WorldWideScience

Sample records for identifies major environmental

  1. Major Environmental Policy in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Jin [Ministry Of Environment, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As a new millennium has started, there are active movements developing a basic paradigm of vision and policy over a nation-wide to prepare changes actively. For the environmental sector, it is possible to live in a pleasant environment if everyone prepare and work together like dealing with Y2K problem. With a goal of being an environmentally advanced country in the early new millennium, it is planned to improve a basic life environment such as water and air and to promote an advanced environmental management policy for showing results of its reform in 2000. Therefore, it examines environmental management circumstances and a direction of environmental policy first and it discusses more about major environmental policy related to petroleum industry. 7 tabs.

  2. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  3. SITO, Environmental Impact of Major Industrial Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Oriolo, F.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITO evaluates the impact of major industrial activities on the environment. The method applied accounts for the alterations of ecological, physico-chemical, aesthetical and social values caused by the development of the considered activity. Such values are usually considered as not quantifiable but very important for the quality of the environment. 2 - Method of solution: The territory affected by the industrial project is described in a one-dimensional (for example a coast development) or two-dimensional representation as a lattice of square meshes of equal size. A major feature of the model is that the impact factors are considered with reference to each single mesh. The following vectors and matrices are evaluated: a) Matrix of environmental quality characteristics. It is the product of the environmental quality index matrix and the vector of weighting factors. b) Vector of the initial environmental values. It is the sum of the columns of matrix (a). c) Matrix obtained when the environmental quality characteristics matrix is multiplied by the vector of project action factors, taking into account distance effects. d) Vector of the final environmental values. This is the sum of columns of matrix (c)

  4. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  5. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  6. Environmental influences on major waterfowl diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decline of North American waterfowl resources since the 1960s is well-known to this audience and need not be detailed to establish that population numbers for several key waterfowl species are at or near their lowest levels since records have been kept. Loss of habitat is an accepted major cause for the decline of waterfowl numbers and the wildlife conservation community is responding with initiatives to prevent further loss of existing wetland acreage, restoration for degraded wetlands and creation of new wetlands. Numerous joint ventures focusing on key waterfowl habitat requirements are being developed under the North American Waterfowl Plan. The importance of habitat loss also is reflected in many of the presentations at this conference on wetland conservation, including one special session devoted solely to that topic. A basic premise of the focus on wetlands is that restoration of waterfowl populations is habitat dependent. This is a tenable thesis if other factors suppressing waterfowl numbers are dealt with and the habitat base being enhanced sustains waterfowl rather than contributes to their death. My presentation addresses disease as a factor suppressing waterfowl numbers and the relation of habitat quantity and quality with waterfowl disease.

  7. Genomewide association study identifies no major founder variant in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-10

    Dec 10, 2013 ... variant in Caucasian moyamoya disease ... 1Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate ... a low prevalence in European countries (Goto and Yonekawa. 1992; Kuroda and Houkin 2008). We have found that the p.R4810K variant in the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213).

  8. Reforming an Undergraduate Environmental Science Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the key components of a reform-based introductory undergraduate environmental science course for nonscience majors and elementary teacher candidates as well as the impact of such components on the participants. The main goals for the course were to actively engage the students in their learning and, in doing so, to enhance…

  9. Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauk, Carole Lyn; Argueso, J. Lucas; Auerbach, Scott S.; Awadalla, Philip; Davis, Sean R.; DeMarini, David M.; Douglas, George R.; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Elespuru, Rosalie K.; Glover, Thomas W.; Hales, Barbara F.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Klein, Catherine B.; Lupski, James R.; Manchester, David K.; Marchetti, Francesco; Montpetit, Alexandre; Mulvihill, John J.; Robaire, Bernard; Robbins, Wendie A.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Somers, Christopher M.; Taylor, James G.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Waters, Michael D.; Wilson, Thomas E.; Witt, Kristine L.; Bishop, Jack B.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis (ENIGMA) met in October 2011 to propose the necessary foundational studies, which include sequencing of parent–offspring trios from highly exposed human populations, and controlled dose–response experiments in animals. These studies will establish background levels of variability in germline mutation rates and identify environmental agents that influence these rates and heritable disease. Guidance for the types of exposures to examine come from rodent studies that have identified agents such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution as germ-cell mutagens. Research is urgently needed to establish the health consequences of parental exposures on subsequent generations. PMID:22935230

  10. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  11. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  12. 43 CFR 46.170 - Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.170 Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions. (a) In order to facilitate...

  13. 21 CFR 25.60 - Environmental effects abroad of major agency actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major agency... SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Other Requirements § 25.60 Environmental effects abroad of major agency actions. (a) In accordance with Executive Order 12114, “Environmental Effects...

  14. 14 CFR 1216.321 - Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major...) Other Requirements § 1216.321 Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions. (a) In accordance with these procedures and E.O. 12114, “Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions” (44 FR...

  15. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  16. A comparative analysis of major drivers for environmental management in SMEs: legislation, b2b relationships and stakeholder pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the study of Environmental Management and Small Medium Enterprises is not new area but research con Environmental Management in SMEs has a very little theoretical or empirical work on the topic. But now, due to the magnitude and growth in SMEs opportunities, the need for such studies has become very important. With regard to such research on the above topic, this research paper has identified some crucial research issues regarding the drivel and barriers of Environmental Management in SMEs. This paper reports on a study of Environmental Management, attitudes and perceptions of SMEs toward Environmental Management issues. As environmental initiatives in SMEs are, however, often inhibited by lack of resources, capacity and capability, an effort has been made in exploring the factors of such resources. Companies are facing increasing demand concerning the environmental performance of their products. The thinking of product life cycle requires the main contractors to be aware of environmental aspects of their products with in the whole value chain. This study will also focus on such value chains. In this paper, the tools are identified which small firms use to improve environmental performance. The paper also focuses on some crucial drivers and barriers for the uptake of Environmental Management tools just to identify the environmental impacts. In addition, it evaluates some threats such as trade, supply chain issues an legislation compliance in general. Moreover, this paper comprises on five major sections: First part is about the general discussion on Environmental Management, Second is about SMEs, its concept and its pertinent points towards Environmental Management, Third is regarding the integration of SMEs to Environmental Management tools, Fourth is mainly about the major drivers a legislation, business to business relationships and stakeholder pressures, Fifth part focuses on common characteristics of SMEs regarding environmental legislation to control

  17. 22 CFR 161.12 - Environmental effects abroad of major departmental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major... Requirements of NEPA § 161.12 Environmental effects abroad of major departmental actions. Departmental officials shall analyze actions under their cognizance with due regard for the environmental effects in the...

  18. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  19. Identifying Major Dietary Patterns Among the Elderly in Tehran Health Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians. Objectives Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study (descriptive, 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups. Results Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1 healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2 unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3. traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4 protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.

  20. Can subsyndromal manifestations of major depression be identified in children at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Fitzgerald, M; Lin, K; Carrellas, N; Woodworth, H; Biederman, J

    2017-02-01

    Children of parents with major depression are at significantly increased risk for developing major depression themselves; however, not all children at genetic risk will develop major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the utility of subsyndromal scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scale in identifying children at the highest risk for pediatric MDD from among the pool of children of parents with MDD or bipolar disorder. The sample was derived from two previously conducted longitudinal case-control family studies of psychiatrically and pediatrically referred youth and their families. For this study, probands were stratified based on the presence or absence of a parental mood disorder. Subsyndromal scores on the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale significantly separated the children at high risk for pediatric MDD from those at low risk in a variety of functional areas, including social and academic functioning. Additionally, children at genetic risk without elevated CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale scores were largely indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale can help identify children at highest risk for pediatric MDD. If implemented clinically, this scale would cost-effectively screen children and identify those most in need of early intervention resources to impede the progression of depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for an Environmental Restoration Management Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the Standards/Requirements Identification Program, developed partially in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, was to identify applicable requirements that established the Environmental Restoration Management Contractor's (ERMC) responsibilities and authorities under the Environmental Restoration Management Contract, determine the adequacy of these requirements, ascertain a baseline level of compliance with them, and implement a maintenance program that would keep the program current as requirements or compliance levels change. The resultant Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RIDs) consolidate the applicable requirements. These documents govern the development of procedures and manuals to ensure compliance with the requirements. Twenty-four such documents, corresponding with each functional area identified at the site, are to be issued. These requirements are included in the contractor's management plan

  2. A multiplicative environmental DEA approach to measure efficiency changes in the world's major polluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Roshdi, Israfil; Smyth, Russell

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiplicative environmental data envelopment analysis (ME-DEA) approach to measure the performance of 46 countries that generate most of the world's carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. In the model, we combine economic (labour and capital), environmental (freshwater) and energy inputs with a desirable output (GDP) and three undesirable outputs (CO_2, methane and nitrous oxide emissions). We rank each country according to the optimum use of its resources employing a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. By computing partial efficiency scores for each input and output separately, we thus identify major sources of inefficiency for all sample countries. Based on the partial efficiency scores obtained from the model, we define aggregate economic, energy and environmental efficiency indexes for 2002, 2007 and 2011, reflecting points in time before and after the official enactment of the Kyoto Protocol. We find that for most countries efficiency scores increase over this period. In addition, there exists a positive relationship between economic and environmental efficiency, although, at the same time, our results suggest that environmental efficiency cannot be realized without first reaching a certain threshold of economic efficiency. We also find support for the Paradox of Plenty, whereby an abundance of natural and energy resources results in their inefficient use. - Highlights: • This study proposes a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. • We examine how countries utilize energy, labour, capital and freshwater over time. • We measure how efficiently countries minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. • Results support the Paradox of Plenty among 46 countries in 2002, 2007 and 2011. • Countries richest in oil and gas exhibited the worst energy efficiency.

  3. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation's (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation's defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO's mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements' adequacy, and assess FERMCO's level of compliance

  4. Storm runoff analysis using environmental isotopes and major ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Cherry, J.A.; Sklash, M.; Weyer, K.U.

    1976-01-01

    At a given locality the oxygen-18 content of rainwater varies from storm to storm but within broad seasonal trends. Very frequently, especially during heavy summer storms, the stable isotope composition of rainwater differs from that of the groundwater in the area. This isotopic difference can be used to differentiate between 'prestorm' and 'rain' components in storm runoff. This approach to the use of natural 18 O was applied in four hydrogeologically very different basins in Canada. Their surface areas range from less than 2km 2 to more than 700km 2 . Before, during and after the storm events samples of stream water, groundwater and rain were analysed for 18 O and in some cases for deuterium, major ions and electrical conductance. The 18 O hydrograph separations show that groundwater was a major component of the runoff in each of the basins, and usually exceeded 50% of the total water discharged. Even at peak stream flow most of discharge was subsurface water. The identification of geographic sources rather than time sources appears possible if isotope techniques are used in conjunction with chemical analyses, hydrological data - such as flow measurements - and visual observations. (author)

  5. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  6. OXPHOS-Dependent Cells Identify Environmental Disruptors of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with numerous chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome. Environmental chemicals can impair mitochondrial function through numerous mechanisms such as membrane disruption, complex inhibition and electron transport chain uncoupling. Curr...

  7. Identifying environmentally sensitive areas under the Oil Pollution Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Pease, A.L.; Watson, S.N.; Wasel, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Section 4202(a)(6) of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) requires the President to issue regulations that require owners or operators of tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities that could impact environmentally sensitive areas, drinking water intakes, and other economically sensitive areas to prepare and submit plans for responding to a worst case discharge of oil and to a substantial threat of such a discharge. The authority to implement the response plan regulations has been delegated to various agencies, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Transportation. In addition, Area Committees designated under the OPA are responsible for assuring preplanning of response efforts, including procedures for protecting environmentally sensitive areas, and protection, rescue and rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife. Area Contingency Plans for each of the designated areas will describe the areas of special economic and environmental importance that might be damaged by discharges. This paper will discuss and compare the identification of environmentally sensitive areas and vulnerability analyses required as elements of response plans for agencies implementing regulations under the OPA authority. This paper will also describe the progress of the Area Committees with respect to contingency planning development for protection of environmentally sensitive areas

  8. A Module-Based Environmental Science Course for Teaching Ecology to Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental…

  9. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  10. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  11. Teaching Physics to Environmental Science Majors Using a Flipped Course Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N. B.; Riha, S. J.; Wysocki, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Coursework in physics provides a framework for quantitative reasoning and problem solving skill development in budding geoscientists. To make physical concepts more accessible and relevant to students majoring in environmental science, an environmental physics course was developed at Cornell University and offered for the first time during spring 2014. Principles of radiation, thermodynamics, and mechanics were introduced and applied to the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere to describe energy and mass transfers in natural and built environments. Environmental physics was designed as a flipped course where students viewed online material outside of class and worked in groups in class to solve sustainability problems. Experiential learning, just-in-time teaching, and peer collaboration strategies were also utilized. In-class problems were drawn from both local and global environmental sustainability concerns. Problems included an investigation of Cornell's lake source cooling system, calculations on the energy consumed in irrigation with groundwater in the southwestern United States, and power generated by wind turbines at various locations around the world. Class attendance was high, with at least 84% of students present at each meeting. Survey results suggest that students enjoyed working in groups and found the in-class problems helpful for assimilating the assigned material. However, some students reported that the workload was too heavy and they preferred traditional lectures to the flipped classroom. The instructors were able to actively engage with students and quickly identify knowledge and skill gaps that needed to be addressed. Overall, the integration of current environmental problems and group work into an introductory physics course could help to inspire and motivate students as they advance their ability to analyze problems quantitatively.

  12. Conditional analysis identifies three novel major histocompatibility complex loci associated with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jo; Spain, Sarah L; Capon, Francesca; Hayday, Adrian; Nestle, Frank O; Clop, Alex; Barker, Jonathan N; Weale, Michael E; Trembath, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disorder. A number of genetic loci have been shown to confer risk for psoriasis. Collectively, these offer an integrated model for the inherited basis for susceptibility to psoriasis that combines altered skin barrier function together with the dysregulation of innate immune pathogen sensing and adap-tive immunity. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) harbours the psoriasis susceptibility region which exhibits the largest effect size, driven in part by variation contained on the HLA-Cw*0602 allele. However, the resolution of the number and genomic location of potential independent risk loci are hampered by extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region. We leveraged the power of large psoriasis case and control data sets and the statistical approach of conditional analysis to identify potential further association signals distributed across the MHC. In addition to the major loci at HLA-C (P = 2.20 × 10(-236)), we observed and replicated four additional independent signals for disease association, three of which are novel. We detected evidence for association at SNPs rs2507971 (P = 6.73 × 10(-14)), rs9260313 (P = 7.93 × 10(-09)), rs66609536 (P = 3.54 × 10(-07)) and rs380924 (P = 6.24 × 10(-06)), located within the class I region of the MHC, with each observation replicated in an independent sample (P ≤ 0.01). The previously identified locus is close to MICA, the other three lie near MICB, HLA-A and HCG9 (a non-coding RNA gene). The identification of disease associations with both MICA and MICB is particularly intriguing, since each encodes an MHC class I-related protein with potent immunological function.

  13. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains of Pandemic Serotypes Identified from Clinical and Environmental Samples from Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjiao eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17 and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these environmental pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve.

  14. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D; Bianchi, M; Landegren, N; Nordin, J; Dalin, F; Mathioudaki, A; Eriksson, G N; Hultin-Rosenberg, L; Dahlqvist, J; Zetterqvist, H; Karlsson, Å; Hallgren, Å; Farias, F H G; Murén, E; Ahlgren, K M; Lobell, A; Andersson, G; Tandre, K; Dahlqvist, S R; Söderkvist, P; Rönnblom, L; Hulting, A-L; Wahlberg, J; Ekwall, O; Dahlqvist, P; Meadows, J R S; Bensing, S; Lindblad-Toh, K; Kämpe, O; Pielberg, G R

    2016-12-01

    Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls. We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10 -15 , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex. Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Enriched pathways for major depressive disorder identified from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2012-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has caused a substantial burden of disease worldwide with moderate heritability. Despite efforts through conducting numerous association studies and now, genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the success of identifying susceptibility loci for MDD has been limited, which is partially attributed to the complex nature of depression pathogenesis. A pathway-based analytic strategy to investigate the joint effects of various genes within specific biological pathways has emerged as a powerful tool for complex traits. The present study aimed to identify enriched pathways for depression using a GWA dataset for MDD. For each gene, we estimated its gene-wise p value using combined and minimum p value, separately. Canonical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and BioCarta were used. We employed four pathway-based analytic approaches (gene set enrichment analysis, hypergeometric test, sum-square statistic, sum-statistic). We adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini & Hochberg's method to report significant pathways. We found 17 significantly enriched pathways for depression, which presented low-to-intermediate crosstalk. The top four pathways were long-term depression (p⩽1×10-5), calcium signalling (p⩽6×10-5), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (p⩽1.6×10-4) and cell adhesion molecules (p⩽2.2×10-4). In conclusion, our comprehensive pathway analyses identified promising pathways for depression that are related to neurotransmitter and neuronal systems, immune system and inflammatory response, which may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression. We demonstrated that pathway enrichment analysis is promising to facilitate our understanding of complex traits through a deeper interpretation of GWA data. Application of this comprehensive analytic strategy in upcoming GWA data for depression could validate the findings reported in this study.

  16. Integrated genomic and gene expression profiling identifies two major genomic circuits in urothelial carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lindgren

    Full Text Available Similar to other malignancies, urothelial carcinoma (UC is characterized by specific recurrent chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, the interconnection between specific genomic alterations, and how patterns of chromosomal alterations adhere to different molecular subgroups of UC, is less clear. We applied tiling resolution array CGH to 146 cases of UC and identified a number of regions harboring recurrent focal genomic amplifications and deletions. Several potential oncogenes were included in the amplified regions, including known oncogenes like E2F3, CCND1, and CCNE1, as well as new candidate genes, such as SETDB1 (1q21, and BCL2L1 (20q11. We next combined genome profiling with global gene expression, gene mutation, and protein expression data and identified two major genomic circuits operating in urothelial carcinoma. The first circuit was characterized by FGFR3 alterations, overexpression of CCND1, and 9q and CDKN2A deletions. The second circuit was defined by E3F3 amplifications and RB1 deletions, as well as gains of 5p, deletions at PTEN and 2q36, 16q, 20q, and elevated CDKN2A levels. TP53/MDM2 alterations were common for advanced tumors within the two circuits. Our data also suggest a possible RAS/RAF circuit. The tumors with worst prognosis showed a gene expression profile that indicated a keratinized phenotype. Taken together, our integrative approach revealed at least two separate networks of genomic alterations linked to the molecular diversity seen in UC, and that these circuits may reflect distinct pathways of tumor development.

  17. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  18. Environmental agreements in Canada : Aboriginal participation, EIA follow-up and environmental management of major projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Faircheallaigh, C. [Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Politics and Public Policy

    2006-05-15

    Attempts are now being made to address the historic marginalization of indigenous peoples from the management of resource projects located on their ancestral lands through the use of environmental agreements. However, the rapid pace of resource development in certain regions of Canada has meant that there is an increased need to ensure effective follow-up procedures for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processes in order to achieve meaningful Aboriginal participation in the management of large-scale resource projects. Lack of effective follow-up has made it difficult for the relevant agencies to manage risks and uncertainties. This book discussed the use of new policy environmental agreements between industry, government, and Aboriginal peoples. Case studies where environmental agreements were used in the Northwest Territories, Alberta, and Newfoundland were presented in order to demonstrate their efficacy. It was concluded that structures and processes must be designed to encourage Aboriginal participation in consultation processes. refs., tabs.

  19. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  20. Nitrogen-15 studies on identifying fertilizer excess in environmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, H.D.; Aly, A.I.M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of identifying fertilizer excesses in surface and ground waters on the basis of variations in the isotope ratio of nitrogen has been studied. The isotope ratio of the commonly used ammonium and nitrate fertilizers is similar to that of atmospheric nitrogen. These ratios are shifted when fertilizers are added to the soil. In the soil, fertilizer ammonium is oxidized and the nitrate formed is reduced in the heavy isotope. The fractionation factors are calculated. This artificially added nitrate becomes mixed with natural nitrate which, in general, is enriched in the heavy isotope. Only 50% (or even less) of the nitrate formed may stem from the added fertilizer. The mixing ratios are time-dependent, and different for various types and conditions of soil. In spite of this complexity, information on this isotopic process should be obtainable, if the isotope ratios of artificial and natural nitrate, respectively, are substantially different. Surface waters, in general, show no significant correlation between nitrate content and isotope ratio due to additions of sewage waters. Some data on ground waters from agricultural areas, however, where the nitrate content apparently resulted from fertilizers, gave a negative correlation of lower isotope ratios with higher nitrate contents. An inverse correlation was found in the isotope ratios of nitrate in untouched surface waters, and they even reflect the composition of the total soil nitrogen. (author)

  1. Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Sanderson, Hans; Belanger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate...... to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods.......This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate and toxicity of the four major, high volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES...

  2. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  3. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  4. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  5. Agricultural Ethics, Environmental Ethics, and Bioethics : the Major Issues of Agricultural Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    畠中, 和生

    2002-01-01

    It is the aim of the paper is to make the major issues of agricultural ethics clear by comparing them with the ones of environmental ethics and bioethics. The main topics in this paper are following. 1. The major issues of the debate over agricultural ethics are (1) agricultural threats to public health and safety; (2) government responsibility for controlling agricultural resource depletion; (3) agricultural contributions to ecological disturbance; (4) government responsibility for preservin...

  6. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  7. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  8. Robust symptom networks in recurrent major depression across different levels of genetic and environmental risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, H.M.; Van Borkulo, C.D.; Peterson, R.E.; Fried, E.I.; Aggen, S.H.; Borsboom, D.; Kendler, K.S.

    BACKGROUND: Genetic risk and environmental adversity-both important risk factors for major depression (MD)-are thought to differentially impact on depressive symptom types and associations. Does heterogeneity in these risk factors result in different depressive symptom networks in patients with MD?

  9. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  10. Review of four major environmental effects monitoring programs in the oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, E.O.; Jones, R.K.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of knowledge on current environmental effects monitoring programs for the mineable oil sands region generates a low public confidence in environment health monitoring and reporting programs for the oil sands operations. In 2010, the Oil Sands Research and Information Network (OSRIN) supervised a study reviewing the major environmental effects monitoring programs that are underway in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Four main environmental effects monitoring and reporting organizations existing in the oil sands area were engaged to describe their programs through this study: Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute (ABMI), Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program (RAMP), Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA). These different organizations have specific roles in providing information, data and understanding of ecosystem effects. A one page visual summary of environmental effects monitoring in the oil sands area resulted from the information received from these organizations and detailed fact sheets were presented for each one of the programs. The report of this study also presents seven other environmental monitoring initiatives or organizations such as Alberta Environment and Environment Canada environmental effects monitoring program. The main observation that emerged from the review was the lack of detailed understanding shown by the stakeholders regarding the monitoring activities performed in the oil sands area. There is a lack of communication of the different programs that are conducted in the region. The study also pointed out that no efforts were put in cross-linking the various programs to be assured that every concerns related to environmental effects associated with oil sands operations were addressed. A better understanding of environmental effects and an improvement in public confidence in the data and its interpretation would probably be observed with the establishment of a

  11. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  12. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  13. Factor analysis in the Genetics of Asthma International Network family study identifies five major quantitative asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillai, S. G.; Tang, Y.; van den Oord, E.; Klotsman, M.; Barnes, K.; Carlsen, K.; Gerritsen, J.; Lenney, W.; Silverman, M.; Sly, P.; Sundy, J.; Tsanakas, J.; von Berg, A.; Whyte, M.; Ortega, H. G.; Anderson, W. H.; Helms, P. J.

    Background Asthma is a clinically heterogeneous disease caused by a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and diverse environmental factors. In common with other complex diseases the lack of a standardized scheme to evaluate the phenotypic variability poses challenges in identifying the

  14. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  15. Gas-fired cogeneration and cooling: new study identifies major benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.

    2001-01-01

    A research paper- 'Gas Fired Cogeneration and Cooling: Markets, Technologies and Greenhouse Gas Savings'- launched at last month's Australian Gas Association 2001 Convention, reveals that gas cooling could replace 25 PJ of electricity summer demand, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 58 percent compared with electrical technologies. Commissioned by the AGA's Gas Cooling Task Force and supported by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Victoria and the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of NSW, the study examined market opportunities and environmental outcomes for the combined gas cogeneration and cooling technologies. It shows that the penetration of gas into the distributed cooling and power generation market is being driven by the following developments: the uncertainty and volatility of electricity costs, particularly during summer, electricity market structural changes which encourage distributed generation, high and uncertain world oil prices, the relative stability of Australian gas prices, the encouragement of demand and energy management strategies by regulators, greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, indoor air quality issues, product and productivity improvements in industry and CFC phase-out opportunities

  16. Effects of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified in Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Fish, C. S.; Herron, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993-2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven major SSW events. In this work we aim to determine the characteristics of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these seven major SSWs. To do this, comparisons were made between the temperature profiles on individual nights before, during, and after the SSW events and the corresponding derived climatological temperature profiles (31-day by 11-year average) for those nights. A consistent disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. A distinct shift from the nominal winter temperature pattern to a pattern more characteristic of summer temperatures was seen in the midlatitude mesosphere close to when the zonal winds in the polar stratosphere (at 10 hPa, 60° N) reversed from eastward to westward. This shift lasted for several days. This change in pattern included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  17. Whole genome population genetics analysis of Sudanese goats identifies regions harboring genes associated with major traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Siham A; Arends, Danny; Reissmann, Monika; Said Ahmed, Ammar; Wimmers, Klaus; Reyer, Henry; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2017-10-23

    Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped. More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) did not differ from zero. F st coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high F st values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system. The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high F st values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the

  18. Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2012-10-01

    Many interpretations of Shakespearean tragedy have been conducted, mostly following the principles of interpretation in literary study. In our paper, four tragedies by William Shakespeare - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth - were analysed systemically to find out whether they inhabit a common structure. Using the plot structure as the basis for our analysis, we identified the most important system elements, their connections, and interactive behaviour using causal loop diagrams (CLDs). Our results revealed that all four tragedies basically conform to Senge's archetypal structure 'shifting the burden', adding the action of the heroine or villain and the characters' boundaries of perception. The results suggest that, even though characters and settings vary highly, these tragedies have similar structures and archetypal solutions exist to overcome the problem. Furthermore, we propose that CLDs and systems archetypes are a reasonable hermeneutic tool to analyse not only Shakespearean tragedies but also other literary works.

  19. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  20. Identifying Major Transitions in the Evolution of Lithic Cutting Edge Production Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Muller

    Full Text Available The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production. Raw material efficiency is assessed by the ratio of cutting edge length to original core mass. We also examine which flake attributes contribute to maximising raw material efficiency, as well as compare the difference between expert and intermediate knappers in terms of cutting edge produced per gram of core. We identify a gradual increase in raw material efficiency over the broad sweep of lithic technological evolution. The results indicate that the most significant transition in efficiency likely took place with the introduction of small foliate biface, Levallois and prismatic blade knapping, all introduced in the Middle Stone Age / Middle Palaeolithic among early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. This suggests that no difference in raw material efficiency existed between these species. With prismatic blade technology securely dated to the Middle Palaeolithic, by including the more recent punch and pressure blade technology our results dispel the notion that the transition to the Upper Palaeolithic was accompanied by an increase in efficiency. However, further increases in cutting edge efficiency are evident, with pressure blades possessing the highest efficiency in this study, indicating that late/epi-Palaeolithic and Neolithic blade technologies further increased efficiency.

  1. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  2. In or Out When Out & About?: Identifying the Professional Support Needs of LGBT Preservice Social Work & Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.; Giesler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore how preservice social work and teacher education majors navigate field practicums (e.g., student teaching) as self-identified gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals. In-depth interviews with 26 preservice candidates, representative of two public, comprehensive…

  3. Altered interaction with environmental reinforcers in major depressive disorder: Relationship to anhedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepanik, Joanna E.; Furey, Maura L.; Nugent, Allison C.; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2017-01-01

    Anhedonia—defined as loss of interest or pleasure—is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers—activities with the potential to be positive experiences—is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Nevertheless, how environmental reinforcers are perceived, and how decisions to approach or avoid t...

  4. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  5. Science during crisis: the application of social science during major environmental crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.

  6. Analysis of Embodied Environmental Impacts of Korean Apartment Buildings Considering Major Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the reduction in environmental impacts (EIs of buildings using life-cycle assessment (LCA has been emphasized as a practical strategy for the sustainable development of the construction industry, studies are required to analyze not only the operational environmental impacts (OEIs of buildings, but also the embodied environmental impacts (EEIs of building materials. This study aims to analyze the EEIs of Korean apartment buildings on the basis of major building materials as part of research with the goal of reducing the EIs of buildings. For this purpose, six types of building materials (ready-mixed concrete, reinforcement steel, concrete bricks, glass, insulation, and gypsum for apartment buildings were selected as major building materials, and their inputs per unit area according to the structure types and plans of apartment buildings were derived by analyzing the design and bills of materials of 443 apartment buildings constructed in South Korea. In addition, a life-cycle scenario including the production, construction, maintenance, and end-of-life stage was constructed for each major building material. The EEIs of the apartment buildings were quantitatively assessed by applying the life-cycle inventory database (LCI DB and the Korean life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA method based on damage-oriented modeling (KOLID, and the results were analyzed.

  7. Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Tatiana Heid; Brodeur, Julie; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Chagas, Katia R; Corrales, Jone; Denadai, Marina; Fuchs, Julio; Mascarenhas, Renata; Miglioranza, Karina SB; Miguez Caramés, Diana Margarita; Navas, José Maria; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Planes, Estela; Rodriguez‐Jorquera, Ignacio Alejandro; Orozco‐Medina, Martha; Boxall, Alistair BA; Rudd, Murray A

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty priority research questions were subsequently identified. These research questions included developing, improving, and harmonizing across LA countries methods for 1) identifying contaminants and degradation products in complex matrices (including biota); 2) advancing prediction of contaminant risks and effects in ecosystems, addressing lab‐to‐field extrapolation challenges, and understanding complexities of multiple stressors (including chemicals and climate change); and 3) improving management and regulatory tools toward achieving sustainable development. Whereas environmental contaminants frequently identified in these key questions were pesticides, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors or modulators, plastics, and nanomaterials, commonly identified environmental challenges were related to agriculture, urban effluents, solid wastes, pulp and paper mills, and natural extraction activities. Several interesting research topics included assessing and preventing pollution impacts on conservation protected areas, integrating environment and health assessments, and developing strategies for identification, substitution, and design of less hazardous chemicals (e.g., green chemistry). Finally, a recurrent research need included developing an understanding of differential sensitivity of regional species and ecosystems to environmental contaminants and other stressors. Addressing these critical

  8. An International Comparison of the Instigation and Design of Health Registers in the Epidemiological Response to Major Environmental Health Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbod, Behrooz; Leonardi, Giovanni; Motreff, Yvon; Beck, Charles R; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik; Muravov, Oleg I; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy Funk; Lauriola, Paolo; Close, Rebecca; Crabbe, Helen; Pirard, Philippe

    Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected, standardized data about individual people. Planning for a register of people affected by or exposed to an incident is one of the evolving tools in the public health preparedness and response arsenal. We compared and contrasted the instigation and design of health registers in the epidemiological response to major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Consultation with experts from the 5 nations, supplemented with a review of gray and peer-reviewed scientific literature to identify examples where registers have been used. Populations affected by or at risk from major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Nations were compared with respect to the (1) types of major incidents in their remit for considering a register; (2) arrangements for triggering a register; (3) approaches to design of register; (4) arrangements for register implementation; (5) uses of registers; and (6) examples of follow-up studies. Health registers have played a key role in the effective public health response to major environmental incidents, including sudden chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear, as well as natural, more prolonged incidents. Value has been demonstrated in the early and rapid deployment of health registers, enabling the capture of a representative population. The decision to establish a health register must ideally be confirmed immediately or soon after the incident using a set of agreed criteria. The establishment of protocols for the instigation, design, and implementation of health registers is recommended as part of preparedness activities. Key stakeholders must be

  9. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodutta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, bisphenols (BPs, and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors.

  10. Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Tatiana Heid; Brodeur, Julie; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Chagas, Katia R; Corrales, Jone; Denadai, Marina; Fuchs, Julio; Mascarenhas, Renata; Miglioranza, Karina Sb; Miguez Caramés, Diana Margarita; Navas, José Maria; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Planes, Estela; Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio Alejandro; Orozco-Medina, Martha; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2018-05-01

    The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty priority research questions were subsequently identified. These research questions included developing, improving, and harmonizing across LA countries methods for 1) identifying contaminants and degradation products in complex matrices (including biota); 2) advancing prediction of contaminant risks and effects in ecosystems, addressing lab-to-field extrapolation challenges, and understanding complexities of multiple stressors (including chemicals and climate change); and 3) improving management and regulatory tools toward achieving sustainable development. Whereas environmental contaminants frequently identified in these key questions were pesticides, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors or modulators, plastics, and nanomaterials, commonly identified environmental challenges were related to agriculture, urban effluents, solid wastes, pulp and paper mills, and natural extraction activities. Several interesting research topics included assessing and preventing pollution impacts on conservation protected areas, integrating environment and health assessments, and developing strategies for identification, substitution, and design of less hazardous chemicals (e.g., green chemistry). Finally, a recurrent research need included developing an understanding of differential sensitivity of regional species and ecosystems to environmental contaminants and other stressors. Addressing these critical questions will

  11. Operating performance and environmental and safety risks: A preliminary comparison of majors and independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.; Iledare, W.O.; Baumann, R.H.; Mesyanzhinov, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to compare the safety and environmental records of oil and gas companies operating on the OCS in the Gulf of Mexico over the past decade. The reason for doing so is to help inform public sector policy-makers and private sector decision-makers about the potential safety and environmental risks associated with the expected increased presence of smaller independents in the domestic oil and gas industry in general and on the federal OCS in particular. The preliminary conclusion is that although independents have had a modestly high incidence of fires and explosions than the majors, the difference is not significant statistically and is largely attributable to a few ''bad actors'' rather than demonstrably poorer practice by the group as a whole

  12. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  13. Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Belanger, Scott; Dorn, Philip; Dyer, Scott; McAvoy, Drew; Sanderson, Hans; Versteeg, Donald; Ferrer, Darci

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate, and toxicity of the four major, high-volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate or alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylate (AE), and long-chain alcohol (LCOH). These chemicals are used in a wide range of personal care and cleaning products. To date, this is the most comprehensive report on these substance's chemical structures, use, and volume information, physical/chemical properties, environmental fate properties such as biodegradation and sorption, monitoring studies through sewers, wastewater treatment plants and eventual release to the environment, aquatic and sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation information. These data are used to illustrate the process for conducting both prospective and retrospective risk assessments for large-volume chemicals and categories of chemicals with wide dispersive use. Prospective risk assessments of AS, AES, AE, LAS, and LCOH demonstrate that these substances, although used in very high volume and widely released to the aquatic environment, have no adverse impact on the aquatic or sediment environments at current levels of use. The retrospective risk assessments of these same substances have clearly demonstrated that the conclusions of the prospective risk assessments are valid and confirm that these substances do not pose a risk to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods. PMID

  14. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or ...

  15. Waste management and environmental compliance aspects of a major remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is one of four major programs undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to remediate various sites where radiological contamination remained from programs conducted during the nation's early years of research and development in atomic energy. The remedial actions at the 33 sites that are currently in FUSRAP could generate an estimated total volume of about 1.6 million cubic meters of radioactive waste. Waste disposal is currently estimated to represent about one-third of the total estimated $2.1 billion cost for the entire program over its total duration. Waste management aspects within the program are diverse. The sites range in size from small areas used only for storage operations to large-scale decommissioned industrial facilities where uranium processing and other operations were carried out in the past. Currently, four sites are on the National Priorities List for remediation. Remedial actions at FUSRAP sites have to satisfy the requirements of both the National Environmental Policy Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended. In addition, a number of federal, state, and local laws as well as Executive Orders and DOE Orders may be applicable or relevant to each site. Several key issues currently face the program, including the mixed waste issue, both from the environmental compliance (with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and the disposal technology perspectives. 7 refs., 1 tab

  16. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  17. Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Health Related Socio-Spatial Inequalities: Identifying “Hotspots” of Environmental Burdens and Social Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Differential exposure to multiple environmental burdens and benefits and their distribution across a population with varying vulnerability can contribute heavily to health inequalities. Particularly relevant are areas with high cumulative burdens and high social vulnerability termed as “hotspots”. This paper develops an index-based approach to assess these multiple burdens and benefits in combination with vulnerability factors at detailed intra-urban level. The method is applied to the city of Dortmund, Germany. Using non-spatial and spatial methods we assessed inequalities and identified “hotspot” areas in the city. We found modest inequalities burdening higher vulnerable groups in Dortmund (CI = −0.020 at p vulnerability, is essential to inform environmental justice debates and to mobilize local stakeholders. Locating “hotspot” areas at this detailed spatial level can serve as a basis to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups to ensure a health conducive equal environment. PMID:27409625

  19. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Smith, P.E.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x10 8 m 3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

  20. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; Dziembowski, Z.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 10 8 m 3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.) [de

  1. Major methodological constraints to the assessment of environmental status based on the condition of benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, João Paulo; Pinto, Vanessa; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Azeda, Carla; Pereira, Tadeu; Quintella, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Lino Costa, José; José Costa, Maria; Chainho, Paula

    2014-05-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was published in 2008 and requires Member States to take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in aquatic ecosystems by the year of 2020. The MSFD indicates 11 qualitative descriptors for environmental status assessment, including seafloor integrity, using the condition of the benthic community as an assessment indicator. Member States will have to define monitoring programs for each of the MSFD descriptors based on those indicators in order to understand which areas are in a Good Environmental Status and what measures need to be implemented to improve the status of areas that fail to achieve that major objective. Coastal and offshore marine waters are not frequently monitored in Portugal and assessment tools have only been developed very recently with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The lack of historical data and knowledge on the constraints of benthic indicators in coastal areas requires the development of specific studies addressing this issue. The major objective of the current study was to develop and test and experimental design to assess impacts of offshore projects. The experimental design consisted on the seasonal and interannual assessment of benthic invertebrate communities in the area of future implementation of the structures (impact) and two potential control areas 2 km from the impact area. Seasonal benthic samples were collected at nine random locations within the impact and control areas in two consecutive years. Metrics included in the Portuguese benthic assessment tool (P-BAT) were calculated since this multimetric tool was proposed for the assessment of the ecological status in Portuguese coastal areas under the WFD. Results indicated a high taxonomic richness in this coastal area and no significant differences were found between impact and control areas, indicating the feasibility of establishing adequate control areas in marine

  2. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  3. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  4. Radiocesium Discharges and Subsequent Environmental Transport at the Major U.S. Weapons Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, Jr. C.T.; Hamby, D.M.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1999-11-14

    Radiocesium is one of the more prevalent radionuclides in the environment as a result of weapons production related atomic projects in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Radiocesium discharges during the 1950's account for a large fraction of the historical releases from U.S. weapons production facilities. Releases of radiocesium to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during the early ,years of nuclear weapons production provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on the transport mechanisms of this potentially hazardous radionuclide. The major U.S. Department of Energy facilities (Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina) are located in regions of the country that have different geographical characteristics. The facility siting provided diverse backgrounds for the development of an understanding of environmental factors contributing to the fate and transport of radiocesium. In this paper, we summarize the significant environmental releases of radiocesium in the early -years of weapons production and then discuss the historically significant transport mechanisms for r37Cs at the three facilities that were part of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex.

  5. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  6. Altered interaction with environmental reinforcers in major depressive disorder: Relationship to anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Joanna E; Furey, Maura L; Nugent, Allison C; Henter, Ioline D; Zarate, Carlos A; Lejuez, Carl W

    2017-10-01

    Anhedonia-defined as loss of interest or pleasure-is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers-activities with the potential to be positive experiences-is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Nevertheless, how environmental reinforcers are perceived, and how decisions to approach or avoid them are made by individuals with MDD, is largely unknown. We developed an experimental Behavioral Approach Motivation Paradigm to study how activities are evaluated and approached in MDD. Twenty-one MDD participants and 23 healthy controls performed an experimental task that rated activity words for their hedonic value, then engaged in an approach-avoidance joystick task with each individual's unique set of 'liked' and 'disliked' activity words. A negative correlation was observed between anhedonia and the number of 'liked' activities across participants. No significant difference between approach and avoidance behavior was found in direct comparisons between healthy controls and MDD participants; however, weaker avoidance and greater approach toward 'disliked' activities was found in MDD participants. This suggests negative bias in selecting environmental opportunities, potentially further compromising access to hedonic experiences in MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies major loci for carcass weight on BTA14 in Hanwoo (Korean cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available This genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to identify major loci that are significantly associated with carcass weight, and their effects, in order to provide increased understanding of the genetic architecture of carcass weight in Hanwoo. This genome-wide association study identified one major chromosome region ranging from 23 Mb to 25 Mb on chromosome 14 as being associated with carcass weight in Hanwoo. Significant Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide associations (P<1.52×10(-6 were detected for 6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP loci for carcass weight on chromosome 14. The most significant SNP was BTB-01280026 (P = 4.02×10(-11, located in the 25 Mb region on Bos taurus autosome 14 (BTA14. The other 5 significant SNPs were Hapmap27934-BTC-065223 (P = 4.04×10(-11 in 25.2 Mb, BTB-01143580 (P = 6.35×10(-11 in 24.3 Mb, Hapmap30932-BTC-011225 (P = 5.92×10(-10 in 24.8 Mb, Hapmap27112-BTC-063342 (P = 5.18×10(-9 in 25.4 Mb, and Hapmap24414-BTC-073009 (P = 7.38×10(-8 in 25.4 Mb, all on BTA 14. One SNP (BTB-01143580; P = 6.35×10(-11 lies independently from the other 5 SNPs. The 5 SNPs that lie together showed a large Linkage disequilibrium (LD block (block size of 553 kb with LD coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.89 within the block. The most significant SNPs accounted for 6.73% to 10.55% of additive genetic variance, which is quite a large proportion of the total additive genetic variance. The most significant SNP (BTB-01280026; P = 4.02×10(-11 had 16.96 kg of allele substitution effect, and the second most significant SNP (Hapmap27934-BTC-065223; P = 4.04×10(-11 had 18.06 kg of effect on carcass weight, which correspond to 44% and 47%, respectively, of the phenotypic standard deviation for carcass weight in Hanwoo cattle. Our results demonstrated that carcass weight was affected by a major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL with a large effect and by many SNPs with small effects that are normally

  9. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry in the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington (tidal

  10. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. Major Histocompatibility Complex, demographic, and environmental predictors of antibody presence in a free-ranging mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, María José; Monello, Ryan J; Schuttler, Stephanie G; Lance, Stacey L; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-12-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) variability plays a key role in pathogen resistance, but its relative importance compared to environmental and demographic factors that also influence resistance is unknown. We analyzed the MHC II DRB exon 2 for 165 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Missouri (USA). For each animal we also determined the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to two highly virulent pathogens, canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus. We investigated the role of MHC polymorphism and other demographic and environmental factors previously associated with predicting seroconversion. In addition, using an experimental approach, we studied the relative importance of resource availability and contact rates. We found important associations between IgG antibody presence and several MHC alleles and supertypes but not between IgM antibody presence and MHC. No effect of individual MHC diversity was found. For CDV, supertype S8, one allele within S8 (Prlo-DRB(∗)222), and a second allele (Prlo-DRB(∗)204) were positively associated with being IgG+, while supertype S4 and one allele within the supertype (Prlo-DRB(∗)210) were negatively associated with being IgG+. Age, year, and increased food availability were also positively associated with being IgG+, but allele Prlo-DRB(∗)222 was a stronger predictor. For parvovirus, only one MHC allele was negatively associated with being IgG+ and age and site were stronger predictors of seroconversion. Our results show that negative-frequency dependent selection is likely acting on the raccoon MHC and that while the role of MHC in relation to other factors depends on the pathogen of interest, it may be one of the most important factors predicting successful immune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptation to environmental temperature is a major determinant of molecular evolutionary rates in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussin, Mathieu; Gouy, Manolo

    2011-09-01

    common ancestor. The increase of substitution rates observed in mesophilic lineages along all their branches can be interpreted as an ongoing adaptation to colder temperatures and to new metabolisms. We conclude that environmental temperature is a major factor that governs evolutionary rates in Archaea.

  13. Environmental and parental influences on offspring health and growth in great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R A Pickett

    Full Text Available Sexual selection requires both that there is heritable variation in traits related to fitness, and that either some of this variation is linked to traits of the parents, and/or that there are direct benefits of choosing particular individuals as mates. This suggests that if direct benefits are important offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the rearing adults. But if indirect benefits are more significant offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the adults at the nest-of-origin. We conducted cross-fostering experiments in great tits (Parus major over four years, in two of which we manipulated environmental conditions by providing supplemental food. In a third year, some nestlings were directly supplemented with carotenoids. Nestlings in broods whose rearing adults received supplemental food were heavier and had improved immune responses even when controlling for body mass. Nestling immune function was related to measures of the yellow plumage color of both the rearing male and the putative father. Nestling body mass was influenced by the coloration of both the rearing female and the genetic mother. Our results suggest that features of both their social and putative genetic parents influence nestling health and growth. From this it would appear that females could be gaining both direct and indirect benefits through mate choice of male plumage traits and that it would be possible for males to similarly gain through mate choice of female traits.

  14. Smoking and Pregnancy — A Review on the First Major Environmental Risk Factor of the Unborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mund

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cigarettes throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes and it represents the first major environmental risk of the unborn. If compared with other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered to be amongst the most harmful and it is associated with high rates of long and short term morbidity and mortality for mother and child. A variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes are linked with cigarette consumption before and during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal cigarette smoke disturbs the equilibrium among the oxidant and antioxidant system, has negative impact on the genetic and cellular level of both mother and fetus and causes a large quantity of diseases in the unborn child. These smoking-induced damages for the unborn offspring manifest themselves at various times in life and for most only a very limited range of causal treatment exists. Education, support and assistance are of high importance to decrease maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, as there are few other avoidable factors which influence a child’s health that profoundly throughout its life. It is imperative that smoking control should be seen as a public health priority.

  15. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F W; Chen, W; O'Hanlon, T P; Cooper, R G; Vencovsky, J; Rider, L G; Danko, K; Wedderburn, L R; Lundberg, I E; Pachman, L M; Reed, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Padyukov, L; Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Radstake, T R; Isenberg, D A; Chinoy, H; Ollier, W E R; Scheet, P; Peng, B; Lee, A; Byun, J; Lamb, J A; Gregersen, P K; Amos, C I

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune muscle diseases (myositis) comprise a group of complex phenotypes influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify genetic risk factors in patients of European ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the major myositis phenotypes in a total of 1710 cases, which included 705 adult dermatomyositis, 473 juvenile dermatomyositis, 532 polymyositis and 202 adult dermatomyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis or polymyositis patients with anti-histidyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-Jo-1) autoantibodies, and compared them with 4724 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms showing strong associations (Pmyositis phenotypes together, as well as for the four clinical and autoantibody phenotypes studied separately. Imputation and regression analyses found that alleles comprising the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH8.1) defined essentially all the genetic risk in the phenotypes studied. Although the HLA DRB1*03:01 allele showed slightly stronger associations with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, and HLA B*08:01 with polymyositis and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody-positive myositis, multiple alleles of AH8.1 were required for the full risk effects. Our findings establish that alleles of the AH8.1 comprise the primary genetic risk factors associated with the major myositis phenotypes in geographically diverse Caucasian populations.

  18. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  19. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  20. Issues and major steps in a conceptual framework for environmental costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePape, D.; Kristjanson, E.R.; Onyebuchi, E.I.; Wojczynski, E.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of applying monetary values to environmental consequences as a means of integrating environmental considerations into utility resource planning is explored. The need for estimation and integration of environmental costs and benefits is becoming more important due to public concern over environmental degradation, rapidly increasing costs of mitigating environmental damage, increased liability for compensation for such damage, pressures to consider environmental externalities, and a corporate desire to operate responsibly. Manitoba Hydro established a task force to develop general approaches and specific techniques for evaluation and integration of environmental costs and benefits into utility planning. The utility's conceptual framework for monetizing and integrating environmental costs and benefits is described, including identification of potential environmental impacts, evaluation of environmental impacts, estimation of monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits, and integration of these costs and benefits into the resource planning process. Key issues that must be addressed to implement this conceptual framework include the need for earlier environmental impact assessments and the need for mitigation and compensation prediction methodologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Functional genomic analysis identifies indoxyl sulfate as a major, poorly dialyzable uremic toxin in end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jhawar

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure is characterized by progressive renal scarring and accelerated arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease despite what is considered to be adequate hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In rodents with reduced renal mass, renal scarring has been attributed to poorly filtered, small protein-bound molecules. The best studied of these is indoxyl sulfate (IS.We have attempted to establish whether there are uremic toxins that are not effectively removed by hemodialysis. We examined plasma from patients undergoing hemodialysis, employing global gene expression in normal human renal cortical cells incubated in pre- and post- dialysis plasma as a reporter system. Responses in cells incubated with pre- and post-dialysis uremic plasma (n = 10 were compared with responses elicited by plasma from control subjects (n = 5. The effects of adding IS to control plasma and of adding probenecid to uremic plasma were examined. Plasma concentrations of IS were measured by HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography.Gene expression in our reporter system revealed dysregulation of 1912 genes in cells incubated with pre-dialysis uremic plasma. In cells incubated in post-dialysis plasma, the expression of 537 of those genes returned to baseline but the majority of them (1375 remained dysregulated. IS concentration was markedly elevated in pre- and post-dialysis plasma. Addition of IS to control plasma simulated more than 80% of the effects of uremic plasma on gene expression; the addition of probenecid, an organic anion transport (OAT inhibitor, to uremic plasma reversed the changes in gene expression.These findings provide evidence that hemodialysis fails to effectively clear one or more solutes that effect gene expression, in our reporter system, from the plasma of patients with uremia. The finding that gene dysregulation was simulated by the addition of IS to control plasma and inhibited by addition of an OAT inhibitor to uremic plasma identifies IS

  2. A Multi-Breed Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Canine Hypothyroidism Identifies a Shared Major Risk Locus on CFA12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a complex clinical condition found in both humans and dogs, thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this study we present a multi-breed analysis of predisposing genetic risk factors for hypothyroidism in dogs using three high-risk breeds--the Gordon Setter, Hovawart and the Rhodesian Ridgeback. Using a genome-wide association approach and meta-analysis, we identified a major hypothyroidism risk locus shared by these breeds on chromosome 12 (p = 2.1x10(-11. Further characterisation of the candidate region revealed a shared ~167 kb risk haplotype (4,915,018-5,081,823 bp, tagged by two SNPs in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. This breed-shared risk haplotype includes three genes (LHFPL5, SRPK1 and SLC26A8 and does not extend to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class II gene cluster located in the vicinity. These three genes have not been identified as candidate genes for hypothyroid disease previously, but have functions that could potentially contribute to the development of the disease. Our results implicate the potential involvement of novel genes and pathways for the development of canine hypothyroidism, raising new possibilities for screening, breeding programmes and treatments in dogs. This study may also contribute to our understanding of the genetic etiology of human hypothyroid disease, which is one of the most common endocrine disorders in humans.

  3. Identifying the Main Problems of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations: Lessons from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostoaie Constantin-Marius

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Romanian environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGO have to deal with a lot of issues when performing their activities, related in general to their form of organization, financial capacity, unspecialized workforce, over bureaucratic administration, political parties’ unwillingness to cooperate, or mass-media’s general indifference. Moreover, most public representatives (e.g., political parties seldom (or never ask for the ENGOs’ opinions when designing environmental policies. Within this context, this paper aims to map the most important issues or challenges (in terms of financial capacity and with regard to the public sphere that Romanian ENGOs have to deal with. The methodological approach is a mixed one (having a qualitative as well as a quantitative component. The study embodies a questionnaire based survey applied on 48 Romanian ENGOs. Unfortunately, the instability of financial resources still tops the Romanian ENGOs’ list of issues. Moreover, the data reaffirmed the indifference of the majority of Romania’s political parties towards protecting the environment (leaving ENGOs out of the political decision making process.

  4. Identifying the critical factors of green supply chain management: Environmental benefits in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Ubaidullah; Ali, Yousaf; Petrillo, Antonella; De Felice, Fabio

    2018-05-30

    Pakistan is a developing country characterized by a growing industrialization, which is the major cause of environmental pollution in the country. To control the significant increase in pollution a green incentive has started, aiming to moderate the adverse effects of environmental pollution. Thus, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) plays an important role in influencing the total environment impact of any organizations. This study considers ten Pakistani industries that have implemented GSCM practices. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique (DEMATEL) is used to find influential factors in selecting GSCM criteria. The results show that organizational involvement is the most important dimension useful to implement GSCM practices. In addition, commitment from senior managers, ISO 14000 certification of suppliers and recycle of waste heat are considered significant factors. The paper also signifies the casual relationship among the dimensions and the factors in the form of diagraphs. The main management implication of the paper is to help decision makers to focus on the critical dimensions/factors in order to implement the GSCM practices more effectively in Pakistan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  6. Molecular marker to identify radiolarian species -toward establishment of paleo-environmental proxy-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fossilized unicellular plankton are known to have many genetically divergent species (biological species) in the single morphological species and these biological species show the species-specific environments much more precisely than that of morphological species. Among these plankton, Radiolaria are one of the best candidates for time- and environmental-indicators in the modern and past oceans, because radiolarians are the only group which represent entire water column from shallow to deep waters. However, the ecology and evolution of radiolarian were traditionally studied in paleontology and paleoceanography by morphological species. Even Radiolaria has a huge potential for novel proxy of wide and deep environments, there is no criterion to identify the biological species. The motivation for this study is setting the quantitative delimitation to establish the biological species of radiolarians based on molecular data, for leading the future ecological and paleo-environmental study. Identification of the biological species by ribosomal DNA sequences are mainly based on two ways: one is the evolutionary distance of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1 and 2), and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA; and the other is the secondary structure of ITS2. In the present study, all four possible genetic markers (SSU, ITS1, ITS2, and LSU rDNA) were amplified from 232 individuals of five radiolarian morphological species and applied to examine the evolutionary distance and secondary structure of rDNA. Comprehensive survey clearly shows that evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA and the secondary structure of ITS2 is good to identify the species. Notably, evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA is possible to set the common delimitation to identify the biological species, as 0.225 substitution per site. The results show that the ITS1 and ITS 2 rDNA could be the criterion for radiolarian species identification.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  8. Cre/lox Studies Identify Resident Macrophages as the Major Source of Circulating Coagulation Factor XIII-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Cora M L; Simpson, Kingsley R; Griffin, Kathryn J; Brown, Jane M; Cheah, Lih T; Smith, Kerrie A; Vacher, Jean; Cordell, Paul A; Kearney, Mark T; Grant, Peter J; Pease, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    To establish the cellular source of plasma factor (F)XIII-A. A novel mouse floxed for the F13a1 gene, FXIII-A flox/flox (Flox), was crossed with myeloid- and platelet-cre-expressing mice, and cellular FXIII-A mRNA expression and plasma and platelet FXIII-A levels were measured. The platelet factor 4-cre.Flox cross abolished platelet FXIII-A and reduced plasma FXIII-A to 23±3% ( P cre on plasma FXIII-A was exerted outside of the megakaryocyte lineage because plasma FXIII-A was not reduced in the Mpl -/- mouse, despite marked thrombocytopenia. In support of this, platelet factor 4-cre depleted FXIII-A mRNA in brain, aorta, and heart of floxed mice, where FXIII-A pos cells were identified as macrophages as they costained with CD163. In the integrin αM-cre.Flox and the double copy lysozyme 2-cre.cre.Flox crosses, plasma FXIII-A was reduced to, respectively, 75±5% ( P =0.003) and 30±7% ( P <0.001), with no change in FXIII-A content per platelet, further consistent with a macrophage origin of plasma FXIII-A. The change in plasma FXIII-A levels across the various mouse genotypes mirrored the change in FXIII-A mRNA expression in aorta. Bone marrow transplantation of FXIII-A +/+ bone marrow into FXIII-A -/- mice both restored plasma FXIII-A to normal levels and replaced aortic and cardiac FXIII-A mRNA, while its transplantation into FXIII-A +/+ mice did not increase plasma FXIII-A levels, suggesting that a limited population of niches exists that support FXIII-A-releasing cells. This work suggests that resident macrophages maintain plasma FXIII-A and exclude the platelet lineage as a major contributor. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  10. Biological transfer of radionuclides in marine environments - Identifying and filling knowledge gaps for environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Borretzen, P.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.

    2004-01-01

    A review on concentration factors (CF) for the marine environment was conducted in order to consider the relevance of existing data from the perspective of environmental protection and to identify areas of data paucity. Data have been organised in a format compatible with a reference organism approach, for selected radionuclides, and efforts have been taken to identify the factors that may be of importance in the context of dosimetric and dose-effects analyses. These reference organism categories had been previously selected by identifying organism groups that were likely to experience the highest levels of radiation exposure, owing to high uptake levels or residence in a particular habitat, for defined scenarios. Significant data gaps in the CF database have been identified, notably for marine mammals and birds. Most empirical information pertains to a limit suite of radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, 210 Po and 99 Tc. A methodology has been developed to help bridge this information deficit. This has been based on simple dynamic, biokinetic models that mainly use parameters derived from laboratory-based study and field observation. In some cases, allometric relationships have been employed to allow further model parameterization. Initial testing of the model by comparing model output with empirical data sets suggest that the models provide sensible equilibrium CFs. Furthermore, analyses of modelling results suggest that for some radionuclides, in particularly those with long effective half-lives, the time to equilibrium can be far greater than the life-time of an organism. This clearly emphasises the limitations of applying a universal equilibrium approach. The methodology, therefore, has an added advantage that non-equilibrium scenarios can be considered in a more rigorous manner. Further refinements to the modelling approach might be attained by exploring the importance of various model parameters, through sensitivity analyses, and by identifying those

  11. Identifying the Barriers upon Development of Virtual Education in Engineering Majors (Case Study: The University of Isfahan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonezhad, Sepideh; Nili, Mohammadreza; Esfahani, Ahmadreza Nasr

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating barriers upon development of virtual education in engineering majors at the University of Isfahan. The study has applied a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and its population consists all of the department members of the technical and engineering majors at the University of Isfahan including 125…

  12. Identifying opportunities to enhance environmental cleaning in 23 acute care hospitals .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, P C; Parry, M F; Von Beheren, S M

    2008-01-01

    The quality of environmental hygiene in hospitals is under increasing scrutiny from both healthcare providers and consumers because the prevalence of serious infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens has reached alarming levels. On the basis of the results from a small number of hospitals, we undertook a study to evaluate the thoroughness of disinfection and cleaning in the patient's immediate environment and to identify opportunities for improvement in a diverse group of acute care hospitals. Prospective multicenter study to evaluate the thoroughness of terminal room cleaning in hospitals using a novel targeting method to mimic the surface contamination of objects in the patient's immediate environment. Twenty-three acute care hospitals. The overall thoroughness of terminal cleaning, expressed as a percentage of surfaces evaluated, was 49% (range for all 23 hospitals, 35%-81%). Despite the tight clustering of overall cleaning rates in 21 of the hospitals, there was marked variation within object categories, which was particularly notable with respect to the cleaning of toilet handholds, bedpan cleaners, light switches, and door knobs (mean cleaning rates, less than 30%; institutional ranges, 0%-90%). Sinks, toilet seats, and tray tables, in contrast, were consistently relatively well cleaned (mean cleaning rates, over 75%). Patient telephones, nurse call devices, and bedside rails were inconsistently cleaned. We identified significant opportunities in all participating hospitals to improve the cleaning of frequently touched objects in the patient's immediate environment. The information obtained from such assessments can be used to develop focused administrative and educational interventions that incorporate ongoing feedback to the environmental services staff, to improve cleaning and disinfection practices in healthcare institutions.

  13. Battling Ecophobia: Instilling Activism in Nonscience Majors when Teaching Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark A.; Holden, Molly

    2011-01-01

    When learning about large-scale environmental problems such as climate change, species extinctions, overpopulation, and habitat destruction, students can become hopelessly dismayed and experience ecophobia--a state of mind in which the student is fearful of the looming environmental problems but senses that there is nothing that can be done to…

  14. Climate-Change Impacts on Major Societal and Environmental Sectors: a National View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program's Unified Synthesis Product reports on extant and possible future impacts of climate change for seven sectors at the national level - water resources, energy supply and use, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, human health and society. The sectoral analyses provide an integrated national picture of the climate-change consequences, now and in the future, for society and the environment, albeit a picture with regional texture. Major report findings for each sector will be presented. In addition to the specific sectoral findings, several overarching messages emerge from this component of the synthesis activity. First, it is important to think about interactions between and among sectors with regard to climate impacts. For example, the projected changes in the timing and amount of precipitation, and hence water supply, will very likely have significant implications for other sectors considered in the report. Changes in water supply have the potential to affect hydropower generation, river transportation, crop timing and management, in-stream ecosystem services including fish habitat, and human health issues related to links between heavy rains ad water-borne diseases. Second, the report concludes that climate-change impacts on the sectors must be considered in the context of a range of environmental and social factors including pollution, population growth, over use of resources, and urbanization. The multi-factor analysis provides insight into our understanding of where, when and how climate change combines with other environmental and social changes to affect the sectors. It also provides some understanding of how these interactions can either amplify or dampen climate-change impacts. This message has profound implications for the design of research programs and information systems at the national, regional and local levels. Furthermore, it demands that a true partnership be forged between the natural and social sciences

  15. Identifying and categorizing cobenefits in state-supported Australian indigenous environmental management programs: international research implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant natural resource management investment is flowing to bioculturally diverse areas occupied by indigenous and other socioeconomically and politically marginalized groups. Such investment focuses on environmental benefit but may also generate ancillary economic, social, and other cobenefits. Increased investor interest in such cobenefits is driving the emerging research literature on cobenefit identification, categorization, and assessment. For local people undertaking community-based natural resource management, this emerging cobenefit discourse creates opportunities for more holistic program assessments that better reflect local perspectives, but it also contains risks of increased reporting burdens and institutional capture. Here, we synthesize and critically review the cobenefit literature arising from Australian indigenous cultural and natural resource management programs, a context in which there is a strong investor interest in cobenefits, particularly from government. We identify a wide suite of cobenefits in the existing literature and highlight previously unrecognized conceptual gaps and elisions in cobenefit categorization, including inconsistencies in category definition, the underanalysis of key categories, and a lack of systematic attention to beneficiaries as well as benefits. We propose a clarified and expanded conceptual framework to identify consistently the full suite of benefits, thereby enabling further assessment, valuation, and development of incentive mechanisms, standards, and guidelines. Our analysis has implications for community-based natural resource management assessment in a wide range of international contexts.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    By studying the loci which contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Stu...

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on last-year major depression in adulthood: a highly heritable stable liability but strong environmental effects on 1-year prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Gardner, C O

    2017-07-01

    This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves. The best-fit model was simple and included genetic and unique environmental influences on the latent liability to MD and unique wave-specific environmental effects. The path from latent liability to MD in the last year was constant over time, moderate in magnitude (+0.65) and weaker than the impact of occasion-specific environmental effects (+0.76). Heritability of the latent stable liability to MD was much higher (78%) than that estimated for last-year MD (32%). Of the total unique environmental influences on MD, 13% reflected enduring consequences of earlier environmental insults, 17% diagnostic error and 70% wave-specific short-lived environmental stressors. Both genetic influences on MD and MD heritability are stable over middle adulthood. However, the largest influence on last-year MD is short-lived environmental effects. As predicted by genetic theory, the heritability of MD is increased substantially by measurement at multiple time points largely through the reduction of the effects of measurement error and short-term environmental risk factors.

  18. Identifying the decision to be supported: a review of papers from environmental modelling and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, Richard S.; Chen, Serena H.; El Sawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H.A.; Jakeman, A.J.; Lautenbach, Sven; McIntosh, Brian S.; Rizzoli, A.E.; Seppelt, Ralf; Struss, Peter; Voinov, Alexey; Volk, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Two of the basic tenets of decision support system efforts are to help identify and structure the decisions to be supported, and to then provide analysis in how those decisions might be best made. One example from wetland management would be that wildlife biologists must decide when to draw down water levels to optimise aquatic invertebrates as food for breeding ducks. Once such a decision is identified, a system or tool to help them make that decision in the face of current and projected climate conditions could be developed. We examined a random sample of 100 papers published from 2001-2011 in Environmental Modelling and Software that used the phrase “decision support system” or “decision support tool”, and which are characteristic of different sectors. In our review, 41% of the systems and tools related to the water resources sector, 34% were related to agriculture, and 22% to the conservation of fish, wildlife, and protected area management. Only 60% of the papers were deemed to be reporting on DSS. This was based on the papers reviewed not having directly identified a specific decision to be supported. We also report on the techniques that were used to identify the decisions, such as formal survey, focus group, expert opinion, or sole judgment of the author(s). The primary underlying modelling system, e.g., expert system, agent based model, Bayesian belief network, geographical information system (GIS), and the like was categorised next. Finally, since decision support typically should target some aspect of unstructured decisions, we subjectively determined to what degree this was the case. In only 23% of the papers reviewed, did the system appear to tackle unstructured decisions. This knowledge should be useful in helping workers in the field develop more effective systems and tools, especially by being exposed to the approaches in different, but related, disciplines. We propose that a standard blueprint for reporting on DSS be developed for

  19. Identifying and assessing environmental awareness of hotel and restaurant employees' attitudes in the Amasra District of Bartin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucedag, Cengiz; Kaya, Latif Gurkan; Cetin, Mehmet

    2018-01-05

    Environmental damage occurring on individual, institutional, and societal levels is one of the major problems in the world and results from mostly unconscious human behavior. This damage poses serious threats to human health and other habitats. The aim of this study is to determine the level of environmental awareness of hotel and restaurant employees in the Amasra District of Bartin, Turkey. For this purpose, a descriptive survey method is used to measure 16 items with a 5-point Likert scale. Data are obtained from 200 employees in the hotels and restaurants as of 2015. The reliability coefficient is found to be 0.74. This data reveals that only 43% of hotels and 72% of restaurants in Amasra have recycling bins. Males and Bachelor's degree holders have more environmental awareness. Enterprises established after 2011 follow popular journals related to environment more than those before 2011. As a result, it is essential to organize educational meetings and seminars related to environmental awareness for hotel and restaurant employees in order to improve the tourism industry's environmental impact. The results show that the legislation has resulted in general environmental awareness and that the organizations are willing to change their business processes and environmental strategies. Nevertheless, despite their actions, there is little awareness of the benefits that can result from cost reductions resulting from environmentally friendly practices. Those affected by their suppliers act to reduce waste but do not deploy formal environmental management systems or use environmental messages to market their goods or services.

  20. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM).......Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  1. Cross-disciplinary links in environmental systems science: Current state and claimed needs identified in a meta-review of process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Grimm, Volker; Attinger, Sabine; Hauhs, Michael; Simmer, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2018-05-01

    Terrestrial environmental systems are characterised by numerous feedback links between their different compartments. However, scientific research is organized into disciplines that focus on processes within the respective compartments rather than on interdisciplinary links. Major feedback mechanisms between compartments might therefore have been systematically overlooked so far. Without identifying these gaps, initiatives on future comprehensive environmental monitoring schemes and experimental platforms might fail. We performed a comprehensive overview of feedbacks between compartments currently represented in environmental sciences and explores to what degree missing links have already been acknowledged in the literature. We focused on process models as they can be regarded as repositories of scientific knowledge that compile findings of numerous single studies. In total, 118 simulation models from 23 model types were analysed. Missing processes linking different environmental compartments were identified based on a meta-review of 346 published reviews, model intercomparison studies, and model descriptions. Eight disciplines of environmental sciences were considered and 396 linking processes were identified and ascribed to the physical, chemical or biological domain. There were significant differences between model types and scientific disciplines regarding implemented interdisciplinary links. The most wide-spread interdisciplinary links were between physical processes in meteorology, hydrology and soil science that drive or set the boundary conditions for other processes (e.g., ecological processes). In contrast, most chemical and biological processes were restricted to links within the same compartment. Integration of multiple environmental compartments and interdisciplinary knowledge was scarce in most model types. There was a strong bias of suggested future research foci and model extensions towards reinforcing existing interdisciplinary knowledge rather than

  2. The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify isotopic enrichment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, Jose Henrique

    2000-01-01

    The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle has been proposed, by international organizations, as an additional measure to the safeguards agreements in force. The elements specific for each kind of nuclear activity, or nuclear signatures, inserted in the ecosystem by several transfer paths, can be intercepted with better or worse ability by different live organisms. Depending on the kind of signature of interest, the anthropogenic material identification and quantification require the choice of adequate biologic indicators and, mainly, the use of sophisticated techniques associated with elaborate sample treatments. This work demonstrates the technical viability of using pine needles as bioindicators of nuclear signatures associated with uranium enrichment activities. Additionally, it proposes the use of a technique widely diffused nowadays in the scientific community, the High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), to identify the signature corresponding to that kind of activities in the ecosystem. It can be also found a description of a methodology recently being applied in analytical chemistry,based on uncertainties estimates metrological concepts, used to calculate the uncertainties associated with the obtained measurement results. Nitric acid solutions with a concentration of 0.3 mol.kg -1 , used to wash pine needles sampled near facilities that manipulate enriched uranium and containing only 0.1 μg.kg -1 of uranium, exhibit a 235 U: 238 U isotopic abundance ratio of 0.0092±0.0002, while solutions originated from samples collected at places located more than 200 km far from activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle exhibit a value of 0.0074±0.0002 for this abundance ratio. Similar results were obtained for samples collected in different places permit to confirm the presence of anthropogenic uranium and demonstrate the viability of using this technique and the

  3. Dust: A major environmental hazard on the earth's moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Vaniman, D.; Lehnert, B.

    1990-01-01

    On the Earth's Moon, obvious hazards to humans and machines are created by extreme temperature fluctuations, low gravity, and the virtual absence of any atmosphere. The most important other environmental factor is ionizing radiation. Less obvious environmental hazards that must be considered before establishing a manned presence on the lunar surface are the hazards from micrometeoroid bombardment, the nuisance of electro-statically-charged lunar dust, and an alien visual environment without familiar clues. Before man can establish lunar bases and lunar mining operations, and continue the exploration of that planet, we must develop a means of mitigating these hazards. 4 refs.

  4. Anorexia nervosa and major depression: shared genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T D; Bulik, C M; Neale, M; Kendler, K S

    2000-03-01

    The authors sought to derive heritability estimates for anorexia nervosa and to explore the etiology of the comorbid relationship between anorexia nervosa and major depression. They applied bivariate structural equation modeling to a broad definition of anorexia nervosa and lifetime major depression as assessed in a population-based sample of 2,163 female twins. Anorexia nervosa was estimated to have a heritability of 58% (95% confidence interval=33%-84%). The authors were unable to completely rule out a contribution of shared environment. The comorbidity between anorexia nervosa and major depression is likely due to genetic factors that influence the risk for both disorders. Although the study was limited by the small number of affected twins, the results suggest that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for anorexia nervosa and substantially contribute to the observed comorbidity between anorexia nervosa and major depression.

  5. A meta-level analysis of major trends in environmental health risk governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bree, L. van; Sluijs, J.P. van der

    2010-01-01

    Internationally but also within countries, large differences exist regarding how environmental health risks (EHRs) are governed. Despite these differences, at a meta-level some general trends can be discerned that may point to a convergence of EHR governance regimes. One, EHR governance regimes are

  6. A Framework for Teaching Social and Environmental Sustainability to Undergraduate Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumagim, Alan L.; Cann, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors outline an undergraduate exercise to help students more fully understand the environmental and social justice aspects of business sustainability activities. A simple hierarchical framework, based on Maslow's (1943) work, was utilized to help the students understand, analyze, and judge the vast amount of corporate sustainability…

  7. Analysis of Causes of Major Environmental Issues Occurring on Sea Coastlines of the Peter the Great Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, S. Yu; Dulepov, V. I.; Maiorov, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    The geoecological assessment of any territory or aquatic area is based on the evaluation of the natural resource potential, conditions and factors influencing its development as well as the analysis of major environmental issues that characterize the current regional state. The monitoring of water ecosystems under the conditions of anthropogenic impact on coastal areas is of significant importance within the study of the conservation and restoration of biodiversity, in the assessment of the dynamics of various environmental factors and their effects on ecosystems and on the bioresources management planning.

  8. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF: A systematic review of identifying criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliatsas Christos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF remains a complex and unclear phenomenon, often characterized by the report of various, non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS when an EMF source is present or perceived by the individual. The lack of validated criteria for defining and assessing IEI-EMF affects the quality of the relevant research, hindering not only the comparison or integration of study findings, but also the identification and management of patients by health care providers. The objective of this review was to evaluate and summarize the criteria that previous studies employed to identify IEI-EMF participants. Methods An extensive literature search was performed for studies published up to June 2011. We searched EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus and Web of Science. Additionally, citation analyses were performed for key papers, reference sections of relevant papers were searched, conference proceedings were examined and a literature database held by the Mobile Phones Research Unit of King’s College London was reviewed. Results Sixty-three studies were included. “Hypersensitivity to EMF” was the most frequently used descriptive term. Despite heterogeneity, the criteria predominantly used to identify IEI-EMF individuals were: 1. Self-report of being (hypersensitive to EMF. 2. Attribution of NSPS to at least one EMF source. 3. Absence of medical or psychiatric/psychological disorder capable of accounting for these symptoms 4. Symptoms should occur soon (up to 24 hours after the individual perceives an exposure source or exposed area. (Hypersensitivity to EMF was either generalized (attribution to various EMF sources or source-specific. Experimental studies used a larger number of criteria than those of observational design and performed more frequently a medical examination or interview as prerequisite for inclusion. Conclusions Considerable heterogeneity exists in the

  9. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  10. Operationalizing the ecosystems approach: assessing the environmental impact of major infrastructure development

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzka, Joanna; Corstanje, Ronald; Fookes, J.; Nichols, J.; Harris, Jim A.

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem services approach is increasingly applied in the context of environmental resources management and impact assessment. Assessments often involve analysis of alternative scenarios for which potential changes in ecosystem services are quantified. For such assessments to be effective there is a requirement to represent changes in ecosystem services supply in a clear and informative manner. Here we compute Ecosystem Services Ratio (ESR), a simple index that quantifies the relative ch...

  11. Integrated program management for major nuclear decommissioning and environmental remediation projects - 59068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehew, John

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) contractor responsible for the safe, environmental cleanup of the Hanford Sites Central Plateau, sections of the Columbia River Corridor and the Hanford Reach National Monument. The 586-square-mile Hanford Site is located along the Columbia River in southeastern Washington, U.S.A. A plutonium production complex, housing the largest volume of radioactive and contaminated waste in the nation, with nine nuclear reactors and associated processing facilities, Hanford played a pivotal role in the nation's defense for more than 40 years, beginning in the 1940's with the Manhattan Project. Today, under the direction of the DOE, Hanford is engaged in one of the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The Plateau Remediation Contract is a 10-year project paving the way for closure of the Hanford Site. The site through its location, climate, geology and proximity to the Columbia River in combination with the results of past nuclear operations presents a highly complex environmental remediation challenge. The complexity is not only due to the technical issues associated with decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating soil contamination sites, dispositioning legacy waste and fuel materials and integrating these with the deep vadose zone and groundwater remediation

  12. Environmental land use conflicts in catchments: A major cause of amplified nitrate in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, F A L; Sanches Fernandes, L F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental land use conflicts are uses of the land that ignore soil capability. In this study, environmental land use conflicts were investigated in mainland Portugal, using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression combined with GIS modeling and a group of 85 agricultural watersheds (with >50% occupation by agriculture) as work sample. The results indicate a dominance of conflicts in a region where vineyards systematically invaded steep hillsides (the River Douro basin), where forests would be the most appropriate use. As a consequence of the conflicts, nitrate concentrations in rivers and lakes from these areas have increased, sometimes beyond the legal limit of 50mg/L imposed by the European and Portuguese laws. Excessive nitrate concentrations were also observed along the Atlantic coast of continental Portugal, but associated to a combination of other factors: large population densities, and incomplete coverage by sewage systems and inadequate functioning of wastewater treatment plants. Before this study, environmental land use conflicts were never recognized as possible boost of nitrate concentrations in surface water. Bearing in mind the consequences of drinking water nitrate for human health, a number of land use change scenarios were investigated to forecast their impact on freshwater nitrate concentrations. It was seen that an aggravation of the conflicts would duplicate the number of watersheds with maximum nitrate concentrations above 50mg/L (from 11 to 20 watersheds), while the elimination of the conflicts would greatly reduce that number (to 3 watersheds). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George

    2007-01-01

    School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks. To help physical education leaders determine the quality of physical education facilities…

  14. Identifying the role of conservation biology for solving the environmental crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerum, Fredrik

    2014-11-01

    Humans are altering their living environment to an extent that could cause environmental collapse. Promoting change into environmental sustainability is therefore urgent. Despite a rapid expansion in conservation biology, appreciation of underlying causes and identification of long-term solutions have largely been lacking. I summarized knowledge regarding the environmental crisis, and argue that the most important contributions toward solutions come from economy, political sciences, and psychology. Roles of conservation biology include providing environmental protection until sustainable solutions have been found, evaluating the effectiveness of implemented solutions, and providing societies with information necessary to align effectively with environmental values. Because of the potential disciplinary discrepancy between finding long-term solutions and short-term protection, we may face critical trade-offs between allocations of resources toward achieving sustainability. Since biological knowledge is required for such trade-offs, an additional role for conservation biologists may be to provide guidance toward finding optimal strategies in such trade-offs.

  15. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  16. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides

  17. Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Five Major Classes of Potentially Therapeutic Enzymes Secreted by Lucilia sericata Medical Maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Zdeněk; Vogel, Heiko; Lehmann, Rüdiger; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lucilia sericata larvae are used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant and chronic wounds. Their excretions/secretions contain molecules that facilitate tissue debridement, disinfect, or accelerate wound healing and have therefore been recognized as a potential source of novel therapeutic compounds. Among the substances present in excretions/secretions various peptidase activities promoting the wound healing processes have been detected but the peptidases responsible for these activities remain mostly unidentified. To explore these enzymes we applied next generation sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of different maggot tissues (salivary glands, gut, and crop) associated with the production of excretions/secretions and/or with digestion as well as the rest of the larval body. As a result we obtained more than 123.8 million paired-end reads, which were assembled de novo using Trinity and Oases assemblers, yielding 41,421 contigs with an N50 contig length of 2.22 kb and a total length of 67.79 Mb. BLASTp analysis against the MEROPS database identified 1729 contigs in 577 clusters encoding five peptidase classes (serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallopeptidases), which were assigned to 26 clans, 48 families, and 185 peptidase species. The individual enzymes were differentially expressed among maggot tissues and included peptidase activities related to the therapeutic effects of maggot excretions/secretions.

  18. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    A summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites is provided. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed include those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). The review is limited to activities conducted for the purpose of monitoring disposal site performance. Areas of environmental monitoring reviewed include air monitoring for particulates and gases, monitoring of surface water runoff, surface water bodies, ground water, monitoring of surface soils and the vadose zone, and monitoring of ambient penetrating radiation. Routine environmental surveillance is conducted at major LLW disposal sites at various levels of effort for specific environmental media. In summary, all sites implement a routine monitoring program for penetrating radiation. Four sites (INEL, NTS, LANL, and SRP) monitor particulates in air specifically at LLW disposal sites. Hanford monitors particulates at LLW sites in conjunction with monitoring of other site operations. Particulates are monitored on a reservationwide network at ORNL. Gases are monitored specifically at active LLW sites operated at NTS, LANL, and SRP. Ground water is monitored specifically at LLW sites at INEL, LANL, and SRP, in conjunction with other operations at Hanford, and as part of a reservationwide program at NTS and ORNL. Surface water is monitored at INEL, LANL, and SRP LLW sites. Surface soil is sampled and analyzed on a routine basis at INEL and LANL. Routine monitoring of the vadose zone is conducted at the INEL and SRP. Techniques and equipment in use are described and other aspects of environmental monitoring programs, such as quality assurance and data base management, are reviewed

  19. Identifying Challenging Job and Environmental Demands of Older Nurses Within the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosaiye, Isaiah Oluremi; Hadjri, Karim; Liyanage, Champika Lasanthi

    2016-04-01

    To explore the existing theoretical contexts of the job and environmental demands of the nursing profession in the National Health Service (NHS) and to investigate how these job and environmental demands impact on the personal constructs of older nurses within the NHS. Nursing is the single most widely practiced profession in the healthcare sector in the United Kingdom. However, nurses contend with challenging job and environmental demands on a daily basis, which deplete them of personal constructs (or resources) required to stay in the profession. A multilevel exploratory qualitative research design was employed. Ten managers were interviewed for the preliminary study, based on which the three characteristics of an age-friendly NHS workplace were established: health, retirement, and flexibility. Then an in-depth literature review revealed that the most adversely affected job within the NHS was the nursing profession. Finally, a focus group study was undertaken with six older nurses working in the NHS. The most compelling finding of this study is that older nurses would generally not want to stay on the job if they had to work in the ward area. The physical, cognitive, and sensory constructs of older nurses are negatively affected by the job and environmental demands of the ward areas. Understanding how these job and environmental demands of the workplace affect an older nurse's personal constructs may help support a better design of nurse work and the wards and help extend the working lives of older nurses in the NHS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Modified Principal Component Analysis for Identifying Key Environmental Indicators and Application to a Large-Scale Tidal Flat Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the key environmental indicators (KEIs from a large number of environmental variables is important for environmental management in tidal flat reclamation areas. In this study, a modified principal component analysis approach (MPCA has been developed for determining the KEIs. The MPCA accounts for the two important attributes of the environmental variables: pollution status and temporal variation, in addition to the commonly considered numerical divergence attribute. It also incorporates the distance correlation (dCor to replace the Pearson’s correlation to measure the nonlinear interrelationship between the variables. The proposed method was applied to the Tiaozini sand shoal, a large-scale tidal flat reclamation region in China. Five KEIs were identified as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, Cd, petroleum in the water column, Hg, and total organic carbon in the sediment. The identified KEIs were shown to respond well to the biodiversity of phytoplankton. This demonstrated that the identified KEIs adequately represent the environmental condition in the coastal marine system. Therefore, the MPCA is a practicable method for extracting effective indicators that have key roles in the coastal and marine environment.

  1. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  2. The Relationship between Academic Major and Environmentalism among College Students: Is It Mediated by the Effects of Gender, Political Ideology and Financial Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found a relationship between college students' academic majors and their environmental attitudes and behaviors. Results from this study of incoming first-year students at a medium-sized public university suggest that students majoring in different programs of study were likely to have different environmental attitudes and…

  3. Identifying environmental risk to male reproductive function by occupational sperm studies: logistics and design options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonde, J.P.; Giwercman, A.; Ernst, E.; Joffe, M.; Bisanti, L.; Hoorne M, van M.; Thonneau, P.; Zielhuis, G.; Kiss, P.; Abell, A.; Larsen, S.B.; Danscher, G.; Kolstad, H.

    1996-01-01

    Malfunction of the male reproductive system might be a sensitive marker of environmental hazards, the effects of which may extend beyond reproductive function. The testis is more vulnerable to heat and ionising radiation than any other organ of the body and several xenobiotics are known to disrupt

  4. Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

    2015-04-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (Pclimatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wet days and rain days) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wet days and rain days, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wet days. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and detected significant predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  6. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  7. Applying genotoxicology tools to identify environmental stressors in support of river management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although bioassay approaches are useful for identifying chemicals of potential concern, they provide little understanding of the mechanisms of chemical toxicity. Without this understanding, it is difficult to address some of the key challenges...

  8. Biotic and environmental stress induces nitration and changes in structure and function of the sea urchin major yolk protein toposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Ferraro, Giarita; Maffioli, Elisa; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Zingone, Adriana; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Palumbo, Anna

    2018-03-15

    The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome. Here, we characterize through wide-ranging biochemical and structural analyses the nitrated toposome of sea urchins exposed to the bloom, and subsequently detoxified. The increased number of nitrated tyrosines in toposome of sea urchins collected during algal bloom induced structural changes and improvement of the Ca 2+ -binding affinity of the protein. After 3 months' detoxification, ovatoxin was undetectable, and the number of nitric oxide-modified tyrosines was reduced. However, the nitration of specific residues was irreversible and occurred also in embryos treated with metals, used as a proxy of environmental pollutants. The structural and functional changes of toposome caused by nitration under adverse environmental conditions may be related to the defective development of sea urchins' progeny.

  9. Identifying environmental risk to male reproductive function by occupational sperm studies: logistics and design options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E

    1996-01-01

    Malfunction of the male reproductive system might be a sensitive marker of environmental hazards, the effects of which may extend beyond reproductive function. The testis is more vulnerable to heat and ionising radiation than any other organ of the body and several xenobiotics are known to disrupt spermatogenesis after low level exposure. Studies of environmental impact on human health are often most informative and accurate when carried out in the workplace where exposures can be high and easy to document. Semen analysis provides readily obtainable information on testicular function. The main advantages in comparison with functional measures such as fertility rates and time taken to conceive are the possibilities to examine men independently of marriage and pregnancy, to find changes of fecundity with different exposures within the same person and to detect adverse effects when no alteration of fertility is yet taking place. In the implementation of an occupational sperm study considerable attention must be paid to logistic issues. A mobile laboratory unit for initial semen preparation and processing may in some situations increase worker compliance and the quality of sperm cell motility. The cross sectional design which has been used in almost all male reproductive studies so far has several severe limitations including selection bias because of differential participation, difficulties in defining a suitable reference group, and lack of information about the time dimension of the cause-effect relation. The longitudinal design deals adequately with most of these constraints. Semen samples are collected before, during, and possibly after exposure to the risk factor of interest and causal inferences are based upon change of semen variables within a man over time rather than upon differences between men. The logistics of the longitudinal study may benefit from pre-employment health examinations to enrol newly hired workers and require fewer participants to obtain

  10. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA {section}121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA {section}121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ``to-be-considered`` (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance.

  11. Fishers' knowledge identifies environmental changes and fish abundance trends in impounded tropical rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M

    2013-03-01

    The long-term impacts of large hydroelectric dams on small-scale fisheries in tropical rivers are poorly known. A promising way to investigate such impacts is to compare and integrate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of resource users with biological data for the same region. We analyzed the accuracy of fishers' LEK to investigate fisheries dynamics and environmental changes in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon) downstream from a large dam. We estimated fishers' LEK through interviews with 300 fishers in nine villages and collected data on 601 fish landings in five of these villages, 22 years after the dam's establishment (2006-2008). We compared these two databases with each other and with data on fish landings from before the dam's establishment (1981) gathered from the literature. The data obtained based on the fishers' LEK (interviews) and from fisheries agreed regarding the primary fish species caught, the most commonly used type of fishing gear (gill nets) and even the most often used gill net mesh sizes but disagreed regarding seasonal fish abundance. According to the interviewed fishers, the primary environmental changes that occurred after the impoundment were an overall decrease in fish abundance, an increase in the abundance of some fish species and, possibly, the local extinction of a commercial fish species (Semaprochilodus brama). These changes were corroborated by comparing fish landings sampled before and 22 years after the impoundment, which indicated changes in the composition of fish landings and a decrease in the total annual fish production. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that large dams may adversely affect small-scale fisheries downstream and establish a feasible approach for applying fishers' LEK to fisheries management, especially in regions with a low research capacity.

  12. Identifying ecosystem service hotspots for environmental management in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashieda Davids

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that substantial portions of hotspot areas lie outside of formally regulated and managed conservation areas and remain vulnerable to human impact and habitat degradation. The study identified management areas and options that could yield maximum benefits; including the need for the development of an ecosystem services management and protection strategy, the selection of areas for co-management of ecosystem service hotspots and CBAs and the need for collaborative management.

  13. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  14. Analysis of Major Nutritional Components of Pleurotus pulmonarius During the Cultivation in Different Indoor Environmental Conditions on Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariqul Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in three different environmental conditions, in ambient indoor environment (System 1, in humidifying without ventilation (System 2 and in humidifying with ventilation (System 3 to analyse the major nutritional contents. Sawdust was the main substrate for all the cultivation systems. The lowest temperature and the highest optimal humidity were found in System 3. The temperature and humidity had shown statistically significant among the three cultivation Systems. The highest numbers of flushes was found both in System 2 and System 3 but System 1 was produced mushrooms till 3rd flush. About 29.5%, 28.3%, 28.5% protein; 59.0%, 55.8%, 54.3% carbohydrate and 3.8%, 3.5%, 3.3% lipid were found in System 1, System 2 and System 3 respectively. The protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents were shown statistically insignificant among the cultivation systems. The highest value of protein, carbohydrate and lipid were found for the sample of 1st flush in all the cultivation systems but the values were started to decrease with the increased numbers of flushes significantly. So, this study shown that, although the environmental conditions of the three cultivation systems were varied significantly but the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents were existed their normal values in all cases but the values were decreased by the increased numbers of flushes.

  15. Environmental drivers of viral community composition in Antarctic soils identified by viromics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Kramer, Rolf; Van Goethem, Marc W; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Hogg, Ian; Cowan, Don A

    2017-07-19

    The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform. Metadata on soil physico-chemistry was collected from all sites. Both read and contig datasets were analyzed with reference-independent and reference-dependent methods to assess viral community structures and the influence of environmental parameters on their distribution. We observed a high heterogeneity in virus signatures, independent of geographical proximity. Tailed bacteriophages were dominant in all samples, but the incidences of the affiliated families Siphoviridae and Myoviridae were inversely correlated, suggesting direct competition for hosts. Viruses of the families Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae were present at significant levels in high-diversity soil samples and were found to co-occur, implying little competition between them. Combinations of soil factors, including pH, calcium content, and site altitude, were found to be the main drivers of viral community structure. The pattern of viral community structure with higher levels of diversity at lower altitude and pH, and co-occurring viral families, suggests that these cold desert soil viruses interact with each other, the host, and the environment in an intricate manner, playing a potentially crucial role in maintaining host diversity and functioning of the microbial ecosystem in the extreme environments of Antarctic soil.

  16. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations

  17. Infrared spectroscopy of pollen identifies plant species and genus as well as environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. METHODOLOGY: The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids. RESULTS: The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities.

  18. Identifying gene coexpression networks underlying the dynamic regulation of wood-forming tissues in Populus under diverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkgraf, Matthew; Liu, Lijun; Groover, Andrew; Filkov, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    Trees modify wood formation through integration of environmental and developmental signals in complex but poorly defined transcriptional networks, allowing trees to produce woody tissues appropriate to diverse environmental conditions. In order to identify relationships among genes expressed during wood formation, we integrated data from new and publically available datasets in Populus. These datasets were generated from woody tissue and include transcriptome profiling, transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility and genome-wide association mapping experiments. Coexpression modules were calculated, each of which contains genes showing similar expression patterns across experimental conditions, genotypes and treatments. Conserved gene coexpression modules (four modules totaling 8398 genes) were identified that were highly preserved across diverse environmental conditions and genetic backgrounds. Functional annotations as well as correlations with specific experimental treatments associated individual conserved modules with distinct biological processes underlying wood formation, such as cell-wall biosynthesis, meristem development and epigenetic pathways. Module genes were also enriched for DNase I hypersensitivity footprints and binding from four transcription factors associated with wood formation. The conserved modules are excellent candidates for modeling core developmental pathways common to wood formation in diverse environments and genotypes, and serve as testbeds for hypothesis generation and testing for future studies. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Identifying the driving forces of urban expansion and its environmental impact in Jakarta-Bandung mega urban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravitasari, A. E.; Rustiadi, E.; Mulya, S. P.; Setiawan, Y.; Fuadina, L. N.; Murtadho, A.

    2018-05-01

    The socio-economic development in Jakarta-Bandung Mega Urban Region (JBMUR) caused the increasing of urban expansion and led to a variety of environmental damage such as uncontrolled land use conversion and raising anthropogenic disaster. The objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the driving forces of urban expansion that occurs on JBMUR and (2) to analyze the environmental quality decline on JBMUR by producing time series spatial distribution map and spatial autocorrelation of floods and landslide as the proxy of anthropogenic disaster. The driving forces of urban expansion in this study were identified by employing Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model using 6 (six) independent variables, namely: population density, percentage of agricultural land, distance to the center of capital city/municipality, percentage of household who works in agricultural sector, distance to the provincial road, and distance to the local road. The GWR results showed that local demographic, social and economic factors including distance to the road spatially affect urban expansion in JBMUR. The time series spatial distribution map of floods and landslide event showed the spatial cluster of anthropogenic disaster in some areas. Through Local Moran Index, we found that environmental damage in one location has a significant impact on the condition of its surrounding area.

  20. Seminar on Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings of seminar on comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents (Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl) are divided into 5 parts bearing on: part 1: accident source terms; part 2: atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination; part 3: environmental contamination and transfer; part 4: radiological implications for man and his environment; part 5: countermeasures

  1. Perception of Global Climate Change as a Mediator of the Effects of Major and Religious Affiliation on College Students' Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Emily; Snider, Anthony; Luo, Shanhong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a reliable association between environmental education and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Research has also shown that aspects of religion were associated with ERB. However, the mechanisms of associations are unclear. This study builds on previous research addressing the relationship between student major,…

  2. Identifying the environmental factors that effect within canopy BVOC loss using a multilevel canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Lerdau, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide research findings to evaluate the hypothesis that the loss of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) within plant canopies is dynamic and depends on factors such as plant canopy architecture (height and leaf area distribution), atmospheric turbulence, concentration of oxidants (OH, O3, NO3), and the reactivity of BVOC species. Results will be presented from a new one dimensional, multilevel canopy model that couples algorithms for canopy microclimate, leaf physiology, BVOC emission, turbulent transport, and atmospheric chemistry to investigate the relative importance of factors that impact BVOC loss within a forest canopy. Model sensitivity tests will be presented and discussed to identify factors driving canopy loss. Results show isoprene and monoterpene canopy losses as high as 9 and 18%, respectively, for tall canopies during the daytime. We hypothesize that canopy height and wind speed (i.e. canopy residence time) may be the most important in dictating within-canopy loss. This work will reduce the error in bottom-up flux estimates of BVOCs and ultimately improve parameterizations of BVOC sources in air quality models by accounting for within canopy processes.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  4. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  5. A review on environmental monitoring of water organic pollutants identified by EU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, João C G; Ribeiro, Ana R; Barbosa, Marta O; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-02-15

    available risk assessment data, may be useful to identify possible future PS candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying socio-environmental factors that facilitate resilience among Canadian palliative family caregivers: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Melissa; Wolse, Faye; Crooks, Valorie A; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, friends and family members are becoming increasingly responsible for providing palliative care in the home. This is resulting in some caregivers experiencing high levels of stress and burden that may ultimately surpass their ability to cope. Recent palliative care research has demonstrated the potential for caregiver resilience within such contexts. This research, however, is primarily focused on exploring individual-level factors that contribute to resilience, minimizing the inherent complexity of this concept, and how it is simultaneously influenced by one's social context. Therefore, our study aims to identify socio-environmental factors that contribute to palliative family caregiver resilience in the Canadian homecare context. Drawing on ethnographic fieldnotes and semistructured interviews with family caregivers, care recipients, and homecare nurses, this secondary analysis employs an intersectionality lens and qualitative case study approach to identify socio-environmental factors that facilitate family caregivers' capacity for resilience. Following a case study methodology, two cases are purposely selected for analysis. Findings demonstrate that family caregiver resilience is influenced not only by individual-level factors but also by the social environment, which sets the lived context from which caregiving roles are experienced. Thematic findings of the two case studies revealed six socio-environmental factors that play a role in shaping resilience: access to social networks, education/knowledge/awareness, employment status, housing status, geographic location, and life-course stage. Findings contribute to existing research on caregiver resilience by empirically demonstrating the role of socio-environmental factors in caregiving experiences. Furthermore, utilizing an intersectional approach, these findings build on existing notions that resilience is a multidimensional and complex process influenced by numerous related variables that intersect

  7. Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Roberts, David R; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Nielsen, Scott E; Stralberg, Diana; Hamann, Andreas; Mcrae, Brad H; Wang, Tongli

    2017-11-01

    As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different environmental diversity metrics differed substantially from each other and from priorities based on spatiotemporal metrics such as climatic velocity. Refugia identified by diversity or velocity metrics were not strongly associated with the current protected area system, suggesting the need for additional conservation measures including protection of refugia. Despite the inherent uncertainties in predicting future climate, we found that variation among climatic velocities derived from different general circulation models and emissions pathways was less than the variation among the suite of environmental diversity metrics. To address uncertainty created by this variation, planners can combine priorities identified by alternative metrics at a single resolution and downweight areas of high variation between metrics. Alternately, coarse-resolution velocity metrics can be combined with fine-resolution diversity metrics in order to leverage the respective strengths of the two groups of metrics as tools for identification of potential macro- and microrefugia that in combination maximize both transient and long-term resilience to climate change. Planners should compare and integrate approaches that span a range of model complexity and spatial scale to match the range of ecological and physical processes influencing persistence of biodiversity and identify a conservation network resilient to threats operating at

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxic Neural Stem Cells Identifies Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling as a Major Regulator of Neural Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Fernández, Virginia; Monllau, Josep M.; Borrell, Víctor; Lerin, Carles; de la Iglesia, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic microenvironment within the brain. However, the crucial transcription factors (TFs) that regulate NSC biology under physiologic hypoxia are poorly understood. Here we have performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray datasets from hypoxic versus normoxic NSCs with the aim of identifying pathways and TFs that are activated under oxygen concentrations mimicking normal brain tissue microenvironment. Integration of TF target (TFT) and pathway enrichment analysis identified the calcium-regulated TF NFATc4 as a major candidate to regulate hypoxic NSC functions. Nfatc4 expression was coordinately upregulated by top hypoxia-activated TFs, while NFATc4 target genes were enriched in hypoxic NSCs. Loss-of-function analyses further revealed that the calcineurin-NFATc4 signaling axis acts as a major regulator of NSC self-renewal and proliferation in vitro and in vivo by promoting the expression of TFs, including Id2, that contribute to the maintenance of the NSC state. PMID:26235896

  9. Identified best environmental management practices to improve the energy performance of the retail trade sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez-Martos, Jose-Luis; Styles, David; Schoenberger, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The retail trade sector has been identified as a target sector for the development of sectoral reference documents on best environmental management practices under the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. This paper focuses on the important energy-related needs in retailers' stores such as for food refrigeration and lighting, as well as heating, ventilation and air conditioning of the building. For the definition of best environmental management practices in the European framework, frontrunner retailers have been identified as those retailers integrating energy minimization and saving measures as standard practice systematically across stores. These best performers also integrate a comprehensive monitoring system in the energy management of every store or building belonging to the company, enabling the rapid identification of energy saving opportunities. An integrative approach is needed to define how best practices should be implemented in combination to optimize energy management within stores: building aspects such as insulation of the building envelope or the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, should be optimized in combination with best options for refrigeration in food retailers. Refrigeration systems are responsible for half of the final energy use in stores and of their carbon footprint. Natural refrigerants, heat recovery from the condensation stage and covering of display cases are measures with high environmental benefits to reduce the impact of refrigeration. Finally, practices for lighting, as optimal lighting strategies, and the integration of renewable energy sources in overall zero energy building concepts can save considerable amounts of fossil energy, reduce the carbon footprint and produce significant cost-savings in the long term. - highlights: • There is a high energy performance improvement potential of the retail trade sector. • We propose techniques with a high performance level and applied by frontrunners. • We identified

  10. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  11. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully...... selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology...

  12. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Seabourn, Bradford W

    2014-12-24

    The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or are subjected to high temperatures during grain development. The omega-5 gliadins also have been associated with the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Recently, transgenic lines with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins were developed using RNA interference (RNAi). These lines make it possible to determine whether changes in the levels of omega-5 gliadins in response to environmental conditions and agronomic inputs may be responsible for changes in flour end-use quality. Two transgenic wheat lines and a non-transgenic control were grown under a controlled temperature regimen with or without post-anthesis fertilizer and the protein composition of the resulting flour was analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In one transgenic line, all 2-DE spots identified as omega-5 gliadins were substantially reduced without effects on other proteins. In the other transgenic line, the omega-5 gliadins were absent and there was a partial reduction in the levels of the omega-1,2 gliadins and the omega-1,2 chain-terminating gliadins as well as small changes in several other proteins. With the exception of the omega gliadins, the non-transgenic control and the transgenic plants showed similar responses to the fertilizer treatment. Protein contents of flour were determined by the fertilizer regimen and were similar in control and transgenic samples produced under each regimen while both mixing time and mixing tolerance were improved in flour from transgenic lines when plants received post-anthesis fertilizer. The data indicate that omega-5 gliadins have a negative effect on flour quality and suggest that changes in quality with the growth

  13. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  14. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis.

  15. Environmental isotope and geophysical techniques to identify groundwater potential zones in drought prone areas of Amravati District, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble

    2017-01-01

    The groundwater potential of Anjangaon village in Amaravati district of Maharashtra is generally poor and the water quality is saline in most of the places. Farmers dig open wells (up to 30 m depth) and drill bore wells (100-150 m depth) for domestic and irrigation purposes. Most of the wells failed and farmers are struggling for fresh water in this region. To evaluate the groundwater recharge and to identify the groundwater potential zones an environmental isotope and geophysical study was carried out. Water samples were collected from rain, springs, open wells, bore wells and detention tanks and measured for environmental isotopes such as "1"8O, "2H and "3H. Isotope results indicate that the groundwater is getting modern component of recharge from the rain as well as from the detention tanks. The percentage contributions from the detention tanks were estimated to be about 40 to 90 %. In the southern part of the Anjagaon village, an electrical resistivity survey of the geological formation was carried out and a groundwater potential zone was delineated at 45m depth. The farmers were asked to drill bore wells at the identified depth. The drilled five bore wells yielded perennial source of good quality water

  16. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  17. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  18. Evaluation of molecular brain changes associated with environmental stress in rodent models compared to human major depressive disorder: A proteomic systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David Alan; Gottschalk, Michael Gerd; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wesseling, Hendrik; Cooper, Jason David; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-11-25

    Rodent models of major depressive disorder (MDD) are indispensable when screening for novel treatments, but assessing their translational relevance with human brain pathology has proved difficult. Using a novel systems approach, proteomics data obtained from post-mortem MDD anterior prefrontal cortex tissue (n = 12) and matched controls (n = 23) were compared with equivalent data from three commonly used preclinical models exposed to environmental stressors (chronic mild stress, prenatal stress and social defeat). Functional pathophysiological features associated with depression-like behaviour were identified in these models through enrichment of protein-protein interaction networks. A cross-species comparison evaluated which model(s) represent human MDD pathology most closely. Seven functional domains associated with MDD and represented across at least two models such as "carbohydrate metabolism and cellular respiration" were identified. Through statistical evaluation using kernel-based machine learning techniques, the social defeat model was found to represent MDD brain changes most closely for four of the seven domains. This is the first study to apply a method for directly evaluating the relevance of the molecular pathology of multiple animal models to human MDD on the functional level. The methodology and findings outlined here could help to overcome translational obstacles of preclinical psychiatric research.

  19. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Comment letters on draft statements and major comments with DOE responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Notice of availability of the draft environmental impact statement for storage of US spent power reactor fuel was published by DOE in the Federal Register on September 6, 1978. A subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register on December 14, 1978, on the availability of the draft EISs on storage of foreign fuel, on charge for spent fuel storage, and a supplement to the draft EIS on storage of US fuel. Copies of the draft EISs were distributed for review and comment by appropriate Federal agencies, state governments, and other organizations and individuals who were known to have an interest in spent fuel storage activities and those who requested them. Comments and views concerning the draft EISs were requested from other interested agencies, organizations, and individuals by means of the Federal Register notices. Approximately 1600 copies each of the draft Domestic, Foreign, and Charge EISs were distributed for comment. The closing date for comments to be received on the draft EISs was February 15, 1979. Copies of the EISs (upon publication) and comment letters received were placed for public inspection in DOE public document rooms at 10 locations throughout the country. To the extent practicable, comments received after the closing date were also considered in the preparation of the final EIS. A total of 78 comment letters (some with supplements) were received. These comment letters are reproduced in their entirety in Section I of this volume. Approximately 600 specific comments were identified in these letters

  20. Deep sequencing of Salmonella RNA associated with heterologous Hfq proteins in vivo reveals small RNAs as a major target class and identifies RNA processing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittka, Alexandra; Sharma, Cynthia M; Rolle, Katarzyna; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. To address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfq, which may facilitate the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.

  1. An in-depth characterization of the major psoriasis susceptibility locus identifies candidate susceptibility alleles within an HLA-C enhancer element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Clop

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.

  2. Identifying Critical Habitat for Australian Freshwater Turtles in a Large Regulated Floodplain: Implications for Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocock, J. F.; Bino, G.; Wassens, S.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, R. F.; Kingsford, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    Freshwater turtles face many threats, including habitat loss and river regulation reducing occupancy and contributing to population decline. Limited knowledge of hydrological conditions required to maintain viable turtle populations in large floodplain wetlands hinders effective adaptive management of environmental water in regulated rivers. We surveyed three turtle species over 4 years across the Lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain, a large wetland complex with a long history of water resource development. Using site and floodplain metrics and generalized linear models, within a Bayesian Model Averaging framework, we quantified the main drivers affecting turtle abundance. We also used a hierarchical modeling approach, requiring large sample sizes, quantifying possible environmental effects while accounting for detection probabilities of the eastern long-necked turtle ( Chelodina longicollis). The three species varied in their responses to hydrological conditions and connectivity to the main river channel. Broad-shelled turtles ( Chelodina expansa) and Macquarie River turtles ( Emydura macquarii macquarii) had restricted distributions, centered on frequently inundated wetlands close to the river, whereas the eastern long-necked turtles were more widely distributed, indicating an ability to exploit variable habitats. We conclude that turtle communities would benefit from long-term management strategies that maintain a spatiotemporal mosaic of hydrological conditions. More specifically, we identified characteristics of refuge habitats and stress the importance of maintaining their integrity during dry periods. Neighboring habitats can be targeted during increased water availability years to enhance feeding and dispersal opportunities for freshwater turtles.

  3. Mining environmental high-throughput sequence data sets to identify divergent amplicon clusters for phylogenetic reconstruction and morphotype visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Environmental high-throughput sequencing (envHTS) is a very powerful tool, which in protistan ecology is predominantly used for the exploration of diversity and its geographic and local patterns. We here used a pyrosequenced V4-SSU rDNA data set from a solar saltern pond as test case to exploit such massive protistan amplicon data sets beyond this descriptive purpose. Therefore, we combined a Swarm-based blastn network including 11 579 ciliate V4 amplicons to identify divergent amplicon clusters with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design for full-length small subunit of the ribosomal DNA retrieval and probe design for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This powerful strategy allows to benefit from envHTS data sets to (i) reveal the phylogenetic position of the taxon behind divergent amplicons; (ii) improve phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary history of specific taxon groups; (iii) solidly assess an amplicons (species') degree of similarity to its closest described relative; (iv) visualize the morphotype behind a divergent amplicons cluster; (v) rapidly FISH screen many environmental samples for geographic/habitat distribution and abundances of the respective organism and (vi) to monitor the success of enrichment strategies in live samples for cultivation and isolation of the respective organisms. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Identify Environmental Justice Issues in an Inner-City Community and Inform Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Holloman, Erica; DeBrew, Linwood

    2016-01-01

    The Southeast CARE Coalition has been using community-based participatory research to examine environmental degradation in the Southeast Community, Newport News, Virginia. A survey was developed to collect assessment data. Up to 66% of respondents were concerned about environmental problems in their community. Those with health conditions were significantly more likely to identify specific environmental problems. The top 5 environmental concerns included coal dust, air quality, crime, water quality, and trash. The community-based participatory research process is building community capacity and participation, providing community input into strategic planning, and empowering community members to take control of environmental justice issues in their community.

  5. Design and Evaluation of Educational Socio-environmental Games to Identify Attitudes, Motivations and Decisions of Smallholder Contemporary Rural Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amayrani Meza-Jiménez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current and potential relationship of contemporary rural youth with the agricultural and natural patrimony (PAN, according to its Spanish initials that they will inherit is little known, but vitally important. In this study, we designed, adapted, and evaluated a variety of socio-environmental learning tools in order to identify and reflect on the opinions, actions, and motivations of 14 to 17 year olds in an area of the Sepultura Biosphere Reserve in Chiapas, Mexico to use their PAN in the future. The methodological approach consisted of exploring discourses using the Q method and three original table games (Mi territorio ideal, El carga palito y Manantiales de la Sierra. 46 teens were shown how to use these four tools, their use was monitored in workshops, and results were recorded and statistically analyzed. These tools allowed a identifying at least four discourses of the teens regarding the use of their PAN, and b reveal to the teens the preferences for land use, levels of diversification and intensification, and their disposition toward behaviors of dominance/subordination, competition, cooperation, coordination, equity, and solidarity that emerge from their decision making regarding PAN. Participants said they understood and enjoyed these tools, and that they learned about their own motivations. Together, these materials conform a dynamic educational approach that allows teachers and students to identify external and internal motivations, conservation behavior, intensification and diversification for managing PAN, attitudes of dominance and equity among teens, and preferences towards individual or collective working. This proposal is innovative, participatory, dynamic, and contextualized, and has great potential to be incorporated in the middle school curriculum in the study area and in similar rural regions of Mexico, as well as in the rest of Latin America and the world.

  6. Identifying the social and environmental determinants of plague endemicity in Peru: insights from a case study in Ascope, La Libertad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière-Cinnamond, Ana; Santandreu, Alain; Luján, Anita; Mertens, Frederic; Espinoza, John Omar; Carpio, Yesenia; Bravo, Johnny; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2018-02-06

    Plague remains a public health problem in specific areas located in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Its prevention and control encompasses adequate clinical management and timely laboratory diagnosis. However, understanding communities' interaction with its surrounding ecosystem as well as the differences between community members and institutional stakeholders regarding the root causes of plague might contribute to understand its endemicity. We aim at bridging the traditionally separate biological and social sciences by elucidating communities' risk perception and identifying knowledge gaps between communities and stakeholders. This approach has been used in other areas but never in understanding plague endemicity, nor applied in the Latin American plague context. The objectives were to identify (i) plague risk perception at community level, (ii) perceived social and environmental determinants of plague endemicity, and (iii) institutions that need to be involved and actions needed to be taken as proposed by stakeholders and community members. The study was performed in 2015 and took place in Ascope rural province, La Libertad Region, in Peru, where the study areas are surrounded by intensive private sugarcane production. We propose using a multi-level discourse analysis. Community households were randomly selected (n = 68). Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were applied. A stakeholder analysis was used to identify policy makers (n = 34). In-depth interviews were performed, recorded and transcribed. Descriptive variables were analyzed with SPSS®. Answers were coded following variables adapted from the Commission on Social Determinants of Health and analyzed with the assistance of ATLAS.ti®. Results showed that risk perception was low within the community. Policy-makers identified agriculture and sugarcane production as the root cause while community answers ranked the hygiene situation as the main cause. Stakeholders first ranked

  7. Genome-wide analysis in UK Biobank identifies four loci associated with mood instability and genetic correlation with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joey; Strawbridge, Rona J; Bailey, Mark E S; Graham, Nicholas; Ferguson, Amy; Lyall, Donald M; Cullen, Breda; Pidgeon, Laura M; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; O'Donovan, Michael; Escott-Price, Valentina; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-11-30

    Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mood instability in 53,525 cases and 60,443 controls from UK Biobank, identifying four independently associated loci (on chromosomes 8, 9, 14 and 18), and a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimate of ~8%. We found a strong genetic correlation between mood instability and MDD (r g  = 0.60, SE = 0.07, p = 8.95 × 10 -17 ) and a small but significant genetic correlation with both schizophrenia (r g  = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01) and anxiety disorders (r g  = 0.28, SE = 0.14, p = 0.04), although no genetic correlation with BD, ADHD or PTSD was observed. Several genes at the associated loci may have a role in mood instability, including the DCC netrin 1 receptor (DCC) gene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit beta (eIF2B2), placental growth factor (PGF) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD). Strengths of this study include the very large sample size, but our measure of mood instability may be limited by the use of a single question. Overall, this work suggests a polygenic basis for mood instability. This simple measure can be obtained in very large samples; our findings suggest that doing so may offer the opportunity to illuminate the fundamental biology of mood regulation.

  8. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  9. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, N2O, BC (Black Carbon and OC (Organic Carbon. The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions.

    A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15–25% and Western Europe (5–15%. The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5–6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With

  10. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation

  11. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation

  12. Environmental monitoring at major U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation.

  13. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2015-02-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura , using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology. The identification of T. trichiura eggs indicates that human fecal material is present and, hence, that the Ascaris sp. haplotype 07 was most likely a human variant in Viking-age Denmark. The location of the F. hepatica finding suggests that sheep or cattle are the most likely hosts. Further, we sequenced the Ascaris sp. 18S rRNA gene in recent isolates from humans and pigs of global distribution and show that this is not a suited marker for species-specific identification. Finally, we discuss ancient parasitism in Denmark and the implementation of aDNA analysis methods in paleoparasitological studies. We argue that when employing species-specific identification, soil samples offer excellent opportunities for studies of human parasite infections and of human and animal interactions of the past.

  14. A groundwater salinity hotspot and its connection to an intermittent stream identified by environmental tracers (Mt Lofty Ranges, South Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas A.; Bestland, Erick A.; Soloninka, Lesja; Wallis, Ilka; Banks, Edward W.; Pichler, Markus

    2017-12-01

    High and variable levels of salinity were investigated in an intermittent stream in a high-rainfall area (˜800 mm/year) of the Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia. The groundwater system was found to have a local, upslope saline lens, referred to here as a groundwater salinity `hotspot'. Environmental tracer analyses (δ18O, δ2H, 87/86Sr, and major elements) of water from the intermittent stream, a nearby permanent stream, shallow and deep groundwater, and soil-water/runoff demonstrate seasonal groundwater input of very saline composition into the intermittent stream. This input results in large salinity increases of the stream water because the winter wet-season stream flow decreases during spring in this Mediterranean climate. Furthermore, strontium and water isotope analyses demonstrate: (1) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone (hotspot) mixes with the dominant groundwater system, (2) the intermittent-stream water is a mixture of soil-water/runoff and the upslope saline groundwater, and (3) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone results from the flushing of unsaturated-zone salts from the thick clayey regolith and soil which overlie the metamorphosed shale bedrock. The preferred theory on the origin of the upslope-saline-groundwater hotspot is land clearing of native deep-rooted woodland, followed by flushing of accumulated salts from the unsaturated zone due to increased recharge. This cause of elevated groundwater and surface-water salinity, if correct, could be widespread in Mt. Lofty Ranges areas, as well as other climatically and geologically similar areas with comparable hydrogeologic conditions.

  15. Multiproxies (benthic foraminifera, ostracods and biopolymers approach applied to identify the environmental partitioning of the Guadiana River Estuary (Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River is the fourth longest river in Europe and is a natural frontier between southern Portugal and Spain. This river was historically used to transport minerals exploited in the region since the Roman Empire and therefore suffered human interventions that have been intensified after the industrial revolution. The Guadiana River has in its limits the Guadiana Valley Natural Park, which is of great value for the Conservation of Geobiodiversity. This study mainly aims to identify zones with the environmental characteristics in the estuarine area of the Guadiana River based on the distribution and ecology of microorganisms (ostracods and foraminifera associated with physicochemical parameters and sedimentological and geochemical (carbohydrate, lipid, protein, total organic carbon and total sulfur data. Fifty-five foraminifera taxa were identified along the estuary with dominance of Ammonia tepida and Miliammina fusca and 13 ostracods taxa with dominance Leptocythere lacertosa and Loxoconcha elliptica. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA performed using biotic and abiotic variables indicated that pH, grain size, total organic carbon (TOC and lipids were the most influent factors in the distribution of these organisms. Four zones were identified in the Guadiana River estuary: i Low estuary - region with the largest marine influence with sandy sediment, higher salinity and total sulfur and mainly represented by the dominance of estuarine species of foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Cribroelphidium vadescens and by the ostracods (Darwinula stevensoni, Semicytherura sulcata and Urocythereis oblonga; ii Intermediate estuary - region characterized by neutral pH and sandy sediment enriched in carbohydrates; this region is characterized by the presence of the ostracods species Cytherois fischeri and Neocytherideis subulata and by calcareous and agglutinated species in foraminiferal assemblages; iii Upper estuary - silt, high TOC, proteins and

  16. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  17. The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...... after adjusting for major life events and social support. Conclusions The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress...

  18. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1975. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring conducted during 1975 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, soil, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1975. The Beaver Valley Power Station was under construction during the report year, and therefore, made no radioactive releases. Additional analyses of the effluent from the reactor portion of Shippingport were performed to ensure that the water quality standards specified by Energy Research and Development Administration Manual Chapter 0510 and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been met. The results of environmental monitoring described by this report show that Shippingport operations and the pre-operational phase of the Beaver Valley Power Station have not adversely affected the surrounding environment

  19. Environmental stress is the major cause of transcriptomic and proteomic changes in GM and non-GM plants

    KAUST Repository

    Batista, Rita

    2017-08-31

    The approval of genetically modified (GM) crops is preceded by years of intensive research to demonstrate safety to humans and environment. We recently showed that in vitro culture stress is the major factor influencing proteomic differences of GM vs. non-GM plants. This made us question the number of generations needed to erase such

  20. Environmental stress is the major cause of transcriptomic and proteomic changes in GM and non-GM plants

    KAUST Repository

    Batista, Rita; Fonseca, Cá tia; Planchon, Sé bastien; Negrã o, Só nia; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The approval of genetically modified (GM) crops is preceded by years of intensive research to demonstrate safety to humans and environment. We recently showed that in vitro culture stress is the major factor influencing proteomic differences of GM vs. non-GM plants. This made us question the number of generations needed to erase such

  1. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  2. Promoter Hypermethylation Profiling Identifies Subtypes of Head and Neck Cancer with Distinct Viral, Environmental, Genetic and Survival Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Hussain Choudhury

    Full Text Available Epigenetic and genetic alteration plays a major role to the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Consumption of tobacco (smoking/chewing and human papilloma virus (HPV are also associated with an increase the risk of HNSCC. Promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppression genes is related with transcriptional inactivation and loss of gene expression. We investigated epigenetic alteration (promoter methylation of tumor-related genes/loci in tumor tissues in the context of genetic alteration, viral infection, and tobacco exposure and survival status.The study included 116 tissue samples (71 tumor and 45 normal tissues from the Northeast Indian population. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP was used to determine the methylation status of 10 tumor-related genes/loci (p16, DAPK, RASSF1, BRAC1, GSTP1, ECAD, MLH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31. Polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GST (M1 & T1, XRCC1and XRCC2 genes were studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and multiplex-PCR respectively.Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on methylation pattern had identified two tumor clusters, which significantly differ by CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, tobacco, GSTM1, CYP1A1, HPV and survival status. Analyzing methylation of genes/loci individually, we have found significant higher methylation of DAPK, RASSF1, p16 and MINT31 genes (P = 0.031, 0.013, 0.031 and 0.015 respectively in HPV (+ cases compared to HPV (-. Furthermore, a CIMP-high and Cluster-1 characteristic was also associated with poor survival.Promoter methylation profiles reflecting a correlation with tobacco, HPV, survival status and genetic alteration and may act as a marker to determine subtypes and patient outcome in HNSCC.

  3. Promoter Hypermethylation Profiling Identifies Subtypes of Head and Neck Cancer with Distinct Viral, Environmental, Genetic and Survival Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Javed Hussain; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetic and genetic alteration plays a major role to the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Consumption of tobacco (smoking/chewing) and human papilloma virus (HPV) are also associated with an increase the risk of HNSCC. Promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppression genes is related with transcriptional inactivation and loss of gene expression. We investigated epigenetic alteration (promoter methylation of tumor-related genes/loci) in tumor tissues in the context of genetic alteration, viral infection, and tobacco exposure and survival status. Methodology The study included 116 tissue samples (71 tumor and 45 normal tissues) from the Northeast Indian population. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to determine the methylation status of 10 tumor-related genes/loci (p16, DAPK, RASSF1, BRAC1, GSTP1, ECAD, MLH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31). Polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GST (M1 & T1), XRCC1and XRCC2 genes were studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex-PCR respectively. Principal Findings Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on methylation pattern had identified two tumor clusters, which significantly differ by CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), tobacco, GSTM1, CYP1A1, HPV and survival status. Analyzing methylation of genes/loci individually, we have found significant higher methylation of DAPK, RASSF1, p16 and MINT31genes (P = 0.031, 0.013, 0.031 and 0.015 respectively) in HPV (+) cases compared to HPV (-). Furthermore, a CIMP-high and Cluster-1 characteristic was also associated with poor survival. Conclusions Promoter methylation profiles reflecting a correlation with tobacco, HPV, survival status and genetic alteration and may act as a marker to determine subtypes and patient outcome in HNSCC. PMID:26098903

  4. HTTK R Package v1.5 - Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — httk: High-Throughput Toxicokinetics Functions and data tables for simulation and statistical analysis of chemical toxicokinetics ("TK") using data obtained from...

  5. Integrating Demographic, Clinical,and Environmental Exposure Information to Identify Genomic Biomarkers Associated With Subtypes of Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood asthma is a multifactorial disease with a disturbingly high incidence in urbanized areas. The pathogenesis of asthma is poorly understood due to the complex relationship between genetic susceptibility and modulating environmental factors. The Mechanistic Indicators of C...

  6. Objectives and Design of BLEEDS: A Cohort Study to Identify New Risk Factors and Predictors for Major Bleeding during Treatment with Vitamin K Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, Nienke; Lijfering, Willem M; Bos, Mettine H A; Herruer, Martien H; Vermaas, Helga W; van der Meer, Felix J M; Reitsma, Pieter H

    2016-01-01

    Risk scores for patients who are at high risk for major bleeding complications during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) do not perform that well. BLEEDS was initiated to search for new biomarkers that predict bleeding in these patients. To describe the outline and objectives of BLEEDS and to examine whether the study population is generalizable to other VKA treated populations. A cohort was created consisting of all patients starting VKA treatment at three Dutch anticoagulation clinics between January-2012 and July-2014. We stored leftover plasma and DNA following analysis of the INR. Of 16,706 eligible patients, 16,570 (99%) were included in BLEEDS and plasma was stored from 13,779 patients (83%). Patients had a mean age of 70 years (SD 14), 8713 were male (53%). The most common VKA indications were atrial fibrillation (10,876 patients, 66%) and venous thrombosis (3920 patients, 24%). 326 Major bleeds occurred during 17,613 years of follow-up (incidence rate 1.85/100 person years, 95%CI 1.66-2.06). The risk for major bleeding was highest in the initial three months of VKA treatment and increased when the international normalized ratio increased. These results and characteristics are in concordance with results from other VKA treated populations. BLEEDS is generalizable to other VKA treated populations and will permit innovative and unbiased research of biomarkers that may predict major bleeding during VKA treatment.

  7. A review of the major marine environmental concerns off the Canadian East Coast in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The natural environmental features of the Canadian east coast marine waters are described and anthropogenic influences that affect this environment are reviewed, with extensive reference to the literature. Effects from pollutants such as halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons, trace metals, and radioactive materials are included, as well as effects from ozone depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, hydroelectric development, dredging and dumping, municipal sewage disposal, and coastal development in general. The most concentrated pollution in the Atlantic region is the St. Lawrence River valley and estuary, although there are a number of smaller sites associated with population centers such as St. John, New Brunswick and Halifax, Nova Scotia. Specific industries located along the coast have polluted local environments more than other activities. Sewage discharges have seriously affected expansion of the aquaculture industry. Hydroelectric development may have altered marine biological production, but more directed research is needed to assess the problem. Offshore exploration for oil and gas has had no observed adverse effects on the ecosystem to date, although the possibility for an environmental disaster from a well blowout or marine accident still exists. 177 refs., 3 figs

  8. Air quality models and unusually large ozone increases: Identifying model failures, understanding environmental causes, and improving modeled chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzo, Evan A.

    Several factors combine to make ozone (O3) pollution in Houston, Texas, unique when compared to other metropolitan areas. These include complex meteorology, intense clustering of industrial activity, and significant precursor emissions from the heavily urbanized eight-county area. Decades of air pollution research have borne out two different causes, or conceptual models, of O 3 formation. One conceptual model describes a gradual region-wide increase in O3 concentrations "typical" of many large U.S. cities. The other conceptual model links episodic emissions of volatile organic compounds to spatially limited plumes of high O3, which lead to large hourly increases that have exceeded 100 parts per billion (ppb) per hour. These large hourly increases are known to lead to violations of the federal O 3 standard and impact Houston's status as a non-attainment area. There is a need to further understand and characterize the causes of peak O 3 levels in Houston and simulate them correctly so that environmental regulators can find the most cost-effective pollution controls. This work provides a detailed understanding of unusually large O 3 increases in the natural and modeled environments. First, we probe regulatory model simulations and assess their ability to reproduce the observed phenomenon. As configured for the purpose of demonstrating future attainment of the O3 standard, the model fails to predict the spatially limited O3 plumes observed in Houston. Second, we combine ambient meteorological and pollutant measurement data to identify the most likely geographic origins and preconditions of the concentrated O3 plumes. We find evidence that the O3 plumes are the result of photochemical activity accelerated by industrial emissions. And, third, we implement changes to the modeled chemistry to add missing formation mechanisms of nitrous acid, which is an important radical precursor. Radicals control the chemical reactivity of atmospheric systems, and perturbations to

  9. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  10. Source-identifying biomarker ions between environmental and clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei using whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyompanich, Suthamat; Jaresitthikunchai, Janthima; Srisanga, Kitima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is an endemic disease in Northeast Thailand and Northern Australia. Environmental reservoirs, including wet soils and muddy water, serve as the major sources for contributing bacterial infection to both humans and animals. The whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been applied as a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput tool for clinical diagnosis and microbiological research. In this present study, we employed a whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS approach for assessing its potency in clustering a total of 11 different B. pseudomallei isolates (consisting of 5 environmental and 6 clinical isolates) with respect to their origins and to further investigate the source-identifying biomarker ions belonging to each bacterial group. The cluster analysis demonstrated that six out of eleven isolates were grouped correctly to their sources. Our results revealed a total of ten source-identifying biomarker ions, which exhibited statistically significant differences in peak intensity between average environmental and clinical mass spectra using ClinProTools software. Six out of ten mass ions were assigned as environmental-identifying biomarker ions (EIBIs), including, m/z 4,056, 4,214, 5,814, 7,545, 7,895, and 8,112, whereas the remaining four mass ions were defined as clinical-identifying biomarker ions (CIBIs) consisting of m/z 3,658, 6,322, 7,035, and 7,984. Hence, our findings represented, for the first time, the source-specific biomarkers of environmental and clinical B. pseudomallei.

  11. Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of nine major biofuel crops, processed by first-generation conversion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, Sander C.; van de Ven, Gerrie W.J.; van Ittersum, Martin K.; Giller, Ken E. [Plant Production Systems Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    We compared the production-ecological sustainability of biofuel production from several major crops that are also commonly used for production of food or feed, based on current production practices in major production areas. The set of nine sustainability indicators focused on resource use efficiency, soil quality, net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions, disregarding socio-economic or biodiversity aspects and land use change. Based on these nine production-ecological indicators and attributing equal importance to each indicator, biofuel produced from oil palm (South East Asia), sugarcane (Brazil) and sweet sorghum (China) appeared most sustainable: these crops make the most efficient use of land, water, nitrogen and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the net energy produced. Provided there is no land use change, greenhouse gas emissions of these three biofuels are substantially reduced compared with fossil fuels. Oil palm was most sustainable with respect to the maintenance of soil quality. Maize (USA) and wheat (Northwest Europe) as feedstock for ethanol perform poorly for nearly all indicators. Sugar beet (Northwest Europe), cassava (Thailand), rapeseed (Northwest Europe) and soybean (USA) take an intermediate position. (author)

  12. Identifying the environmental support and constraints to the Chinese economic growth—An application of the Emergy Accounting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Bo; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The economy of China keeps increasing at high rate, although a bit slower recently than in the past due to the international economic turmoil. The Chinese economic performance affects the world economy in many ways (from increased primary resource and commodity imports to a more active financial role of China worldwide). Not unexpectedly, several and diverse environmental problems are coupled with economic growth, linked to resource availability, competition for energy resources and the overall carrying capacity of the environment as a source and a sink. Monodimensional assessments of either economic growth or environmental aspects are unlikely to provide the needed understanding of development opportunities and potential environmental loading. We suggest in this paper an assessment of the evolution of Chinese Economy based on the Emergy Accounting method, developed by H.T. Odum in the Eighties and further refined more recently. The emergy approach is being increasingly applied worldwide, and in China as well, to study individual production processes, sectors and whole economies and provides a comprehensive picture of the interaction of economic growth and the environment, much useful for economic and environmental policy making. A set of emergy-based performance indicators was calculated with reference to the year 2009 and compared with previous studies from literature, by means of a standardization procedure to ensure consistency. The 2009 national Emergy/GDP ratio, an indicator of the emergy investment per unit of economic product generated, has been calculated respectively as 8.61E+11 solar equivalent joules/Yuan RMB (equivalent to 5.88E+12 sej/US$), showing a decreasing trend from 1975 up-to-date, similar to other countries over their development path. The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), an aggregate measure of economic performance and environmental load, also shows a decreasing trend signaling that the Chinese economic development is strictly coupled to

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on the codevelopment among borderline personality disorder traits, major depression symptoms, and substance use disorder symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Verhulst, Brad; Webber, Troy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Hicks, Brian M

    2018-02-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14 to 24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14 to 24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity.

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Co-development between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits, Major Depression Symptoms, and Substance Use Disorder Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Verhulst, Brad; Webber, Troy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Hicks, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14–24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait-levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14–24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity. PMID:28420454

  15. Human colon cancers as a major problem in poland and in the world – medical and environmental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Katarzyna Król

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological data have shown an increasing incidence and mortality of colon cancer cases in the past several years, not only in Poland but all over the world as well. Each year, approximately a million new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed and that is the cause of death of almost half a million patients in the world. The aim of this article is to present the epidemiology and the current state of scientific knowledge concerning etiology and pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases in human large intestine. Furthermore, this short review describes the essential risk factors and suggests the simple and effective ways of colon cancer prevention.Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in EU countries. Scientific studies have proved that genetic and hereditary factors have a strong influence on carcinogenesis in human colon. Moreover, environmental factors, such as dietary contribute to the development of colon neoplasm. The most useful tool to reduce high morbidity and mortality is a prevention. Screening tests in nonsymptomatic people from high-risk groups or populations enable diagnosis in the early stage of colorectal cancer. Many publications have reported that modification of lifestyle and daily diet also play a significant role in prevention.

  16. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  17. Evaluation on subcellular partitioning and biodynamics of pulse copper toxicity in tilapia reveals impacts of a major environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Yang, Ying-Fei; Tsai, Jeng-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2017-07-01

    Fluctuation exposure of trace metal copper (Cu) is ubiquitous in aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of chronically pulsed exposure on biodynamics and subcellular partitioning of Cu in freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Long-term 28-day pulsed Cu exposure experiments were performed to explore subcellular partitioning and toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics of Cu in tilapia. Subcellular partitioning linking with a metal influx scheme was used to estimate detoxification and elimination rates. A biotic ligand model-based damage assessment model was used to take into account environmental effects and biological mechanisms of Cu toxicity. We demonstrated that the probability causing 50% of susceptibility risk in response to pulse Cu exposure in generic Taiwan aquaculture ponds was ~33% of Cu in adverse physiologically associated, metabolically active pool, implicating no significant susceptibility risk for tilapia. We suggest that our integrated ecotoxicological models linking chronic exposure measurements with subcellular partitioning can facilitate a risk assessment framework that provides a predictive tool for preventive susceptibility reduction strategies for freshwater fish exposed to pulse metal stressors.

  18. Use of partial order in environmental pollution studies demonstrated by urban BTEX air pollution in 20 major cities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessov, Bulat

    2018-01-01

    Urban air pollution with benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) is a common phenomenon in major cities where the pollution mainly originates from traffic as well as from residential heating. An attempt to rank cities according to their BTEX air pollution is not necessarily straight forward as we are faced with several individual pollutants simultaneously. A typical procedure is based on aggregation of data for the single compounds, a process that not only hides important information but is also subject to compensation effects. The present study applies a series of partial ordering tools to circumvent the aggregation. Based on partial ordering, most important indicators are disclosed, and an average ranking of the cities included in the study is derived. Since air pollution measurements are often subject to significant uncertainties, special attention has been given to the possible effect of uncertainty and/or data noise. Finally, the effect of introducing weight regimes is studied. In a concluding section the gross national income per person (GNI) is brought into play, demonstrating a positive correlation between BTEX air pollution and GNI. The results are discussed in terms of the ability/willingness to combat air pollution in the cities studied. The present study focuses on Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan and compares the data from Almaty to another 19 major cities around the world. It is found that the benzene for Almaty appears peculiar high. Overall Almaty appears ranked as the 8th most BTEX polluted city among the 20 cities included in the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex differences in the prediction of the effectiveness of paroxetine for patients with major depressive disorder identified using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for early response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Norio, Yasui-Furukori; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cutoff values for the early response of patients with major depressive disorder to paroxetine and their sex differences by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict the effectiveness of paroxetine. In total, 120 patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled and treated with 10-40 mg/day paroxetine for 6 weeks; 89 patients completed the protocol. A clinical evaluation using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was performed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. In male subjects, the cutoff values for MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 20.9%, 34.9%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 83.3% and 80.0%, 83.3% and 80.0%, and 100% and 90%, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.908, 0.821, and 0.979, respectively. In female subjects, the cutoff values for the MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 21.4%, 35.7%, and 32.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 71.4% and 84.6%, 73.8% and 76.9%, and 90.5% and 76.9%, respectively. The AUCs were 0.781, 0.735, and 0.904, respectively. Early improvement with paroxetine may predict the long-term response. The accuracy of the prediction for the response is higher in male subjects.

  20. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis Identifies Major Gene Loci for Guttural Pouch Tympany in Arabian and German Warmblood Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16–26 Mb and 34–55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64–65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  1. Higher 5-HT1A autoreceptor binding as an endophenotype for major depressive disorder identified in high risk offspring - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milak, Matthew S; Pantazatos, Spiro; Rashid, Rain; Zanderigo, Francesca; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Oquendo, Maria A; Mulhern, Stephanie T; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley K; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2018-04-13

    Higher serotonin-1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP F ) has been found in major depressive disorder (MDD) during and between major depressive episodes. We investigated whether higher 5-HT 1A binding is a biologic trait transmitted to healthy high risk (HR) offspring of MDD probands. Data were collected contemporaneously from: nine HR, 30 depressed not-recently medicated (NRM) MDD, 18 remitted NRM MDD, 51 healthy volunteer (HV) subjects. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [ 11 C]WAY100635 to quantify 5-HT 1A BP F , estimated using metabolite, free fraction-corrected arterial input function and cerebellar white matter as reference region. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) of PET data evaluated group status classification of individuals. When tested across 13 regions of interest, an effect of diagnosis is found on BP F which remains significant after correction for sex, age, injected mass and dose: HR have higher BP F than HV (84.3% higher in midbrain raphe, 40.8% higher in hippocampus, mean BP F across all 13 brain regions is 49.9% ± 11.8% higher). Voxel-level BP F maps distinguish HR vs. HV. Elevated 5-HT 1A BP F appears to be a familially transmitted trait abnormality. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in a larger cohort and demonstrate the link to the familial transmission of mood disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

  3. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  4. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the Effects of Grassland Management on Forage Production and Environmental Quality to Identify Paths to Ecological Intensification in Mountain Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucougaray, Grégory; Dobremez, Laurent; Gos, Pierre; Pauthenet, Yves; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    Ecological intensification in grasslands can be regarded as a process for increasing forage production while maintaining high levels of ecosystem functions and biodiversity. In the mountain Vercors massif, where dairy cattle farming is the main component of agriculture, how to achieve forage autonomy at farm level while sustaining environmental quality for tourism and local dairy products has recently stimulated local debate. As specific management is one of the main drivers of ecosystem functioning, we assessed the response of forage production and environmental quality at grassland scale across a wide range of management practices. We aimed to determine which components of management can be harnessed to better match forage production and environmental quality. We sampled the vegetation of 51 grasslands stratified across 13 grassland types. We assessed each grassland for agronomic and environmental properties, measuring forage production, forage quality, and indices based on the abundance of particular plant species such as timing flexibility, apiarian potential, and aromatic plants. Our results revealed an expected trade-off between forage production and environmental quality, notably by stressing the contrasts between sown and permanent grasslands. However, strong within-type variability in both production and environmental quality as well as in flexibility of timing of use suggests possible ways to improve this trade-off at grassland and farm scales. As achieving forage autonomy relies on increasing both forage production and grassland resilience, our results highlight the critical role of the ratio between sown and permanent grasslands as a major path for ecological intensification in mountain grasslands.

  6. A meta-analysis of responses of canopy photosynthetic conversion efficiency to environmental factors reveals major causes of yield gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Rebecca A.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Ort, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Improving plant energy conversion efficiency (εc) is crucial for increasing food and bioenergy crop production and yields. Using a meta-analysis, the effects of greenhouse gases, weather-related stresses projected to intensify due to climate change, and management practices including inputs, shading, and intercropping on εc were statistically quantified from 140 published studies to identify where improvements would have the largest impact on closing yield gaps. Variation in the response of εc to treatment type and dosage, plant characteristics, and growth conditions were also examined. Significant mean increases in εc were caused by elevated [CO2] (20%), shade (18%), and intercropping (15%). εc increased curvilinearly up to 55% with nitrogen additions whereas phosphorus application was most beneficial at low levels. Significant decreases in εc of –8.4% due to elevated [O3], –16.8% due to water stress, and –6.5% due to foliar damage were found. A non-significant decrease in εc of –17.3% was caused by temperature stress. These results identify the need to engineer greater stress tolerance and enhanced responses to positive factors such as [CO2] and nitrogen to improve average yields and yield potential. Optimizing management strategies will also enhance the benefits possible with intercropping, shade, and pest resilience. To determine optimal practices for εc improvement, further studies should be conducted in the field since several responses were exaggerated by non-field experimental conditions. PMID:23873996

  7. Assessment of tree response to drought: validation of a methodology to identify and test proxies for monitoring past environmental changes in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, A; Tobin, B; Dyckmans, J; Ray, D; Black, K; Nieuwenhuis, M

    2011-03-01

    A thinning experiment stand at Avoca, Ballinvalley, on the east coast of the Republic of Ireland was used to test a developed methodology aimed at monitoring drought stress, based on the analysis of growth rings obtained by coring. The stand incorporated six plots representing three thinning regimes (light, moderate and heavy) and was planted in the spring of 1943 on a brown earth soil. Radial growth (early- and latewood) was measured for the purpose of this study. A multidisciplinary approach was used to assess historic tree response to climate: specifically, the application of statistical tools such as principal component and canonical correlation analysis to dendrochronology, stable isotopes, ring density proxy, blue reflectance and forest biometrics. Results showed that radial growth was a good proxy for monitoring changes to moisture deficit, while maximum density and blue reflectance were appropriate for assessing changes in accumulated temperature for the growing season. Rainfall also influenced radial growth changes but not significantly, and was a major factor in stable carbon and oxygen discrimination, mostly in the latewood formation phase. Stable oxygen isotope analysis was more accurate than radial growth analysis in drought detection, as it helped detect drought signals in both early- and latewood while radial growth analysis only detected the drought signal in earlywood. Many studies have shown that tree rings provide vital information for marking past climatic events. This work provides a methodology to better identify and understand how commonly measured tree proxies relate to environmental parameters, and can best be used to characterize and pinpoint drought events (variously described using parameters such as like moisture deficit, accumulated temperature, rainfall and potential evaporation).

  8. An abbreviated MLVA identifies Escherichia coli ST131 as the major extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing lineage in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Albayati, A; Jørgensen, Rikke Lind

    2013-01-01

    with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for typing cefpodoxime-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Further, we identified the causative resistance mechanisms and epidemiological type of infection for isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A collection of E. coli resistant to cefpodoxime...... community-onset infections (COI), regardless of the ST. Patients with COI were significantly more often of female gender and younger age compared to healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) and hospital-onset infections (HOI). In conclusion, the modified MLVA is a useful tool for the rapid typing of E. coli...

  9. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying latent profiles of posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms in Canadian veterans: Exploring differences across profiles in health related functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don

    2015-07-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed.

  13. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N=110; Age range: 14–19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed eighteen months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  14. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  15. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  16. Exome sequencing identifies DYNC2H1 mutations as a common cause of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome) without major polydactyly, renal or retinal involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Miriam; Arts, Heleen H; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yap, Zhimin; Oud, Machteld M; Antony, Dinu; Duijkers, Lonneke; Emes, Richard D; Stalker, Jim; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Plagnol, Vincent; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; Forsythe, Elisabeth; Lausch, Ekkehart; Veltman, Joris A; Roeleveld, Nel; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Kutkowska-Kazmierczak, Anna; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Elçioğlu, Nursel; van Maarle, Merel C; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Smithson, Sarah F; Wellesley, Diana; Verbeek, Nienke E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Kayserili, Hulya; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Knoers, Nine VAM; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2013-01-01

    Background Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) is a rare, often lethal, recessively inherited chondrodysplasia characterised by shortened ribs and long bones, sometimes accompanied by polydactyly, and renal, liver and retinal disease. Mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes cause JATD, including the IFT dynein-2 motor subunit gene DYNC2H1. Genetic heterogeneity and the large DYNC2H1 gene size have hindered JATD genetic diagnosis. Aims and methods To determine the contribution to JATD we screened DYNC2H1 in 71 JATD patients JATD patients combining SNP mapping, Sanger sequencing and exome sequencing. Results and conclusions We detected 34 DYNC2H1 mutations in 29/71 (41%) patients from 19/57 families (33%), showing it as a major cause of JATD especially in Northern European patients. This included 13 early protein termination mutations (nonsense/frameshift, deletion, splice site) but no patients carried these in combination, suggesting the human phenotype is at least partly hypomorphic. In addition, 21 missense mutations were distributed across DYNC2H1 and these showed some clustering to functional domains, especially the ATP motor domain. DYNC2H1 patients largely lacked significant extra-skeletal involvement, demonstrating an important genotype–phenotype correlation in JATD. Significant variability exists in the course and severity of the thoracic phenotype, both between affected siblings with identical DYNC2H1 alleles and among individuals with different alleles, which suggests the DYNC2H1 phenotype might be subject to modifier alleles, non-genetic or epigenetic factors. Assessment of fibroblasts from patients showed accumulation of anterograde IFT proteins in the ciliary tips, confirming defects similar to patients with other retrograde IFT machinery mutations, which may be of undervalued potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23456818

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) environmental Workshop (4th) Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 26-28 April 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Copy 0of 37 Copts$ | AD-A285 779 SIDA DOCUMENT D- 1537 I PROCEEDLNGS OF THE FOURTH ANNUAL MAJOR RANGE AND TEST FACILITY BASE (MRTFB...DEFENSE ANALYSES 񓜩 N. Beauregard Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1772 SIDA Log No. HU 94-45640 * III i DEFINITIONS IDA publishes the follewing...woodpecker. The RCW is a good indicator of ecosystem health in VIH -36 I I the longleaf pine ecosystem. This survey identified Eglin as having the fourth

  18. Identifying Environmental and Social Factors Predisposing to Pathological Gambling Combining Standard Logistic Regression and Logic Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Dosi, Corrado; Zambon, Antonella; Ferrari, Enrico; Muselli, Marco

    2017-12-01

    Identifying potential risk factors for problem gambling (PG) is of primary importance for planning preventive and therapeutic interventions. We illustrate a new approach based on the combination of standard logistic regression and an innovative method of supervised data mining (Logic Learning Machine or LLM). Data were taken from a pilot cross-sectional study to identify subjects with PG behaviour, assessed by two internationally validated scales (SOGS and Lie/Bet). Information was obtained from 251 gamblers recruited in six betting establishments. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and cognitive-related factors, and type, place and frequency of preferred gambling were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The following variables associated with PG were identified: instant gratification games, alcohol abuse, cognitive distortion, illegal behaviours and having started gambling with a relative or a friend. Furthermore, the combination of LLM and LR indicated the presence of two different types of PG, namely: (a) daily gamblers, more prone to illegal behaviour, with poor money management skills and who started gambling at an early age, and (b) non-daily gamblers, characterised by superstitious beliefs and a higher preference for immediate reward games. Finally, instant gratification games were strongly associated with the number of games usually played. Studies on gamblers habitually frequently betting shops are rare. The finding of different types of PG by habitual gamblers deserves further analysis in larger studies. Advanced data mining algorithms, like LLM, are powerful tools and potentially useful in identifying risk factors for PG.

  19. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen

  20. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA section 121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA section 121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ''to-be-considered'' (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance

  1. Identifying environmental, social, and psychological correlates of meeting the recommended physical activity levels for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although physical activity reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a large proportion of the population is not sufficiently physically active. Therefore, the present study examined the environmental, social, and psychological correlates for meeting the 2 recommended physical activity criteria: ≥420 min per week of at least moderate-intensity activity (MPA criterion) and ≥210 min per week of vigorous activity (VPA criterion) for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study. The sample included 2000 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. An Internet-based survey was used to assess seven sociodemographic variables (e.g., education level, employment status), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, residential area), social variables (social support), psychological variables (self-efficacy, perceived positive (pros) and negative (cons) aspects of exercise), and physical activity. The adjusted odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by these variables were calculated. Overall, 22.3% of the study population met the criterion of MPA, and 7.3% met the criterion of VPA. Having high self-efficacy, fewer perceived cons, possessing home fitness equipment, reporting enjoyable scenery, and living in a rural area were significantly associated with meeting the recommended criteria. Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed by self-efficacy, cons, possession of home fitness equipment, reporting of enjoyable scenery, and residential area. These findings imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activities specifically in terms of these variables may be necessary for colon cancer prevention. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  3. Current Status of Marker Genes of Bacteroides and Related Taxa for Identifying Sewage Pollution in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warish Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial source tracking (MST endeavors to determine sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters by capitalizing on the association of certain microorganisms with the gastrointestinal tract and feces of specific animal groups. Several decades of research have shown that bacteria belonging to the gut-associated order Bacteroidales, and particularly the genus Bacteroides, tend to co-evolve with the host, and are, therefore, particularly suitable candidates for MST applications. This review summarizes the current research on MST methods that employ genes belonging to Bacteroidales/Bacteroides as tracers or “markers” of sewage pollution, including known advantages and deficiencies of the many polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods that have been published since 2000. Host specificity is a paramount criterion for confidence that detection of a marker is a true indicator of the target host. Host sensitivity, or the prevalence of the marker in feces/waste from the target host, is necessary for confidence that absence of the marker is indicative of the absence of the pollution source. Each of these parameters can vary widely depending on the type of waste assessed and the geographic location. Differential decay characteristics of bacterial targets and their associated DNA contribute to challenges in interpreting MST results in the context of human health risks. The HF183 marker, derived from the 16S rRNA gene of Bacteroides dorei and closely related taxa, has been used for almost two decades in MST studies, and is well characterized regarding host sensitivity and specificity, and in prevalence and concentration in sewage in many countries. Other markers such as HumM2 and HumM3 show promise, but require further performance testing to demonstrate their widespread utility. An important limitation of the one-marker-one-assay approach commonly used for MST is that given the complexities of microbial persistence in environmental waters, and

  4. IDENTIFYING HIGH-RISK POPULATIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS USING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND GIS BASED MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abdul Rasam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of an innovative method to enhance the detection of tuberculosis (TB in Malaysia is the latest agenda of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, a geographical information system (GIS based index model is proposed as an alternative method for defining potential high-risk areas of local TB cases at Section U19, Shah Alam. It is adopted a spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method for ranking environmental risk factors of the disease in a standardised five-score scale. Scale 1 and 5 illustrate the lowest and the highest risk of the TB spread respectively, while scale from 3 to 5 is included as a potential risk level. These standardised scale values are then combined with expert normalised weights (0 to 1 to calculate the overall index values and produce a TB ranked map using a GIS overlay analysis and weighted linear combination. It is discovered that 71.43% of the Section is potential as TB high risk areas particularly at urban and densely populated settings. This predictive result is also reliable with the current real cases in 2015 by 76.00% accuracy. A GIS based MCDM method has demonstrated analytical capabilities in targeting high-risk spots and TB surveillance monitoring system of the country, but the result could be strengthened by applying other uncertainty assessment method.

  5. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic disease transmission; these factors may independently, or potentially synergistically, lead to enhanced leptospirosis transmission in Fiji and other similar settings.

  6. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  7. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ''Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island'' to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ''Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.'' It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

  8. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10......(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies....

  9. Using environmental isotopes along with major hydro-geochemical compositions to assess deep groundwater formation and evolution in eastern coastal China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naizheng; Gong, Jianshi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2018-01-01

    Hydrochemical analysis and environmental isotopic tracing are successfully applied to study groundwater evolution processes. Located in eastern China, the Jiangsu Coastal Plain is characterized by an extensively exploited deep groundwater system, and groundwater salinization has become the primary water environmental problem. This paper provides a case study on the use of a hydrochemical and environmental isotopic approach to assess possible mixing and evolution processes at Yoco Port, Jiangsu Province, China. Hydrochemical and isotopic patterns of deep groundwater allow one to distinguish different origins in deep water systems. HCO3- is the dominant anion in the freshwater samples, whereas Na+ and Cl- are the dominant major ions in the saline samples. According to δ18O, δ2H and 14C dating, the fresh water is derived from precipitation under a colder climate during the Glacial Maximum (Dali Glacial), while the saline groundwater is influenced by glacial-interglacial cycles during the Holocene Hypsithermal. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H data confirm that deep groundwater in some boreholes is mixed with overlying saline water. The deep groundwater reservoir can be divided into a saline water sector and a fresh water sector, and each show distinct hydrochemical and isotopic compositions. The saline groundwater found in the deep aquifer cannot be associated with present seawater intrusion. Since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Late Pleistocene, the deep groundwater flow system has evolved to its current status with the decrease in ice cover and the rising of sea level. However, the hydraulic connection is strengthened by continuous overexploitation, and deep groundwater is mixed with shallow groundwater at some points.

  10. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  11. Cluster analysis of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster province of Ireland and detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-03-19

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in September 2012 providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample. The analysis of samples by an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed that 65% of the dairy herds (n = 842) had been exposed to F. hepatica. Using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, 16 high-risk and 24 low-risk (P <0.01) clusters of fasciolosis were identified. The spatial distribution of high-risk clusters was more dispersed and mainly located in the northern and western regions of Munster compared to the low-risk clusters that were mostly concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. The most significant classes of variables that could reflect the difference between high-risk and low-risk clusters were the total number of wet-days and rain-days, rainfall, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperature and soil type. There was a bigger proportion of well-drained soils among the low-risk clusters, whereas poorly drained soils were more common among the high-risk clusters. These results stress the role of precipitation, grazing, temperature and drainage on the life cycle of F. hepatica in the temperate Irish climate. The findings of this study highlight the importance of cluster analysis for identifying significant differences in climatic and environmental variables between high-risk and low-risk clusters of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds.

  12. Cluster analysis of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster province of Ireland and detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Selemetas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in September 2012 providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM sample. The analysis of samples by an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, showed that 65% of the dairy herds (n = 842 had been exposed to F. hepatica. Using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, 16 high-risk and 24 low-risk (P <0.01 clusters of fasciolosis were identified. The spatial distribution of high-risk clusters was more dispersed and mainly located in the northern and western regions of Munster compared to the low-risk clusters that were mostly concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. The most significant classes of variables that could reflect the difference between high-risk and low-risk clusters were the total number of wet-days and rain-days, rainfall, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, temperature and soil type. There was a bigger proportion of well-drained soils among the low-risk clusters, whereas poorly drained soils were more common among the high-risk clusters. These results stress the role of precipitation, grazing, temperature and drainage on the life cycle of F. hepatica in the temperate Irish climate. The findings of this study highlight the importance of cluster analysis for identifying significant differences in climatic and environmental variables between high-risk and low-risk clusters of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds.

  13. Noteworthy practices as identified by the US Department of Energy environmental, safety, and health first 31 Tiger Team assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Noteworthy Practices are exceptional ways of accomplishing a performance objective or some aspect of it. Other DOE facilities are encouraged to adopt these practices when they are applicable to their operation. Noteworthy Practices included in this report have been drawn from the first 31 Tiger Team Assessments at DOE sites. This report includes all noteworthy practices listed in an earlier tabulation (June 1990) which the Secretary of the US Department of Energy distributed for information on July 31, 1990. This earlier tabulation included noteworthy practices from the first thirteen Tiger Team Assessments. A brief key-word title has been assigned to each Noteworthy Practice. This title provides a brief description of each Noteworthy Practice. The reader may peruse these titles in the table of contents to identify Noteworthy Practices that may be applicable to their site, facility, or operations. A flexible-disk copy of this compilation is also available in ASCII format on personal-computer, DOS-formatted disks from the Office of Special Projects in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health at the Headquarters of the US Department of Energy. The ASCII file may be used in combination with word processing software for more detailed word and text-string searches

  14. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  15. Are diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the temperate grasses (Pooideae) associated with major environmental changes in the Oligocene-Miocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Manuel; Escudero, Marcial; Sahuquillo, Elvira; Minaya, Miguel Ángel; Catalán, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding ( ndhF , matk ) and three non-coding ( trnH-psbA , trnT-L and trnL-F ), in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted and divergence times were inferred in BEAST using a relaxed molecular clock. Diversification rates were assessed using the MEDUSA approach, and chromosome evolution was analyzed using the chromEvol software. Diversification of the Pooideae started in the Late-Eocene and was especially intense during the Oligocene-Miocene. The background diversification rate increased significantly at the time of the origin of the Poodae + Triticodae clade. This shift in diversification occurred in a context of falling temperatures that potentially increased ecological opportunities for grasses adapted to open areas around the world. The base haploid chromosome number n  = 7 has remained stable throughout the phylogenetic history of the core pooids and we found no link between chromosome transitions and major diversification events in the Pooideae.

  16. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  17. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  18. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  19. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  20. Fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements in environmental samples and drinking waters by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Ma Jesús; Sevilla, Ma Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2015-01-07

    The fast sequential multi-element determination of 11 elements present at different concentration levels in environmental samples and drinking waters has been investigated using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The main lines for Cu (324.754 nm), Zn (213.857 nm), Cd (228.802 nm), Ni (232.003 nm) and Pb (217.001 nm), main and secondary absorption lines for Mn (279.482 and 279.827 nm), Fe (248.327, 248.514 and 302.064 nm) and Ca (422.673 and 239.856 nm), secondary lines with different sensitivities for Na (589.592 and 330.237 nm) and K (769.897 and 404.414 nm) and a secondary line for Mg (202.582 nm) have been chosen to perform the analysis. A flow injection system has been used for sample introduction so sample consumption has been reduced up to less than 1 mL per element, measured in triplicate. Furthermore, the use of multiplets for Fe and the side pixel registration approach for Mg have been studied in order to reduce sensitivity and extend the linear working range. The figures of merit have been calculated and the proposed method was applied to determine these elements in a pine needles reference material (SRM 1575a), drinking and natural waters and soil extracts. Recoveries of analytes added at different concentration levels to water samples and extracts of soils were within 88-115% interval. In this way, the fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements can be carried out, in triplicate, with successful results without requiring additional dilutions of samples or several different strategies for sample preparation using about 8-9 mL of sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Major Sports Events: A Comparative Analysis of the London 2012 Olympic Games and the Rio 2007 Pan American Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Silva Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores public participation in environmental impact assessment (EIA and the decision making in the context of major sports events and their associated infrastructure in Brazil and England. The methodology is based on detailed case study analysis involving document analysis and interviews with key stakeholders. The results demonstrated that there is evidence that public participation within the EIA process informed the decision making and planning process for London 2012 and for the Pan American Village of the Rio 2007 Games. Finally, a practical recommendation for the Brazilian context and recommendations for further research are made. Participação pública na Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental (AIA e megaeventos esportivos: uma análise comparativa dos Jogos Olímpicos de Londres 2012 e dos Jogos Pan Americanos do Rio 2007 - Este artigo explora a participação pública na Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental (AIA e a tomada de decisão no contexto de megaeventos esportivos e a infraestrutura associada no Brasil e na Inglaterra. A metodologia baseia-se em estudo de caso envolvendo análise de documentos e entrevistas com atores-chave. Os resultados demonstraram que há evidência de que a participação pública integrante do processo de AIA informou a tomada de decisão e o processo de planejamento para Londres 2012 e para a Vila Pan Americana dos Jogos do Rio 2007. Finalmente, uma recomendação prática para o contexto brasileiro e recomendações para pesquisas futuras são destacadas.

  2. Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris

    This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to

  3. Risk management of energy system for identifying optimal power mix with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.; Huang, Charley Z.

    2017-01-01

    An interval-stochastic risk management (ISRM) method is launched to control the variability of the recourse cost as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The ISRM method can examine various policy scenarios that are associated with economic penalties under uncertainties presented as probability distributions and interval values. An ISRM model is then formulated to identify the optimal power mix for the Beijing's energy system. Tradeoffs between risk and cost are evaluated, indicating any change in targeted cost and risk level would yield different expected costs. Results reveal that the inherent uncertainty of system components and risk attitude of decision makers have significant effects on the city's energy-supply and electricity-generation schemes as well as system cost and probabilistic penalty. Results also disclose that import electricity as a recourse action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced. The import electricity would increase with a reduced risk level; under every risk level, more electricity would be imported with an increased demand. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired strategies for the city's energy planning and management in association with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation. - Highlights: • Interval-stochastic risk management method is launched to identify optimal power mix. • It is advantageous in capturing the notion of risk in stochastic programming. • Results reveal that risk attitudes can affect optimal power mix and financial cost. • Developing renewable energies would enhance the sustainability of energy management. • Import electricity as an action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced.

  4. Identifying and Reconciling Risk Across Sectors: The implications of differing views of risk in climate policy, environmental conservation, and the finance sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, T.; Henderson, I.; Thoumi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence and valuation of risk are commonalities that link the diverse fields of climate change science and policy, environmental conservation, and the financial/investment sector. However, the definition and perception of risks vary widely across these critically linked fields. The "Stranded Asset" concept developed by organizations like the Carbon Tracker Initiative begins to elucidate the links between climate change risk and financial risk. Stranded assets are those that may lose some or all value from climate disruption, changes in demand-side dynamics and/or a more stringent regulatory environment. In order to shift financial flows toward climate change mitigation, emissions-heavy activities that present finance and investment opportunities must also be assessed for their GHG-asset risk attributes in terms of their contribution and vulnerability to climate disruption, as well as other environmental externalities. Until the concept of GHG-asset risk in investment is reconciled with the risks of climate change and environmental conservation, it will not be possible to shift business and financial practices, and unlock private sector resources to address the climate change and conservation challenge. UNEP-FI is researching the application of the concept of Value-atRisk (VaR) to explore links between the financial sector and deforestation/REDD+. The research will test the hypothesis that climate risk is a financial risk, and propose tools to identify and quantify risks associated with unsustainable land-use investments. The tools developed in this research will help investors, managers and governments assess their exposures to the material REDD-related risks in their portfolios. This will inform the development of 'zero net deforestation' investment indices to allow investors to lower the 'deforestation' exposure of 'benchmark' financial indices used by many of the largest money managers. A VaR analysis will be performed, combining the notion of externality

  5. National Strategic Environmental Assessment for aquaculture development in South Africa: GIS analysis for identifying optimal areas for marine and freshwater aquaculture development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman-van der Walt, Luanita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries commissioned the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research to conduct a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Aquaculture Development...

  6. The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify isotopic enrichment activities; O uso da monitoracao ambiental como tecnica de identificacao de atividades de enriquecimento isotopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, Jose Henrique

    2000-07-01

    The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle has been proposed, by international organizations, as an additional measure to the safeguards agreements in force. The elements specific for each kind of nuclear activity, or nuclear signatures, inserted in the ecosystem by several transfer paths, can be intercepted with better or worse ability by different live organisms. Depending on the kind of signature of interest, the anthropogenic material identification and quantification require the choice of adequate biologic indicators and, mainly, the use of sophisticated techniques associated with elaborate sample treatments. This work demonstrates the technical viability of using pine needles as bioindicators of nuclear signatures associated with uranium enrichment activities. Additionally, it proposes the use of a technique widely diffused nowadays in the scientific community, the High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), to identify the signature corresponding to that kind of activities in the ecosystem. It can be also found a description of a methodology recently being applied in analytical chemistry,based on uncertainties estimates metrological concepts, used to calculate the uncertainties associated with the obtained measurement results. Nitric acid solutions with a concentration of 0.3 mol.kg{sup -1}, used to wash pine needles sampled near facilities that manipulate enriched uranium and containing only 0.1 {mu}g.kg{sup -1} of uranium, exhibit a {sup 235} U: {sup 238} U isotopic abundance ratio of 0.0092{+-}0.0002, while solutions originated from samples collected at places located more than 200 km far from activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle exhibit a value of 0.0074{+-}0.0002 for this abundance ratio. Similar results were obtained for samples collected in different places permit to confirm the presence of anthropogenic uranium and demonstrate the viability of using

  7. Genetic and Environmental Risk for Chronic Pain and the Contribution of Risk Variants for Major Depressive Disorder: A Family-Based Mixed-Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew M; Hall, Lynsey S; Zeng, Yanni; Adams, Mark J; Gibson, Jude; Wigmore, Eleanor; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Davies, Gail; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Campbell, Archie I; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Hayward, Caroline; Haley, Chris S; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; Smith, Daniel J; Nicholl, Barbara I; Hinds, David A; Jones, Amy V; Scollen, Serena; Meng, Weihua; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent and a significant source of disability, yet its genetic and environmental risk factors are poorly understood. Its relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD) is of particular importance. We sought to test the contribution of genetic factors and shared and unique environment to risk of chronic pain and its correlation with MDD in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS). We then sought to replicate any significant findings in the United Kingdom Biobank study. Using family-based mixed-model analyses, we examined the contribution of genetics and shared family environment to chronic pain by spouse, sibling, and household relationships. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS (n = 23,960), a family- and population-based study of individuals recruited from the Scottish population through their general practitioners. We then examined and partitioned the correlation between chronic pain and MDD and estimated the contribution of genetic factors and shared environment in GS:SFHS. Finally, we used data from two independent genome-wide association studies to test whether chronic pain has a polygenic architecture and examine whether genomic risk of psychiatric disorder predicted chronic pain and whether genomic risk of chronic pain predicted MDD. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS and repeated in UK Biobank, a study of 500,000 from the UK population, of whom 112,151 had genotyping and phenotypic data. Chronic pain is a moderately heritable trait (heritability = 38.4%, 95% CI 33.6% to 43.9%) that is significantly concordant in spouses (variance explained 18.7%, 95% CI 9.5% to 25.1%). Chronic pain is positively correlated with depression (ρ = 0.13, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.15, p = 2.72x10-68) and shows a tendency to cluster within families for genetic reasons (genetic correlation = 0.51, 95%CI 0.40 to 0.62, p = 8.24x10-19). Polygenic risk profiles for pain, generated using independent GWAS data, were associated with

  8. Genetic and Environmental Risk for Chronic Pain and the Contribution of Risk Variants for Major Depressive Disorder: A Family-Based Mixed-Model Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M McIntosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is highly prevalent and a significant source of disability, yet its genetic and environmental risk factors are poorly understood. Its relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD is of particular importance. We sought to test the contribution of genetic factors and shared and unique environment to risk of chronic pain and its correlation with MDD in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS. We then sought to replicate any significant findings in the United Kingdom Biobank study.Using family-based mixed-model analyses, we examined the contribution of genetics and shared family environment to chronic pain by spouse, sibling, and household relationships. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS (n = 23,960, a family- and population-based study of individuals recruited from the Scottish population through their general practitioners. We then examined and partitioned the correlation between chronic pain and MDD and estimated the contribution of genetic factors and shared environment in GS:SFHS. Finally, we used data from two independent genome-wide association studies to test whether chronic pain has a polygenic architecture and examine whether genomic risk of psychiatric disorder predicted chronic pain and whether genomic risk of chronic pain predicted MDD. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS and repeated in UK Biobank, a study of 500,000 from the UK population, of whom 112,151 had genotyping and phenotypic data. Chronic pain is a moderately heritable trait (heritability = 38.4%, 95% CI 33.6% to 43.9% that is significantly concordant in spouses (variance explained 18.7%, 95% CI 9.5% to 25.1%. Chronic pain is positively correlated with depression (ρ = 0.13, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.15, p = 2.72x10-68 and shows a tendency to cluster within families for genetic reasons (genetic correlation = 0.51, 95%CI 0.40 to 0.62, p = 8.24x10-19. Polygenic risk profiles for pain, generated using independent GWAS data, were associated

  9. Environmental Education Organizations and Programs in Texas: Identifying Patterns through a Database and Survey Approach for Establishing Frameworks for Assessment and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Strovas, Jenny D.; Arsuffi, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the diversity of environmental education (EE) in Texas, USA, by developing a framework to assess EE organizations and programs at a large scale: the Environmental Education Database of Organizations and Programs (EEDOP). This framework consisted of the following characteristics: organization/visitor demographics, pedagogy/curriculum,…

  10. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  11. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  12. Genome-wide association analysis accounting for environmental factors through propensity-score matching: application to stressful live events in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Ng, Mandy Y; Butler, Amy W; Craddock, Nick; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gill, Michael; Rice, John P; Maier, Wolfgang; Zobel, Astrid; Mors, Ole; Placentino, Anna; Rietschel, Marcella; Aitchison, Katherine J; Tozzi, Federica; Muglia, Pierandrea; Breen, Gerome; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Uher, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Stressful life events are an established trigger for depression and may contribute to the heterogeneity within genome-wide association analyses. With depression cases showing an excess of exposure to stressful events compared to controls, there is difficulty in distinguishing between "true" cases and a "normal" response to a stressful environment. This potential contamination of cases, and that from genetically at risk controls that have not yet experienced environmental triggers for onset, may reduce the power of studies to detect causal variants. In the RADIANT sample of 3,690 European individuals, we used propensity score matching to pair cases and controls on exposure to stressful life events. In 805 case-control pairs matched on stressful life event, we tested the influence of 457,670 common genetic variants on the propensity to depression under comparable level of adversity with a sign test. While this analysis produced no significant findings after genome-wide correction for multiple testing, we outline a novel methodology and perspective for providing environmental context in genetic studies. We recommend contextualizing depression by incorporating environmental exposure into genome-wide analyses as a complementary approach to testing gene-environment interactions. Possible explanations for negative findings include a lack of statistical power due to small sample size and conditional effects, resulting from the low rate of adequate matching. Our findings underscore the importance of collecting information on environmental risk factors in studies of depression and other complex phenotypes, so that sufficient sample sizes are available to investigate their effect in genome-wide association analysis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fine mapping of a dominantly inherited powdery mildew resistance major-effect QTL, Pm1.1, in cucumber identifies a 41.1 kb region containing two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Yu, Ting; Xu, Ruixue; Shi, Yang; Lin, Xiaojian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A dominantly inherited major-effect QTL for powdery mildew resistance in cucumber was fine mapped. Two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes were identified as the most possible candidates. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and other cucurbit crops, but the molecular genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucurbits are still poorly understood. In this study, through marker-assisted backcrossing with an elite cucumber inbred line, D8 (PM susceptible), we developed a single-segment substitution line, SSSL0.7, carrying 95 kb fragment from PM resistance donor, Jin5-508, that was defined by two microsatellite markers, SSR16472 and SSR16881. A segregating population with 3600 F2 plants was developed from the SSSL0.7 × D8 mating; segregation analysis confirmed a dominantly inherited major-effect QTL, Pm1.1 in cucumber chromosome 1 underlying PM resistance in SSSL0.7. New molecular markers were developed through exploring the next generation resequenced genomes of Jin5-508 and D8. Linkage analysis and QTL mapping in a subset of the F2 plants delimited the Pm1.1 locus into a 41.1 kb region, in which eight genes were predicted. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed that two concatenated genes, Csa1M064780 and Csa1M064790 encoding the same function of a cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, were the most likely candidate genes. GFP fusion protein-aided subcellular localization indicated that both candidate genes were located in the plasma membrane, but Csa1M064780 was also found in the nucleus. This is the first report of dominantly inherited PM resistance in cucumber. Results of this study will provide new insights into understanding the phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber. This work should also facilitate marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding for PM resistance.

  14. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Development of the TRSSS-1 Satellite as the Major Component of the Space Based Information System(SBIS) for Effective Decision Support System for Thailand's Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Musigasam, Weerapant; Ditsariyakue, Praneet; Aphicholati, Navanit; Vibulsresth, Suvit

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes development of the first Thailand Remote Sensing Satellite System (TRSSS-1) by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE). The TRSSS-1 project has primarily been developed as a major component of the Space Base Information System (SBIS) for effective decision support system for Thailand's natural resources and environmental management. The Space Based Information System consists of three components namely, the u...

  17. Assessing the Ecological Integrity of a Major Transboundary Mediterranean River Based on Environmental Habitat Variables and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Aoos-Vjose River, Greece-Albania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During project study and design, major environmental impacts of water ... should be identified and made available for decision makers and the public. ... remotely sensed data can be analysed in GIS environment to generate data and map the ...

  19. Environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove-White, Robin

    1985-01-01

    There is still very little official acceptance that environmental factors will impose major constraints on the development of energy supply options in the United Kingdom in the future. This paper argues that such an acceptance is needed urgently and should begin to affect governmental policies immediately. UK energy policy ought to be to intensify energy efficiency and conservation throughout the economy and hence reduce the need to expand new supply sources. The general energy requirements in the UK are first considered. Problems of energy supply expansion, particularly nuclear power and coal are considered. Resolution of the problems identified in the UK political and administrative context is discussed. Then the environmental aspects are considered. A comment on the paper follows and raises two questions about market-based energy policy; does it preclude intervention to promote economic efficiency in the use of energy and, does it lead to economic efficiency. (U.K.)

  20. Frequent flyer business travelers: major exposure hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-02-01

    Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.

  1. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  2. Using Life Cycle Assessment to identify potential environmental impacts of an agrifood sector: Application to the PDO Beaujolais and Burgundia wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penavayre Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of the production system of emblematic French product under official quality marks was investigated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The study looks at the PDO Beaujolais and Burgundy sector from a broad perspective, i.e. encompassing all steps linked with the products themselves but also complementary activities that belong to this wine sector. To build the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI, a methodology deriving from both product and organizational LCA was developed and applied. The LCI was built using a bottom-up approach. Inventories were first built for a sample of 17 representative companies. Then, these inventories were scaled-up to complete the global LCI at the agrifood sector level. Potential environmental impacts were assessed for 8 indicators. The LCA results show potential environmental impacts for each life cycle step: grape production, wine making and aging, packaging, distribution and activity of stakeholders belonging to the “close environment”. It provided two main outcomes: (i a methodology for the construction of an LCI adapted to the perimeter of an agrifood sector and composed by high quality data; and (ii the identification of potential environmental impacts of the studied agrifood sector, providing assistance for the definition of their strategic orientations for the future.

  3. Using environmental tracer data to identify deep-aquifer, long-term flow patterns and recharge distributions in the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, A. J.; Suckow, A. O.; Morris, R.; Raiber, M.; Prommer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of regional groundwater flow models, including those investigating coal-seam gas (CSG) impacts in the Surat Basin, Australia, are not typically constrained using environmental tracers, although the use of such data can potentially provide significant reductions in predictive uncertainties. These additional sources of information can also improve the conceptualisation of flow systems and the quantification of groundwater fluxes. In this study, new multi-tracer data (14C, 39Ar, 81Kr, and 36Cl) were collected for the eastern recharge areas of the basin and within the deeper Hutton and Precipice Sandstone formations to complement existing environmental tracer data. These data were used to better understand the recharge mechanisms, recharge rates and the hydraulic properties associated with deep aquifer systems in the Surat Basin. Together with newly acquired pressure data documenting the response to the large-scale reinjection of highly treated CSG co-produced water, the environmental tracer data helped to improve the conceptualisation of the aquifer system, forming the basis for a more robust quantification of the long-term impacts of CSG-related activities. An existing regional scale MODFLOW-USG groundwater flow model of the area was used as the basis for our analysis of existing and new observation data. A variety of surrogate modelling approaches were used to develop simplified models that focussed on the flow and transport behaviour of the deep aquifer systems. These surrogate models were able to represent sub-system behaviour in terms of flow, multi-environmental tracer transport and the observed large-scale hydrogeochemical patterns. The incorporation of the environmental tracer data into the modelling framework provide an improved understanding of the flow regimes of the deeper aquifer systems as well as valuable information on how to reduce uncertainties in hydraulic properties where there is little or no historical observations of hydraulic

  4. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in essence...... comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines, within each...

  5. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention...... of Eco-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental...... Engineering, thus, in essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual...

  6. Decree no. 85-449 of 23 April 1985 in implementation of Act no. 83-630 of 12 July 1983 on democratisation of public inquiries and environmental protection with regard to major nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Act No. 83-630 of 19 July 1983 on democratisation of public inquiries and environmental protection prescribes a public inquiry procedure for work likely to affect the environment. This Decree was made in implementation of the Act. Its scope is set out in an annexed table which provides that this new procedure applies to major nuclear installations governed by Decree No. 63-1128 of 11 December 1963 on nuclear installations and their radioactive effluent releases. The definition of a major nuclear installation which, until now, was set out in orders, is henceforth included in the 1963 Decree which is amended by the above Decree. As regards substance, the main modifications concerning nuclear installations are those directly resulting from the 1983 Act: one month's duration at least for the inquiry, designation of an inquiry commissioner by the president of the administrative court, stay of execution decided ipso facto by the judicial authority in case of the inquiry commissioner's negative opinion. (NEA) [fr

  7. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  8. A framework to identify Pareto-efficient subdaily environmental flow constraints on hydropower reservoirs using a grid-wide power dispatch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Marcelo A.; Haas, Jannik; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo; Benavides, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Hydrologic alteration due to hydropeaking reservoir operations is a main concern worldwide. Subdaily environmental flow constraints (ECs) on operations can be promising alternatives for mitigating negative impacts. However, those constraints reduce the flexibility of hydropower plants, potentially with higher costs for the power system. To study the economic and environmental efficiency of ECs, this work proposes a novel framework comprising four steps: (i) assessment of the current subdaily hydrologic alteration; (ii) formulation and implementation of a short-term, grid-wide hydrothermal coordination model; (iii) design of ECs in the form of maximum ramping rates (MRRs) and minimum flows (MIFs) for selected hydropower reservoirs; and (iv) identification of Pareto-efficient solutions in terms of grid-wide costs and the Richard-Baker flashiness index for subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA). The framework was applied to Chile's main power grid, assessing 25 EC cases, involving five MIFs and five MRRs. Each case was run for a dry, normal, and wet water year type. Three Pareto-efficient ECs are found, with remarkably small cost increase below 2% and a SDHA improvement between 28% and 90%. While the case involving the highest MIF worsens the flashiness of another basin, the other two have no negative effect on other basins and can be recommended for implementation.

  9. Identifying important life stages for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to environmental contaminants: results of a World Health Organization review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; de Wet, Thea; Du Toit, Lilo; Firestone, Michael P; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van Engelen, Jacqueline; Vickers, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we summarize exposure-related issues to consider in determining the most appropriate age ranges and life stages for risk assessment. We then propose a harmonized set of age bins for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to chemicals for global use. The focus is on preconception through adolescence, though the approach should be applicable to additional life stages. A two-tiered set of early life age groups is recommended. The first tier involves the adoption of guidance similar to the childhood age groups recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, whereas the second tier consolidates some of those age groups to reduce the burden of developing age-specific exposure factors for different regions. While there is no single "correct" means of choosing a common set of age groups to use internationally in assessing early life exposure and risk, use of a set of defined age groups is recommended to facilitate comparisons of potential exposures and risks around the globe, the collection of data and analyses of aggregate exposure and cumulative risk. Application of these age groups for robust assessment of exposure and risk for specific populations will require region-specific exposure factors as well as local environmental monitoring data. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying and closing gaps in environmental monitoring by means of metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics using the UNESCO biosphere reserve Rhoen (Germany) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther

    2006-03-01

    In Germany, environmental monitoring is intended to provide a holistic view of the environmental condition. To this end the monitoring operated by the federal states must use harmonized, resp., standardized methods. In addition, the monitoring sites should cover the ecoregions without any geographical gaps, the monitoring design should have no gaps in terms of ecologically relevant measurement parameters, and the sample data should be spatially without any gaps. This article outlines the extent to which the Rhoen Biosphere Reserve, occupying a part of the German federal states of Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia, fulfills the listed requirements. The investigation considered collection, data banking and analysis of monitoring data and metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics. Metadata on the monitoring networks were collected by questionnaires and provided a complete inventory and description of the monitoring activities in the reserve and its surroundings. The analysis of these metadata reveals that most of the monitoring methods are harmonized across the boundaries of the three federal states the Rhoen is part of. The monitoring networks that measure precipitation, surface water levels, and groundwater quality are particularly overrepresented in the central ecoregions of the biosphere reserve. Soil monitoring sites are more equally distributed within the ecoregions of the Rhoen. The number of sites for the monitoring of air pollutants is not sufficient to draw spatially valid conclusions. To fill these spatial gaps, additional data on the annual average values of the concentrations of air pollutants from monitoring sites outside of the biosphere reserve had therefore been subject to geostatistical analysis and estimation. This yields valid information on the spatial patterns and temporal trends of air quality. The approach illustrated is applicable to similar cases, as, for example, the harmonization of international monitoring networks.

  11. A Functional, Genome-wide Evaluation of Liposensitive Yeast Identifies the “ARE2 Required for Viability” (ARV1) Gene Product as a Major Component of Eukaryotic Fatty Acid Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S.; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A.; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Repa, Joyce J.; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the “ARE2 required for viability” (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease. PMID:24273168

  12. A functional, genome-wide evaluation of liposensitive yeast identifies the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene product as a major component of eukaryotic fatty acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Repa, Joyce J; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L

    2014-02-14

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease.

  13. Science evaluation of the environmental impact statement for the lower Churchill hydroelectric generation project to identify deficiencies with respect to fish and fish habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, K.

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluated an environmental impact statement (EIS) submitted by a company proposing to develop a hydroelectric generation project in the lower Churchill River in Labrador. Construction of the facilities will alter the aquatic environment of the river as well as the receiving environment of lakes. The alterations are expected to have an impact on fish and fish habitats. The study evaluated the methods used to describe and predict impacts in the aquatic environment and examined models used for predictions in order to assess uncertainty levels. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that additional efforts are needed to document local knowledge of fish use and fish habitat, and that the magnitude of expected changes to fish habitat must be considered relative to the loss of fish habitat. The study also highlighted areas within the EIS that will require further clarification. A number of the studies used in the EIS had small sample sizes that increased the uncertainty of predictions made using the data. Uncertainties related to potential changes in flushing rates and morphological features was also needed. The impact of direct fish mortality from turbine operations was not addressed in a population context, and further information is needed to evaluate potential project-related effects on a species-by-species basis. 3 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Rare earth element contents of the Lusi mud: An attempt to identify the environmental origin of the hot mudflow in East Java – Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustawijaya Didi Supriadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sidoarjo mudflow in East Java, Indonesia, has been erupting since May 29th, 2006. The eruption has been known as the Lusi (lumpur Sidoarjo, which was previously considered as a remote seismic event consequence, but current geyser-like activities show an association with a geothermal phenomenon. A method of characterizing rare earth elements (REE is commonly an effective tool for recognizing a geothermal system, and here it is adapted to particularly indicate the environmental origin of the Lusi mud. Results show that the Lusi hot mud is made of a porous smectite structure of a shale rock type, which becomes an ideal tank for trapping the REE, especially the light REE. Volcanic activities seem to be an important influence in the eruption; however, since there is a lack of significant isotopic evidences in the mobilization of the REE during the eruption, the chloride neutral pH water of the Lusi may hardly contain the REE. The moderate Ce and Eu anomalies found in the REE patterns of the mud strongly indicate a sea-floor basin as the most probable environment for the REE fractionation during the sedimentary rock formation, in which the weathering processes of volcanic rock origin enriched the Lusi shale with the REE.

  15. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  16. Environmental scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Trends in current affairs and public policy that emerged in 1988 are analyzed to provide a tool for Atomic Energy of Canada's decision makers. This issue provides a general overview of the economic and energy environments; and international review of nuclear policies, equipment orders, and trends that will position Canada and AECL within the global nuclear community; a precis of Canadian public opinion polls on economic, environmental and energy issues; a summary of major trends identifies by Canadian opinion leaders from the public and private sectors; a review of opinions and recommendations of influential Canadian policy institutes; a report on government policies and actions that affect AECL directly or indirectly; an analysis of new coverage by print and electronic media; a review of anti-nuclear organizations; and conclusions and recommendations

  17. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  18. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank buffer opportunities with high P/sed removal., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities...

  19. Environmental Modeling, The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nutrient removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use,...

  20. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  1. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  2. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications

  3. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  4. Improvement of the environmental quality through speed-affecting measures on major roads in municipalities. Final report and appendix; Verbesserung der Umweltqualitaet in Kommunen durch geschwindigkeitsbeeinflussende Massnahmen auf Hauptverkehrsstrassen. Abschlussbericht und Anlagenband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunger, Ditmar; Fiedler, Frank; Hunger, Matthias; Becker, Udo J.; Richter, Falk [Planungsbuero Dr.-Ing. Ditmar Hunger, Stadt - Verkehr - Umwelt, SUV, Dresden/Berlin (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The research project analyses the influence of exceeded speeds on main urban roads in terms of environmental quality. In the analysis, aspects of emissions of harmful substances, noise, the quality of living and residential surrounding, urban separation effects as well as road safety aspects concerning pedestrians and cyclists were examined. Speed surveillance and accordant ticketing in case of violation are common in German cities. A survey carried out in several cities revealed that environmental aspects play hardly a role when considering control measures. Such measures are mainly viewed as 'traffic safety measures'. The most important result was that sanctioned monitoring (with fines) is indispensable for better compliance with the permissible maximum speed. Sanctions and their effect on speed behaviour were examined in the sample cities Rostock, Berlin and Dresden. In situations with a reasonably steady traffic flow speeds between 30 and 50 km/h were found to be most consistent with environmental protection objectives. Attaining this level requires a combination of conceptual planning measures and statutory regulatory measures, as well as the comprehensive involvement of all interested parties in the planning processes, the use of active and passive enforcement efforts, short-term interventions to modify streets or their cross-sections, and targetted public relations efforts. Within the study, an 'Analytical plan to evaluate complex environmental effects' (AKU) was developed. This plan serves as a tool for evaluation and decision making for certain measures and for the analysis of traffic effects on residents. In this plan, conclusions concerning various environmental aspects and the effect on residents are considered and assessed by a simplified approach. Furthermore, action priorities with a conceptual planning bias were derived. With regard to regulative judicial measures the study identified that speeding violations have to be monitored

  5. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  6. Major Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Major Highways for the United States. The Major Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class attribute value on each link...

  7. Genomewide association study identifies no major founder variant in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Young onset (<15 year). 14. –. Adult onset (≤15 year). 24. –. Clinical symptoms. Cerebral infarction. 18. –. TIAb. 6. –. Stroke. 3. –. Headache. 4. –. Hemorrhage. 1. –. Epilepsy. 2. –. Asymptomatic. 1. –. Otherc. 3. –. Clinical status. Bilateral. 35. –. Unilateral. 3. –. aSD, standard deviation; bTIA, transient ischemic attack; cother, ...

  8. Major roles for minor bacterial lipids identified by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa A

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry of lipids, especially those isolated from bacteria, has ballooned over the past two decades, affirming in the process the complexity of the lipidome. With this has come the identification of new and interesting lipid structures. Here is an overview of several novel lipids, from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with roles in health and disease, whose structural identification was facilitated using mass spectrometry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  10. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  11. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2016-10-01

    fluoride, iron, manganese, sodium, and lead exceeding applicable drinking water standards in some instances. Current literature suggests that the etiology of CKDu is likely multifactorial, with no single biological or hydrogeochemical parameter directly related to disease genesis and progression. This preliminary screening identified that specific constituents may be present above levels of concern, but does not compare results against specific kidney toxicity values or cumulative risk related to a multifactorial disease process. The data collected from this limited investigation are intended to be used in the subsequent study design of a comprehensive and multifactorial etiological study of CKDu risk factors that includes sample collection, individual surveys, and laboratory analyses to more fully evaluate the potential environmental, behavioral, genetic, and lifestyle risk factors associated with CKDu.

  12. Pinellas Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Martin Marietta Specialty Components, Inc., and the US Department of Energy are committed to successfully administering a high quality Environmental Management Program at the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. Part of this commitment includes accurately documenting and communicating to the Pinellas Plant stakeholder the results of their environmental compliance and monitoring activities. The Annual Site Environmental Report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the environmental monitoring, waste management, and environmental restoration programs at the Pinellas Plant for 1993. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major environmental management program initiatives and accomplishments for 1993

  13. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  14. Discovery of the Collaborative Nature of Science with Undergraduate Science Majors and Non-Science Majors through the Identification of Microorganisms Enriched in Winogradsky Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jasmine; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Forster, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Today's science classrooms are addressing the need for non-scientists to become scientifically literate. A key aspect includes the recognition of science as a process for discovery. This process relies upon interdisciplinary collaboration. We designed a semester-long collaborative exercise that allows science majors taking a general microbiology course and non-science majors taking an introductory environmental science course to experience collaboration in science by combining their differing skill sets to identify microorganisms enriched in Winogradsky columns. These columns are self-sufficient ecosystems that allow researchers to study bacterial populations under specified environmental conditions. Non-science majors identified phototrophic bacteria enriched in the column by analyzing the signature chlorophyll absorption spectra whereas science majors used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the general bacterial diversity. Students then compiled their results and worked together to generate lab reports with their final conclusions identifying the microorganisms present in their column. Surveys and lab reports were utilized to evaluate the learning objectives of this activity. In pre-surveys, nonmajors' and majors' answers diverged considerably, with majors providing responses that were more accurate and more in line with the working definition of collaboration. In post-surveys, the answers between majors and nonmajors converged, with both groups providing accurate responses. Lab reports showed that students were able to successfully identify bacteria present in the columns. These results demonstrate that laboratory exercises designed to group students across disciplinary lines can be an important tool in promoting science education across disciplines.

  15. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...

  16. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  17. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  18. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  19. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  20. Introducing Molecular Biology to Environmental Engineers through Development of a New Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerther, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a molecular biology course designed for environmental engineering majors using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-targeted technology that allows students to identify and study microorganisms in bioreactor environments. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  1. Consistent effects of a major QTL for thermal resistance in field-released Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Norry, Fabian M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers can be used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for thermal resistance and this has allowed characterization of a major QTL for knockdown resistance to high temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. The QTL showed trade-off associations with cold resistance under lab...... of field fitness at different environmental temperatures with genotypic variation in a QTL for thermal tolerance. Graphical abstract...

  2. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  3. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  5. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  6. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  7. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  8. Overview of emerging environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    DOD is executing environmental restoration projects in accordance with compliance regulations from many federal agencies. With the passage of amendments to the Superfund law in 1986 that stated a preference for treatment instead of disposal, demand developed for alternative methods that provided more permanent and less costly solutions for dealing with contaminated materials. The Army files environmental impact statements on major programs and specific projects that are currently affecting, or have the potential to affect the environment. Personnel conducting those studies may find it helpful to learn about current environmental assessment methods and the outcomes of previous environmental studies. The Army currently spends almost 2.4% of its total budget on environmental programs. As the future budget picture continues to decline, new technologies offer the potential to provide a lower cost means of achieving the same level of environmental protection. This paper will provide an overview of environmental restoration planning and procedures, discuss information capabilities available on the Internet, provide summaries of recent technological literature and field studies; and identifies areas of informational 'gaps'. It concludes by urging closer ties between industry and the Army, as well as the need to pursue new and innovative techniques to solve old problems. (author)

  9. Paleo-environmental conditions of the Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Fenggang area, the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Platform, southern China: Evidence from major elements, trace elements and other proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tang, Shuheng; Zhang, Songhang; Xi, Zhaodong; Yang, Ning; Yang, Guoqiao; Li, Lei; Li, Yanpeng

    2018-06-01

    The Precambrian/Cambrian transition was a key time in Earth history, especially for marine biological evolution and oceanic chemistry. The redox-stratification with oxic shallow water and anoxic (even euxinic) deeper water in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, which gradually became completely oxygenated, has been suggested as a possible trigger for the "Cambrian explosion" of biological diversity. However, for some areas in northern Guizhou where the exploration and research are lacking, identifying this pattern of redox-stratification by paleo-environmental analysis from borehole data is still in need. Here, we report a remarkable variation range in trace elements (Mo, V, U, Ni, Th, Co, Sc, Zn and Cu), molar Corg:P ratios and pyrite morphology from 27 core samples from one new drill hole (XY1, located in the Fenggang area, northern Guizhou) on the Yangtze Platform, South China. High levels of Ba (from 3242 ppm to 33,800 ppm) and total organic carbon (TOC; from 4% to 9.36%) in 15 core samples in the Lower Member (LM) of the Niutitang Formation indicated elevated primary productivity in the study area. Redox change was recorded based on enrichment factors (EFs) for RSTEs (Mo, U, and V), redox proxies (V/(V + Ni), Ni/Co, V/Sc and Th/U), Corg:P ratios and particle size of framboidal pyrite. These signatures demonstrate that the LM was deposited under anoxic conditions with sulfidic episodes, whereas the Upper Member (UM) of the Niutitang Formation was deposited under suboxic/oxic conditions with intermittently anoxic episodes. Mo/TOC ratios (from 3.72 to 39.86, mean 18.76) suggest weak-moderate water mass restriction. Mo-U covariation patterns (strong but variable enrichment of Mo and U; MoEF ranging from 31.45 to 257.97; UEF ranging from 4.68 to 39.07) in the LM show alternation of particulate shuttling and redox conditions occurred in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, whereas Mo-U covariation patterns (moderate Mo enrichment but depletion or non-enrichment of U; mean Mo

  10. Introduction to environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalić, Anita; Zelić, Bruno

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays we can easily say that environmental engineering is truly an interdisciplinary science. Combining biology, ecology, geology, geography, mathematics, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, economy, etc. environmental engineering strives to use environmental understanding and advancements in technology to serve mankind by decreasing production of environmental hazards and the effects of those hazards already present in the soil, water, and air. Major activities of environmental engineer involve water supply, waste water and solid management, air and noise pollution control, environmental sustainability, environmental impact assessment, climate changes, etc. And all this with only one main goal - to prevent or reduce undesirable impacts of human activities on the environment. To ensure we all have tomorrow.

  11. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. Final environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of environmental monitoring programs and research during development of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley is presented. One of the major objectives was to develop programs for environmental assessment and protection that could serve as an example for similar types of development. The monitoring studies were designed to establish baseline conditions (predevelopment) of the physical, biological, and human environment. Potential changes were assessed and adverse environmental impacts minimized. No major environmental impacts resulted from development of the Raft River Geothermal Research Facility. The results of the physical, biological, and human environment monitoring programs are summarized.

  12. Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    The Inspection Panel

    2017-01-01

    The Inspection Panel, the World Bank’s independent accountability mechanism, has released the third report in its Emerging Lessons Series. The latest report identifies lessons from Panel cases related to environmental assessment (EA) issues. The Panel is an impartial fact-finding body, independent from the World Bank management and staff, reporting directly to the Board. In response to com...

  13. Environmental management in Slovenian industrial enterprises - Empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Čančer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available timulated with the firm belief that environmental management helps enterprises to achieve business success, expressed by a majority of managers in the sample enterprises, we present the results of an empirical study in the Slovene processing industry. The purpose of our research work is to identify, analyse and present the importance of the environment in business decision-making, the role of environmental management in strategic decision-making and its distribution across the business functions; environmental performance in business processes; the use of the methods for environmentally oriented business decision-making and the developmental tendencies of environmental management in Slovene enterprises of the processing industry. We define the key drivers of environmental management and their effect on the environmental behaviour of these enterprises. We present and interpret data indicating that environmental management is caused not only by compliance and regulation, but also by competition and enterprises’ own initiative.

  14. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  15. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  16. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  17. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  19. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  20. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  1. Obesogenic environments: environmental approaches to obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipek, Tobias; Igel, Ulrike; Gausche, Ruth; Kiess, Wieland; Grande, Gesine

    2015-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a major concern for public health. There are multiple factors (e.g., genetic, social, and environmental) that contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Drawing from findings on "obesogenic environments" and core principles of preventive strategies to reduce health inequalities, this paper gives an overview of recent childhood prevention programs that target aspects of the physical environment ("environmental changes"). Out of the ten reviews we screened (including more than 300 studies), we identified very few that addressed aspects of the environment. We focus here on 14 programs that follow different approaches to environmental changes (e.g., access to/quality of playgrounds, changes in school cafeterias). Altering the environment offers opportunities for healthier behaviors and seems to be an effective strategy to prevent childhood obesity. However, the evaluation of those (mostly) multidimensional interventions does not allow drawing firm conclusions about the single effect of environmental changes. We conclude that obesity prevention programs should combine person-based and environmental approaches.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  4. Environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, T.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the conceptualization of environmentally responsible behavior and methods for measuring such behavior based on a review of previous studies. Four major scales for the extent to which an individual’s behavior is responsible behavior are discussed. Various theoretical backgrounds and cultures provide diverse conceptualizations of environmentally responsible behavior. Both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior has been identified in the past studies. This study also discusses the precedents of environmentally responsible behavior and with a general overview; it provides insight into improving future research on this subject.

  5. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power provides the world with an important option for generating electricity. To successfully and safely utilize this power, engineering and environmental factors should be carefully considered throughout a nuclear power plant project, especially during the planning stages. This paper discusses the major environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant project from site selection to retirement. During the site selection process, both engineering and environmental resources must be identified and evaluated. Environmental resources include areas that support agricultural or aquatic commercial activities, habitats for commercial or endangered species, population centers, transportation systems, and recreational areas. Also, during the site selection process, the potential impacts of both construction and operating activities must be considered. In addition to the area actually disturbed by construction, construction activities also affect local services, such as transportation systems, housing, school systems, and other social services. Since nuclear power plants use a 'clean fuel,' generally the most significant operating activity having a potential environmental impact is the discharge of cooling water. The potential effect of this discharge on commercial activities and sensitive habitats should be thoroughly evaluated. Lastly, the method of decommissioning can affect long-range land use planning and should therefore be considered during the planning process. With appropriate planning, nuclear power plants can be constructed and operated with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  6. 75 FR 31383 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... current approach to evaluating and rating major capital investment projects (``New Starts'' and ``Small...'' to address identified transportation needs in the corridor without a major capital investment in new...

  7. Frontiers of environmental regulation: environmental management systems: a regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.J. [South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Leading edge companies throughout the world have embraced management systems to achieve optimal sustainable performance in the ever changing business environment of the 1990s. Given that the natural environment and environmental performance have become major issues affecting organizations, the need for integrating environmental management with all the other components of an organization`s overall management approach is now widely recognized. This paper is organized in five parts. The first explores recently released environmental standards, the interim environmental management systems (EMS) general guidelines standard AS/NZS ISO 14004 (Int) and identifies how this has dealt with the regulator/community/company interface. The second identifies company requirements for addressing environmental issues. The third, considers regulatory theory to identify current requirements for an effective regulatory system and how this can interface with a company`s EMS. These form the basis in the fourth section for identifying some opportunities which occur at the company/ regulator interface. The fifth and final section draws a number of conclusions about the current frontiers of environmental regulation. The coincidence of the requirements of a regulatory framework with the areas of interface between what is referred to in the draft International Standard for EMS as `Interested Parties`, the regulators and community, are identified. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 20 refs.

  8. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  9. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Morasch, Launa F.

    2001-09-25

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts.

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2000-09-28

    The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts.

  11. Activity and Action: Bridging Environmental Sciences and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Abramovitch, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the Environmental Workshop unit taught to Environmental Sciences majors in the high schools in Israel and learn if, and in what ways, this unit could become a model for environmental education throughout the high school curriculum. We studied the special characteristics of the Environmental Workshop (EW)…

  12. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a ''no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs

  14. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  15. Environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental concerns typical of the Canadian Arctic and the Beaufort Sea, which impacted on oil and gas exploration were discussed. Environmental regulations and legislation in existence were explained. Most regulations required submission of permit applications that among other things, described the type of equipment to be used and the time and duration of the use. Companies also had to demonstrate that they had the capability to deal with oil spill scenarios. If an oil spill had a significant effect on the numbers of animals, the Inuit would have to be compensated. According to members of the native population, much damage was done initially to wildlife habitats and population, although this improved somewhat later as regulations concerning seismic and explosive activities were strengthened and technology improved, producing fewer harmful environmental impacts. All in all, activity in the Beaufort Sea did not result in any major environmental disasters, but there were many disturbances in the seafloor, permafrost and ice dynamics, as well as an increase in ambient noise levels which resulted in behavioural changes in the organisms close to the drilling activities. 19 figs

  16. Regional Geographic Information Systems of Health and Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurolap Semen A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new scientific and methodological approach to designing geographic information systems of health and environmental monitoring for urban areas. Geographic information systems (GIS are analytical tools of the regional health and environmental monitoring; they are used for an integrated assessment of the environmental status of a large industrial centre or a part of it. The authors analyse the environmental situation in Voronezh, a major industrial city, located in the Central Black Earth Region with a population of more than 1 million people. The proposed research methodology is based on modern approaches to the assessment of health risks caused by adverse environmental conditions. The research work was implemented using a GIS and multicriteria probabilistic and statistical evaluation to identify cause-and-effect links, a combination of action and reaction, in the dichotomy ‘environmental factors — public health’. The analysis of the obtained statistical data confirmed an increase in childhood diseases in some areas of the city. Environmentally induced diseases include congenital malformations, tumors, endocrine and urogenital pathologies. The main factors having an adverse impact on health are emissions of carcinogens into the atmosphere and the negative impact of transport on the environment. The authors identify and characterize environmentally vulnerable parts of the city and developed principles of creating an automated system of health monitoring and control of environmental risks. The article offers a number of measures aimed at the reduction of environmental risks, better protection of public health and a more efficient environmental monitoring.

  17. Discovery of the Collaborative Nature of Science with Undergraduate Science Majors and Non-Science Majors through the Identification of Microorganisms Enriched in Winogradsky Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Ramirez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s science classrooms are addressing the need for non-scientists to become scientifically literate. A key aspect includes the recognition of science as a process for discovery. This process relies upon interdisciplinary collaboration. We designed a semester-long collaborative exercise that allows science majors taking a general microbiology course and non-science majors taking an introductory environmental science course to experience collaboration in science by combining their differing skill sets to identify microorganisms enriched in Winogradsky columns. These columns are self-sufficient ecosystems that allow researchers to study bacterial populations under specified environmental conditions. Non-science majors identified phototrophic bacteria enriched in the column by analyzing the signature chlorophyll absorption spectra whereas science majors used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the general bacterial diversity. Students then compiled their results and worked together to generate lab reports with their final conclusions identifying the microorganisms present in their column. Surveys and lab reports were utilized to evaluate the learning objectives of this activity. In pre-surveys, nonmajors’ and majors’ answers diverged considerably, with majors providing responses that were more accurate and more in line with the working definition of collaboration. In post-surveys, the answers between majors and nonmajors converged, with both groups providing accurate responses. Lab reports showed that students were able to successfully identify bacteria present in the columns. These results demonstrate that laboratory exercises designed to group students across disciplinary lines can be an important tool in promoting science education across disciplines. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory

  18. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  19. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome measured by the SCL-90-R in Two Manganese (Mn) Exposed Ohio Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if l...

  20. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  1. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  2. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guizhen; Zhang Lei; Lu Yonglong; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major contributor to environmental and health risks in China. This calls for the establishment of an effective chemical risk management system, which requires reliable, accurate and comprehensive data in the first place. However, the current chemical accident-related data system is highly fragmented and incomplete, as different responsible authorities adopt different data collection standards and procedures for different purposes. In building a more comprehensive, integrated and effective information system, this article: (i) reviews and assesses the existing data sources and data management, (ii) analyzes data on 976 recorded major hazardous chemical accidents in China over the last 40 years, and (iii) identifies the improvements required for developing integrated risk management in China.

  3. Environmental implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this document, the Savannah River site environmental programs and plans from DOE contractors and Westinghouse Savannah River Company divisions/departments are presented along with the environmental coordinator for each program. The objectives are to enhase communication of existing or planned programs to do the following: identify activities required for meeting environmental needs; identify needing resources and a schedule to accomplish those activities; promote share-savings and consistency in those activities

  4. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  5. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power provides the world with an important option for generating electricity. To successfully and safely utilize this power, engineering and environmental factors should be carefully considered throughout a nuclear power plant project, especially during the planning stages. This paper discusses the major environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant project from site selection to retirement. During the site selection process, both engineering and environmental resources must be identified and evaluated. Environmental resources include areas that support agricultural or aquatic commercial activities, habitats for commercial or endangered species, population centers, transportation systems, and recreational areas. Also during the site selection process, the potential impacts of both construction and operating activities must be considered. In addition to the area actually disturbed by construction, construction activities also affect local services, such as transportation systems, housing, school systems, and other social services. Since nuclear power plants use a ''clean fuel,'' generally the most significant operating activity having a potential environmental impact is the discharge of cooling water. The potential effect of this discharge on commercial activities and sensitive habitats should be thoroughly evaluated. Lastly, the method of decommissioning can affect long-range land use planning and should therefore be considered during the planning process

  6. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  7. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  8. Technology development and transfer in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.; Karnovitz, A.; Yarbrough, M.

    1994-01-01

    Federal efforts to develop and employ the innovative technologies needed to clean up contaminated facilities would greatly benefit from a greater degree of interaction and integration with the energies and resources of the private sector. Yet there are numerous institutional, economic, and regulatory obstacles to the transfer and commercialization of environmental restoration and waste management technologies. These obstacles discourage private sector involvement and investment in Federal efforts to develop and use innovative technologies. A further effect is to impede market development even where private sector interest is high. Lowering these market barriers will facilitate the commercialization of innovative environmental cleanup technologies and expedite the cleanup of contaminated Federal and private facilities. This paper identifies the major barriers to transfer and commercialization of innovative technologies and suggests possible strategies to overcome them. Emphasis is placed on issues particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, but which are applicable to other Federal agencies confronting complex environmental cleanup problems

  9. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  10. Jabiluka environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T. (Pancontinental Mining Ltd., Sydney (Australia))

    1984-02-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed.

  11. Jabiluka environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed. (author)

  12. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  13. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  14. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  15. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  16. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.A.; King, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement

  17. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R A; King, J M [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  19. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue that different course patterns of MDD can be identified and that it is essential to examine their relationship to symptoms and function over time. Insight into these course patterns could assist in p...

  20. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  1. Using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and GIS to assess environmental risk and identify sources of trace metals in soils of peri-urban areas in the Yangtze Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-08-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry may be very suitable for a fast and effective environmental assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils. In this study, topsoils (0-10 cm) at 139 sites were in situ scanned for total trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and arsenic concentrations by PXRF in a typical town in Yangtze Delta region of Jiangsu province, China. To validate the utility of PXRF, 53 samples were collected from the scanning sites for the determination of selected trace metals using conventional methods. Based on trace metal concentrations detected by in situ PXRF, the contamination extent and sources of trace metals were studied via geo-accumulation index, multivariate analysis and geostatistics. The trace metal concentrations determined by PXRF were similar to those obtained via conventional chemical analysis. The median concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 10.8, 56.4, 41.5, 43.5, 33.5, and 77.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. The distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mostly affected by anthropogenic sources, while As was mainly derived from lithogenic sources. Overall, PXRF has been successfully applied to contamination assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils.

  2. Environmental science: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book is divided into 5 major parts: Humans and Nature--An Overview, Some Concepts of Ecology, Population, Resources, and Pollution. It discusses both sides of major environmental issues and offers possible solutions to the problems humans--intentionally or unwittingly--create.

  3. Environmental Medicine Genome Bank (EMGB): Current Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The USARIEM Environmental Medicine Genome Bank (EMGB) project is an ongoing effort to identify and characterize genes relevant to environmental injuries and illnesses and to human physical performance...

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis: identifying and characterising polymorphisms using rat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder characterised by erosive inflammation of the articular cartilage and by destruction of the synovial joints. It is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors, and, currently, there is no preventative treatment or cure for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified ∼100 new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in addition to the already known locus within the major histocompatibility complex II region. However, together, these loci account for only a modest fraction of the genetic variance associated with this disease and very little is known about the pathogenic roles of most of the risk loci identified. Here, we discuss how rat models of rheumatoid arthritis are being used to detect quantitative trait loci that regulate different arthritic traits by genetic linkage analysis and to positionally clone the underlying causative genes using congenic strains. By isolating specific loci on a fixed genetic background, congenic strains overcome the challenges of genetic heterogeneity and environmental interactions associated with human studies. Most importantly, congenic strains allow functional experimental studies be performed to investigate the pathological consequences of natural genetic polymorphisms, as illustrated by the discovery of several major disease genes that contribute to arthritis in rats. We discuss how these advances have provided new biological insights into arthritis in humans. PMID:27736747

  5. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  7. Environmental overview of geothermal development: the Mono-Long Valley KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strojan, C.L.; Romney, E.M. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    Major issues and concerns relating to geothermal development were identified and assessed in seven broad areas: (1) air quality, (2) archaeology and cultural resources, (3) geology, (4) natural ecosystems, (5) noise, (6) socioeconomics, and (7) water quality. Existing data for each of these areas was identified and evaluated to determine if the data can be used to help resolve major issues. Finally, specific areas where additional data are needed to ensure that geothermal development is environmentally acceptable were recommended.

  8. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Morasch, Launa F.

    2004-09-01

    This report is published each year by DOE to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and highlight major environmental programs and efforts.

  9. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  10. Environmental pollution major problem of RAH-Romania (CNH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V.; Arad, S. [Petrosani University, Petrosani (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    The exploitation and processing of coal from the Jiu Valley Basin, Romania, are carried out in 21 industrial units. The industrial activities carried out in these units damage the environment. This paper presents the sources of pollution of the water, atmosphere and soil, and evaluates and registers the effects of and the objectives for reducing the pollution. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Environmental management in public hospitals: Environmental management in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Miranda; César Augusto García-Ubaque; María Camila García-Vaca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Activities in hospitals have environmental impacts which may pose risks to human and environmental health if they are not managed correctly. For this reason, it is necessary to implement an environmental management plan in hospitals that not only focuses on solid waste management but includes all aspects associated with health within institutions. Objective: To review environmental management aspects related to public hospitals in order to identify environmental management a...

  12. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  13. 77 FR 3847 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... stating FTA should index or otherwise normalize the cost effectiveness thresholds to differentiate between... effectiveness, environmental benefits, and economic development benefits. a. Cost Effectiveness. All of the... identified by the statute; cost effectiveness is currently the only project justification criterion that...

  14. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  15. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  16. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  17. Environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents environmental data that characterize environmental performance and addresses compliance with environmental standards and requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1996. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive nonradioactive materials at Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1996 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions; and concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, the municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs. Using comparisons with standards and regulations, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. Laboratory operations were in compliance with all major environmental regulations.

  18. Environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents environmental data that characterize environmental performance and addresses compliance with environmental standards and requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1996. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive nonradioactive materials at Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1996 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions; and concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, the municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs. Using comparisons with standards and regulations, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. Laboratory operations were in compliance with all major environmental regulations

  19. Strategic Stakeholder Communication and Co-operation in Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    in this process is strategic stakeholder relationships like communication and co-operation. The paper addresses this topic based on a proposed approach for identifying and evaluating the influence from various groups of stakeholders as well as the findings from recent surveys of environmental management......Ever since the introduction of the first major Danish environmental protection law in 1974, environmental regulation has been instrumental in pushing industry towards adopting environmentally less harmful behaviour. However, since the early 1990s, pressure from a growing number of other...... stakeholders, such as for example customers, NGO's, neighbours, etc., has increasingly driven industry towards incorporating environmental considerations in their decisions and activities to an extent which justifies placing Danish companies at the cutting edge of industrial greening. An essential element...

  20. MDOT Materials Laboratories : Environmental Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this EMP was to develop and implement a comprehensive Environmental : Management Plan for MDOT Materials Laboratories. This goal was achieved through : perfonnance of environmental audits to identify potential environmental impacts, and b...

  1. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  2. Integrating Environmental Management of Asthma into Pediatric Health Care: What Worked and What Still Needs Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Newman, Nicholas; McCurdy, Leyla E; Chang, Jane S; Salas, Mauro A; Eskridge, Bernard; De Ybarrondo, Lisa; Sandel, Megan; Mazur, Lynnette; Karr, Catherine J

    2016-12-01

    The National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF) launched an initiative in 2005 to integrate environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This study, a follow-up to a 2013 study, evaluated the program's impact and assessed training results by 5 new faculty champions. We surveyed attendees at training sessions to measure knowledge and the likelihood of asking about and managing environmental triggers of asthma. To conduct the program evaluation, a workshop was held with the faculty champions and NEEF staff in which we identified major program benefits, as well as challenges and suggestions for the future. Trainee baseline knowledge of environmental triggers was low, but they reported robust improvement in environmental triggers knowledge and intention to recommend environmental management. The program has a broad, national scope, reaching more than 12 000 physicians, health care providers, and students, and some faculty champions successfully integrated materials into health record. Program barriers and future endeavors were identified.

  3. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  4. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  5. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  6. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DATA USED FOR IDENTIFYING ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population

  7. Prioritizing Environmental Chemicals for Obesity and Diabetes ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Diabetes and obesity are major threats to public health in the US and abroad. Understanding the role chemicals in our environment play in the development of these conditions is an emerging issue in environmental health, although identifying and prioritizing chemicals for testing beyond those already implicated in the literature is a challenge. This review is intended to help researchers generate hypotheses about chemicals potentially contributing to diabetes and obesity-related health outcomes by summarizing relevant findings from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) program. Objectives: To develop new hypotheses around environmental chemicals of potential interest for diabetes- or obesity-related outcomes using high throughput screening data. Methods: Identify ToxCast assay targets relevant to several biological processes related to diabetes and obesity (insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue, pancreatic islet and beta cell function, adipocyte dierentiation, and feeding behavior) and present chemical screening data against those assay targets to identify chemicals of potential interest. Discussion: Results of this screening-level analysis suggest that the spectrum of environmental chemicals to consider in research related to diabetes and obesity is much broader than indicated from research papers and reviews published in the peer-reviewed literature. Testing of hypotheses based on ToxCast data will a

  8. Methods and techniques for prediction of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the procedure that helps decision makers understand the environmental implications of their decisions. The prediction of environmental effects or impact is an extremely important part of the EIA procedure and improvements in existing capabilities are needed. Considerable attention is paid within environmental impact assessment and in handbooks on EIA to methods for identifying and evaluating environmental impacts. However, little attention is given to the issue distribution of information on impact prediction methods. The quantitative or qualitative methods for the prediction of environmental impacts appear to be the two basic approaches for incorporating environmental concerns into the decision-making process. Depending on the nature of the proposed activity and the environment likely to be affected, a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods is used. Within environmental impact assessment, the accuracy of methods for the prediction of environmental impacts is of major importance while it provides for sound and well-balanced decision making. Pertinent and effective action to deal with the problems of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources and sustainable development is only possible given objective methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impact. Therefore, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems, decided to set up a task force, with the USSR as lead country, on methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impacts in order to undertake a study to review and analyse existing methodological approaches and to elaborate recommendations to ECE Governments. The work of the task force was completed in 1990 and the resulting report, with all relevant background material, was approved by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems in 1991. The present report reflects the situation, state of

  9. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-13

    open for future generations to exploit the virgin continent. This resulted in an angry response from environmental groups, the Green Peace...so that they can be ahead of their competitors with the use of substitutes for ozone- layer penetrating substances," Möller said. Industry is...Environmental Agency has prompted Mr. Major to set up a Cabinet Office committee to examine the proposals independently while he is on holiday . The

  10. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  11. The environmental component of the association agreement with the EU: areas of implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shimanska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A solution of the environmental problems is a precondition for Ukraine’s integration into the European community. This is due to the need of achievement an appropriate level of environmental responsibility both entities and authorities intended to environment monitoring and controling. The major task of this study is to provide the research of the environmental component of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and EU, and identify its successful implementation for sustainable development in our country as a member of the European community. In general, research shows areas of implementation of the Association Agreement environmental component at all levels of the environmental activities of entities. The data clarify that the state control of the economic activity impact in Ukraine requires improvement, particularly in the determination and refund the environmental damage. In addition, the emphasis has been placed on the need of environmental awareness creation in society.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  15. Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of initiating and then implementing a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (CEMP). There are several environmental impact and compliance drivers for this initiative. The Los Alamos CEMP is intended to be a flexible, long-range process that predicts, minimizes, treats, and disposes of any waste generated in execution of the Los Alamos mission - even if that mission changes. The CEMP is also intended to improve stakeholder and private sector involvement and access to environmental information. The total quality environmental management (TQEM) process will benchmark Los Alamos to private sector and DOE operations, identify opportunities for improvement, prioritize among opportunities, implement projects, measure progress, and spur continuous improvement in Environmental Management operations

  16. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  17. Timor-Leste : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...

  18. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  19. Case Studies of Environmental Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Patlakas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance gap between simulation and reality has been identified as a major challenge to achieving sustainability in the Built Environment. While Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE surveys are an integral part of better understanding building performance, and thus addressing this issue, the importance of POE remains relatively unacknowledged within the wider Built Environment community. A possible reason that has been highlighted is that POE survey data is not easily understood and utilizable by non-expert stakeholders, including designers. A potential method by which to address this is the visualization method, which has well established benefits for communication of big datasets. This paper presents two case studies where EnViz (short for “Environmental Visualization”, a prototype software application developed for research purposes, was utilized and its effectiveness tested via a range of analysis tasks. The results are discussed and compared with those of previous work that utilized variations of the methods presented here. The paper concludes by presenting the lessons drawn from the five-year period of EnViz, emphasizing the potential of environmental visualization for decision support in environmental design and engineering for the built environment, and suggests directions for future development.

  20. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  1. Environmental development plan: magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program (MFE). Environment is defined to include the environmental, health (occupational and public), and safety aspects

  2. Environmental Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, G.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Campbell, C.G.; Cerruti, S.; Dibley, V.; Doman, J.L.; Grayson, A.R.; Jones, H.E.; Kumamoto, G.; MacQueen, D.H.; Nelson, J.C.; Paterson, L.; Revelli, M.A.; Wegrecki, A.M.; Wilson, K.; Woollett, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2008 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2008: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  3. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories Livermore (SNLL), located at Livermore, California. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The SNLL Survey is a portion of the larger, comprehensive DOE Environmental Survey encompassing all major operating facilities of DOE. The DOE Environmental Survey is one of a series of initiatives announced on September 18, 1985, by Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, to strengthen the environmental, safety, and health programs and activities within DOE. The purpose of the Environmental Survey is to identify, via a no fault'' baseline Survey of all the Department's major operating facilities, environmental problems and areas of environmental risk. The identified problem areas will be prioritized on a Department-wide basis in order of importance in 1989. The findings in this report are subject to modification based on the results from the Sampling and Analysis Phase of the Survey. The findings are also subject to modification based on comments from the Albuquerque Operations Office concerning the technical accuracy of the findings. The modified preliminary findings and any other appropriate changes will be incorporated into an Interim Report. The Interim Report will serve as the site-specific source for environmental information generated by the Survey, and ultimately as the primary source of information for the DOE-wide prioritization of environmental problems in the Survey Summary Report. 43 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Li Xiangdong; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    As the world's urban population continues to grow, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand the dynamic interactions between human activities and the urban environment. The development of urban environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant volume of scientific information about geochemical phenomena found uniquely in the urban environment, such as the distribution, dispersion, and geochemical characteristics of some toxic and potentially toxic trace metals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of urban environmental geochemistry as a field of scientific study and highlight major transitions during the course of its development from its establishment to the major scientific interests in the field today. An extensive literature review is also conducted of trace metal contamination of the urban terrestrial environment, in particular of urban soils, in which the uniqueness of the urban environment and its influences on trace metal contamination are elaborated. Potential areas of future development in urban environmental geochemistry are identified and discussed. - Urban environmental geochemistry as a scientific discipline provides valuable information on trace metal contamination of the urban environment and its associated health effects

  6. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  7. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  8. Identifying Depression on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Moin

    2016-01-01

    Social media has recently emerged as a premier method to disseminate information online. Through these online networks, tens of millions of individuals communicate their thoughts, personal experiences, and social ideals. We therefore explore the potential of social media to predict, even prior to onset, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in online personas. We employ a crowdsourced method to compile a list of Twitter users who profess to being diagnosed with depression. Using up to a year of pri...

  9. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  10. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  11. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  12. Investigating the Molecular Basis of Major Depressive Disorder Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Korf, Jaalp; Ormel, Johan; Kema, Ido P.; den Boer, Johan A.; Kvetnansky, R; Aguilera, G; Goldstein, D; Jezova, D; Krizanova, O; Sabban, EL; Pacak, K

    2008-01-01

    Genes play a major role in behavioral adaptation to challenging environmental stimuli, but the complexity of their contribution remains unclear. There is growing evidence linking disease phenotypes with genes on the one hand, and the genesis of stress-related disorders like major depression, as a

  13. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  14. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  15. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  16. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  17. Essential psychology for environmental policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    In this article major environmental problems and their different levels and global spheres of impact are surveyed. Environmental exploitation is discussed as an inherent characteristic of free market economies under limited cognitive-motivational inclinations of individual actors. A conceptual

  18. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  19. Environmental mycobacteria – Future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E Schraufnagel

    2015-01-01

    An interferon gamma release assay for infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria is desperately needed. Success with tuberculosis was attained by finding bacterial antigens associated with virulence and invasive disease. This may be difficult because the damage caused by environmental mycobacteria tends to be epithelial and subepithelial. The cavities may be bronchiectatic in origin and deeper invasion may result from host reactions. Serologic testing has not yielded important clinical help for diseases caused by either M. tuberculosis or the nontuberculous mycobacteria, possibly because good bacterial or host response proteins have not been identified. This could change with a metabolomics approach. Genomic studies that give incremental gains may set the stage for major breakthroughs, but require coordination with good phenotyping. Tools are in place to open an exciting new era for understanding and control of mycobacteria.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  1. Developing "Green" Business Plans: Using Entrepreneurship to Teach Science to Business Administration Majors and Business to Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.

    2011-01-01

    Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…

  2. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  4. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  6. Offshore environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Degraer, S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWFs) is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the cumulative environmental impact of such farms. The major impacts are caused by the noise produced in the building phase, the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise in

  7. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  8. Yeast identification: reassessment of assimilation tests as sole universal identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J; Rawling, S; Stratford, M; Steels, H; Novodvorska, M; Archer, D B; Chandra, S

    2011-11-01

    To assess whether assimilation tests in isolation remain a valid method of identification of yeasts, when applied to a wide range of environmental and spoilage isolates. Seventy-one yeast strains were isolated from a soft drinks factory. These were identified using assimilation tests and by D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. When compared to sequencing, assimilation test identifications (MicroLog™) were 18·3% correct, a further 14·1% correct within the genus and 67·6% were incorrectly identified. The majority of the latter could be attributed to the rise in newly reported yeast species. Assimilation tests alone are unreliable as a universal means of yeast identification, because of numerous new species, variability of strains and increasing coincidence of assimilation profiles. Assimilation tests still have a useful role in the identification of common species, such as the majority of clinical isolates. It is probable, based on these results, that many yeast identifications reported in older literature are incorrect. This emphasizes the crucial need for accurate identification in present and future publications. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Genetic and environmental origins of hypospadias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Hutson, John M

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review and comment on recent original presentations dealing with genetic and environmental factors in the cause of hypospadias. RECENT FINDINGS: The heritability is definitely high and having an affected family member is the highest identified...... of hypospadias with low birth weight, maternal hypertension, and preeclampsia suggests that placental insufficiency is a major risk factor. Maternal exposure to chemical pollutants or endocrine disruptors in high concentrations related to selected occupations or geographic areas may be additional risk factors...

  10. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While...

  11. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  12. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  13. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references

  15. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, TM; Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    2000-01-01

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality

  16. Hanford Site 1998 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Dirkes; RW Hanf; TM Poston

    1999-09-21

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1998 Hanford Site activities; present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and groundwater protection and monitoring information; and discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TM Poston; RW Hanf; RL Dirkes

    2000-09-28

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  18. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  19. Environmental standards and project construction: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.F.; Thornberry, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    In the past decade, changes have occurred in the area of environmental regulation. This paper identifies the typical environmental standards applicable to project construction, recent environmental regulatory issues and trends, and identifies new environmental issues which must be considered in project construction. These include (1) handling hazardous chemicals in the workplace, (2) construction at formerly utilized sites, (3) disposal of debris, construction materials and hazardous waste, and (4) training and experience of construction personnel in environmental issues

  20. Environmental management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Misiak, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Considering environmental protection requirements in business operations may, in the long run, determine if a lasting comparative advantage can be achieved. That is why our textbook, rich in case studies, identifies not only the threats a business may pose to the environment but stresses the ways of reducing its negative impact. It discusses, among other things, the concept of corporate social responsibility, environmental management systems, methods and the importance of eco-labelling goods ...

  1. Fertiliser characterisation: Major, trace and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, N.; Vitoria, L.; Soler, A.; Canals, A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the chemical impact of agricultural activities on the environment so it is necessary to identify contaminants, and/or characterise the sources of contamination. In this study, a comprehensive chemical characterisation of 27 fertilisers of different types used in Spain has been conducted; major, minor and trace elements were determined, including rare earth elements. Results show that compound fertilisers used for fertigation or foliar application have low content of heavy metals, whereas fertilisers used for basal and top dressing have the highest content of both REE and other heavy metals. REE patterns of fertilisers have been determined in order for them to be used as tracers of fertilisers in future environmental studies. Furthermore in this work REE patterns of fertilisers are used as tracers of the source of phosphate in compound fertilisers, distinguishing between phosphorite and carbonatite derived fertilisers. Fertilisers from carbonatites have higher contents of REE, Sr, Ba and Th whereas fertilisers from phosphorites have higher contents of metals of environmental concern, such as Cd, U and As; and the sum of the heavy metals is higher. Some of the analysed fertilisers have Cd concentrations that exceed maximum values established in some countries and can be expected to produce long-term soil accumulation. Furthermore, other elements such as U, As and Cr are 10-50 times higher in concentration than those of Cd, but there is no legislation regarding them, therefore it is necessary to regulate fertiliser compositions in order to achieve environmental protection of soils and waters

  2. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  3. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  4. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  5. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  6. Strategy against hazardous environmental events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefan, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The major sources of waterways pollution in egypt have been assessed compact strategy is committed to promote sustainable development of our natural resources and to secure the safety of our environmental capital

  7. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  8. First approaches to the monetary impact of environmental health disturbances in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, Florian; Brückner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to describe essential conditions and starting-points for the monetary evaluation of environmentally attributable diseases. Furthermore, a cost calculation within a scenario analysis is conducted for Germany. To calculate the costs of environmental health effects we chose a disease-specific perspective. The national statistics of the Federal Statistical Office and the World Health Report burden of disease estimates were used to identify the most important disease categories for Germany. Based on an extensive literature research in computerized databases and the publications of national and international institutions, available costs of illness studies for Germany as well as environmental attributable fractions (EAFs) were identified. Based on these data environmental health costs were calculated with a top-down approach. Direct and indirect environmental costs of illness add up to 15-62 billion euro(2006) per year depending on the specific scenario. From our results a tentative scheme is deduced of how the monetary environmental burden of specific diseases is composed and how it can be assigned to major environmental exposures and economic sectors which can be used in setting intervention priorities and evaluating intervention efficiency. Within this article, we were able to calculate environmental health costs for Germany based on available, easy to access data and deduce implications for environmental policy decision-making. However, there are restrictions in data quality, as the aetiology of some diseases with respect to environmental impacts is not very well documented and data has not been collected particularly for Germany.

  9. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO{sub 2} emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  10. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO 2 emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  11. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  12. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  13. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  14. 34 CFR 691.17 - Determination of eligible majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Application Procedures § 691.17... list of eligible majors identified by CIP code. (d) Designation of an additional eligible major. (1... include— (i) The CIP code and program title of the additional major; (ii) The reason or reasons the...

  15. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  16. Environmental performance reviews. Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Performance Review of Croatia began with the preparatory mission in June 1998. This report was prepared on the basis of the team's review mission to Croatia in March 1999. Its draft was submitted to the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy at its annual session in Geneva on 22 September 1999. A high-level delegation from Croatia attended this evaluation, which was prepared in-depth by two reviewing countries, the Netherlands and Slovakia. At the end of its evaluation, the Committee approved the recommendations as set out in this report. The review of Croatia's environmental performance identified a number of strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of environmental policy and management. The systematic and professional preparation of environmental management measures in the State Directorate for the Protection of Nature and the Environment is often impressive. However, their implementation and enforcement suffer from a lack of institutional weight and cooperation throughout State institutions. Therefore, improving the cooperation with all key partners is an important task. Furthermore, greater involvement of the general public in environmental management might help to strengthen the overall recognition and results of environmental management. Finally, the review also found impediments to better performance with regard to remediation of the environmental consequences of the war - a problem that can be successfully dealt with only if sufficient funds are allocated for that work

  17. Environmental concerns of supply chain sustainability (SCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Omar, Badrul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Pauzi, Nur Fazlinda Mohd; Hasan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2017-04-01

    Environment concern is one important aspect for supply chain sustainability (SCS). Nowadays, company's activities give a lot of impact on the environment. Through these activities, there are other SCS issue of environment were identified. In this paper, the proposed SCS issue of environmental concern will be determined from Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR). Using a total weightage of 0.333 (after dividing into three aspects of sustainability), each proposed issues will be classified according to the company activities in order to determined weightage for each issue. Those weightages then will be used in developing of score metric for SCS in design phase. Result shows that the carbon footprint is the major concern for SCS of environment while environmental management system is a lowest concern for SCS environment.

  18. Environmental management through a gasoline tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, Paola; Contreras, Hugo [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Despite rapid progress in environmental administration in Mexico, results have not been enough. Air pollution levels in major cities are still hazardous. In particular, pollution levels in Mexico City surpass permitted levels frequency. For those reasons it is important to identify policy alternatives which will enable an improvement in environmental quality, at the least possible cost to society. [Spanish] A pesar del rapido progreso del control ambiental en Mexico, los resultados no han sido suficientes. Los niveles de contaminacion del aire en las principales ciudades son aun peligrosos. Particularmente los niveles de contaminacion en la Ciudad de Mexico sobrepasan la frecuencia de los niveles permitidos. Por esas razones es importante identificar las alternativas politicas que permitiran un mejoramiento de la calidad del ambiente, al menor costo posible para la sociedad.

  19. Environmental issues in cities and mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental deterioration is one of the major issues of today's world. It not only poses serious threats to human life, health and property at local level but also presents big challenges for the sustain ability of global environment The developing countries like Pakistan are facing much bigger problems due to their rapid urbanization and lack of resources to meet the increasing demands of urban areas. Although, the problems have global dimensions, their solution lies at the local level. This paper presents an overview of the environmental issues with special reference to Pakistan and identifies the role of various stakes holders including the national, provincial and local governments, industrial and trade community, NGO's and citizens for rehabilitation and improvement of the environment. The combination of a large population and poor resource environment means that judicious means of energy use and minimum waste systems of production as well as lifestyles must be employed for sustainable development.(author)

  20. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  1. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  3. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  4. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  5. Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-15

    This book gives descriptions of environmental pollution such as water and soil pollution, harmful chemicals substances and radiation, nature protection on wild animals, wild plants, and nature park, environmental assessment, and environmental management. It deals with the earth environment on change and the cause of the earth environment, ozone layer, global warming and acid fallout, plan for the earth control and environment information and information system.

  6. Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S; Gallegos, G; Berg, L L; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Doman, J L; Ferry, L S; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; Larson, J; MacQueen, D H; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Ridley, M; Rueppel, D; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2008-09-24

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation

  7. Environmental Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Gallegos, G.; Berg, L.L.; Bertoldo, N.A; Campbell, C.G.; Cerruti, S.; Doman, J.L; Ferry, L.S.; Grayson, A.R; Jones, H.E.; Kumamoto, G.; Larson, J.; MacQueen, D.H; Paterson, L.; Revelli, M.A.; Ridley, M.; Rueppel, D.; Wegrecki, A.M.; Wilson, K.; Woollett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  8. Environmental recordkeeping: The administrative record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, B.S.

    1991-08-01

    This document provides information on an environmental records management system. It includes information on environmental recordkeeping; environmental regulations with emphasis on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); and the administrative record including a case study of the Hanford Site's administrative record system. This paper will focus on the following objectives: (1) Identify resources that can be used as reference tools; (2) understand the reasons for developing and maintaining an administrative record; and, (3) evaluate an existing system and identify means of complying with the regulations. 15 refs., 2 figs

  9. Environmental recordkeeping: The administrative record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, B.S.

    1991-08-01

    This document provides information on an environmental records management system. It includes information on environmental recordkeeping; environmental regulations with emphasis on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); and the administrative record including a case study of the Hanford Site's administrative record system. This paper will focus on the following objectives: (1) Identify resources that can be used as reference tools; (2) understand the reasons for developing and maintaining an administrative record; and, (3) evaluate an existing system and identify means of complying with the regulations. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  11. Environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Physics is a comprehensive introduction to the physical concepts underlying environmental science. The importance and relevance of physics is emphasised by its application to real environmental problems with a wide range of case studies. Applications included cover energy use and production, global climate, the physics of living things, radioactivity, environmental remote sensing, noise pollution and the physics of the Earth. The book makes the subject accessible to those with little physics background, keeping mathematical treatment straightforward. The text is lively and informative, and is supplemented by numerous illustrations, photos, tables of useful data, and a glossary of key terms.

  12. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  13. Environmental epidemiology, Volume 1: Public health and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 1, represents the first of several planned volumes on the uses of epidemiologic techniques to study environmental public health issues. This text focuses on environmental epidemiology as it relates to hazardous waste in the United States. This study was commissioned by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to examine available data for evidence of adverse health effects on human populations exposed to hazardous waste. The committee was also asked to identify data gaps which were impediments to analyzing hazardous waste health effects and to suggest ways that such environmental health assessments might be improved. The committee's solution to the paucity of data on this issue was to concentrate in this volume on identifying the available, peer-reviewed data and, consequently, the major data gaps. The study opens with a recapitulation of the context of hazardous waste sites in the United States, the approaches currently used by state and federal epidemiologists in analyzing hazardous waste exposure and effects, and candid assessment of the problems associated with environmental exposure assessment. From that context, the committee then presents the data currently available to assess human exposures through air, domestic water consumption, soil, and the food chain. The general focus here is on biomarker data as the date of choice. As with all NAS reports, this one closes with general conclusions and recommendations. Environmental health risk assessors will find this volume a valuable resource

  14. Magnetic fusion: Environmental Readiness Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Environmental Readiness Documents are prepared periodically to review and evaluate the environmental status of an energy technology during the several phases of development of that technology. Through these documents, the Office of Environment within the Department of Energy provides an independent and objective assessment of the environmental risks and potential impacts associated with the progression of the technology to the next stage of development and with future extensive use of the technology. This Environmental Readiness Document was prepared to assist the Department of Energy in evaluating the readiness of magnetic fusion technology with respect to environmental issues. An effort has been made to identify potential environmental problems that may be encountered based upon current knowledge, proposed and possible new environmental regulations, and the uncertainties inherent in planned environmental research

  15. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  16. EnviroAtlas - Major Grains and Cotton by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the number of major grains grown, yield in tons, and area in hectares for several major grains and for cotton by 12-digit Hydrologic...

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  18. Occupational and environmental lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  20. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...