of protein-protein interaction showed that 30 genes within them may have the cooperation relationship.

  12. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  13. Produção animal em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de glyphosate = Animal production in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins

    2008-04-01

    years. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks with two replications. The results presented are from the third year of evaluation. For average daily weight gain, there were differences (p £ 0.1 among treatments and periods, varying from 0.214 kg animal-1 day-1 in NG to 1.406 for the treatments with introduction of species. Live weight gain per area varied from 84 to 410 kg of LW ha-1. The stocking rates varied from 283 to 679 kg of LW ha-1. The herbicide did not present effects on production; andintroduction of cool season species by overseeding improved animal production in NG, resulting in higher animal performance per animal and per area.

  14. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a Reliable Tool to Identify Species of Catalase-negative Gram-positive Cocci not Belonging to the Streptococcus Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Velázquez, Viviana Rojas; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Famiglietti, Angela; Vay, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using 190 Catalase-negative Gram-Positive Cocci (GPC) clinical isolates. All isolates were identified by conventional phenotypic tests following the proposed scheme by Ruoff and Christensen and MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, BD, Bremen, Germany). Two different extraction methods (direct transfer formic acid method on spot and ethanol formic acid extraction method) and different cut-offs for genus/specie level identification were used. The score cut-offs recommended by the manufacturer (≥ 2.000 for species-level, 1.700 to 1.999 for genus level and genus level, ≥ 1.700 for species-level and score genus or species. MALDI-TOF MS identification was considered correct when the result obtained from MS database agreed with the phenotypic identification result. When both methods gave discordant results, the 16S rDNA or sodA genes sequencing was considered as the gold standard identification method. The results obtained by MS concordant with genes sequencing, although discordant with conventional phenotyping, were considered correct. MS results discordant with 16S or sod A identification were considered incorrect. Using the score cut-offs recommended by the manufacturer, 97.37% and 81.05% were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. On the other hand, using lower cut-off scores for identification, 97.89% and 94.21% isolates were correctly identified to genus and species level respectively by MALDI-TOF MS and no significant differences between the results obtained with two extraction methods were obtained. The results obtained suggest that MALDI-TOF MS has the potential of being an accurate tool for Catalase-negative GPC identification even for those species with difficult diagnosis as Helcococcus , Abiotrophia , Granulicatella , among others. Nevertheless, expansion of the library, especially including more strains with

  15. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  16. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  17. 2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tomoki; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H; Simons, Benjamin D; Livesey, Frederick J

    2016-04-07

    Variation in cerebral cortex size and complexity is thought to contribute to differences in cognitive ability between humans and other animals. Here we compare cortical progenitor cell output in humans and three nonhuman primates using directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in adherent two-dimensional (2D) and organoid three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. Clonal lineage analysis showed that primate cortical progenitors proliferate for a protracted period of time, during which they generate early-born neurons, in contrast to rodents, where this expansion phase largely ceases before neurogenesis begins. The extent of this additional cortical progenitor expansion differs among primates, leading to differences in the number of neurons generated by each progenitor cell. We found that this mechanism for controlling cortical size is regulated cell autonomously in culture, suggesting that primate cerebral cortex size is regulated at least in part at the level of individual cortical progenitor cell clonal output. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  19. Digital data for Quick Response (QR) codes of thermophiles to identify and compare the bacterial species isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N.; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N.

    2015-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19°85′N and 78°25′E), Dist. Nanded (India) has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/. PMID:26793757

  20. Animal