International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin
2007-01-01
Despite the fact that a stand-alone ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) can be thermodynamically efficient and operationally stable, the application of an ideal HIDiC system to separate a close-boiling multi-component mixture is still a challenging problem because of the possibility of strong interactions within/between the ideal HIDiCs involved. In this work, employment of two ideal HIDiCs to separate a close-boiling ternary mixture is studied in terms of static and dynamic performance. It is found that the ideal HIDiC system can be a competitive alternative with a substantial energy saving and comparable dynamic performance in comparison with its conventional counterpart. The direct sequence appears to be superior to the indirect sequence due to the relatively small vapor flow rates to the compressors. Controlling the bottom composition of the first ideal HIDiC with the pressure elevation from the stripping section to the rectifying section helps to suppress the disturbances from the feed to the second ideal HIDiC. Special caution should, however, be taken when the latent heat of the distillates is to be recovered within/between the ideal HIDiCs involved, because a positive feedback mechanism may be formed and give rise to additional difficulties in process operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Kejin [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangkj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qian Jixin [School of Information Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 300027 (China)
2008-06-15
An ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) is characterized by external zero-reflux and zero-reboil ratio operation. Since the distillate is a high-pressure vapor phase flow, it can be used to pre-heat the feed to be separated, thereby giving rise to a totally heat-integrated distillation column (THIDiC). Although the THIDiC is more thermodynamically efficient than the ideal HIDiC, it is found that the heat integration between the distillate and feed turns it into an open-loop integrating process and poses additional difficulties to process operation. Therefore, a careful decision must be made on the selection between the ideal HIDiC and the THIDiC during process development. In this paper, separation of a binary equimolar mixture of benzene and toluene is selected as an illustrative example. Both process design and operability analysis are conducted, with special emphasis focused on the characteristics of feed pre-heating with distillate. The results obtained show deep insight into the design and operation of the THIDiC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin
2008-01-01
An ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) is characterized by external zero-reflux and zero-reboil ratio operation. Since the distillate is a high-pressure vapor phase flow, it can be used to pre-heat the feed to be separated, thereby giving rise to a totally heat-integrated distillation column (THIDiC). Although the THIDiC is more thermodynamically efficient than the ideal HIDiC, it is found that the heat integration between the distillate and feed turns it into an open-loop integrating process and poses additional difficulties to process operation. Therefore, a careful decision must be made on the selection between the ideal HIDiC and the THIDiC during process development. In this paper, separation of a binary equimolar mixture of benzene and toluene is selected as an illustrative example. Both process design and operability analysis are conducted, with special emphasis focused on the characteristics of feed pre-heating with distillate. The results obtained show deep insight into the design and operation of the THIDiC
The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases
Scott, Robert L.
2006-01-01
The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves…
Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases
Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe
2017-01-01
From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.
Ideal heat transfer conditions for tubular solar receivers with different design constraints
Kim, Jin-Soo; Potter, Daniel; Gardner, Wilson; Too, Yen Chean Soo; Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez
2017-06-01
The optimum heat transfer condition for a tubular type solar receiver was investigated for various receiver pipe size, heat transfer fluid, and design requirement and constraint(s). Heat transfer of a single plain receiver pipe exposed to concentrated solar energy was modelled along the flow path of the heat transfer fluid. Three different working fluids, molten salt, sodium, and supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) were considered in the case studies with different design conditions. The optimized ideal heat transfer condition was identified through fast iterative heat transfer calculations solving for all relevant radiation, conduction and convection heat transfers throughout the entire discretized tubular receiver. The ideal condition giving the best performance was obtained by finding the highest acceptable solar energy flux optimally distributed to meet different constraint(s), such as maximum allowable material temperature of receiver, maximum allowable film temperature of heat transfer fluid, and maximum allowable stress of receiver pipe material. The level of fluid side turbulence (represented by pressure drop in this study) was also optimized to give the highest net power production. As the outcome of the study gives information on the most ideal heat transfer condition, it can be used as a useful guideline for optimal design of a real receiver and solar field in a combined manner. The ideal heat transfer condition is especially important for high temperature tubular receivers (e.g. for supplying heat to high efficiency Brayton cycle turbines) where the system design and performance is tightly constrained by the receiver pipe material strength.
An Ideal Integrating Bolometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys. The detector, the Ideal Integrating Bolometer (IIB) is able to...
Coupling Ideality of Integrated Planar High-Q Microresonators
Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Liu, Junqiu; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
2017-02-01
Chip-scale optical microresonators with integrated planar optical waveguides are useful building blocks for linear, nonlinear, and quantum-optical photonic devices alike. Loss reduction through improving fabrication processes results in several integrated microresonator platforms attaining quality (Q ) factors of several millions. Beyond the improvement of the quality factor, the ability to operate the microresonator with high coupling ideality in the overcoupled regime is of central importance. In this regime, the dominant source of loss constitutes the coupling to a single desired output channel, which is particularly important not only for quantum-optical applications such as the generation of squeezed light and correlated photon pairs but also for linear and nonlinear photonics. However, to date, the coupling ideality in integrated photonic microresonators is not well understood, in particular, design-dependent losses and their impact on the regime of high ideality. Here we investigate design-dependent parasitic losses described by the coupling ideality of the commonly employed microresonator design consisting of a microring-resonator waveguide side coupled to a straight bus waveguide, a system which is not properly described by the conventional input-output theory of open systems due to the presence of higher-order modes. By systematic characterization of multimode high-Q silicon nitride microresonator devices, we show that this design can suffer from low coupling ideality. By performing 3D simulations, we identify the coupling to higher-order bus waveguide modes as the dominant origin of parasitic losses which lead to the low coupling ideality. Using suitably designed bus waveguides, parasitic losses are mitigated with a nearly unity ideality and strong overcoupling (i.e., a ratio of external coupling to internal resonator loss rate >9 ) are demonstrated. Moreover, we find that different resonator modes can exchange power through the coupler, which, therefore
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jana, Amiya K.; Maiti, Debadrita
2013-01-01
Batch distillation is an irreversible process and consumes many times the theoretical minimum energy requirement. The present work focuses on the development of an internally heat integrated batch distillation with a jacketed still (IHIBDJS) aiming to reduce the degree of irreversibility towards zero. The IHIBDJS scheme consists of a rectifying tower equipped with an overhead condenser and a still pot or reboiler that surrounds the tower concentrically. For improving the energy efficiency by the reduction of external energy input, the rectifier is operated at an elevated pressure so that a thermal driving force should exist between the rectifying tower and the concentric still. For this purpose, an isentropic compression system is mounted in the reboiled vapor line. Aiming to reduce further the degree of process irreversibility, we propose an additional thermal arrangement into the IHIBDJS configuration that couples the overhead vapor with the reboiler liquid, thereby reducing further the external heat consumption. It is investigated for a reactive batch distillation column that the effective use of internal heat sources would make the heat integrated column an independent scheme of external heat source. - Highlights: • An internal heat integration approach is developed for batch distillation. • Further intensification is made by thermally coupling top vapor with still liquid. • A reactive system is used to illustrate the proposed scheme
Dense strongly non-ideal plasma generation by laser isobaric heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulik, P.P.; Rozanov, E.K.; Riabii, V.A.; Titov, M.A.
1975-01-01
A method of generation of a dense strongly non-ideal plasma by slow isobaric heating of a small target in a high inert gas medium is discussed. The characteristic life-time of dense plasma is 10 -3 sec. Estimations show that such a plasma is homogeneous. Conditions are found for temperature uniformity. The experimental results of the isobaric heating of a thin potassium foil target by a ruby laser beam at 500 atm are described. (Auth.)
Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel
2010-08-01
We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.
Variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics with built-in advection equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Yao; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2014-10-15
Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum-preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.
Variational Integration for Ideal MHD with Built-in Advection Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Burby, J. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
2014-08-05
Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal MHD in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miah, J.H.; Griffiths, A.; McNeill, R.; Poonaji, I.; Martin, R.; Leiser, A.; Morse, S.; Yang, A.; Sadhukhan, J.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A new practical heat integration framework incorporating heat pump technology for simple and complex food factories. • A decision making procedure was proposed to select process or utility heat integration in complex and diverse factories. • New stream classifications proposed to identify and compare streams linked between process and utility, especially waste heat. • A range of ‘Heat Pump Thresholds’ to identify and compare heat pump configurations with steam generation combustion boiler. - Abstract: The recovery of heat has long been a key measure to improving energy efficiency and maximising the heat recovery of factories by Pinch analysis. However, a substantial amount of research has been dedicated to conventional heat integration where low grade heat is often ignored. Despite this, the sustainability challenges facing the process manufacturing community are turning interest on low grade energy recovery systems to further advance energy efficiency by technological interventions such as heat pumps. This paper presents a novel heat integration framework incorporating technological interventions for both simple and complex factories to evaluate all possible heat integration opportunities including low grade and waste heat. The key features of the framework include the role of heat pumps to upgrade heat which can significantly enhance energy efficiency; the selection process of heat pump designs which was aided by the development of ‘Heat Pump Thresholds’ to decide if heat pump designs are cost-competitive with steam generation combustion boiler; a decision making procedure to select process or utility heat integration in complex and diverse factories; and additional stream classifications to identify and separate streams that can be practically integrated. The application of the framework at a modified confectionery factory has yielded four options capable of delivering a total energy reduction of about 32% with an economic payback
Oscillatory conductive heat transfer for a fiber in an ideal gas
Kuntz, H. L.; Perreira, N. D.
1985-01-01
A description of the thermal effects created by placing a cylindrical fiber in an inviscid, ideal gas, through which an acoustic wave propagates, is presented. The fibers and the gas have finite heat capacities and thermal conductivities. Expressions for the temperature distribution in the gas and in the material are determined. The temperature distribution is caused by pressure oscillations in the gas which, in turn, are caused by the passage of an acoustic wave. The relative value of a dimensionless parameter is found to be indicative of whether the exact or approximate equations should be used in the solution. This parameter is a function of the thermal conductivities and heat capacities of the fiber and gas, the acoustic frequency, and the fiber diameter.
Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. P. Nesenchuk
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a
Climate forcing and response to idealized changes in surface latent and sensible heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ban-Weiss, George A; Cao Long; Pongratz, Julia; Caldeira, Ken; Bala, Govindasamy
2011-01-01
Land use and land cover changes affect the partitioning of latent and sensible heat, which impacts the broader climate system. Increased latent heat flux to the atmosphere has a local cooling influence known as 'evaporative cooling', but this energy will be released back to the atmosphere wherever the water condenses. However, the extent to which local evaporative cooling provides a global cooling influence has not been well characterized. Here, we perform a highly idealized set of climate model simulations aimed at understanding the effects that changes in the balance between surface sensible and latent heating have on the global climate system. We find that globally adding a uniform 1 W m -2 source of latent heat flux along with a uniform 1 W m -2 sink of sensible heat leads to a decrease in global mean surface air temperature of 0.54 ± 0.04 K. This occurs largely as a consequence of planetary albedo increases associated with an increase in low elevation cloudiness caused by increased evaporation. Thus, our model results indicate that, on average, when latent heating replaces sensible heating, global, and not merely local, surface temperatures decrease.
Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heller, Alfred
1996-01-01
Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...
Integrated multiscale simulation of combined heat and power based district heating system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Peifeng; Nord, Natasa; Ertesvåg, Ivar Ståle; Ge, Zhihua; Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yongping
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Simulation of power plant, district heating network and heat users in detail and integrated. • Coupled calculation and analysis of the heat and pressure losses of the district heating network. • District heating is not preferable for very low heat load due to relatively high heat loss. • Lower design supply temperatures of the district heating network give higher system efficiency. - Abstract: Many studies have been carried out separately on combined heat and power and district heating. However, little work has been done considering the heat source, the district heating network and the heat users simultaneously, especially when it comes to the heating system with large-scale combined heat and power plant. For the purpose of energy conservation, it is very important to know well the system performance of the integrated heating system from the very primary fuel input to the terminal heat users. This paper set up a model of 300 MW electric power rated air-cooled combined heat and power plant using Ebsilon software, which was validated according to the design data from the turbine manufacturer. Then, the model of heating network and heat users were developed based on the fundamental theories of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Finally the combined heat and power based district heating system was obtained and the system performances within multiscale scope of the system were analyzed using the developed Ebsilon model. Topics with regard to the heat loss, the pressure drop, the pump power consumption and the supply temperatures of the district heating network were discussed. Besides, the operational issues of the integrated system were also researched. Several useful conclusions were drawn. It was found that a lower design primary supply temperature of the district heating network would give a higher seasonal energy efficiency of the integrated system throughout the whole heating season. Moreover, it was not always right to relate low design
Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.
2016-11-01
Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow behind a spherical shock wave in a non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes, in the presence of a spatially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field. The shock wave is driven by a piston moving with time according to power law. The radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model and the heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law for heat conduction. Similarity solutions exist only when the surrounding medium is of constant density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. It is shown that an increase of the gravitational parameter or the Alfven-Mach number or the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas decreases the compressibility of the gas in the flow-field behind the shock, and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is formed at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of a flare produced shock in the solar wind, central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion etc. The solutions obtained can be used to interpret measurements carried out by space craft in the solar wind and in neighborhood of the Earth's magnetosphere.
Luo, Ercang
2012-06-01
This paper analyzes the thermodynamic cycle of oscillating-flow regenerative machines. Unlike the classical analysis of thermodynamic textbooks, the assumptions for pistons' movement limitations are not needed and only ideal flowing and heat transfer should be maintained in our present analysis. Under such simple assumptions, the meso-scale thermodynamic cycles of each gas parcel in typical locations of a regenerator are analyzed. It is observed that the gas parcels in the regenerator undergo Lorentz cycle in different temperature levels, whereas the locus of all gas parcels inside the regenerator is the Ericson-like thermodynamic cycle. Based on this new finding, the author argued that ideal oscillating-flow machines without heat transfer and flowing losses is not the Stirling cycle. However, this new thermodynamic cycle can still achieve the same efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and can be considered a new reversible thermodynamic cycle under two constant-temperature heat sinks.
Heat integration and analysis of decarbonised IGCC sites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, K.S.; Lopez, Y.; Campbell, G.M.; Sadhukhan, J. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science
2010-02-15
Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems have become of interest due to their high combined heat and power (CHP) generation efficiency and flexibility to include carbon capture and storage (CCS) in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. However, IGCC's biggest challenge is its high cost of energy production. In this study, decarbonised coal IGCC sites integrated with CCS have been investigated for heat integration and economic value analyses. It is envisaged that the high energy production cost of an IGCC site can be offset by maximising site-wide heat recovery and thereby improving the cost of electricity (COE) of CHP generation. Strategies for designing high efficiency CHP networks have been proposed based on thermodynamic heuristics and pinch theory. Additionally, a comprehensive methodology to determine the COE from a process site has been developed. In this work, we have established thermodynamic and economic comparisons between IGCC sites with and without CCS and a trade-off between the degree of decarbonisation and the COE from the heat integrated IGCC sites. The results show that the COE from the heat integrated decarbonised IGCC sites is significantly lower compared to IGCC sites without heat integration making application of CCS in IGCC sites economically competitive.
Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.
1987-01-01
The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.
Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.
2017-01-01
With the present trend towards Smart Grids and Smart Energy Systems it is important to look for the opportunities for integrated development between different energy sectors, such as electricity, heating, gas and transportation. This paper investigates the problem of optimal placement of a heat...... pump – a component that links electric and heating utilities together. The system used to demonstrate the integrated planning approach has two neighboring 10kV feeders and several distribution substations with loads that require central heating from the heat pump. The optimal location is found...
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: I. Thermodynamic laws.
Lavenda, B H
2005-11-01
The equations of state for an ideal relativistic, or generalized, gas, like an ideal quantum gas, are expressed in terms of power laws of the temperature. In contrast to an ideal classical gas, the internal energy is a function of volume at constant temperature, implying that the ideal generalized gas will show either attractive or repulsive interactions. This is a necessary condition in order that the third law be obeyed and for matter to have an electromagnetic origin. The transition from an ideal generalized to a classical gas occurs when the two independent solutions of the subsidiary equation to Lagrange's equation coalesce. The equation of state relating the pressure to the internal energy encompasses the full range of cosmological scenarios, from the radiation to the matter dominated universes and finally to the vacuum energy, enabling the coefficient of proportionality, analogous to the Grüeisen ratio, to be interpreted in terms of the degrees of freedom related to the temperature exponents of the internal energy and the absolute temperature expressed in terms of a power of the empirical temperature. The limit where these exponents merge is shown to be the ideal classical gas limit. A corollary to Carnot's theorem is proved, asserting that the ratio of the work done over a cycle to the heat absorbed to increase the temperature at constant volume is the same for all bodies at the same volume. As power means, the energy and entropy are incomparable, and a new adiabatic potential is introduced by showing that the volume raised to a characteristic exponent is also the integrating factor for the quantity of heat so that the second law can be based on the property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order. The vanishing of the chemical potential in extensive systems implies that energy cannot be transported without matter and is equivalent to the condition that Clapeyron's equation be satisfied.
Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control
Schijndel, van A.W.M.
2007-01-01
The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture
Nath, Gorakh
2016-07-01
Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind a magnetogasdynamics cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric non ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat fluxes in presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assume to be varying and obeying power laws. In order to find the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is taken to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the presence of radiation and conduction, the non-idealness of the gas and the magnetic field on the shock propagation and the flow behind the shock are investigated.
Reminimization of energy integral and stability limit for non-ideal MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondoh, Y.
1988-03-01
The stability condition of relaxed states is derived from the energy principle for the non-ideal MHD plasma. An Euler equation for the reminimization of energy integral is derived and shown to give the marginal stable, non-singular perturbations for the stability condition. An extended stability limit for the β = 0 relaxed states is derived from the stability condition, with use of the eigenvalue analysis for the Euler equation. By using the perturbation method, the extended stability limit is solved in the 1st order approximation to explain the deviation of the experimental stability limit from the idealized stability limit by Taylor. A procedure to get overall stability limit against both the non-singular and the singular perturbations is discussed. 25 refs
Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)
1995-04-01
zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.
New integrable models and analytical solutions in f (R ) cosmology with an ideal gas
Papagiannopoulos, G.; Basilakos, Spyros; Barrow, John D.; Paliathanasis, Andronikos
2018-01-01
In the context of f (R ) gravity with a spatially flat FLRW metric containing an ideal fluid, we use the method of invariant transformations to specify families of models which are integrable. We find three families of f (R ) theories for which new analytical solutions are given and closed-form solutions are provided.
Dissipation of heat from building integrated PV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, C.M.L.
2001-07-01
The objectives of the project were to investigate methods for improving heat transfer and the reflection of heat from PV modules in building integrated situations and to develop the design of a building integrated PV element with improved heat transfer characteristics, with the aim of reducing the operating temperature of the PV cells. The prototypes developed for improving heat transfer have only shown small reductions in the PV cell operating temperature and these results have not been fully quantified due to problems associated with experimental testing. The improvement in the overall electrical performance of PV modules operating at lower temperatures is consequently even smaller. As a result, none of the prototypes can be considered to be economically viable. Based upon the theoretical and experimental results of this work, it is the recommendation of this project that no further work be conducted in improving BIPV performance through improved heat transfer of BIPV. (Author)
Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying
2016-01-01
An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is d...
Correct integration of compressors and expanders in above ambient heat exchanger networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Chao; Gundersen, Truls
2016-01-01
The Appropriate Placement concept (also referred to as Correct Integration) is fundamental in Pinch Analysis. The placement of reactors, distillation columns, evaporators, heat pumps and heat engines in heat exchanger networks is well established. The placement of pressure changing equipment such as compressors and expanders is complex and less discussed in literature. A major difficulty is that both heat and work (not only heat) are involved. The integration of compressors and expanders separately into heat exchanger networks was recently investigated. A set of theorems were proposed for assisting the design. The problem is even more complex when both compressors and expanders are to be integrated. An important concern is about the sequence of integration with compressors and expanders, i.e. should compressors or expanders be implemented first. This problem is studied and a new theorem is formulated related to the Correct Integration of both compressors and expanders in above ambient heat exchanger networks. The objective is to minimize exergy consumption for the integrated processes. A graphical design methodology is developed for the integration of compressors and expanders into heat exchanger networks above ambient temperature. - Highlights: • The correct integration of compressors and expanders in heat exchanger networks is studied. • A theorem is proposed for heat integration between compressors and expanders. • The total exergy consumption is minimized.
Building integration of concentrating solar systems for heating applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsoutsou, Sapfo; Infante Ferreira, Carlos; Krieg, Jan; Ezzahiri, Mohamed
2014-01-01
A new solar collection system integrated on the façade of a building is investigated for Dutch climate conditions. The solar collection system includes a solar façade, a receiver tube and 10 Fresnel lenses. The Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses considered were linear, non-imaging, line – focused with a system tracking the position of the sun that ensures vertical incidence of the direct solar radiation on the lenses. For the heating system a double-effect absorption heat pump, which requires high temperature of the heating fluid, was used, working with water and lithium-bromide as refrigerant and solution respectively. The Fresnel lens system is connected with the absorption heat pump through a thermal energy storage tank which accumulates the heat from the Fresnel lens system to provide it to the high pressure generator of the absorption heat pump. - Highlights: • The integration of Fresnel lenses in solar thermal building façades is investigated. • Using building integrated Fresnel lenses, 43% heating energy can be saved. • Energy savings in Mediterranean countries are significantly larger. • The absorption heat pump could make great contribution to energy savings for Dutch climate conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczynski, S.
1983-01-01
The properties of the ideal gas of classical (nonquantum) faster than light particles-tachyons have been considered. The basic notions of thermodynamics of tachyons have been introduced. We have found the partition function and other thermodynamical quantities for the ideal tachyon gas. The equation of state which we have found for tachyons is exactly the same as for the ideal gas of partictes slower than light-bradyons. The internal energy and the apecific heat have been discussed at low and at very high temperatures. It has been shown that in high temperature limit the properties of gas of tachyons and gas of bradyons are th'e same. The numerical calculations concerning the internal energy and specific heat at different temperatures were performed and the results have been presented. It has been shown that in full interval of temperature the characteristics of gas of tachyons are similar to those of gas of bradyons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pejović Branko B.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In a semi-ideal gas, entropy changes cannot be determined through the medium specific heat capacity in a manner as determined by the change of internal energy and enthalpy, i.e. the amount of heat exchanged. Taking this into account, the authors conducted two models through which it is possible to determine the change in the specific entropy of a semi-ideal gas for arbitrary temperature interval using the spread sheet method, using the mean values of the appropriate functions. The idea is to replace integration, which occurs here in evitably, with mean values of the previous functions. The models are derived based on the functional dependence of the actual specific heat capacity on the temperature. The theorem used is that of the mean value of a function as well as the mathematical properties of the definite integral. The mean value of a fractional function is determined via its integrand while the logarithmic functions were performed by applying a suitable transformation of the differential calculus. The relations derived relation, using the computer program, have enabled the design of appropriate thermodynamic tables through which it is possible to determine the change in entropy of arbitrary state changes in an efficient and rational manner, without the use of calculus or finished forms. In this way, the change in the entropy of a semi-ideal gas is determined for an arbitrary temperature interval using the method which is analogous to that applied in determining the change of internal energy and enthalpy or the amount of heat exchanged, which was the goal of the work. Verification of the proposed method for both the above functions was performed for a a few characteristic semi-ideal gases where change c(T is significant, for the three adopted temperature intervals, for the characteristic change of state. This was compared to the results of the classical integral and the proposed method through the prepared tables. In certain or special cases
Heat-balance integral method for heat transfer in superfluid helium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baudouy Bertrand
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The heat-balance integral method is used to solve the non-linear heat diffusion equation in static turbulent superfluid helium (He II. Although this is an approximate method, it has proven that it gives solutions with fairly good accuracy in non-linear fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Using this method, it has been possible to develop predictive solutions that reproduce analytical solution and experimental data. We present the solutions of the clamped heat flux case and the clamped temperature case in a semi-infinite using independent variable transformation to take account of temperature dependency of the thermophysical properties. Good accuracy is obtained using the Kirchhoff transform whereas the method fails with the Goodman transform for larger temperature range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Shi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renaldi, R.; Kiprakis, A.; Friedrich, D.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • An integrated framework for the optimal design of low carbon heating systems. • Development of a synthetic heat demand model with occupancy profiles. • Linear model of a heat pump with thermal energy storage heating system. • Evaluation of domestic heating system from generally available input parameters. • The lower carbon heating system can be cost competitive with conventional systems. - Abstract: Domestic heating has a large share in the UK total energy consumption and significant contribution to the greenhouse gas emissions since it is mainly fulfilled by fossil fuels. Therefore, decarbonising the heating system is essential and an option to achieve this is by heating system electrification through heat pumps (HP) installation in combination with renewable power generation. A potential increase in performance and flexibility can be achieved by pairing HP with thermal energy storage (TES), which allows the shifting of heat demand to off peak periods or periods with surplus renewable electricity. We present a design and operational optimisation model which is able to assess the performance of HP–TES relative to conventional heating systems. The optimisation is performed on a synthetic heat demand model which requires only the annual heat demand, temperature and occupancy profiles. The results show that the equipment and operational cost of a HP system without TES are significantly higher than for a conventional system. However, the integration of TES and time-of-use tariffs reduce the operational cost of the HP systems and in combination with the Renewable Heating Incentive make the HP systems cost competitive with conventional systems. The presented demand model and optimisation procedure will enable the design of low carbon district heating systems which integrate the heating system with the variable renewable electricity supply.
Integrated Temperature Sensors based on Heat Diffusion
Van Vroonhoven, C.P.L.
2015-01-01
This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a new class of integrated temperature sensors, based on heat diffusion. In such sensors, temperature is sensed by measuring the time it takes for heat to diffuse through silicon. An on-chip thermal delay can be determined by geometry and
Measuring weld heat to evaluate weld integrity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schauder, V., E-mail: schauder@hks-prozesstechnik.de [HKS-Prozesstechnik GmbH, Halle (Germany)
2015-11-15
Eddy current and ultrasonic testing are suitable for tube and pipe mills and have been used for weld seam flaw detection for decades, but a new process, thermography, is an alternative. By measuring the heat signature of the weld seam as it cools, it provides information about weld integrity at and below the surface. The thermal processes used to join metals, such as plasma, induction, laser, and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), have improved since they were developed, and they get better with each passing year. However, no industrial process is perfect, so companies that conduct research in flaw detection likewise continue to develop and improve the technologies used to verify weld integrity: ultrasonic testing (UT), eddy current testing (ET), hydrostatic, X-ray, magnetic particle, and liquid penetrant are among the most common. Two of these are used for verifying the integrity of the continuous welds such as those used on pipe and tube mills: UT and ET. Each uses a transmitter to send waves of ultrasonic energy or electrical current through the material and a receiver (probe) to detect disturbances in the flow. The two processes often are combined to capitalize on the strengths of each. While ET is good at detecting flaws at or near the surface, UT penetrates the material, detecting subsurface flaws. One drawback is that sound waves and electrical current waves have a specific direction of travel, or an alignment. A linear defect that runs parallel to the direction of travel of the ultrasonic sound wave or a flaw that is parallel to the coil winding direction of the ET probe can go undetected. A second drawback is that they don't detect cold welds. An alternative process, thermography, works in a different fashion: It monitors the heat of the material as the weld cools. Although it measures the heat at the surface, the heat signature provides clues about cooling activity deep in the material, resulting in a thorough assessment of the weld's integrity It
Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas
2016-01-01
pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene-toluene......Heat integrated distillation column (HiDC) is the most energy efficient distillation approach making efficient utilization of internal heat integration through heat pump. The rectifying section acts as a heat source with high pressure, while the stripping section operates as a heat sink with low...
Heat and work integration: Fundamental insights and applications to carbon dioxide capture processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Chao; Gundersen, Truls
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The problem definition of heat and work integration is introduced. • The fundamental insights of heat and work integration are presented. • The design methodology is illustrated with two small test examples. • Applications of to three carbon dioxide capture processes are presented. - Abstract: The integration of heat has achieved a notable success in the past decades. Pinch Analysis is a well-established methodology for heat integration. Work is an equally important thermodynamic parameter. The enthalpy of a process stream can be changed by the transfer of heat and/or work. Heat and work are actually interchangeable and can thus be integrated. For example, compression processes consume more work at higher temperatures, however, the compression heat may be upgraded and utilized; expansion processes produce more work at higher temperatures, however, more heat may be required. The classical heat integration problem is thus extended to a new research topic about the integration of both heat and work. The aim of this paper is to present the problem definition, fundamental thermodynamic insights and industrial applications of heat and work integration. The results from studies on the three carbon dioxide capture processes show that significant energy savings can be achieved by proper heat and work integration. In the oxy-combustion process, the work consumption for cryogenic air separation is reduced by 10.1%. In the post-combustion membrane separation process, the specific work consumption for carbon dioxide separation is reduced by 12.9%. In the membrane air separation process, the net work consumption (excluding heat consumption) is reduced by 90%.
Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan
2013-01-01
Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction....... The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes....
Non-periodic one-dimensional ideal conductors and integrable turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakharov, Dmitry V. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY, 10012 (United States); Zakharov, Vladimir E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85791 (United States); Dyachenko, Sergey A., E-mail: sdyachen@math.uiuc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, 61801 (United States)
2016-12-01
Highlights: • An efficient procedure for construction of non-periodic, non-vanishing reflectionless potentials is presented. • The analytical procedure is reinforced by numerical simulation that presents some of these potentials. • The present work is a key ingredient for the study of integrable turbulence and statistical description of “solitonic gas”. - Abstract: To relate the motion of a quantum particle to the properties of the potential is a fundamental problem of physics, which is far from being solved. Can a medium with a potential which is neither periodic nor quasi-periodic be a conductor? That question seems to have been never addressed, despite being both interesting and having practical importance. Here we propose a new approach to the spectral problem of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a bounded potential. We construct a wide class of potentials having a spectrum consisting of the positive semiaxis and finitely many bands on the negative semiaxis. These potentials, which we call primitive, are reflectionless for positive energy and in general are neither periodic nor quasi-periodic. Moreover, they can be stochastic, and yet allow ballistic transport, and thus describe one-dimensional ideal conductors. Primitive potentials also generate a new class of solutions of the KdV hierarchy. Stochastic primitive potentials describe integrable turbulence, which is important for hydrodynamics and nonlinear optics. We construct the potentials by numerically solving a system of singular integral equations. We hypothesize that finite-gap potentials are a subclass of primitive potentials, and prove this in the case of one-gap potentials.
Heat Diffusion in Gases, Including Effects of Chemical Reaction
Hansen, C. Frederick
1960-01-01
The diffusion of heat through gases is treated where the coefficients of thermal conductivity and diffusivity are functions of temperature. The diffusivity is taken proportional to the integral of thermal conductivity, where the gas is ideal, and is considered constant over the temperature interval in which a chemical reaction occurs. The heat diffusion equation is then solved numerically for a semi-infinite gas medium with constant initial and boundary conditions. These solutions are in a dimensionless form applicable to gases in general, and they are used, along with measured shock velocity and heat flux through a shock reflecting surface, to evaluate the integral of thermal conductivity for air up to 5000 degrees Kelvin. This integral has the properties of a heat flux potential and replaces temperature as the dependent variable for problems of heat diffusion in media with variable coefficients. Examples are given in which the heat flux at the stagnation region of blunt hypersonic bodies is expressed in terms of this potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An integrated thermal management system is proposed for electric vehicle. • The parallel branch of battery chiller can supply additional cooling capacity. • Heat pipe performance on preheating mode is better than that on cooling mode. • Heat pipe heat exchanger is a feasible choice for battery thermal management. - Abstract: An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is designed to meet the basic cabinet cooling demand, the additional parallel branch of battery chiller is a good way to solve the battery group cooling problem, which can supply about 20% additional cooling capacity without input power increase. Its coefficient of performance for cabinet heating is around 1.34 at −20 °C out-car temperature and 20 °C in-car temperature. The specific heat of the battery group is tested about 1.24 kJ/kg °C. There exists a necessary temperature condition for the heat pipe heat exchanger to start action. The heat pipe heat transfer performance is around 0.87 W/°C on cooling mode and 1.11 W/°C on preheating mode. The gravity role makes the heat transfer performance of the heat pipe on preheating mode better than that on cooling mode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araoz, Joseph A.; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.
2014-01-01
The reliability of modelling and simulation of energy systems strongly depends on the prediction accuracy of each system component. This is the case of Stirling engine-based systems, where an accurate modelling of the engine performance is very important to understand the overall system behaviour. In this sense, many Stirling engine analyses with different approaches have been already developed. However, there is a lack of Stirling engine models suitable for the integration into overall system simulations. In this context, this paper aims to develop a rigorous Stirling engine model that could be easily integrated into combined heat and power schemes for the overall techno-economic analysis of these systems. The model developed considers a Stirling engine with adiabatic working spaces, isothermal heat exchangers, dead volumes, and imperfect regeneration. Additionally, it considers mechanical pumping losses due to friction, limited heat transfer and thermal losses on the heat exchangers. The model is suitable for different engine configurations (alpha beta and gamma engines). It was developed using Aspen Custom Modeller ® (ACM®) as modelling software. The set of equations were solved using ACM ® equation solver for steady-state operation. However, due to the dynamic behaviour of the cycle, a C++ code was integrated to solve iteratively a set of differential equations. This resulted in a cyclic steady-state model that calculates the power output and thermal requirements of the system. The predicted efficiency and power output were compared with the numerical model and the experimental work reported by the NASA Lewis Research Centre for the GPU-3 Stirling engine. This showed average absolute errors around ±4% for the brake power, and ±5% for the brake efficiency at different frequencies. However, the model also showed large errors (±15%) for these calculations at higher frequencies and low pressures. Additional results include the calculation of the cyclic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suphanit, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha Utit Rd., Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)
2010-03-15
The internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is a complex column configuration which is more energy efficient than the equivalent conventional column or the distillation column with direct vapor recompression scheme (VRC). Exploiting the heat integration between two diabatic sections operating at different pressures of the HIDiC can greatly enhance the energy performance of the system. On the other hand, the design and optimization of HIDiC is more difficult than those of the conventional distillation column or the column with VRC. The former involves many design parameters, and the most critical one is the pressure ratio between both diabatic sections. However, the heat distribution along the diabatic sections is also another significant factor not yet thoroughly investigated. In this work, two typical distribution schemes, i.e. uniform heat transfer area and uniform heat distribution, are studied by applying a novel approach to solve the simulation problem in Aspen Plus 2004.1. The comparison of both distributing schemes is discussed via two widely-used case studies, namely benzene-toluene separation and propylene-propane splitter. (author)
Application of heat-balance integral method to conjugate thermal explosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Novozhilov Vasily
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Conjugate thermal explosion is an extension of the classical theory, proposed and studied recently by the author. The paper reports application of heat-balance integral method for developing phase portraits for systems undergoing conjugate thermal explosion. The heat-balance integral method is used as an averaging method reducing partical differential equation problem to the set of first-order ordinary differential equations. The latter reduced problem allows natural interpretation in appropriately chosen phase space. It is shown that, with the help of heat-balance integral technique, conjugate thermal explosion problem can be described with a good accuracy by the set of non-linear first-order differential equations involving complex error function. Phase trajectories are presented for typical regimes emerging in conjugate thermal explosion. Use of heat-balance integral as a spatial averaging method allows efficient description of system evolution to be developed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurent Chusseau
2013-02-01
Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.
A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.
2016-01-01
In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...
Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column
Liu, Chong
2017-10-01
Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.
Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Yang
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.
Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL
2014-01-01
A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.
An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tahersima, Fatemeh
2012-01-01
which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...... in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants’ thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via design of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart...... in order to maximize the heat pump’s efficiency and by this means reduce the power consumption of the heat pump. The hypothesis is that such an optimal point coincides with saturation of at least one of the subsystems control valves. The idea is implemented experimentally using simple PI and on...
Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J'Tia Patrice; Shropshire, David E.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system
Wind power integration using individual heat pumps – Analysis of different heat storage options
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegaard, Karsten; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik
2012-01-01
Significant installations of individual heat pumps are expected in future energy systems due to their economic competitiveness. This case study of the Danish energy system in 2020 with 50% wind power shows that individual heat pumps and heat storages can contribute to the integration of wind power....... Heat accumulation tanks and passive heat storage in the construction are investigated as two alternative storage options in terms of their ability to increase wind power utilisation and to provide cost-effective fuel savings. Results show that passive heat storage can enable equivalent to larger...... reductions in excess electricity production and fuel consumption than heat accumulation tanks. Moreover, passive heat storage is found to be significantly more cost-effective than heat accumulation tanks. In terms of reducing fuel consumption of the energy system, the installation of heat pumps is the most...
Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits
Fahad, Hossain M.
2012-05-22
We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.
Air source integrated heat pump simulation model for EnergyPlus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, Bo; New, Joshua; Baxter, Van
2017-12-01
An Air Source Integrated Heat Pump (AS-IHP) is an air source, multi-functional spacing conditioning unit with water heating function (WH), which can lead to great energy savings by recovering the condensing waste heat for domestic water heating. This paper summarizes development of the EnergyPlus AS-IHP model, introducing the physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. Based on the model, building energy simulations were conducted to demonstrate greater than 50% annual energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, using the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We assessed water heating energy saving potentials using AS-IHP versus both gas and electric baseline systems, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising. In addition, a grid integration strategy was investigated to reveal further energy saving and electricity cost reduction potentials, via increasing the water heating set point temperature during off-peak hours and using larger water tanks.
Integration of large-scale heat pumps in the district heating systems of Greater Copenhagen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Bjarne; Werling, Jesper; Ommen, Torben Schmidt
2016-01-01
This study analyses the technical and private economic aspects of integrating a large capacity of electric driven HP (heat pumps) in the Greater Copenhagen DH (district heating) system, which is an example of a state-of-the-art large district heating system with many consumers and suppliers....... The analysis was based on using the energy model Balmorel to determine the optimum dispatch of HPs in the system. The potential heat sources in Copenhagen for use in HPs were determined based on data related to temperatures, flows, and hydrography at different locations, while respecting technical constraints...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegaard, Karsten
The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...
Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire
2009-09-01
Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin
2008-01-01
This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Kejin [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangkj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China); Qian Jixin [School of Information Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Xihu-qu, Hangzhou-shi, Zhejiang 300027 (China)
2008-06-15
This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design.
An Innovative VHTR Waste Heat Integration with Forward Osmosis Desalination Process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
The integration concept implies the coupling of the waste heat from VHTR with the draw solute recovery system of FO process. By integrating these two novel technologies, advantages, such as improvement of total energy utilization, and production of fresh water using waste heat, can be achieved. In order to thermodynamically analyze the integrated system, the FO process and power conversion system of VHTR are simulated using chemical process software UNISIM together with OLI property package. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis on the VHTR and FO integrated system has been carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept. The FO process including draw solute recovery system is calculated to have a higher GOR compared to the MSF and MED when reasonable FO performance can be promised. Furthermore, when FO process is integrated with the VHTR to produce potable water from waste heat, it still shows a comparable GOR to typical GOR values of MSF and MED. And the waste heat utilization is significantly higher in FO than in MED and MSF. This results in much higher water production when integrated to the same VHTR plant. Therefore, it can be concluded that the suggested integrated system of VHTR and FO is a very promising and strong system concept which has a number of advantages over conventional technologies.
Social Network Project for IDEAL in CS5604
Harb, Islam; Jin, Yilong; Cedeno, Vanessa; Mallampati, Sai Ravi Kiran; Bulusu, Bhaskara Srinivasa Bharadwaj
2015-01-01
The IDEAL (Integrated Digital Event Archiving and Library) project involves VT faculty, staff, and students, along with collaborators around the world, in archiving important events and integrating the digital library, and archiving approaches to support the Research and Development related to important events. An objective of the CS5604 (Information Retrieval), Spring 2015 course, was to build a state-of-the-art information retrieval system, in support of the IDEAL project. Students were di...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hedegaard, K.
2013-09-15
This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in
Ideal MHD Stability Prediction and Required Power for EAST Advanced Scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Junjie; Li Guoqiang; Qian Jinping; Liu Zixi
2012-01-01
The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first fully superconducting tokamak with a D-shaped cross-sectional plasma presently in operation. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and required power for the EAST advanced tokamak (AT) scenario with negative central shear and double transport barrier (DTB) are investigated. With the equilibrium code TOQ and stability code GATO, the ideal MHD stability is analyzed. It is shown that a moderate ratio of edge transport barriers' (ETB) height to internal transport barriers' (ITBs) height is beneficial to ideal MHD stability. The normalized beta β N limit is about 2.20 (without wall) and 3.70 (with ideal wall). With the scaling law of energy confinement time, the required heating power for EAST AT scenario is calculated. The total heating power P t increases as the toroidal magnetic field B T or the normalized beta β N is increased. (magnetically confined plasma)
Ideal MHD Stability Prediction and Required Power for EAST Advanced Scenario
Chen, Junjie; Li, Guoqiang; Qian, Jinping; Liu, Zixi
2012-11-01
The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first fully superconducting tokamak with a D-shaped cross-sectional plasma presently in operation. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and required power for the EAST advanced tokamak (AT) scenario with negative central shear and double transport barrier (DTB) are investigated. With the equilibrium code TOQ and stability code GATO, the ideal MHD stability is analyzed. It is shown that a moderate ratio of edge transport barriers' (ETB) height to internal transport barriers' (ITBs) height is beneficial to ideal MHD stability. The normalized beta βN limit is about 2.20 (without wall) and 3.70 (with ideal wall). With the scaling law of energy confinement time, the required heating power for EAST AT scenario is calculated. The total heating power Pt increases as the toroidal magnetic field BT or the normalized beta βN is increased.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaksson, Johan; Jansson, Mikael; Åsblad, Anders; Berntsson, Thore
2016-01-01
Production of transportation fuels from biorefineries via biomass gasification has been suggested as a way of introducing renewable alternatives in the transportation system with an aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. By co-locating gasification-based processes within heat demanding industries, excess heat from the gasification process can replace fossil or renewable fuels. The objective of this study was to compare the heat integration potential of four different gasification-based biorefinery concepts with a chemical pulp and paper mill. The results showed that the choice of end-product which was either methanol, Fischer-Tropsch crude, synthetic natural gas or electricity, can have significant impact on the heat integration potential with a pulp and paper mill and that the heat saving measures implemented in the mill in connection to integration of a gasification process can increase the biomass resource efficiency by up to 3%-points. Heat saving measures can reduce the necessary biomass input to the biorefinery by 50% if the sizing constraint is to replace the bark boiler with excess heat from the biorefinery. A large integrated gasification process with excess steam utilisation in a condensing turbine was beneficial only if grid electricity is produced at below 30% electrical efficiency. - Highlights: • Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill. • Different sizing constraints of integrated biofuel production. • The biofuel product largely influence the heat integration potential. • An oversized gasifier for increased power production could be favourable.
Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiyong Yang
2011-03-01
Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.
Santi, S. S.; Renanto; Altway, A.
2018-01-01
The energy use system in a production process, in this case heat exchangers networks (HENs), is one element that plays a role in the smoothness and sustainability of the industry itself. Optimizing Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) from process streams can have a major effect on the economic value of an industry as a whole. So the solving of design problems with heat integration becomes an important requirement. In a plant, heat integration can be carried out internally or in combination between process units. However, steps in the determination of suitable heat integration techniques require long calculations and require a long time. In this paper, we propose an alternative step in determining heat integration technique by investigating 6 hypothetical units using Pinch Analysis approach with objective function energy target and total annual cost target. The six hypothetical units consist of units A, B, C, D, E, and F, where each unit has the location of different process streams to the temperature pinch. The result is a potential heat integration (ΔH’) formula that can trim conventional steps from 7 steps to just 3 steps. While the determination of the preferred heat integration technique is to calculate the potential of heat integration (ΔH’) between the hypothetical process units. Completion of calculation using matlab language programming.
Geometry, Heat Equation and Path Integrals on the Poincare Upper Half-Plane
Reijiro, KUBO; Research Institute for Theoretical Physics Hiroshima University
1988-01-01
Geometry, heat equation and Feynman's path integrals are studied on the Poincare upper half-plane. The fundamental solution to the heat equation ∂f/∂t=Δ_Hf is expressed in terms of a path integral defined on the upper half-plane. It is shown that Kac's statement that Feynman's path integral satisfies the Schrodinger equation is also valid for our case.
A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang
2014-01-01
A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters
A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klimes Lubomir
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.
Geometry, heat equation and path integrals on the Poincare upper half-plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Reijiro.
1987-08-01
Geometry, heat equation and Feynman's path integrals are studied on the Poincare upper half-plane. The fundamental solution to the heat equation δf/δt = Δ H f is expressed in terms of a path integral defined on the upper half-plane. It is shown that Kac's proof that Feynman's path integral satisfies the Schroedinger equation is also valid for our case. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackl, Roman; Harvey, Simon
2015-01-01
The European process industry is facing major challenges to decrease production costs. One strategy to achieve this is by increasing energy efficiency. Single chemical processes are often well-integrated and the tools to target and design such measures are well developed. Site-wide heat integration based on total site analysis tools can be used to identify opportunities to further increase energy efficiency. However, the methodology has to be developed further in order to enable identification of practical heat integration measures in a systematic way. Designing site-wide heat recovery systems across an industrial cluster is complex and involves aspects apart from thermal process and utility flows. This work presents a method for designing a roadmap of heat integration investments based on total site analysis. The method is applied to a chemical cluster in Sweden. The results of the case study show that application of the proposed method can achieve up to 42% of the previously targeted hot utility savings of 129 MW. A roadmap of heat integration systems is suggested, ranging from less complex systems that achieve a minor share of the heat recovery potential to sophisticated, strongly interdependent systems demanding large investments and a high level of collaboration. - Highlights: • Methodology focused on the practical implementation of site-wide heat recovery. • Algorithm to determine a roadmap of heat integration investments. • Case study: 42% hot utility savings potential at a pay-back period of 3.9y.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulero, Angel; Cachadiña, Isidro; Tian, Jianxiang
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The ideal gas contribution to the isobaric heat capacity of 58 refrigerants is calculated. ► Poling et al.’s polynomial correlation on temperature is used. ► Results are compared with DIPPR data and the correlation extended to higher temperatures. ► New coefficients for the correlation are given. ► Mean average percentage deviations with these new coefficients are lower than 1% for 49 refrigerants. -- Abstract: The ideal gas contribution to the isobaric heat capacity of fluids is a temperature dependent property which is commonly modelled as a polynomial expression. In this work, the performance and accuracy of the polynomial correlation proposed by Poling et al. in their well-known book is checked. To this end, the data accepted in the DIPPR database for 58 refrigerants were used. The mean average percentage deviations (MAPDs) obtained in the temperature range considered by Poling et al., usually up to 1000 K, are greater than 1.5% only for six refrigerants. We extended our study to the temperature range in which accepted DIPPR data are available (usually up to 1500 K), finding that only for four refrigerants can the Poling et al. correlation be used in this extended range. New coefficients for the correlation are given for the 58 refrigerants studied which reproduce the accepted DIPPR data. The new MAPD values are then below 1% for 49 refrigerants
D-Dimensional ideal gas in parastatistics.: thermodynamic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sousa Vieira, M. C. de; Tsallis, C.
1986-01-01
A parastatistics ideal gas with energy spectrum ε is proportional to |k| → sup (α) (α>0) or even more general in a d-dimensional box with volume V (periodic boundary conditions), the number N of the gas particles being well determined (real particles) or not (quasi particles), is considered. The main thermodynamic quantities (chemical potential, internal energy, specific heat C, equation of state, latent heat, average numbers of particles) for arbitrary d,α, T (temperature) and p (maximal number of particles per state allowed in the parastatistics), are calculated. The main asymptotic regimes are worked out explicitly. In particular, the Bose-Einstein condensation for fixed density, N/V appears as a non uniform convergence in the p→ ∞ limit, in complete analogy with the standard critical phenomena which appear in interacting systems in the N →∞ limit. The system behaves essentially like a Fermi-Dirac one for all finite values of p, and reveals a Bose-Einstein behavior only in the p → ∞ limit. For instance, at low temperatures C ∝ T if p d/α if p → ∞. Finally the Sommerfeld integral and its expansion are generalized to an arbitrary finite p. (author) [pt
Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.
Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin
2005-09-01
Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.
The non-ideal associated species model applied to the system copper-indium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellogg, H.H.
1991-01-01
The liquid copper-indium system displays complex thermochemical behavior. Deviations from Raoult's law change from positive to negative, and the integral heat of mixing also varies from positive to strongly negative and is markedly dependent on temperature. This behavior was successfully modelled, over the entire composition range and for a temperature range of 400 K, using the non-ideal associated-species concept, with InCu 3 as the associated species. Independent evidence exists for association at the composition InCu 3 , from measurements of magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and Hall effect. In this paper, the applicability of the model to other systems is discussed
Kot, V. A.
2017-11-01
The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.
Performance of a multilevel quantum heat engine of an ideal N-particle Fermi system.
Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli
2012-08-01
We generalize the quantum heat engine (QHE) model which was first proposed by Bender et al. [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)] to the case in which an ideal Fermi gas with an arbitrary number N of particles in a box trap is used as the working substance. Besides two quantum adiabatic processes, the engine model contains two isoenergetic processes, during which the particles are coupled to energy baths at a high constant energy E(h) and a low constant energy E(c), respectively. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, we find that the power output is enhanced by increasing particle number N (or decreasing minimum trap size L(A)) for given L(A) (or N), without reduction in the efficiency. By use of global optimization, the efficiency at possible maximum power output (EPMP) is found to be universal and independent of any parameter contained in the engine model. For an engine model with any particle-number N, the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) can be determined under the condition that it should be closest to the EPMP. Moreover, we extend the heat engine to a more general multilevel engine model with an arbitrary 1D power-law potential. Comparison between our engine model and the Carnot cycle shows that, under the same conditions, the efficiency η = 1 - E(c)/E(h) of the engine cycle is bounded from above the Carnot value η(c) =1 - T(c)/T(h).
Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.; Seppanen, M.S.
1979-12-01
The heat-pump-centered integrated community energy system (HP-ICES) supplies district heating and cooling using heat pumps and a thermal energy storage system which is provided by nature in underground porous formations filled with water, i.e., aquifers. The energy is transported by a two-pipe system, one for warm water and one for cool water, between the aquifers and the controlled environments. Each energy module contains the controlled environments, an aquifer, wells for access to the aquifer, the two pipe water distribution system and water source heat pumps. The heat pumps upgrade the energy in the distribution system for use in the controlled environments. Economically, the system shows improvement on both energy usage and capital costs. The system saves over 60% of the energy required for resistance heating; saves over 30% of the energy required for most air-source heat pumps and saves over 60% of the energy required for gas, coal, or oil heating, when comparing to energy input required at the power plant for heat pump usage. The proposed system has been analyzed as demonstration projects for a downtown portion of Louisville, Kentucky, and a section of Fort Rucker, Alabama. The downtown Louisville demonstration project is tied directly to major buildings while the Fort Rucker demonstration project is tied to a dispersed subdivision of homes. The Louisville project shows a payback of approximately 3 y, while Fort Rucker is approximately 30 y. The primary difference is that at Fort Rucker new heat pumps are charged to the system. In Louisville, either new construction requiring heating and cooling systems or existing chillers are utilized. (LCL)
Integral representation of nonlinear heat transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, Y.; Mima, K.; Haines, M.G.
1985-07-01
The electron distribution function in a plasma with steep temperature gradient is obtained from a Fokker-Planck equation by Green's function method. The formula describes the nonlocal effects on thermal transport over the range, λ e /L e /L → 0. As an example, the heat wave is analyzed numerically by the integral formula and it is found that the previous simulation results are well reproduced. (author)
Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schuchardt Georg K.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongfu Tan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to reduce thermal power generation cost and improve its market competitiveness, considering fuel quality, cost, creditworthiness, and sustainable development capacity factors, this paper established the evaluation system for coal supplier selection of thermal power and put forward the coal supplier selection strategies for thermal power based on integrated empowering and ideal matter-element extension models. On the one hand, the integrated empowering model can overcome the limitations of subjective and objective methods to determine weights, better balance subjective, and objective information. On the other hand, since the evaluation results of the traditional element extension model may fall into the same class and only get part of the order results, in order to overcome this shortcoming, the idealistic matter-element extension model is constructed. It selects the ideal positive and negative matter-elements classical field and uses the closeness degree to replace traditional maximum degree of membership criterion and calculates the positive or negative distance between the matter-element to be evaluated and the ideal matter-element; then it can get the full order results of the evaluation schemes. Simulated and compared with the TOPSIS method, Romania selection method, and PROMETHEE method, numerical example results show that the method put forward by this paper is effective and reliable.
Integrated heat transport simulation of high ion temperature plasma of LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sakai, A.
2014-10-01
A first dynamical simulation of high ion temperature plasma with carbon pellet injection of LHD is performed by the integrated simulation GNET-TD + TASK3D. NBI heating deposition of time evolving plasma is evaluated by the 5D drift kinetic equation solver, GNET-TD and the heat transport of multi-ion species plasma (e, H, He, C) is studied by the integrated transport simulation code, TASK3D. Achievement of high ion temperature plasma is attributed to the 1) increase of heating power per ion due to the temporal increase of effective charge, 2) reduction of effective neoclassical transport with impurities, 3) reduction of turbulence transport. The reduction of turbulence transport is most significant contribution to achieve the high ion temperature and the reduction of the turbulent transport from the L-mode plasma (normal hydrogen plasma) is evaluated to be a factor about five by using integrated heat transport simulation code. Applying the Z effective dependent turbulent reduction model we obtain a similar time behavior of ion temperature after the C pellet injection with the experimental results. (author)
Integrating wind power using intelligent electric water heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzgerald, Niall; Foley, Aoife M.; McKeogh, Eamon
2012-01-01
Dwindling fossil fuel resources and pressures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will result in a more diverse range of generation portfolios for future electricity systems. Irrespective of the portfolio mix the overarching requirement for all electricity suppliers and system operators is to instantaneously meet demand, to operate to standards and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore all electricity market participants will ultimately need to use a variety of tools to balance the power system. Thus the role of demand side management with energy storage will be paramount to integrate future diverse generation portfolios. Electric water heating has been studied previously, particularly at the domestic level to provide load control, peak shave and to benefit end-users financially with lower bills, particularly in vertically integrated monopolies. In this paper a number of continuous direct load control demand response based electric water heating algorithms are modelled to test the effectiveness of wholesale electricity market signals to study the system benefits. The results are compared and contrasted to determine which control algorithm showed the best potential for energy savings, system marginal price savings and wind integration.
Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems
Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.
1975-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, the traditional energy sources used for greenhouse heating are fossil fuels such as LPG, diesel and natural gas. The global energy demand will continue to grow and alternative technologies need to be developed in order to improve the sustainability of crop production in protected environments. Innovative solutions are represented by renewable energy plants such as photovoltaic, wind and geothermal integrated systems, however, these technologies need to be connected to the power grid in order to store the energy produced. On agricultural land, power grids are not widespread and stand-alone renewable energy systems should be investigated especially for greenhouse applications. The aim of this research is to analyze, by means of a mathematical model, the energy efficiency of a photovoltaic (8.2 kW, hydrogen (2.5 kW and ground source gas heat pump (2.2 kW integrated in a stand-alone system used for heating an experimental greenhouse tunnel (48 m2 during the winter season. A yearlong energy performance analysis was conducted for three different types of greenhouse cover materials, a single layer polyethylene film, an air inflated-double layer polyethylene film, and a double acrylic or polycarbonate. The results of one year showed that the integrated system had a total energy efficiency of 14.6%. Starting from the electric energy supplied by the photovoltaic array, the total efficiency of the hydrogen and ground source gas heat pump system was 112% if the coefficient of the performance of the heat pump is equal to 5. The heating system increased the greenhouse air temperatures by 3–9 °C with respect to the external air temperatures, depending on the greenhouse cover material used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Haoshui; Eason, John; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Feng, Xiao
2017-01-01
In the past decades, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has become a promising technology for low and medium temperature energy utilization. In refineries, there are usually multiple waste heat streams to be recovered. From a safety and controllability perspective, using an intermedium (hot water) to recover waste heat before releasing heat to the ORC system is more favorable than direct integration. The mass flowrate of the intermediate hot water stream determines the amount of waste heat recovered and the final hot water temperature affects the thermal efficiency of ORC. Both, in turn, exert great influence on the power output. Therefore, the hot water mass flowrate is a critical decision variable for the optimal design of the system. This study develops a model for techno-economic optimization of an ORC with simultaneous heat recovery and capital cost optimization. The ORC is modeled using rigorous thermodynamics with the concept of state points. The task of waste heat recovery using the hot water intermedium is modeled using the Duran-Grossmann model for simultaneous heat integration and process optimization. The combined model determines the optimal design of an ORC that recovers multiple waste heat streams in a large scale background process using an intermediate heat transfer stream. In particular, the model determines the optimal heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT), the utility load of the background process, and the optimal operating conditions of the ORC simultaneously. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated with a case study that uses a refinery as the background process. Sensitivity of the optimal solution to the parameters (electricity price, utility cost) is quantified in this paper. - Highlights: • A new model for Organic Rankine cycle design optimization is presented. • Process heat integration and ORC are considered simultaneously. • Rigorous equation oriented models of the ORC are used for accurate results. • Impact of working
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, S V; Kocharovsky, Vl V; Kocharovsky, V V
2014-01-01
We analytically find the universal fine structure of the noted discontinuity in the value and/or derivative of the specific heat of an ideal Bose gas in an arbitrary trap in the whole critical region around the λ-point of the Bose–Einstein condensation. The result reveals a remarkable dependence of the λ-point structure on the trap's form and boundary conditions, even for a macroscopically large system. We suggest measuring this strong effect in the experiments with a controllable trap potential. (paper)
The canonical ensemble redefined - 3. Ideal Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkataraman, R.
1984-12-01
The ideal Bose gas solved in the redefined ensemble formalism exhibits a discontinuity in the specific heat suggesting that Bose-Einstein condensation is a second order phase transition. The deviations from the classical ideal gas behaviour are larger than those predicted by Gibbs ensemble. Below Tsub(c) the pressure is not independent of the volume. For a certain range of values of VT 3 , the peak in black body radiation shows a shift in the frequency scale and this could be detected, at least in principle, experimentally. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quijera, José Antonio; García, Araceli; Alriols, María González; Labidi, Jalel
2013-01-01
Thermosolar technology is being inserted gradually in industrial activities. In order to reach high energy efficiency, thermosolar can be linked to heat pump technology, combining more efficient conventional and renewable energy support for processes. Their integration in complex processes can be improved systematically through well established analytical tools, like pinch and exergy analyses. This work presents a methodological procedure for the analysis of different options of heat integration of a solar thermal and heat pump technologies in a tuna fish tinning process. The plant is located in a climatic zone where diffuse irradiation contributes more energy to the process than beam irradiation does. Pinch and exergy analyses are applied in the context of a low and middle temperatures, where the process demands big amounts of hot water and middle pressure steam. In order to recover internal heat, pinch analysis allows to understand the complexity of the heat exchange network of the process and to define thermal tendency objectives for energy optimization. Exergy analysis quantifies the variation that the quality of energy undergoes while it is used in the process according to the different way of integration. Both analytical tools, in combination with economical variables, provide a powerful methodological procedure finding the most favourable heat integration and, by this, they help in the technological decision making and in the design phase. - Highlights: ► Integration of solar thermal energy in batch canning process was assessed. ► Pinch and exergy analyses were used to determine the optimal energy supply configuration. ► Combination of heat pump and solar thermal energy improves the energy efficiency and reduces fossil fuel consumption
Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raskovic, P.; Anastasovski, A.; Markovska, Lj.; Mesko, V.
2010-01-01
The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.
Integrated power-heat-cold-coupling by switchable Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehl, Hans-Detlev
2017-01-01
A Stirling engine consists in its so-called Gamma type on the one hand of a thermal compressor in which a double-acting displacer is the working gas between a ''hot'' and a ''warm'' (ie located on the heat use temperature level of the CHP application) cylinder chamber isochoric via a regenerator periodically shuffled back and forth. On the other hand, he has a spatially separated, one-sided working piston-cylinder system, which is connected to the ''warm'' side of the thermal compressor through an overflow and thus is at a similar temperature level. If an additional regenerator is inserted into this overflow channel, then the temperature levels are separated, since the heat output of the process takes place primarily via the warm cylinder space of the displacer system, while the cylinder space of the working piston constitutes a heat sink. This so-called ''hybrid'' process is still characterized by a - compared to the Stirling mode only slightly reduced - mechanical power output, but in addition by a theoretically equal to this magnitude, recorded on the cylinder at ''cold'' temperature cooling capacity, It thus represents an integrated system for power-heat-cold-coupling, which can be realized by a single thermodynamic process. Turning this process in the warm temperature range in addition to another, lying on the back of the working cylinder cylinder space, so that the former becomes a second, double-acting displacer, we finally get the known as a thermally driven heat pump or chiller Vuilleumier process that Ideally, no mechanical power gives or absorbs. At the Chair of Thermodynamics of the TU Dortmund, a research machine was developed and measured in a meanwhile completed research project funded by the DFG, which can switch between the three described processes and thus be adapted to changing power, heat and cooling requirements. In order to reduce the
Discrete nature of thermodynamics in confined ideal Fermi gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug
2014-01-01
Intrinsic discrete nature in thermodynamic properties of Fermi gases appears under strongly confined and degenerate conditions. For a rectangular confinement domain, thermodynamic properties of an ideal Fermi gas are expressed in their exact summation forms. For 1D, 2D and 3D nano domains, variations of both number of particles and internal energy per particle with chemical potential are examined. It is shown that their relation with chemical potential exhibits a discrete nature which allows them to take only some definite values. Furthermore, quasi-irregular oscillatory-like sharp peaks are observed in heat capacity. New nano devices can be developed based on these behaviors. - Highlights: • “Discrete behaviors” appear in thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases at nano scale. • Variations of particle number and internal energy with chemical potential have stepwise behavior. • There are oscillations and peaks in the variation of heat capacity with domain size and particle number. • Fermi line and Fermi surface at nano scale are not continuous but “discrete”. • Heat capacity oscillations can be used for excess thermal energy storage at nano scale
Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated solar heat pump system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suleman, F.; Dincer, I.; Agelin-Chaab, M.
2014-01-01
An integrated solar and heat pump based system for industrial heating is developed in this study. The system comprises heat pump cycle for process heating water and solar energy for another industrial heating process. Comprehensive energy and exergy analyses are performed on the system. These analyses generated some compelling results as expected because of the use of green and environmentally friendly energy sources. The results show that the energy efficiency of the process is 58% while the exergy efficiency is 75%. Energetic COP of the heat pump cycle is 3.54 whereas the exergy efficiency is 42.5%. Moreover, the energetic COP of the system is 2.97 and the exergy efficiency of the system is 35.7%. In the parametric study, a different variation such as changing the temperature and pressure of the condenser also shows positive results. - Highlights: • An integrated system is analysed using renewable energy source which can be used in textile industry. • Energy losses and exergy destructions are calculated at all major components. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of all subunits, subsystems and overall system are determined. • A parametric study shows the effect of environment and operating conditions on efficiencies. • Solar energy for heating in textile industry is efficient and environmentally friendly
SIMSOL, Multiphase Fluid and Heat Flow in Porous Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doughty, C.
2001-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: SIMSOL calculates transient fluid and heat flow for a uniform geologic medium containing water (in both liquid and vapor phases) and air, surrounding a constant- strength linear heat source. 2 - Method of solution: SIMSOL simplifies the partial differential governing equations involving time and a radial spatial coordinate to ordinary differential equations via a similarity transformation. The resulting coupled ordinary differential equations form a two- point boundary problem which is numerically integrated using an iterative Newton-Raphson scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SIMSOL is limited to problems with highly idealized geometry: radial symmetry, uniform material properties and initial conditions, infinite radial extent, constant-strength heat source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miah, J.H.; Griffiths, A.; McNeill, R.; Poonaji, I.; Martin, R.; Yang, A.; Morse, S.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A new practical heat integration framework was developed for complex and diverse production lines. • Heat recovery was maximised by direct and indirect heat integration at zonal and factory levels. • A novel approach to stream data extraction was proposed to account for both stream capacity and availability. • A case study was carried out on a multi-product confectionery factory. - Abstract: Heat integration is a key measure to improving energy efficiency and maximising heat recovery. Since the advent of Pinch analysis in the 1980s, direct and indirect integration approaches have developed in separate domains with very few examples where both approaches are utilised together to maximise heat recovery. This paper presents a novel decision-making framework for heat integration in complex and diverse production lines, with the aim to provide the user with a step-by-step guide to evaluate all heat recovery opportunities through a combination of direct and indirect heat integration. This framework involves analysis at both the zonal level and the factory level. The proposed framework was applied to a case study based on a confectionery factory in the UK that manufactured multiple products across a diverse range of food technologies. It demonstrates that the framework can effectively identify the significant streams to be considered in the heat integration analysis, and address practical factors such as diverse production times, geographical proximity, and potential of compromise to product quality when the direct and indirect heat integration opportunities are proposed and assessed both within and between production zones. This practical framework has the potential to benefit the wider food industry and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse R.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We model a system where lignocellulosic ethanol production is integrated with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. • We conduct an exergy analysis for the ethanol production in six different system operation points. • Integrated operation, district heating (DH) production and low CHP loads all increase the exergy efficiency. • Separate operation has the largest negative impact on the exergy efficiency. • Operation is found to have a significant impact on the exergy efficiency of the ethanol production. - Abstract: Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible, and a gas boiler is used as back-up when integration is not possible. The system was evaluated according to six operation points that alternate on the following three different operation parameters: Load in the CHP unit, integrated versus separate operation, and inclusion of district heating production in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the
Design and analysis of heat exchanger networks for integrated Ca-looping systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Romeo, Luis M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Heat integration is essential to minimize energy penalties in calcium looping cycles. • A design and analysis of four heat exchanger networks is stated. • New design with higher power, lower costs and lower destroyed exergy than base case. - Abstract: One of the main challenges of carbon capture and storage technologies deals with the energy penalty associated with CO 2 separation and compression processes. Thus, heat integration plays an essential role in the improvement of these systems’ efficiencies. CO 2 capture systems based on Ca-looping process present a great potential for residual heat integration with a new supercritical power plant. The pinch methodology is applied in this study to define the minimum energy requirements of the process and to design four configurations for the required heat exchanger network. The Second Law of Thermodynamics represents a powerful tool for reducing the energy demand since identifying the exergy losses of the system serves to allocate inefficiencies. In parallel, an economic analysis is required to asses the cost reduction achieved by each configuration. This work presents a combination of pinch methodology with economic and exergetic analyses to select the more appropriate configuration of heat exchanger network. The lower costs and minor destroyed exergy obtained for the best proposed network result in a of 0.91% global energy efficiency increase
Total Site Heat Integration Considering Pressure Drops
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kew Hong Chew
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Pressure drop is an important consideration in Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI. This is due to the typically large distances between the different plants and the flow across plant elevations and equipment, including heat exchangers. Failure to consider pressure drop during utility targeting and heat exchanger network (HEN synthesis may, at best, lead to optimistic energy targets, and at worst, an inoperable system if the pumps or compressors cannot overcome the actual pressure drop. Most studies have addressed the pressure drop factor in terms of pumping cost, forbidden matches or allowable pressure drop constraints in the optimisation of HEN. This study looks at the implication of pressure drop in the context of a Total Site. The graphical Pinch-based TSHI methodology is extended to consider the pressure drop factor during the minimum energy requirement (MER targeting stage. The improved methodology provides a more realistic estimation of the MER targets and valuable insights for the implementation of the TSHI design. In the case study, when pressure drop in the steam distribution networks is considered, the heating and cooling duties increase by 14.5% and 4.5%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Li
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The strong coupling between electric power and heat supply highly restricts the electric power generation range of combined heat and power (CHP units during heating seasons. This makes the system operational flexibility very low, which leads to heavy wind power curtailment, especially in the region with a high percentage of CHP units and abundant wind power energy such as northeastern China. The heat storage capacity of pipelines and buildings of the district heating system (DHS, which already exist in the urban infrastructures, can be exploited to realize the power and heat decoupling without any additional investment. We formulate a combined heat and power dispatch model considering both the pipelines’ dynamic thermal performance (PDTP and the buildings’ thermal inertia (BTI, abbreviated as the CPB-CHPD model, emphasizing the coordinating operation between the electric power and district heating systems to break the strong coupling without impacting end users’ heat supply quality. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CPB-CHPD model has much better synergic benefits than the model considering only PDTP or BTI on wind power integration and total operation cost savings.
Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches
Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo
This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.
Performance Analyses of IDEAL Algorithm on Highly Skewed Grid System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongliang Sun
2014-03-01
Full Text Available IDEAL is an efficient segregated algorithm for the fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This algorithm has now been extended to the 3D nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates. Highly skewed grids in the nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates can decrease the convergence rate and deteriorate the calculating stability. In this study, the feasibility of the IDEAL algorithm on highly skewed grid system is analyzed by investigating the lid-driven flow in the inclined cavity. It can be concluded that the IDEAL algorithm is more robust and more efficient than the traditional SIMPLER algorithm, especially for the highly skewed and fine grid system. For example, at θ = 5° and grid number = 70 × 70 × 70, the convergence rate of the IDEAL algorithm is 6.3 times faster than that of the SIMPLER algorithm, and the IDEAL algorithm can converge almost at any time step multiple.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard
2013-01-01
produces ethanol, solid biofuel, molasses, and is able to produce district heating hot water. Considering all products equally valuable, the exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility was found to be 0.790 during integrated operation with zero district heating production, and 0.852 during integrated...
Consistency among integral measurements of aggregate decay heat power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeuchi, H.; Sagisaka, M.; Oyamatsu, K.; Kukita, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
1998-03-01
Persisting discrepancies between summation calculations and integral measurements force us to assume large uncertainties in the recommended decay heat power. In this paper, we develop a hybrid method to calculate the decay heat power of a fissioning system from those of different fissioning systems. Then, this method is applied to examine consistency among measured decay heat powers of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu at YAYOI. The consistency among the measured values are found to be satisfied for the {beta} component and fairly well for the {gamma} component, except for cooling times longer than 4000 s. (author)
The Idealized Cultural Encounter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lene Bull
Studies into cultural encounters have predominantly taken point of departure in ‘problematic encounters’, in which researchers and participants see cultural difference as an obstacle on the road to harmonious relationships (e.g. in ‘the clash of civilisations,’ or in migration/integration studies......). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... and cultures. A prominent feature of the organisation is organised cultural encounters between Northern (predominantly Danish) volunteers and Africans, which takes place at ‘training centres’ both in Denmark and in African countries, such as Kenya or Tanzania. In this paper I will outline the theoretical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoon Hyuk Shin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.
Radiation of ultrarelativistic particles passing through ideal and mosaic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, A.M.
1977-01-01
When a charged particle passes through an ideal crystal, then besides the transition radiation, a new kind of radiation, connected with the periodic structure of the crystal is produced. The influence of mosaic structure of a crystal on the intensity of this radiation is considered. Simple analytical expressions for the integral intensity of this radiation for the case of an ideal crystal are obtained. The results show, that the integral radiation intensity depends weakly on the degree of crystal perfection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saikawa, Michiyuki; Koyama, Shigeru
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its COP were defined. • It was verified theoretically that CO_2 achieves the highest COP for tap water heating. • The prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use was developed. • Further COP improvement of CO_2 heat pump water heater was estimated. - Abstract: The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its coefficient of performance (COP) have been studied theoretically at first. The ideal cycle is defined as the cycle whose high temperature heat source varies temperature with constant specific heat and other processes are same as the reverse Carnot cycle. The COP upper limit of single stage compression heat pump cycle for tap water heating with various refrigerants such as fluorocarbons and natural refrigerants was calculated. The refrigerant which achieves the highest COP for supplying hot water is CO_2. Next, the prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use has been developed. Its outline and experimental results are described. Finally its further possibility of COP improvement has been studied. The COP considered a limit from a technical point of view was estimated about 6.0 at the Japanese shoulder season (spring and autumn) test condition of heating water from 17 °C to 65 °C at 16 °C heat source air temperature (dry bulb)/12 °C (wet bulb).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Åberg, M.; Fälting, L.; Forssell, A.
2016-01-01
The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 made it possible to operate municipal district heating commercially. Until that time district heating had been organized mainly as municipal utilities. After 1996 district heating is instead expected to function on a market. In competitive and integrated markets, prices are expected to be equal, or converging. To find out if district heating operates on an integrated market the differences in price levels, price convergence, price strategy, and business goals, among municipal, private and state owned district heating companies are investigated. Price statistics was used along with results from a questionnaire that was answered by representatives for 109 Swedish district heating companies. The results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge significantly and that variations in prices among municipal systems are larger than among private and state owned systems. Furthermore, despite the fact that district heating is supposed to be commercial, a vast majority of district heating companies apply cost-based pricing and not market pricing. The municipal companies give priority to political goals before financial goals. The conclusion is that a Swedish integrated market for heat has not yet evolved, and some district heating price-controlling mechanism is necessary. - Highlights: • Price statistics and owner type data were used along with results from a questionnaire. • Results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge. • Municipal district heating companies still apply cost-based pricing to a large extent. • District heating companies are not operating on an integrated market for heat. • Some price-controlling mechanism for district heating is necessary.
Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.
Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi
2015-10-01
In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integrating Solar Heating into an Air Handling Unit to Minimize Energy Consumption
Wilson, Scott A
2010-01-01
The purpose of this project was to test a method of integrating solar heating with a small commercial air handling unit (AHU). In order to accomplish this a heat exchanger was placed in the reheat position of the AHU and piped to the solar heating system. This heat exchanger is used to supplement or replace the existing electric reheat. This method was chosen for its ability to utilize solar energy on a more year round basis when compared to a traditional heating system. It allows solar h...
Heat integration of fractionating systems in para-xylene plants based on column optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Ting; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Qinglin
2014-01-01
In this paper, the optimization of xylene fractionation and disproportionation units in a para-xylene plant is performed through a new method for systematic design based on GCC (grand composite curve) and CGCC (column grand composite curve). The distillation columns are retrofitted by CGCC firstly. Heat Integration between the columns and the background xylene separation process are then explored by GCC. We found that potential retrofits for columns suggested by CGCC provide better possibilities for further Heat Integration. The effectiveness of the retrofits is finally evaluated by means of thermodynamics and economic analysis. The results show that energy consumption of the retrofitted fractionating columns decreases by 7.13 MW. With the improved thermodynamic efficiencies, all columns operate with less energy requirements. Coupled with Heat Integration, the energy input of the para-xylene plant is reduced by 30.90 MW, and the energy outputs are increased by 17 MW and 58 MW for generation of the 3.5 MPa and 2.5 MPa steams. The energy requirement after the Heat Integration is reduced by 12% compared to the original unit. The retrofits required a fixed capital cost of 6268.91 × 10 3 $ and saved about 24790.74 × 10 3 $/year worth of steam. The payback time is approximately 0.26 year for the retrofits. - Highlights: • A new method for systematic design is proposed to improve energy saving of the PX plant in retrofit scenarios. • An optimization approach is developed to identify maximum heat recovery in distillation columns. • An efficient Heat Integration procedure of the PX plant is addressed based on the optimal retrofitted distillation columns. • The energy consumption is reduced by 12% after improvement to an industrial case
Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calm, J.M.
1980-02-01
An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.
Ideal MHD stability and performance of ITER steady-state scenarios with ITBs
Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Chance, M. S.; Jardin, S. C.; Manickam, J.
2012-06-01
Non-inductive steady-state scenarios on ITER will need to operate with internal transport barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. The large pressure gradients at the location of the internal barrier are conducive to the development of ideal MHD instabilities that may limit the plasma performance and may lead to plasma disruptions. Fully non-inductive scenario simulations with five combinations of heating and current drive sources are presented in this work, with plasma currents in the range 7-10 MA. For each configuration the linear, ideal MHD stability is analysed for variations of the Greenwald fraction and of the pressure peaking factor around the operating point, aiming at defining an operational space for stable, steady-state operations at optimized performance. It is shown that plasmas with lower hybrid heating and current drive maintain the minimum safety factor above 1.5, which is desirable in steady-state operations to avoid neoclassical tearing modes. Operating with moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius, these plasmas have a minimum safety factor above 2, are ideal MHD stable and reach Q ≳ 5 operating above the ideal no-wall limit.
On the union of graded prime ideals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uregen Rabia Nagehan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaeger, H. [Solvis Energiesysteme GmbH und Co KG, Braunschweig (Germany)
1998-06-01
Future heating systems must be geared to the task of providing the comfort of warm rooms and warm water while giving due consideration to the consequences this has for the environment. The present paper discusses the development of heating energy demand, the integration and adjustment of the heating circuit for solar energy, and the dimensioning and layout of a solar installation for water warming. It also deals with the testing of solar buffer storages. [Deutsch] Wie kann der Komfort warmer Raeume und warmem Wassers erreicht werden und welche Konsquenzen hat das fuer die Umwelt, dies sind die Kriterien an denen sich die Waermeversorgung der Zukunft orientieren muss. Die Entwicklung des Heizenergiebedarfs, die Einbindung und Abstimmung des Heizkrieses fuer Solarenergie sowie die Dimensionierung und Auslegung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwassererw armung werden erlaeutert. Ein weiterer Punkt betrifft den Test von Solarpufferspeichern.
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2003-01-01
Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.
A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrice Philippe
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, Å.; Hansson, P.-A.
2015-01-01
Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes. - Highlights: • Five DH production systems based on different fuels and ownership were analysed. • Lower GHG emissions were obtained when farmers integrate fully into the DH chain. • Lower heat price was obtained by full vertical integration of farmers. • Salix and straw-based production resulted in the lowest GHG and heat price
Power generation and heating performances of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Zhi; Guo, Zhanwei; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Jiafeng; Hua, Junye
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) is investigated. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating room heating-water in winter. • Kalina cycle with higher efficiency is operated for power generation in other seasons. • Power recovery efficiency accounts thermal efficiency and waste heat absorbing ratio. • Heating water with 70 °C and capacity of 55% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. - Abstract: An integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle (AWKRC) for power generation and heating is introduced. The Kalina cycle has large temperature difference during evaporation and small one during condensation therefore with high thermal efficiency for power generation, while the ammonia–water Rankine cycle has large temperature difference during condensation as well as evaporation, thus it can be adopted to generate heating-water as a by-product in winter. The integrated system is based on the Kalina cycle and converted to the Rankine cycle with a set of valves. The performances of the AWKRC system in different seasons with corresponding cycle loops were studied and analyzed. When the temperatures of waste heat and cooling water are 300 °C and 25 °C respectively, the thermal efficiency and power recovery efficiency of Kalina cycle are 20.9% and 17.4% respectively in the non-heating seasons, while these efficiencies of the ammonia–water Rankine cycle are 17.1% and 13.1% respectively with additional 55.3% heating recovery ratio or with comprehensive efficiency 23.7% higher than that of the Kalina cycle in heating season
Thermal stratification in storage tanks of integrated collector storage solar water heaters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshchepkov, M.Y.; Frid, S.E.
2015-01-01
To determine the influence of the shape of the tank, the installation angle, and the magnitude of the absorbed heat flux on thermal stratification in integrated collector-storage solar water heaters, numerical simulation of thermal convection in tanks of different shapes and same volume was carried out. Idealized two-dimensional models were studied; auto model stratification profiles were obtained at the constant heat flux. The shape of the tank, the pattern of the heat flux dynamics, the adiabatic mixing on the circulation rate and the degree of stratification were shown to have significant influence. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soltani, Reza; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.
2015-01-01
A Rankine cycle-driven heat pump system is modeled for district heating applications with superheated steam and hot water as products. Energy and exergy analyses are performed, followed by parametric studies to determine the effects of varying operating conditions and environmental parameters on the system performance. The district heating section is observed to be the most inefficient part of system, exhibiting a relative irreversibility of almost 65%, followed by the steam evaporator and the condenser, with relative irreversibilities of about 18% and 9%, respectively. The ambient temperature is observed to have a significant influence on the overall system exergy destruction. As the ambient temperature decreases, the system exergy efficiency increases. The electricity generated can increase the system exergy efficiency at the expense of a high refrigerant mass flow rate, mainly due to the fact that the available heat source is low quality waste heat. For instance, by adding 2 MW of excess electricity on top of the targeted 6 MW of product heat, the refrigerant mass flow rate increases from 12 kg/s (only heat) to 78 kg/s (heat and electricity), while the production of 8 MW of product heat (same total output, but in form of heat) requires a refrigerant mass flow rate of only 16 kg/s. - Highlights: • A new integrated heat pump system is developed for district heating applications. • An analysis and assessment study is undertaken through exergy analysis methodology. • A comparative efficiency evaluation is performed for practical applications. • A parametric study is conducted to investigate how varying operating conditions and state properties affect energy and exergy efficiencies.
New Integrals Arising in the Samara-Valencia Heat Transfer Model in Grinding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. L. González-Santander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Samara-Valencia model for heat transfer in grinding has been recently used for calculating nontabulated integrals. Based on these results, new infinite integrals can be calculated, involving the Macdonald function and the modified Struve function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oluleye, Gbemi; Smith, Robin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • MILP model developed for integration of waste heat recovery technologies in process sites. • Five thermodynamic cycles considered for exploitation of industrial waste heat. • Temperature and quantity of multiple waste heat sources considered. • Interactions with the site utility system considered. • Industrial case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: Thermodynamic cycles such as organic Rankine cycles, absorption chillers, absorption heat pumps, absorption heat transformers, and mechanical heat pumps are able to utilize wasted thermal energy in process sites for the generation of electrical power, chilling and heat at a higher temperature. In this work, a novel systematic framework is presented for optimal integration of these technologies in process sites. The framework is also used to assess the best design approach for integrating waste heat recovery technologies in process sites, i.e. stand-alone integration or a systems-oriented integration. The developed framework allows for: (1) selection of one or more waste heat sources (taking into account the temperatures and thermal energy content), (2) selection of one or more technology options and working fluids, (3) selection of end-uses of recovered energy, (4) exploitation of interactions with the existing site utility system and (5) the potential for heat recovery via heat exchange is also explored. The methodology is applied to an industrial case study. Results indicate a systems-oriented design approach reduces waste heat by 24%; fuel consumption by 54% and CO_2 emissions by 53% with a 2 year payback, and stand-alone design approach reduces waste heat by 12%; fuel consumption by 29% and CO_2 emissions by 20.5% with a 4 year payback. Therefore, benefits from waste heat utilization increase when interactions between the existing site utility system and the waste heat recovery technologies are explored simultaneously. The case study also shows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lun Yang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The existing studies on probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated energy systems (IES are limited to integrated electricity and gas networks or integrated electricity and heating networks. This paper proposes a probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated electricity, gas and heating networks (EGH-IES. Four typical operation modes of an EGH-IES are presented at first. The probabilistic energy flow problem of the EGS-IES considering its operation modes and correlated uncertainties in wind/solar power and electricity/gas/heat loads is then formulated and solved by the Monte Carlo method based on Latin hypercube sampling and Nataf transformation. Numerical simulations are conducted on a sample EGH-IES working in the “electricity/gas following heat” mode to verify the probabilistic analysis proposed in this paper and to study the effects of uncertainties and correlations on the operation of the EGH-IES, especially uncertainty transmissions among the subnetworks.
Modeling and analysis of conventional and heat-integrated distillation columns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens
2015-01-01
A generic model that can cover diabatic and adiabatic distillation column configurations is presented, with the aim ofproviding a consistent basis for comparison of alternative distillation column technologies. Both a static and a dynamic formulation of the model, together with a model catalogue...... consisting of the conventional, the heat-integrated and the mechanical vapor recompression distillation columns are presented. The solution procedure of the model is outlined and illustrated in three case studies. One case study being a benchmark study demonstrating the size of the model and the static...... properties of two different heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) schemes and the mechanical vapor recompression column. The second case study exemplifies the difference between a HIDiC and a conventional distillation column in the composition profiles within a multicomponent separation, whereas...
On the Maximal Ideals of Non-Zero-Symmetric Near-Rings and of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: ideals, near-rings, algebra, composition algebras, polynomial functions, Ω-groups, maximal ideals, Brown-McCoy radical, operations, polynomials, primal algebras, ordinary polynomial rings, skew polynomial rings, semigroup rings, Banach, banach space, Pettis, Pettis integrable, complete, congruences, ...
Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badescu, Viorel
2003-01-01
Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two non-linear coupled partial differential equations for the temperature of the storage medium and heat transfer fluid, respectively. Preliminary results show that smaller TES units provide a higher heat flux to the heat pump vaporiser. This makes the small TES unit discharge more rapidly during time periods with higher thermal loads. The larger TES units provide heat during longer time periods, even if the heat flux they supply is generally smaller. The maximum heat flux is extracted from the TES unit during the morning. Both the heat pump COP and exergy efficiency decrease when the TES unit length increases. Also, the monthly thermal energy stored by the TES unit and the monthly energy necessary to drive the heat pump compressor are increased by increasing the TES unit length
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara F Jastrebski
Full Text Available The liver plays a central role in metabolism and is important in maintaining homeostasis throughout the body. This study integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic data to understand how the liver responds under chronic heat stress. Chickens from a rapidly growing broiler line were heat stressed for 8 hours per day for one week and liver samples were collected at 28 days post hatch. Transcriptome analysis reveals changes in genes responsible for cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair along with immune function. Integrating the metabolome and transcriptome data highlighted multiple pathways affected by heat stress including glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism along with glutathione production and beta-oxidation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaup, C. [Howatherm, Bruecken (Germany)
1995-09-18
Integrated circuit systems and heat pipes are both known to be low-efficiency systems, but this shortcoming can be eliminated by constructive measures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die beiden Verfahren - Kreislaufverbundsystem und das Waermerohr - sind als WRG-Systeme mit geringen Wirkungsgraden bekannt. Doch dieser Nachteil kann durch spezielle Konstruktionsmassnahmen eliminiert werden. (orig.)
Solution of Riemann problem for ideal polytropic dusty gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nath, Triloki; Gupta, R.K.; Singh, L.P.
2017-01-01
Highlights : • A direct approach is used to solve the Riemann problem for dusty ideal polytropic gas. • An analytical solution to the Riemann problem for dusty gas flow is obtained. • The existence and uniqueness of the solution in dusty gas is discussed. • Properties of elementary wave solutions of Riemann problem are discussed. • Effect of mass fraction of solid particles on the solution is presented. - Abstract: The Riemann problem for a quasilinear hyperbolic system of equations governing the one dimensional unsteady flow of an ideal polytropic gas with dust particles is solved analytically without any restriction on magnitude of the initial states. The elementary wave solutions of the Riemann problem, that is shock waves, rarefaction waves and contact discontinuities are derived explicitly and their properties are discussed, for a dusty gas. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for Riemann problem in dusty gas is discussed. Also the conditions leading to the existence of shock waves or simple waves for a 1-family and 3-family curves in the solution of the Riemann problem are discussed. It is observed that the presence of dust particles in an ideal polytropic gas leads to more complex expression as compared to the corresponding ideal case; however all the parallel results remain same. Also, the effect of variation of mass fraction of dust particles with fixed volume fraction (Z) and the ratio of specific heat of the solid particles and the specific heat of the gas at constant pressure on the variation of velocity and density across the shock wave, rarefaction wave and contact discontinuities are discussed.
Multi-objective optimization of Stirling engine using non-ideal adiabatic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toghyani, Somayeh; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ahmadi, Mohammad H.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization is carried out for a Stirling engine. • The methods of TOPSIS, Fuzzy, and LINMAP are compared with each other in aspect of optimization. • The results are compared with the previous works for checking the model improvement. • A proper improvement is observed using TOPSIS when comparing with the others. - Abstract: In the recent years, remarkable attention is drawn to Stirling engine due to noticeable advantages, for instance a lot of resources such as biomass, fossil fuels and solar energy can be applied as heat source. Great numbers of studies are conducted on Stirling engines and non-ideal adiabatic method is one of them. In the present study, the efficiency and the power loss due to pressure drop into the heat exchangers are optimized for a Stirling system using non-ideal adiabatic analysis and the second-version Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm. The optimized answers are chosen from the results using three decision-making methods. The applied methods were compared at last and the best results were obtained for the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution decision making method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Poul Alberg
2013-01-01
-temperature geothermal resources. The analyses have also demonstrated that the municipality will still rely heavily on surrounding areas for electric load balancing assistance. With a departure in a previously elaborated 100% renewable energy scenario, this article investigates how absorption heat pumps (AHP......Aalborg Municipality, Denmark is investigating ways of switching to 100% renewable energy supply over the next 40 years. Analyses so far have demonstrated a potential for such a transition through energy savings, district heating (DH) and the use of locally available biomass, wind power and low......) and compression heat pumps (HP) for the supply of DH impact the integration of wind power. Hourly scenario-analyses made using the EnergyPLAN model reveal a boiler production and electricity excess which is higher with AHPs than with HPs whereas condensing mode power generation is increased by the application...
Integrated evaluation of radiative heating systems for residential buildings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastaselos, Dimitrios; Theodoridou, Ifigeneia; Papadopoulos, Agis M.; Hegger, Manfred
2011-01-01
Based on the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and minimize energy dependency, the EU Member States have set ambitious energy policies goals and have developed respective, specific regulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the building sector. Thus, specific measures regarding the buildings' envelope, the use of efficient HVAC technologies and the integration of renewable energy systems are being constantly studied and promoted. The effective combination of these three main aspects will consequently result in maximum energy efficiency. Germany has played a key role in this development, with intensive work focusing in the improvement of the energy behaviour of the residential building stock. In this paper, the use of radiative heating systems placing special emphasis on infrared is being studied as part of the energy renovation of residential buildings from the 1970's. This is done by applying an integrated assessment model to evaluate specific interventions regarding the improvement of the energy behaviour of the buildings' envelope and the use of radiative heating systems, based on a thorough Life Cycle Analysis according to criteria of energy, economic and environmental performance, as well as thermal comfort. -- Highlights: → Assessment of energy, economic and environmental performance of heating systems. → Life Cycle Analysis in combination with the quality of thermal comfort. → Effectiveness of interventions in already partially insulated buildings.
Integration of a PAFC-Cogeneration Plant into an existing District-Heating-System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, Ulrich; Geiger, Bernd; Grohmann, Juergen
1999-01-01
The Studiengesellschaft Brennstoffzellen e. V. assigned in the middle of 1995 the Institutions ''Lehrstuhl fir Energiewirtschaft mid Kraftwerkstechnik (IfE)'' to design a concept to integrate an ONSI-PAFC Model C in an existing district heating system. The fuel cell generates about 200 kW electrical and 215 kW thermal power consuming 500 kW natural gas. In the case of complete use of thermal power the fuel cell surpasses the efficiency of conventional systems by about 30 %. The possibilities to install the fuel cell were investigated at three locations, two housing areas, one with 36.000 m2 the other with 60.000 m2 heated area, and one indoor pool. The heating systems are representative of the Federal Republic of Germany. It turned out that the integration of the fuel cell into the existing heating system might be difficult at each location, either the annual consumption of thermal energy was too low or the heating system was operating at a temperature level reducing the usable thermal power of the fuel cell. After further studies the larger housing area was selected, with the intention of using the thermal power of the fuel cell during the whole year and to get high thermal load factors. Some difficulties are caused by the temperature level of the heating system, which is 70/55 o C. (author)
Not All Ideals are Equal: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ideals in Relationships.
Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Knee, C Raymond
2015-03-01
The ideal standards model suggests that greater consistency between ideal standards and actual perceptions of one's relationship predicts positive relationship evaluations; however, no research has evaluated whether this differs across types of ideals. A self-determination theory perspective was derived to test whether satisfaction of intrinsic ideals buffers the importance of extrinsic ideals. Participants (N=195) in committed relationships directly and indirectly reported the extent to which their partner met their ideal on two dimensions: intrinsic (e.g., warm, intimate) and extrinsic (e.g., attractive, successful). Relationship need fulfillment and relationship quality were also assessed. Hypotheses were largely supported, such that satisfaction of intrinsic ideals more strongly predicted relationship functioning, and satisfaction of intrinsic ideals buffered the relevance of extrinsic ideals for outcomes.
Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar
2015-06-01
Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard
2014-01-01
production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the expected operation pattern of such polygeneration system is taken......Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.W.; Bae, J.H.; Seol, W.C.
2015-01-01
An integrated conjugate heat transfer analysis method for the thermal integrity of a reactor vessel under external reactor vessel cooling conditions is developed to resolve light metal layer focusing effect issue. The method calculates steady-state 3-dimensional temperature distribution of a reactor vessel using coupled conjugate heat transfer between in-vessel 3-layered stratified corium (metallic pool, oxide pool and heavy metal) and polar-angle dependent boiling heat transfer at the outer surface of a reactor vessel. The 3-layer corium heat transfer model is utilizing lumped-parameter thermal-resistance circuit method and ex-vessel boiling regimes are parametrically considered. The thermal integrity of a reactor vessel is addressed in terms of un-molten thickness profile. The vessel 3-dimensional heat conduction is validated against a commercial code. It is found that even though the internal heat flux from the metal layer goes far beyond critical heat flux (CHF) the heat flux from the outermost nodes of the vessel may be maintained below CHF due to massive vessel heat diffusion. The heat diffusion throughout the vessel is more pronounced for relatively low heat generation rate in an oxide pool. Parametric calculations are performed considering thermal conditions such as peak heat flux from a light metal layer, heat generation in an oxide pool and external boiling conditions. The major finding is that the most crucial factor for success of in-vessel retention is not the mass of the molten light metal above the oxide pool but the heat generation rate inside the oxide pool and the 3-dimensional vessel heat transfer provides a much larger minimum vessel wall thickness. (authors)
Condensation and critical exponents of an ideal non-Abelian gas
Talaei, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein
2017-11-01
We investigate an ideal gas obeying non-Abelian statistics and derive the expressions for some thermodynamic quantities. It is found that thermodynamic quantities are finite at the condensation point where their derivatives diverge and, near this point, they behave as \\vert T-Tc\\vert^{-ρ} in which Tc denotes the condensation temperature and ρ is a critical exponent. The critical exponents related to the heat capacity and compressibility are obtained by fitting numerical results and others are obtained using the scaling law hypothesis for a three-dimensional non-Abelian ideal gas. This set of critical exponents introduces a new universality class.
Integration of the time-dependent heat equation in the fuel rod performance program IAMBUS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, G.
1982-01-01
An iterative numerical method for integration of the time-dependent heat equation is described. No presuppositions are made for the dependency of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity on space, time and temperature. (orig.) [de
Cappuccino and Specific Heat Versus Heat of Vaporization
Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; van den Berg, Ed
2012-02-01
A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 °C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would spoil the taste. The best way is to heat the milk slowly while stirring to froth the milk and create foam. But modern cappuccino machines in restaurants do not have time for slow heating. Could we heat the milk by just adding hot water?
Hybrid normed ideal perturbations of n-tuples of operators I
Voiculescu, Dan-Virgil
2018-06-01
In hybrid normed ideal perturbations of n-tuples of operators, the normed ideal is allowed to vary with the component operators. We begin extending to this setting the machinery we developed for normed ideal perturbations based on the modulus of quasicentral approximation and an adaptation of our non-commutative generalization of the Weyl-von Neumann theorem. For commuting n-tuples of hermitian operators, the modulus of quasicentral approximation remains essentially the same when Cn- is replaced by a hybrid n-tuple Cp1,…- , … , Cpn- , p1-1 + ⋯ + pn-1 = 1. The proof involves singular integrals of mixed homogeneity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
E.M.E. ZAYED
2004-01-01
The asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel Θ(t)(∞∑=(i=0))exp (-λi) where({λi}∞i=1) Are the eigen-values of negative Laplacian( -△n=-n∑k=1(θ/θxk)2)in Rn(n=2 or 3) is studied for short-time t for a general bounded domainθΩwith a smooth boundary θΩ.In this paper, we consider the case of a finite number of the Dirichlet conditions φ=0 on Γi (i = J +1,….,J)and the Neumann conditions and (θφ/θ vi) = 0 on Γi (i = J+1,…,k) and the Robin condition (θφ/θ vi+γi) θ=(I=k+1,… m) where γi are piecewise smooth positive impedancem(θφ=mUi=1Γi. )We construct the required asymptotics in the form of a power series over t. The senior coe.cients inthis series are speci.ed as functionals of the geometric shape of the domain Ω.This result is applied to calculatethe one-particle partition function of a "special ideal gas", i.e., the set of non-interacting particles set up in abox with Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions for the appropriate wave function. Calculationof the thermodynamic quantities for the ideal gas such as the internal energy, pressure and speci.c heat revealsthat these quantities alone are incapable of distinguishing between two di.erent shapes of the domain. Thisconclusion seems to be intuitively clear because it is based on a limited information given by a one-particlepartition function; nevertheless, its formal theoretical motivation is of some interest.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shugajlo, Al-j P.; Mustafin, M.A.; Shugajlo, Al-r P.; Ryzhov, D.I.; Zhabin, O.I.
2017-01-01
Tubes integrity evaluation under accident conditions considering drain of SG and current technical state of steam exchange tubes is an important question regarding SG long-term operation and improvement of accident management strategy.The main investigation results prepared for heat exchange surface of RNPP-3 steam generator are presented in this research aimed at assessing integrity of heat exchange tubes under accident conditions, which lead to full or partial drain of heat exchange surface, in particular during station blackout.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Böszörményi
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The closure of a part of the municipal combined heat and power (CHP plant of Košice city would result in the loss of 200 MW thermal output within a realtively short period of time. The long term development plan for the Košice district heating system concentrates on solving this problem. Taking into account the extremely high (90 % dependence of Slovakia on imported energy sources and the desirability of reducing the emission of pollutantst the alternative of supplying of 100 MW thermal output from geothermal sources is attractive. However the indices of economic efficiency for this alternative are unsatisfactory. Cogeneration of electricity and heat in a CHP plant, the most efficient way of supplying heat to Košice at the present time. If as planned, geothermal heat is fed directly into the district heating network the efficiency would be greatly reduced. An excellent solution of this problem would be a new conception, preferring the utilization of geothermal heat in support of a combined electricity and heat production process. The efficiency of geothermal energy utilization could be increased through a special heat pump. This paper deals with several aspects of the design of a heat pump to be integrated into the system of the CHP plant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ljungstedt, Hanna; Pettersson, Karin; Harvey, Simon
2013-01-01
This study investigates heat integrated production of FT (Fischer–Tropsch) crude, where excess heat from the FT crude plant is delivered to a typical Scandinavian pulp and paper mill that produces fine paper. The sizes of FT crude plants are quantified, when the amount of excess heat from the FT plant exactly matches the heating demand otherwise satisfied by the bark boiler at the mill, considering a number of development pathways at the mill, including various degrees of steam savings and biorefinery options, such as lignin extraction. Performance of integrated production is compared with that of an FT stand-alone plant on the basis of wood fuel-to-FT crude efficiency, GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions balances and FT crude production cost. The results show that there exists a heat integration opportunity for an FT crude plant ranging from 0 up to 350 MW (LHV) of wood fuel depending on the development pathway for the mill. The results indicate higher overall efficiency and a generally lower production cost for the heat integrated, co-located production. Heat integrated production has a larger potential to contribute to GHG emission mitigation, assuming a future generation of grid electricity emitting equal to or less than an NGCC (natural gas combined cycle) power plant. - Highlights: • We investigate opportunities for heat integrated FT crude production at a mill. • Typical kraft pulp and paper mills have a potential for heat integrated production. • We compare the heat integrated production with stand-alone FT crude production. • Higher efficiency and lower production cost for heat integrated production. • Reduction of GHG emissions is strongly dependent on grid electricity emissions
A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens
2013-01-01
In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further...
Dimensional transitions in thermodynamic properties of ideal Maxwell–Boltzmann gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug
2015-01-01
An ideal Maxwell–Boltzmann gas confined in various rectangular nanodomains is considered under quantum size effects. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated from their relations with the partition function, which consists of triple infinite summations over momentum states in each direction. To obtain analytical expressions, summations are converted to integrals for macrosystems by a continuum approximation, which fails at the nanoscale. To avoid both the numerical calculation of summations and the failure of their integral approximations at the nanoscale, a method which gives an analytical expression for a single particle partition function (SPPF) is proposed. It is shown that a dimensional transition in momentum space occurs at a certain magnitude of confinement. Therefore, to represent the SPPF by lower-dimensional analytical expressions becomes possible, rather than numerical calculation of summations. Considering rectangular domains with different aspect ratios, a comparison of the results of derived expressions with those of summation forms of the SPPF is made. It is shown that analytical expressions for the SPPF give very precise results with maximum relative errors of around 1%, 2% and 3% at exactly the transition point for single, double and triple transitions, respectively. Based on dimensional transitions, expressions for free energy, entropy, internal energy, chemical potential, heat capacity and pressure are given analytically valid for any scale. (paper)
Coupled heat conduction and thermal stress formulation using explicit integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchertas, A.H.; Kulak, R.F.
1982-06-01
The formulation needed for the conductance of heat by means of explicit integration is presented. The implementation of these expressions into a transient structural code, which is also based on explicit temporal integration, is described. Comparisons of theoretical results with code predictions are given both for one-dimensional and two-dimensional problems. The coupled thermal and structural solution of a concrete crucible, when subjected to a sudden temperature increase, shows the history of cracking. The extent of cracking is compared with experimental data
Development of an integral computer code for simulation of heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvat, A.; Catton, I.
2001-01-01
Heat exchangers are one of the basic installations in power and process industries. The present guidelines provide an ad-hoc solution to certain design problems. A unified approach based on simultaneous modeling of thermal-hydraulics and structural behavior does not exist. The present paper describes the development of integral numerical code for simulation of heat exchangers. The code is based on Volume Averaging Technique (VAT) for porous media flow modeling. The calculated values of the whole-section drag and heat transfer coefficients show an excellent agreement with already published values. The matching results prove the correctness of the selected approach and verify the developed numerical code used for this calculation.(author)
Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.
2014-06-01
This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.
Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.
2014-06-01
This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudstam, G.
1979-01-01
The fission product library FPLIB has been used for a calculation of the decay heat effect in nuclear fuel. The results are compared with integral determinations and with results obtained using the ENDF/BIV data base. In the case of the beta part, and also for the total decay heat, the FPLIB-data seem to be superior to the ENDF/BIV-data. The experimental integral data are in many cases reproduced within the combined limits of error of the methods. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingyou Yan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the increase in environmental problems and air pollution during the heating period, it is important to promote clean heating in cold regions, thereby meeting the heating demand in a green manner. In order to allocate resources more effectively and facilitate the consumption of renewable energy, this paper designs an integrated heating system that incorporates geothermal energy into the framework of an integrated energy system of electricity, heating, and gas. An analysis of the environmental and economic benefits indicates that the system reduces pollutant emissions and decreases the cost of urban heating. Using an example of central heating of residential buildings in Xi’an, the paper conducts a scenario analysis based on the gas peak-shaving ratio and the ratio of geothermal heating loads to basic heating loads. The results demonstrate that the environmental and economic benefits of the integrated heating system are higher compared to central heating using coal-fired boilers. In addition, this paper conducts a sensitivity analysis of the heat source to the price factors and the load ratios. The results show that the operating costs of the integrated heating system are most sensitive to the natural gas price and the gas peak-shaving ratio. Therefore, an optimum natural gas peak-shaving ratio can be determined.
Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johra, Hicham
2018-01-01
The EnovHeat project aims at developing an innovative heat pump system based on the magnetocaloric effect and active magnetic regenerator technology to provide for the heating needs of a single family house in Denmark. Unlike vapor-compression devices, magnetocaloric heat pumps use the reversible...... heat pump can deliver 2600 W of heating power with an appreciable average seasonal system COP of 3.93. On variable part-load operation with a simple fluid flow controller, it can heat up an entire house with an average seasonal system COP of 1.84....... magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current...... numerical study, this article demonstrates for the first time the possibility to utilize this novel heat pump in a building. This device can be integrated in a single hydronic loop including a ground source heat exchanger and a radiant under-floor heating system. At maximum capacity, this magnetocaloric...
de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.
2008-01-01
This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the
Ideal affect in daily life: implications for affective experience, health, and social behavior.
Tsai, Jeanne L
2017-10-01
Over the last decade, researchers have increasingly demonstrated that ideal affect-the affective states that people value and ideally want to feel-shapes different aspects of daily life. Here I briefly review Affect Valuation Theory (AVT), which integrates ideal affect into existing models of affect and emotion by identifying the causes and consequences of variation in ideal affect. I then describe recent research that applies AVT to the valuation of negative states as well as more complex states, examines how ideal affect shapes momentary affective experience, suggests that ideal affect has both direct and indirect effects on health, and illustrates that people's ideal affect shapes how they judge and respond to others. Finally, I discuss the implications of cultural and individual differences in ideal affect for clinical, educational, work, and leisure settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Supervisory Model Predictive Control of the Heat Integrated Distillation Column
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Kristian; Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted
2017-01-01
This paper benchmarks a centralized control system based on model predictive control for the operation of the heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) against a fully decentralized control system using the most complete column model currently available in the literature. The centralized control...... system outperforms the decentralized system, because it handles the interactions in the HIDiC process better. The integral absolute error (IAE) is reduced by a factor of 2 and a factor of 4 for control of the top and bottoms compositions, respectively....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunarathne, Duleeka Sandamali; Mellin, Pelle; Yang, Weihong; Pettersson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Rolf
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Multi-stage biomass gasification is integrated with steel heat treatment furnace. • Fossil fuel derived CO_2 emission is eliminated by replacing natural gas with syngas. • The integrated system uses waste heat from the furnace for biomass gasification. • Up to 13% increment of the gasifier system energy efficiency is observed. • Fuel switching results in 10% lower flue gas loss and improved furnace efficiency. - Abstract: The challenges of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy in steel industry furnaces include not only reducing CO_2 emissions but also increasing the system energy efficiency. In this work, a multi-stage gasification system is chosen for the integration with a heat treatment furnace in the steel powder industry to recover different rank/temperature waste heat back to the biomass gasification system, resulting higher system energy efficiency. A system model based on Aspen Plus was developed for the proposed integrated system considering all steps, including biomass drying, pyrolysis, gasification and the combustion of syngas in the furnace. Both low temperature (up to 400 °C) and high temperature (up to 700 °C) heat recovery possibilities were analysed in terms of energy efficiency by optimizing the biomass pretreatment temperature. The required process conditions of the furnace can be achieved by using syngas. No major changes to the furnace, combustion technology or flue gas handling system are necessary for this fuel switching. Only a slight revamp of the burner system and a new waste heat recovery system from the flue gases are required. Both the furnace efficiency and gasifier system efficiency are improved by integration with the waste heat recovery. The heat recovery from the hot furnace flue gas for biomass drying and steam superheating is the most promising option from an energy efficiency point of view. This option recovers two thirds of the available waste heat, according to the pinch analysis performed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Individual heat pumps can significantly support the integration of wind power. • The heat pumps significantly reduce fuel consumption, CO 2 emissions, and costs. • Heat storages for the heat pumps can provide only moderate system benefits. • Main benefit of flexible heat pump operation is a lower peak/reserve capacity need. • Socio-economic feasibility only identified for some heat storages to some extent. - Abstract: Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying an energy system model that optimises both investments and operation, and covers various heat storage options. The Danish energy system by 2030 with around 50–60% wind power is used as a case study. Results show that the heat pumps, even without flexible operation, can contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO 2 emissions. Investments in heat storages can provide only moderate system benefits in these respects. The main benefit of the flexible heat pump operation is a reduced need for peak/reserve capacity, which is also crucial for the feasibility of the heat storages. Socio-economic feasibility is identified for control equipment enabling intelligent heat storage in the building structure and in existing hot water tanks. In contrast, investments in new heat accumulation tanks are not found competitive
Industrial implementation issues of Total Site Heat Integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chew, Kew Hong; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Abdul Manan, Zainuddin
2013-01-01
Heat Integration has been a well-established energy conservation strategy in the industry. Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI) has received growing interest since its inception in the 90s. The methodology has been used with certain simplifications to solve TSHI problems. This paper investigates the main issues that can influence the practical implementation of TSHI in the industry. The main aim is to provide an assessment and possible guidance for future development and extension of the TSHI methodology from the industrial perspective. Several key issues have been identified as being of vital importance for the industries: design, operation, reliability/availability/maintenance, regulatory/policy and economics. Design issues to consider include plant layout, pressure drop, etc. For operation, issues such as startup and shutdown need to be considered. Reliability, availability and maintenance (RAM) are important as they directly affect the production. Relevant government policy and incentives are also important when considering the options for TSHI. Finally, a TSHI system needs to be economically viable. This paper highlights the key issues to be considered for a successful implementation of TSHI. The impacts of these issues on TS integration are summarised in a matrix, which forms a basis for an improved and closer-to-real-life implementation of the TSHI methodology. Highlights: ► Current TSHI methodology has been used for solving models with certain simplifications. ► Several issues that can influence practical implementation of TSHI are identified. ► Impacts of these issues on safety, environment and economics are evaluated. ► The findings form a basis for an improved and practical implementation of TSHI
Study on boiling heat transfer from diode elements in an integrated circuit chip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hijikata, Kunio; Nagasaki, Takao; Kurata, Naoki (Tokyo Institute of Technology Faculty of Engineering (Japan))
1989-02-25
By temperature measurement of elements in boiling experiments with diodes in an integrated circuit (IC) chip, characteristics of boiling heat transfer from tiny heat generating elements in an IC chip and thermal transfer characteristics of multiple heating elements adjoining positioned were studied. The Package of an IC was removed by acid to expose the IC chip. Electricity is applied to the diode in the IC to study the heat transfer properties. The heat transfer rate from a tiny heating element on an IC is greater than that from the conventional continual heated surface. In the case of heat generation by two adjoining elements, the relationship between the total amount of heat and the temperature of elements shows the same characteristics as in the case with a single element. The boiling heat transfer properties of an element in an IC chip are influenced by such microstructure surrounding the element as the pattern of wiring. Heat transfer increases with the decreasing size of the heating element by the heat transfer to the substrate beneath the element. 10 refs., 15 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jana, Amiya K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel heat integrated configuration is proposed for batch distillation. • The shell is divided into two closed semi-cylinders by a metal wall. • An open-loop variable manipulation policy is formulated. • The column improves its energy efficiency and economic performance. - Abstract: This work introduces a new heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) for batch processing. Under this scheme, the entire cylindrical shell is proposed to divide vertically by a metal wall into two closed semi-cylinders. Aiming to generate an internal heat source, a heat pump system is employed over the left hand division to elevate the pressure of the right hand part with the application of HIDiC concept. This new divided-wall HIDiC column utilizes its own energy source by transferring heat from the high pressure (HP) to low pressure (LP) side, thereby reducing the utility consumption in both the still and condenser. To make this thermal integration technology more effective, a typical tray configuration is proposed in both sides of the divided-wall. Unlike the continuous flow distillation, the batch column shows unsteady state process characteristics that make its operation more challenging. With this, an open-loop variable manipulation policy is formulated so that the dynamics of the heat integrated column remain close, if not same, with its conventional counterpart. This is a necessary condition required for a fair comparison between them. Finally, the proposed configuration is illustrated by a binary column, showing an improvement in energy savings, entropy generation and cost over its conventional analogous. This thermally integrated configuration is relatively simple than the traditional HIDiC in terms of design and operation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik
2005-01-01
This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, T.T.; Chan, A.L.S.; Fong, K.F.; Lin, Z.; He, W.; Ji, J.
2009-01-01
A building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating (BiPVW) system is able to generate higher energy output per unit collector area than the conventional solar systems. Through computer simulation with energy models developed for this integrative solar system in Hong Kong, the results showed that the photovoltaic/water-heating (PVW) system has economic advantages over the conventional photovoltaic (PV) installation. The system thermal performance under natural water circulation was found better than the pump-circulation mode. For a specific BiPVW system at a vertical wall of a fully air-conditioned building and with collectors equipped with flat-box-type thermal absorber and polycrystalline silicon cells, the year-round thermal and cell conversion efficiencies were found respectively 37.5% and 9.39% under typical Hong Kong weather conditions. The overall heat transmission through the PVW wall is reduced to 38% of the normal building facade. When serving as a water pre-heating system, the economical payback period was estimated around 14 years. This greatly enhances the PV market opportunities. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scarpa, F.; Tagliafico, L.A.; Tagliafico, G.
2011-01-01
A direct expansion integrated solar-assisted heat pump (ISAHP) is compared to a traditional flat plate solar panel for low temperature (45 deg. C) water heating applications. The (simulated) comparison is accomplished assuming both the devices are energy supplemented with an auxiliary standard gas burner, to provide the typical heat duty of a four-member family. Literature dynamical models of the systems involved have been used to calculate the main performance figures in a context of actual climatic conditions and typical stochastic user demand. The paper highlights new heat pump control concepts, needed when maximum energy savings are the main goal of the apparatus for given user demand. Simulations confirm the high collector efficiency of the ISAHP when its panel/evaporator works at temperature close to the ambient one. The device, with respect to a flat plate solar water heater, shows a doubled performance, so that it can do the same task just using an unglazed panel with roughly half of the surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axelsson, H.; Asblad, A.; Berntsson, T.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a method that identifies economically optimal combinations of enhanced heat recovery, integration of combined heat and power (CHP), and fuel switching, in an existing industrial energy system at various emission levels. Novel types of composite curves based on pinch technology, representing the existing temperature levels for supplying heat and the possible ones that may be attained after retrofitting, are used as tools for estimating the opportunities for CHP and the trade-off between improved heat exchanging and CHP. The method is explained by an example. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eastwood, A.
1991-10-01
This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.
Poli, Francesca
2012-10-01
Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities in a wide range of βN, reducing the no-wall limit. Scenarios are established as relaxed flattop states with time-dependent transport simulations with TSC [1]. Fully non-inductive configurations with current in the range of 7-10 MA and various heating mixes (NB, EC, IC and LH) have been studied against variations of the pressure profile peaking and of the Greenwald fraction. It is found that stable equilibria have qmin> 2 and moderate ITBs at 2/3 of the minor radius [2]. The ExB flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H&CD sources that maintain reverse or weak magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge and ρ(qmin)>=0.5 are the focus of this work. The ITER EC upper launcher, designed for NTM control, can provide enough current drive off-axis to sustain moderate ITBs at mid-radius and maintain a non-inductive current of 8-9MA and H98>=1.5 with the day one heating mix. LH heating and current drive is effective in modifying the current profile off-axis, facilitating the formation of stronger ITBs in the rampup phase, their sustainment at larger radii and larger bootstrap fraction. The implications for steady state operation and fusion performance are discussed.[4pt] [1] Jardin S.C. et al, J. Comput. Phys. 66 (1986) 481[0pt] [2] Poli F.M. et al, Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012) 063027.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Viktoria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Setterwall, Fredrik [Fredrik Setterwall Konsult AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael [AB Berglunds Rostfria, Boden (Sweden)
2005-07-01
This report presents the results from an investigation regarding the design of integrated cooling processes in district heating systems. Increasing investment levels in district heating networks combined with expanding comfort cooling demand makes heat-driven cooling processes extremely interesting. This solution has a great potential tbe cost effective. At the same time, the problem with the environmentally harmful refrigerants used in conventional vapor compression chillers is avoided. In many cases it is beneficial for the district heating provider to lower the supply and/or return temperatures in the network, at least for part of the year. In combined heat and power generation (CHP) a lower supply temperature means that the electricity yield increases. In this context, it is important to consider that conventional absorption chillers are designed to run on 120 deg C heat. However,they can work on heat with temperature as low as 80 deg C if a chiller with a large enough generator area is used, although this has a negative impact on the dimensions of other components and leads ta lower coefficient of performance. For these reasons low temperature driven absorption chillers have been developed in recent years. Two concepts (from different manufacturers) are now available on the market. Factors that affect the choice of district heat-integrated cooling processes have been investigated in this study. Key system aspects that embody a holistic view on the production of heating, cooling and power are especially highlighted. Important tasks have been: To quantify the following effects on the design of an integrated cooling process: the temperatures in the district heating net, available cooling water temperature (to cool the absorber and condenser), electricity price, and the composition of the energy system (e.g. fuel and CHP or power-only mode of operation). To analyze the potential of the low temperature driven chiller concept with regards to energy and cost
Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heller, Alfred
1996-01-01
Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Creyx
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the ideal heat exchanger considering the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A global analysis of exergetic fluxes in the whole micro-CHP system is presented, showing the repartition of the exergy destruction among the components.
Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend
2013-01-01
Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional...... energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HEOK-SOON LIM
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS and the steam generator (SG secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo [Korea Htydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoungrae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-02-15
A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo; Kim, Seoungrae
2014-01-01
A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident
Hyhlík, Tomáš
2018-06-01
The article deals with the development of incompressible ideal gas like model, which can be used as a part of mathematical model describing natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer. It is shown, based on the results of a complex mathematical model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, that behaviour of pressure, temperature and density is very similar to the case of hydrostatics of moist air, where heat and mass transfer in the fill zone must be taken into account. The behaviour inside the cooling tower is documented using density, pressure and temperature distributions. The proposed equation for the density is based on the same idea like the incompressible ideal gas model, which is only dependent on temperature, specific humidity and in this case on elevation. It is shown that normalized density difference of the density based on proposed model and density based on the nonsimplified model is in the order of 10-4. The classical incompressible ideal gas model, Boussinesq model and generalised Boussinesq model are also tested. These models show deviation in percentages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyhlík Tomáš
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the development of incompressible ideal gas like model, which can be used as a part of mathematical model describing natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer. It is shown, based on the results of a complex mathematical model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, that behaviour of pressure, temperature and density is very similar to the case of hydrostatics of moist air, where heat and mass transfer in the fill zone must be taken into account. The behaviour inside the cooling tower is documented using density, pressure and temperature distributions. The proposed equation for the density is based on the same idea like the incompressible ideal gas model, which is only dependent on temperature, specific humidity and in this case on elevation. It is shown that normalized density difference of the density based on proposed model and density based on the nonsimplified model is in the order of 10-4. The classical incompressible ideal gas model, Boussinesq model and generalised Boussinesq model are also tested. These models show deviation in percentages.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Integral analysis of debris material and heat transport in reactor vessel lower plenum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suh, K.Y.; Henry, R.E.
1994-01-01
An integral, fast-running, two-region model has been developed to characterize the debris material and heat transport in the reactor lower plenum under severe accident conditions. The debris bed is segregated into the oxidic pool and an overlying metallic layer. Debris crusts can develop on three surfaces: the top of the molten pool, the RPV wall, and the internal structures. To account for the decay heat generation, the crust temperature profile is assumed to be parabolic. The oxidic debris pool is homogeneously mixed and has the same material composition, and hence the same thermophysical properties, as the crusts, while the metallic constituents are assumed to rise to the top of the debris pool. Steady-state relationships are used to describe the heat transfer rates, with the assessment of solid or liquid state, and the liquid superheat in the pool being based on the average debris temperature. Natural convection heat transfer from the molten debris pool to the upper, lower and embedded crusts is calculated based on the pool Rayleigh number with the conduction heat transfer from the crusts being determined by the crust temperature profile. The downward heat flux is transferred to the lowest part of the RPV lower head through a crust-to-RPV contact resistance. The sideward heat flux is transferred to the upper regions of the RPV lower head as well as to the internal structures. The upward heat flux goes to the metal layer, water, or available heat sink structures above. Quenching due to water ingression is modeled separately from the energy transfer through the crust. The RPV wall temperature distribution and the primary system pressure are utilized to estimate challenges to the RPV integrity. ((orig.))
Mid term report for IDEAL project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellini, Anna
2004-01-01
The main objective of this report is to describe the progresses in the WP4 achived at the mid term of the IDEAL project. The main objective of work package 4 is threefold: Firstly, obtaining a reliable forecast of the residual stresses and strains directly from the casting simulation. For this pu...... of the casting simulation, the heat treatment simulation as well as a possible subsequent load analysis together and thereby addressing the entire CAE-chain........ For this purpose the process simulation must include a thorough thermomechanical analysis itself. This is already possible in the FV-based process optimisation tool MAGMAsoft, although it is further being developed in the work package with respect to the constitutive description of the aluminium parts at high...... temperatures. Secondly, establishing a reliable model for the thermomechanical conditions during the subsequent heat treatment of the cast aluminium parts. In this process, several approaches involving both simple visco-plastic models as well as more complex unified models are taken. Thirdly, coupling...
Simultaneous integrated optimal energy flow of electricity, gas, and heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Integration of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks is studied. • Part-load performances of units are considered in modeling. • A modified teaching–learning based optimization is used to solve the problem. • Results show the advantages of the integrated optimization approach. - Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach to optimize electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks simultaneously is studied. Several interdependencies between these infrastructures are considered in details including a nonlinear part-load performance for boilers and CHPs besides the valve-point effect for generators. A novel approach based on selecting an appropriate set of state-variables for the problem is proposed that eliminates the addition of any new variable to convert irregular equations into a regular set while the optimization problem is still solvable. As a large optimization problem, the optimal solution cannot be achieved by conventional mathematical techniques. Hence, it is better to use evolutionary algorithms instead. In this paper, the well-known modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-period optimal power flow problem of multi-carrier energy networks. The proposed scheme is implemented and applied to a typical multi-carrier energy network. Results are compared with some other conventional heuristic algorithms and the applicability and superiority of the proposed methodology is verified
Experimental investigation on AC unit integrated with sensible heat storage (SHS)
Aziz, N. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Hussin, A.; Zhubir, S.
2017-10-01
The growth in population and economy has increases the energy demand and raises the concerns over the sustainable energy source. Towards the sustainable development, energy efficiency in buildings has become a prime objective. In this paper, the integration of thermal energy storage was studied. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of an air conditioning unit integrated with sensible heat storage (SHS) system. The results were compared to the conventional AC systems in the terms of average electricity usage, indoor temperature and the relative humidity inside the experimented room (cabin container). Results show that the integration of water tank as an SHS reduces the electricity usage by 5%, while the integration of well-insulated water tank saves up to 8% of the electricity consumption.
Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)
2014-01-29
Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.
Baule, A; Evans, R M L; Olmsted, P D
2006-12-01
We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena, Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter lambda and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime.
Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.
2012-01-01
This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue
More Wind Power Integration with Adjusted Energy Carriers for Space Heating in Northern China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun He
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In Northern China, due to the high penetration of coal-fired cogeneration facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines, lots of wind power resources may be wasted during the heating season. In contrast, considerable coal is consumed in the power generation sector. In this article, firstly it is revealed that there exists a serious divergence in the ratio of electrical to thermal energy between end users’ demand and the cogenerations’ production during off-peak load at night, which may negate active power-balancing of the electric power grid. Secondly, with respect to this divergence only occurring during off-peak load at night, a temporary proposal is given so as to enable the integration of more wind power. The authors suggest that if the energy carrier for part of the end users’ space heating is switched from heating water to electricity (e.g., electric heat pumps (EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector, the ratio of electricity to heating water load should be adjusted to optimize the power dispatch between cogeneration units and wind turbines, resulting in fuel conservation. With this proposal, existing infrastructures are made full use of, and no additional ones are required. Finally a numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate both the technical and economic feasibility of the aforementioned proposal, under ongoing infrastructures as well as electricity and space heating tariff conditions without changing participants’ benefits. The authors aim to persuade Chinese policy makers to enable EHPs to provide space heating to enable the integration of more wind power.
District heating in Switzerland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herzog, F.
1991-01-01
District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin
2015-01-01
Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.
EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY IN A ELECTRIC ARC FURNANCE BY HEAT INTEGRATION APPROACH
Umesh Kumar, Dr. A K Prasad, Sourabh Kumar Soni
2016-01-01
Based on the principles of heat integration, the present work investigates the design and operational modifications which can lead to efficient energy integration in an electric arc furnace being operated with direct reduction process. This process is one of the oldest and most widely applied processes amongst the commercially used process in India. For the purpose of energy integration stream data is extracted from the actual flow sheet of the plant, which consists of supply and target tempe...
Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps
van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum
Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ileana Blanco
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.
The role of large‐scale heat pumps for short term integration of renewable energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Blarke, Morten; Hansen, Kenneth
2011-01-01
technologies is focusing on natural working fluid hydrocarbons, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Large-scale heat pumps are crucial for integrating 50% wind power as anticipated to be installed in Denmark in 2020, along with other measures. Also in the longer term heat pumps can contribute to the minimization...... savings with increased wind power and may additionally lead to economic savings in the range of 1,500-1,700 MDKK in total in the period until 2020. Furthermore, the energy system efficiency may be increased due to large heat pumps replacing boiler production. Finally data sheets for large-scale ammonium......In this report the role of large-scale heat pumps in a future energy system with increased renewable energy is presented. The main concepts for large heat pumps in district heating systems are outlined along with the development for heat pump refrigerants. The development of future heat pump...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Emad
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Styrene is a valuable commodity for polymer industries. The main route for producing styrene by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene consumes a substantial amount of energy because of the use of high-temperature steam. In this work, the process energy requirements and recovery are studied using Exergy analysis and Heat Integration (HI based on Pinch design method. The amount of steam plays a key role in the trade-off between Styrene yield and energy savings. Therefore, optimizing the operating conditions for energy reduction is infeasible. Heat integration indicated an insignificant reduction in the net energy demand and exergy losses, but 24% and 34% saving in external heating and cooling duties, respectively. When the required steam is generated by recovering the heat of the hot reactor effluent, a considerable saving in the net energy demand, as well as the heating and cooling utilities, can be achieved. Moreover, around 68% reduction in the exergy destruction is observed.
High Temperature Heat Pump Integration using Zeotropic Working Fluids for Spray Drying Facilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Bühler, Fabian; Mancini, Roberta
2017-01-01
source and sink best possibly. Therefore, a set of six common working fluids is defined and the possible binary mixtures of these fluids are analyzed. The performance of the fluids is evaluated based on the energetic performance (COP) and the economic potential (NPV). The results show...... and show a large potential to reuse the excess heat from exhaust gases. This study analyses a heat pump application with an improved integration by choosing the working fluid as a mixture in such a way, that the temperature glide during evaporation and condensation matches the temperature glide of the heat...
Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted
2016-01-01
A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...
Optimal operation of integrated processes. Studies on heat recovery systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glemmestad, Bjoern
1997-12-31
Separators, reactors and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery are important parts of an integrated plant. This thesis deals with the operation of HENs, in particular, optimal operation. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also introduces new interactions and feedback into the overall plant. A prerequisite for optimisation is that there are extra degrees of freedom left after regulatory control is implemented. It is shown that extra degrees of freedom may not always be utilized for energy optimisation, and a quantitative expression for the degrees of freedom that can be so utilized are presented. A simplified expression that is often valid is also deduced. The thesis presents some improvements and generalisations of a structure based method that has been proposed earlier. Structural information is used to divide possible manipulations into three categories depending on how each manipulation affects the utility consumption. By means of these categories and two heuristic rules for operability, the possible manipulations are ordered in a priority table. This table is used to determine which manipulation should be preferred and which manipulation should be selected if an active manipulation is saturated. It is shown that the method may correspond to split-range control. A method that uses parametric information in addition to structural information is proposed. In this method, the optimal control structure is found through solving an integer programming problem. The thesis also proposes a method that combines the use of steady state optimisation and optimal selection of measurements. 86 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo P.; Järvinen, Mika P.
2014-01-01
Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products
Low temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic functions described by Debye-Einstein integrals.
Gamsjäger, Ernst; Wiessner, Manfred
2018-01-01
Thermodynamic data of various crystalline solids are assessed from low temperature heat capacity measurements, i.e., from almost absolute zero to 300 K by means of semi-empirical models. Previous studies frequently present fit functions with a large amount of coefficients resulting in almost perfect agreement with experimental data. It is, however, pointed out in this work that special care is required to avoid overfitting. Apart from anomalies like phase transformations, it is likely that data from calorimetric measurements can be fitted by a relatively simple Debye-Einstein integral with sufficient precision. Thereby, reliable values for the heat capacities, standard enthalpies, and standard entropies at T = 298.15 K are obtained. Standard thermodynamic functions of various compounds strongly differing in the number of atoms in the formula unit can be derived from this fitting procedure and are compared to the results of previous fitting procedures. The residuals are of course larger when the Debye-Einstein integral is applied instead of using a high number of fit coefficients or connected splines, but the semi-empiric fit coefficients keep their meaning with respect to physics. It is suggested to use the Debye-Einstein integral fit as a standard method to describe heat capacities in the range between 0 and 300 K so that the derived thermodynamic functions are obtained on the same theory-related semi-empiric basis. Additional fitting is recommended when a precise description for data at ultra-low temperatures (0-20 K) is requested.
Transient Characteristics of Free Piston Vuilleurnier Cycle Heat Pumps
Matsue, Junji; Fujimoto, Norioki; Shirai, Hiroyuki
A dynamic analysis of a free piston Vuilleumier cycle heat pump was performed using a time-stepping integration method to investigate transient characteristics under power controlling. The nonlinear relationship between displacement and force for pistons was taken into account for the motion of reciprocating components. The force for pistons is mainly caused by the pressure change of working gas varying with piston displacements; moreover nonlinear viscous dissipative force due to the oscillating flow of working gas in heat exchangers and discontinuous damping force caused by solid friction at piston seals and rod seals are included. The displacements of pistons and pressure changes in the Vuilleumier cycle heat pump were integrated by an ideal isothermal thermodynamic relationship. It was assumed that the flow friction was proportional to the kinematic pressure of working gas, and that the solid friction at the seals was due to the functions of the working gas pressure and the tension of seal springs. In order to investigate the transient characteristics of a proposed free piston Vuilleumier cycle heat pump machine when hot-side working gas temperatures and alternate force were changed, some calculations were performed and discussed. These calculation results make clear transient characteristics at starting and power controlling. It was further found that only a small amount of starter power is required in particular conditions. During controlling, the machine becomes unstable when there is ar elatively large reduction in cooling or heating power. Therefore, an auxiliary device is additionally needed to obtain stable operation, such as al inear motor.
The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robitaille P.-M.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can de- crease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Donghui; Huang, Mei; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Ge
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Donghui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Huang, Mei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Wang, Zhijiang, E-mail: wangzj@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Feng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)
2016-10-15
Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.
Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian
2014-01-01
Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance...... of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....
Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thuc Bui; Michael Read; Lawrence ives
2012-05-17
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.
Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology
2004-07-01
This report is reviewing different heat driven technologies for the production of cooling. It is shown that the supply of cooling gives the highest fuel utilization if heat from CHP production is used for the production of cooling instead of maximizing the electricity output in a condensing plant. High fuel utilization is reached since the direct production of cooling from heat is a thermodynamic shortcut as compared to the production of electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. At direct production of cooling from heat it is possible to obtain 70 percent of the obtainable cooling of an ideal process. If electricity is produced from heat, 70 percent electricity could be obtained as compared to an ideal process. If this electricity would be used for the production of cooling 70 percent of the obtainable cooling in an ideal process would the result. The total production of cooling from heat with electricity as an intermediate product would therefore give 50 percent cooling as compared to an ideal process. Hence, heat driven cooling will give more cooling for a given fuel input. In the review of the different heat driven cooling options it was found that there are many alternatives suitable for different applications. Absorption cooling is suitable for water distributed cooling if the latent cooling load is low. Desiccant cooling is believed to have a large market in climates (applications) with high latent cooling loads. In the energy efficiency evaluation it is found that the highest fuel utilization is given for a central production of electricity using either district heating or district cooling as the energy carrier to supply cooling. In fact the potential of district heating as the energy carrier is thought to be the largest in large cities with humid climates. Further it is found that the chiller heat sink can contribute significantly to the cost in many applications, especially if water and/or electricity consumption are issues with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadalla, Mamdouh A.
2015-01-01
Energy integration is a key solution in chemical process and crude refining industries to minimise external fuel consumption and to face the impact of growing energy crises. Typical energy integration projects can reach a reduction of heating fuels and cold utilities by up to 40% compared with original designs or existing installations. Pinch Analysis is a leading tool and regarded as an efficient method to increase energy efficiency and minimise fuel flow consumptions. It is valid for both natures of design, grassroots and retrofit situations. It can practically be applied to synthesise a HEN (heat exchanger network) or modify an existing preheat train for minimum energy consumption. Heat recovery systems or HENs are networks for exchanging heat between hot and cold process sources. All heat transferred from hot process sources into cold process sinks represent the scope for energy integration. On the other hand, energies required beyond this integrated amount are to be satisfied by external utilities. Graphical representations of Pinch Analysis, such as Composite and Grand Composite Curves are very useful for grassroots designs. Nevertheless, in retrofit situation the analysis is not adequate and besides it is graphically tedious to represent existing exchangers on such graphs. This research proposes a new graphical method for the analysis of heat recovery systems, applicable to HEN retrofit. The new graphical method is based on plotting temperatures of process hot streams versus temperatures of process cold streams. A new graph is constructed for representing existing HENs. For a given network, each existing exchanger is represented by a straight line, whose slope is proportional to the ratio of heat capacities and flows. Further, the length of each exchanger line is related to the heat flow transferred across this exchanger. This new graphical representation can easily identify exchangers across the pinch, Network Pinch, pinching matches and improper placement
Mathematical Approaches in Studying the Ideal Image of the Goal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander G. Kruglov
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The article outlines the possible approaches in the mathematical computations of integrated behavioral units in functional systems supporting homeostasis through in behavioral changes. By an imbalance in the homeostasis system which initiates adaptive behavior we assume: for metabolism – a departure of the parameters from the “normal zone” to the level of a suprathreshold sensitivity of the receptors; for structures of the psychological and social spectra – to the “cognized-not cognized”, “acceptable-not acceptable” levels. For the system analysis of goal-directed behavior dynamics, we present a combination of the “creation – retention” of the ideal image of the goal and the entire effector structure of the integrated behavioral unit by introducing an integrating term, motivational gradient. The integrated Behavioral Unit (BU is described as a psychophysiological metamer in behavioral continuum, including a mathematical description of the BU as a whole including its elements viz., the ideal image of the goal and the motivational gradient. The hemodynamic equivalent of the motivational gradient (the scalar gradient and subjective time (the time marker are used as the BU markers. For the mathematical description, we use the mathematical apparatus of topological spaces and elements of the string theory to open up opportunities for new approaches in psychology and neurobiology.
Weinhold'length in an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas
Santoro, Manuel
2004-01-01
In this paper we study thermodynamic length of an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas using Weinhold metric in a two-dimensional state space. We give explicit relation between length at constant entropy and work.
Weinhold length in an isentropic ideal and quasi-ideal gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santoro, Manuel
2005-01-01
In this paper, we study thermodynamic length of an isentropic ideal and quasi-ideal gas using Weinhold metric in a two-dimensional state space. We give explicit relation between length at constant entropy and work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing
2016-01-01
The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The results showed that coordinated optimization of the energy distribution have significant benefits for reducing wind curtailment, operation cost, and energy losses. The proposed model and methodology could help system operators with decision support in the emerging...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss...
Heat stress and reduced plane of nutrition decreases intestinal integrity and function in pigs.
Pearce, S C; Mani, V; Weber, T E; Rhoads, R P; Patience, J F; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K
2013-11-01
Heat stress can compromise intestinal integrity and induce leaky gut in a variety of species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if heat stress (HS) directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) increases intestinal permeability in growing pigs. We hypothesized that an increased heat-load causes physiological alterations to the intestinal epithelium, resulting in compromised barrier integrity and altered intestinal function that contributes to the overall severity of HS-related illness. Crossbred gilts (n=48, 43±4 kg BW) were housed in constant climate controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (20°C, 35-50% humidity) with ad libitum intake, 2) HS conditions (35°C, 20-35% humidity) with ad libitum feed intake, or 3) pair-fed in TN conditions (PFTN) to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. Pigs were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure and jejunum samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers for assessment of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and intestinal fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permeability (expressed as apparent permeability coefficient, APP). Further, gene and protein markers of intestinal integrity and stress were assessed. Irrespective of d of HS exposure, plasma endotoxin levels increased 45% (Pwarm summer months.
Walendziak, Andrzej
2015-01-01
The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained. PMID:26125050
Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.
2012-01-01
This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang, K. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Yoo, S. O.; Kim, M. W.; Kim, H. J.
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer has been performed in this study. The simulation of SPEL experimental work and comparison with experimental data has been carried out to verify the analyses models. Moreover, to verify the CANDU-6 reactor type, analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer in the calandria under the condition of steady state has been performed using FLUENT code, which is the conventional code for a three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer for moderator integrity assessment in PHWR thermal-hydraulics. It is found that the maximum temperature in the moderator is 347K (74 ), so that the moderator has the enough subcoolability to ensure the integrity of pressure tube during LOCA conditions
A constant heat flux plasma limiter for TEXTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mioduszewski, P.
1980-10-01
In future large tokamak machines heat removal from the plasma is going to play an important role. In TEXTOR the total plasma power is expected to be in the range of 0.5-2.5 MW. Typical fractions of about 50% of this power have to be removed from the plasma by limiters. The power flux from the limiter scrape-off layer to the limiter surface decays rapidly with distance into the scrape-off layer resulting in a highly space-dependent heat load on the limiter. Therefore, limiters are shaped in a way to smooth of the heat load, and the ideal limiter shape should produce a constant heat flux over the whole limiter surface. The ideally shaped limiter offers a better chance to handle the high heat loads with the preferred materials like stainless steel (or inconel 625 as in the case of TEXTOR). (orig./GG)
A three-region conduction-controlled rewetting analysis by the Heat Balance Integral Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahu, S.K.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.
2009-01-01
Conduction-controlled rewetting of two-dimensional objects is analyzed by the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM) considering three distinct regions: a dry region ahead of wet front, the sputtering region immediately behind the wet front and a continuous film region further upstream. The HBIM yields solutions for wet front velocity, sputtering length and temperature field with respect to wet front. Employing this method, it is seen that heat transfer mechanism is dependent upon two temperature parameters. One of them characterizes the initial wall temperature while the other specifies the range of temperature for sputtering region. Additionally, the mechanism of heat transfer is found to be dependent on two Biot numbers comprising a convective heat transfer in the wet region and a boiling heat transfer in the sputtering region. The present solution exactly matches with the one-dimensional analysis of K.H. Sun, G.E. Dix, C.L. Tien [Cooling of a very hot vertical surface by falling liquid film, ASME J. Heat Transf. 96 (1974) 126-131] for low Biot numbers. Good agreement with experimental results is also observed. (authors)
Integral method for transient He II heat transfer in a semi-infinite domain
Baudouy, B.
2002-05-01
Integral methods are suited to solve a non-linear system of differential equations where the non-linearity can be found either in the differential equations or in the boundary conditions. Though they are approximate methods, they have proven to give simple solutions with acceptable accuracy for transient heat transfer in He II. Taking in account the temperature dependence of thermal properties, direct solutions are found without the need of adjusting a parameter. Previously, we have presented a solution for the clamped heat flux and in the present study this method is used to accommodate the clamped-temperature problem. In the case of constant thermal properties, this method yields results that are within a few percent of the exact solution for the heat flux at the axis origin. We applied this solution to analyze recovery from burnout and find an agreement within 10% at low heat flux, whereas at high heat flux the model deviates from the experimental data suggesting the need for a more refined thermal model.
Integral method for transient He II heat transfer in a semi-infinite domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudouy, B.
2002-01-01
Integral methods are suited to solve a non-linear system of differential equations where the non-linearity can be found either in the differential equations or in the boundary conditions. Though they are approximate methods, they have proven to give simple solutions with acceptable accuracy for transient heat transfer in He II. Taking in account the temperature dependence of thermal properties, direct solutions are found without the need of adjusting a parameter. Previously, we have presented a solution for the clamped heat flux and in the present study this method is used to accommodate the clamped-temperature problem. In the case of constant thermal properties, this method yields results that are within a few percent of the exact solution for the heat flux at the axis origin. We applied this solution to analyze recovery from burnout and find an agreement within 10% at low heat flux, whereas at high heat flux the model deviates from the experimental data suggesting the need for a more refined thermal model
Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump System Development – Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uselton, R. B. [Lennox Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)
2017-07-01
Between October 2007 and September 2017, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lennox Industries, Inc. (Lennox) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. The Lennox AS-IHP concept consisted of a high-efficiency air-source heat pump (ASHP) for space heating and cooling services and a separate heat pump water heater/dehumidifier (WH/DH) module for domestic water heating and dehumidification (DH) services. A key feature of this system approach with the separate WH/DH is capability to pretreat (i.e., dehumidify) ventilation air and dedicated whole-house DH independent of the ASHP. Two generations of laboratory prototype WH/DH units were designed, fabricated, and lab tested. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the US Department of Energy/ORNL heat pump design model (Rice 1992; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al. 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps served as the input to TRNSYS (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2010) to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (i.e., a combination of an ASHP with a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 13 and resistance water heater with an energy factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings (based on use of a two-speed ASHP and the second-generation WH/DH prototype for the AS-IHP), while providing space conditioning, water heating, and dehumidification for a tight, well-insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at three US locations, ranged from 33 to 36%, averaging 35%, relative to the baseline system. The lowest savings were seen at the cold-climate Chicago location. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced by about 50 to 60% relative to a resistance WH.
Thermal power generation during heat cycle near room temperature
Shibata, Takayuki; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Kobayashi, Wataru; Moritomo, Yutaka
2018-01-01
We demonstrate that a sodium-ion secondary battery (SIB)-type thermocell consisting of two types of Prussian blue analogue (PBA) with different electrochemical thermoelectric coefficients (S EC ≡ ∂V/∂T V and T are the redox potential and temperature, respectively) produces electrical energy during heat cycles. The device produces an electrical energy of 2.3 meV/PBA per heat cycle between 295 K (= T L) and 323 K (= T H). The ideal thermal efficiency (η = 1.0%), which is evaluated using the heat capacity (C = 4.16 meV/K) of ideal Na2Co[Fe(CN)6], reaches 11% of the Carnot efficiency (ηth = 8.7%). Our SIB-type thermocell is a promising thermoelectric device that harvests waste heat near room temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Dapeng; Li, Zhiyi
2014-01-01
In this paper, a new water distillation system, which consists of either a single- or multi-effect distiller combined with an open absorption heat transformer (OAHT), has been proposed. The new integrated system can be used for distilling waste water with high amounts of SiO 2 from heavy oil production, and the resultant distilled water can be supplied to steam boilers to produce high quality steam which in turn is injected into oil reservoirs to assist with heavy oil recovery. The thermodynamic cycle performances for these new integrated distillation systems were simulated based on the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution of LiBr as well as the mass and energy balance of the system. The results indicate that combined with OAHT, the waste heat at 70 °C can be elevated to 125 °C and thereby produce steam at 120 °C in the absorber, which is able to drive a four-effect distiller to produce distilled water. For a single-effect and four-effect distiller, the coefficients of performance (COP) are approximately 1.02 while the performance ratios are 2.19 and 5.72, respectively. Therefore, the four-effect distillation system combined with an OAHT is more thermally effective and is an ideal option to process the waste water in oilfields. -- Highlights: • A new absorption vapor compression distillation was proposed in present research. • An open absorption heat transformer has a coupled thermally evaporator and absorber. • Distillation of waste water with high content of SiO 2 from heavy oil production. • The waste heat of 70 °C can be elevated up to 125 °C and generate steam of 120 °C. • The waste heat is able to drive four-effect distillation to produce distilled water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie
2013-01-01
Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying...... an energy system model that optimises both investments and operation, and covers various heat storage options. The Danish energy system by 2030 with around 50–60% wind power is used as a case study. Results show that the heat pumps, even without flexible operation, can contribute significantly...... to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. Investments in heat storages can provide only moderate system benefits in these respects. The main benefit of the flexible heat pump operation is a reduced need for peak/reserve capacity, which is also...
Observing integrals of heat kernels from a distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heat kernels have integrals such as Brownian motion mean exit time, potential capacity, and torsional rigidity. We show how to obtain bounds on these values - essentially by observing their behaviour in terms of the distance function from a point and then comparing with corresponding values in ta...... and discussed as test cases. The talk is based on joint work with Vicente Palmer....... in tailor-made warped product spaces. The results will be illustrated by applications to the so-called 'type' problem: How to decide if a given manifold or surface is transient (hyperbolic) or recurrent (parabolic). Specific examples of minimal surfaces and constant pressure dry foams will be shown...
MINIVER: Miniature version of real/ideal gas aero-heating and ablation computer program
Hendler, D. R.
1976-01-01
Computer code is used to determine heat transfer multiplication factors, special flow field simulation techniques, different heat transfer methods, different transition criteria, crossflow simulation, and more efficient thin skin thickness optimization procedure.
Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stene, Joern
2004-02-01
Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by
Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Stamp, J
2011-01-01
Full Text Available procedure is presented tha journal homepage: www All rights reserved. ajozi T, Optimum heat storage grated multipurpose batch plants , South Africa y usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature most present methods, time... � 2pL?u?kins ? 1 h3A3?u?cu?U (36) The internal area for heat loss by convection from the heat transfer medium is given by Constraint (37) and the area for convective heat transfer losses to the environment is given in Constraint (38). A1?u? ? 2...
Bosch, Henry
2016-03-01
A heat exchanger concept for a thermoelectric generator with integrated planar modules for passenger car applications is introduced. The module housings, made of deep drawn stainless steel sheet metal, are brazed onto the exhaust gas channel to achieve an optimal heat transfer on the hot side of the modules. The cooling side consists of winding fluid channels, which are mounted directly onto the cold side of the modules. Only a thin foil separates the cooling media from the modules for an almost direct heat contact on the cooling side. Thermoelectric generators with up to 20 modules made of PbTe and Bi2Te3, respectively, are manufactured and tested on a hot gas generator to investigate electrical power output and performance of the thermoelectric generator. The proof of concept of the light weight heat exchanger design made of sheet metal with integrated modules is positively accomplished.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Chenghu; Li, Yaping
2017-01-01
Concept of reversible heat exchange process as the theoretical model of the cycle combined heat exchanger could be useful to determine thermodynamics characteristics and the limitation values in the isolated heat exchange system. In this study, the classification of the reversible heat exchange processes is presented, and with the numerical method, medium temperature variation tendency and the useful work production and usage in the whole process are investigated by the construction and solution of the mathematical descriptions. Various values of medium inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio are considered to analyze the effects of process parameters on the outlet temperature lift/drop. The maximum process work transferred from the Carnot cycle region to the reverse cycle region is also researched. Moreover, influence of the separating point between different sub-processes on temperature variation profile and the process work production are analyzed. In addition, the heat-exchange-enhancement-factor is defined to study the enhancement effect of the application of the idealized process in the isolated heat exchange system, and the variation degree of this factor with process parameters change is obtained. The research results of this paper can be a theoretical guidance to construct the cycle combined heat exchange process in the practical system. - Highlights: • A theoretical model of Cycle combined heat exchange process is proposed. • The classification of reversible heat exchange process are presented. • Effects of Inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio on process are analyzed. • Process work transmission through the whole process is studied. • Heat-exchange-enhancement-factor can be a criteria to express the application effect of the idealized process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nattaporn Chaiyat
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this study, simulation and experiment studies of a 10 kW solar H2O–LiBr absorption heat transformer (AHT integrating with a two-stage vapor compression heat pump (VCHP were carried out. The whole system was named as compression/absorption heat transformer (CAHT. The VCHP was used to recover rejected heat at the AHT condenser which was transferred back to the AHT evaporator at a higher temperature. The AHT unit took solar heat from a set of flat-plate solar collectors in parallel connection. R-134a and R-123 were refrigerants in the VCHP cycle. From the simulation, the total cycle coefficient (COP of the solar-CAHT was 0.71 compared with 0.49 of the normal solar-AHT. From the experiment, the total cycle COPs of the solar-CAHT and the solar-AHT were 0.62 and 0.39, respectively. The experimental results were lower than those of the simulated models due to the oversize of the experimental compressor. The annual expense of the solar-CAHT was found to be 5113 USD which was lower than 5418 USD of the solar-AHT. So it could be concluded that the modified unit was beneficial than the normal unit in terms of energy efficiency and economic expense.
Maghdouri Moghaddam, Anita
Recently developed small-scale hydrocarbon-fueled fuel cell systems for portable power under 1 kW have overall system efficiencies typically no higher than 30-35%. This study explores the possibility of using of thermoelectric waste heat recovery in anode exhaust combustors to improve the fuel cell system efficiencies by as much as 4-5% points and further to reduce required battery power during system start-up. Two models were used to explore this. The first model simulated an integrated SOFC system with a simplified catalytic combustor model with TEs integrated between the combustor and air preheating channels for waste heat recovery. This model provided the basis for assessing how much additional power can achieve during SOFC operation as a function of fuel cell operating conditions. Results for the SOFC system indicate that while the TEs may recover as much as 4% of the total fuel energy into the system, their benefit is reduced in part because they reduce the waste heat transferred back to the incoming air stream and thereby lower the SOFC operating temperatures and operating efficiencies. A second model transient model of a TE-integrated catalytic combustor explored the performance of the TEs during transient start-up of the combustor. This model incorporated more detailed catalytic combustion chemistry and enhanced cooling air fin heat transfer to show the dynamic heating of the integrated combustor. This detailed model provided a basis for exploring combustor designs and showed the importance of adequate reactant preheating when burning exhaust from a reformer during start-up for the TEs to produce significant power to reduce the size of system batteries for start-up.
Numerical Simulation of Different Models of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger Using AcuSolve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zainal Nurul Amira
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical simulation of heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE is computed by using CFD solver program i.e. AcuSolve. Two idealized model of HPHE are created with different variant of entry’s dimension set to be case 1 and case 2. The geometry of HPHE is designed in SolidWorks and imported to AcuSolve to simulate the fluid flow numerically. The design of HPHE is the key to provide a heat exchanger system to work proficient as expected. Finally, the result is used to optimize and improving heat recovery systems of the increasing demand for energy efficiency in industry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiberg, K
1981-11-10
The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.
Khan, Pathan Fayaz; Sengottuvel, S; Patel, Rajesh; Gireesan, K; Baskaran, R; Mani, Awadhesh
2018-05-01
Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) are recorded from the brain by giving thermal stimulations through heating pads kept on the surface of the skin. CHEP signals have crucial diagnostic implications in human pain activation studies. This work proposes a novel design of a digital proportional integral (PI) controller based on Arduino microcontroller with a view to explore the suitability of an electric heating pad for use as a thermode in a custom-made, cost-effective CHEP stimulator. The purpose of PI controller is to set, regulate, and deliver desired temperatures on the surface of the heating pad in a user-defined pattern. The transfer function of the heating system has been deduced using the parametric system identification method, and the design parameters of the controller have been identified using the root locus technique. The efficiency of the proposed PI controller in circumventing the well-known integrator windup problem (error in the integral term builds excessively, leading to large transients in the controller output) in tracking the reference input and the controller effort (CE) in rejecting output disturbances to maintain the set temperature of the heating pad have been found to be superior compared with the conventional PI controller and two of the existing anti-windup models.
Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of Low and Medium Temperature District Heating Network Integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend
In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can ...... will reduce the amount of water supply from the MTDH network and improve the system energy conversion efficiency. Through the simulation, the system energetic and exergetic efficiencies based on the two network integration approaches were calculated and evaluated.......In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can...... be supplied through upgrading the return water from the MTDH network with a small centralized heat pump. Alternatively, the supply and return water from the MTDH network can be mixed with a shunt at the junction point to supply the LTDH network. Comparing with the second approach, the heat pump system...
Potentialities and type of integrating nuclear heating stations into district heating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munser, H.; Reetz, B.; Schmidt, G.
1978-01-01
Technical and economical potentialities of applying nuclear heating stations in district heating systems are discussed considering the conditions of the GDR. Special attention is paid to an optimum combination of nuclear heating stations with heat sources based on organic fuels. Optimum values of the contribution of nuclear heating stations to such combined systems and the economic power range of nuclear heating stations are estimated. Final considerations are concerned with the effect of siting and safety concepts of nuclear heating stations on the structure of the district heating system. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, A.G. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Slingo, J.M. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)
2011-05-15
Anomalous heavy snow during winter or spring has long been regarded as a possible precursor of deficient Indian monsoon rainfall during the subsequent summer. However previous work in this field is inconclusive, in terms of the mechanism that communicates snow anomalies to the monsoon summer, and even the region from which snow has the most impact. In this study we explore these issues in coupled and atmosphere-only versions of the Hadley Centre model. A 1050-year control integration of the HadCM3 coupled model, which well represents the seasonal cycle of snow cover over the Eurasian continent, is analysed and shows evidence for weakened monsoons being preceded by strong snow forcing (in the absence of ENSO) over either the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau or north/west Eurasia regions. However, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of springtime interannual variability in snow depth shows the leading mode to have opposite signs between these two regions, suggesting that competing mechanisms may be possible. To determine the dominant region, ensemble integrations are carried out using HadAM3, the atmospheric component of HadCM3, and a variety of anomalous snow forcing initial conditions obtained from the control integration of the coupled model. Forcings are applied during spring in separate experiments over the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau and north/west Eurasia regions, in conjunction with climatological SSTs in order to avoid the direct effects of ENSO. With the aid of idealized forcing conditions in sensitivity tests, we demonstrate that forcing from the Himalaya region is dominant in this model via a Blanford-type mechanism involving reduced surface sensible heat and longwave fluxes, reduced heating of the troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau and consequently a reduced meridional tropospheric temperature gradient which weakens the monsoon during early summer. Snow albedo is shown to be key to the mechanism, explaining around 50% of the perturbation in sensible
Use of integral experiments to improve neutron propagation and gamma heating calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oceraies, Y.; Caumette, P.; Devillers, C.; Bussac, J.
1979-01-01
1) The studies to define and improve the accuracies of neutron propagation and gamma heating calculations from integral experiments are encompassed in the field of the fast reactor physics program at CEA. 2) A systematic analysis of neutron propagation in Fe-Na clean media, with variable volumic composition between 0 and 100% in sodium, has been performed on the HARMONIE source reactor. Gamma heating traverses in the core, the blankets and several control rods, have been measured in the R Z core program at MASURCA. The experimental techniques, the accuracies and the results obtained are given. The approximations of the calculational methods used to analyse these experiments and to predict the corresponding design parameters are also described. 3) Particular emphasis is given to the methods planned to improve fundamental data used in neutron propagation calculations, using the discrepancies observed between measured and calculated results in clean integral experiments. One of these approaches, similar to the techniques used in core physics, relies upon sensitivity studies and eventually on adjustment techniques applied to neutron propagation. (author)
Cold reservoir integrated into a brine circuit of energy roofing, coupled to a heat pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, M.
1983-12-01
Model studies are presented in which the economic effects of a cold reservoir integrated in a heat pump system were established. Cold reservoirs have the following advantages: 1. The absolute annual savings increase with the storage volume. Storage volumes of 1 to 10 m/sup 3/ are economical, depending on the mode of operation. 2. If the storage volume is sufficiently large, the heat pump (operated in a bivalent, parallel system) can supply a considerable amount of the required even below the design temperature. 3. With a sufficiently large storage volume, the heat pump may be operated in more or less monovalent mode even if the heat pump has not been designed for a minimum ambient temperature.
DOE Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calm, J. M.
1979-01-01
The Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) Project is a multiphase undertaking seeking to demonstrate one or more operational HP-ICES by the end of 1983. The seven phases include System Development, Demonstration Design, Design Completion, HP-ICES Construction, Operation and Data Acquisition, HP-ICES Evaluation, and Upgraded Continuation. This project is sponsored by the Community Systems Branch, Office of Buildings and Community Systems, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applicaions, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of the Community Systems Program and is managed by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne Natinal Laboratory.
Ideals in algebras of unbounded operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timmermann, W.
1977-01-01
The paper presents a continuation of investigations on ideals in algebras of unbounded operators. A general procedure is given to get ideals in L + (D) starting with ideals in B(H). A definition of the two types of ideals is given: one contains only bounded operators, the other involves both bounded and unbounded operators. Some algebraic properties of ideals Ssub(phi)(D) derived from the well-known symmetrically normed ideals Ssub(phi) are investigated. Topologies in such ideals are introduced, and some results connected with topological properties of these ideals are given
Simulation of temperature in office with building integrated heating and cooling system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weitzmann, Peter
2002-01-01
In this paper a numerical investigation of the thermal indoor environment has been performed for an office with building integrated hydronic heating and cooling system. Today office buildings are designed in such a way, and have such high internal heat loads and solar gains, that some kind...... of cooling is normally necessary for most of the year. Even in as cool climates as in the Nordic countries. The way the cooling is often achieved is through air conditioning. This can in many cases lead to sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, and furthermore it results in high energy consumption periods...... the temperature of the concrete to a level slightly below the desired room temperature, the concrete will work as an absorber for the excess heat in the office. This can significantly reduce the need for air conditioning, which will give both improved indoor climate and lower energy costs in the building...
Improved DEA Cross Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Ideal and Anti-Ideal Points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Hou
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A new model is introduced in the process of evaluating efficiency value of decision making units (DMUs through data envelopment analysis (DEA method. Two virtual DMUs called ideal point DMU and anti-ideal point DMU are combined to form a comprehensive model based on the DEA method. The ideal point DMU is taking self-assessment system according to efficiency concept. The anti-ideal point DMU is taking other-assessment system according to fairness concept. The two distinctive ideal point models are introduced to the DEA method and combined through using variance ration. From the new model, a reasonable result can be obtained. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the new constructed model and certify the rationality of the constructed model through relevant analysis with the traditional DEA model.
Energylab Nordhavn: An integrated community energy system towards green heating and e-mobility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jiawei; You, Shi; Zong, Yi
2017-01-01
This paper analyzes the green potential of a newly developed urban community, i.e., Nordhavn, in Copenhagen, Denmark from a planning perspective, wherein the energy sector of power, heat and transportation will be developed as an integrated energy system solution. Based on an hour-by-hour analysi...
Heat pipes theory, design and applications
Reay, David; Kew, Peter
2013-01-01
Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat
Integrating Waste Heat from CO_{2} Removal and Coal-Fired Flue Gas to Increase Plant Efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Irvin, Nick [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Kowalczyk, Joseph [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)
2017-04-01
In project DE-FE0007525, Southern Company Services demonstrated heat integration methods for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide produced from pulverized coal combustion. A waste heat recovery technology (termed High Efficiency System) from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America was integrated into an existing 25-MW amine-based CO_{2} capture process (Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®1) at Southern Company’s Plant Barry to evaluate improvements in the energy performance of the pulverized coal plant and CO_{2} capture process. The heat integration system consists of two primary pieces of equipment: (1) the CO_{2} Cooler which uses product CO_{2} gas from the capture process to heat boiler condensate, and (2) the Flue Gas Cooler which uses air heater outlet flue gas to further heat boiler condensate. Both pieces of equipment were included in the pilot system. The pilot CO_{2} Cooler used waste heat from the 25-MW CO_{2} capture plant (but not always from product CO_{2} gas, as intended). The pilot Flue Gas Cooler used heat from a slipstream of flue gas taken from downstream of Plant Barry’s air heater. The pilot also included a 0.25-MW electrostatic precipitator. The 25-MW High Efficiency System operated for approximately six weeks over a four month time period in conjunction with the 25-MW CO_{2} capture facility at Plant Barry. Results from the program were used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of full-scale implementation of this technology. The test program quantified energy efficiency improvements to a host power plant that could be realized due to the High Efficiency System. Through the execution of this project, the team verified the integrated operation of the High Efficiency System and Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®. The ancillary benefits of the High Efficiency System were also quantified, including reduced water consumption
Low Mach number analysis of idealized thermoacoustic engines with numerical solution.
Hireche, Omar; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Le Quéré, Patrick; Bauwens, Luc
2010-12-01
A model of an idealized thermoacoustic engine is formulated, coupling nonlinear flow and heat exchange in the heat exchangers and stack with a simple linear acoustic model of the resonator and load. Correct coupling results in an asymptotically consistent global model, in the small Mach number approximation. A well-resolved numerical solution is obtained for two-dimensional heat exchangers and stack. The model assumes that the heat exchangers and stack are shorter than the overall length by a factor of the order of a representative Mach number. The model is well-suited for simulation of the entire startup process, whereby as a result of some excitation, an initially specified temperature profile in the stack evolves toward a near-steady profile, eventually reaching stationary operation. A validation analysis is presented, together with results showing the early amplitude growth and approach of a stationary regime. Two types of initial excitation are used: Random noise and a small periodic wave. The set of assumptions made leads to a heat-exchanger section that acts as a source of volume but is transparent to pressure and to a local heat-exchanger model characterized by a dynamically incompressible flow to which a locally spatially uniform acoustic pressure fluctuation is superimposed.
Mathematics and geometry towards ideality in «Domus»’s ideal houses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona Chiodo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Between 1942 and 1943 the editor of the journal «Domus» invited the most important Italian architects to design their ideal houses: fifteen projects designed by seventeen architects were published. They are most instructive to try to understand, firstly, what the philosophical notion of ideal means and, secondly, why mathematical and geometric tools are extensively used to work on ideality, namely, to design ideal houses. The first part of the article focuses on the philosophical foundations of ideality and, after an overview of the fifteen projects, on the use of the golden ratio in two particularly meaningful cases. The second part of the article focuses on the cases in which there is a hidden use of the golden ratio, on the use of the modulus and on the use of the number 2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stéphane Laurens
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In the case of emigrated or exiled individuals, the idealization of origins often becomes more marked in the beginning of the integration of these individuals in the host society. Thus, as they lose their language, their customs, to take those of the society of reception, they elaborate an idealized image of their past. This progressive differentiation between the idealized past and the actual reality facilitates the acculturation in the host society and at the same time allows for the preservation of their specific identity. It is this elaboration of the ideal and its emancipation of the daily realities, which will be approached here.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Thermal and heat transfer models of absorption heat pumps driven by exhaust gas, hot water, or natural gas. • Natural gas boiler combustion model. • Heat exchanger for condensing. • Experimental data of a hot water absorption heat pump. • Economic assessment of heat recovery absorption heat pump for improving natural gas boilers. - Abstract: Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150–200 °C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50–60 °C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural
Medical ethics and more: ideal theories, non-ideal theories and conscientious objection.
Luna, Florencia
2015-01-01
Doing 'good medical ethics' requires acknowledgment that it is often practised in non-ideal circumstances! In this article I present the distinction between ideal theory (IT) and non-ideal theory (NIT). I show how IT may not be the best solution to tackle problems in non-ideal contexts. I sketch a NIT framework as a useful tool for bioethics and medical ethics and explain how NITs can contribute to policy design in non-ideal circumstances. Different NITs can coexist and be evaluated vis-à-vis the IT. Additionally, I address what an individual doctor ought to do in this non-ideal context with the view that knowledge of NITs can facilitate the decision-making process. NITs help conceptualise problems faced in the context of non-compliance and scarcity in a better and more realistic way. Deciding which policy is optimal in such contexts may influence physicians' decisions regarding their patients. Thus, this analysis-usually identified only with policy making-may also be relevant to medical ethics. Finally, I recognise that this is merely a first step in an unexplored but fundamental theoretical area and that more work needs to be done. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
A Brief View of“Chinese Dream”the Value of the Ideal Faith Education for College Students
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李科; 燕爽
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the“Chinese dream”and“Chinese dream”the connotation of education, believe that the current to carry out the"Chinese dream"education is the best form of the ideal faith education of college students."Chinese dream"rich ideal faith education value which contains the leading value, the incentive value, the integrated value and adding value Etc.
Monomial ideals, computations and applications
Gimenez, Philippe; Sáenz-de-Cabezón, Eduardo
2013-01-01
This work covers three important aspects of monomials ideals in the three chapters "Stanley decompositions" by Jürgen Herzog, "Edge ideals" by Adam Van Tuyl and "Local cohomology" by Josep Álvarez Montaner. The chapters, written by top experts, include computer tutorials that emphasize the computational aspects of the respective areas. Monomial ideals and algebras are, in a sense, among the simplest structures in commutative algebra and the main objects of combinatorial commutative algebra. Also, they are of major importance for at least three reasons. Firstly, Gröbner basis theory allows us to treat certain problems on general polynomial ideals by means of monomial ideals. Secondly, the combinatorial structure of monomial ideals connects them to other combinatorial structures and allows us to solve problems on both sides of this correspondence using the techniques of each of the respective areas. And thirdly, the combinatorial nature of monomial ideals also makes them particularly well suited to the devel...
Second Order Ideal-Ward Continuity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bipan Hazarika
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to introduce a concept of second order ideal-ward continuity in the sense that a function f is second order ideal-ward continuous if I-limn→∞Δ2f(xn=0 whenever I-limn→∞Δ2xn=0 and a concept of second order ideal-ward compactness in the sense that a subset E of R is second order ideal-ward compact if any sequence x=(xn of points in E has a subsequence z=(zk=(xnk of the sequence x such that I-limk→∞Δ2zk=0 where Δ2zk=zk+2-2zk+1+zk. We investigate the impact of changing the definition of convergence of sequences on the structure of ideal-ward continuity in the sense of second order ideal-ward continuity and compactness of sets in the sense of second order ideal-ward compactness and prove related theorems.
Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver
Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.
1987-01-01
The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.
Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver
Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.
1987-07-01
The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.
Ideals and anti-ideals students of the basic and senior school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir S. Sobkin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of representations of the ideals and anti-ideals in secondary and high schools students. The study is important due to connection with the peculiarities of modern adolescent socialization in the context of contemporary social cultural realities. Shaping the world view in students is significantly influenced by the choice of values and the social role model. In this regard, the aim of this study was to examine gender and age dynamics of different groups of personalities related to the politics and spiritual culture in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents. Aggravation of the internal and external political situation, politically-oriented media content and society as a whole, the introduction of information technologies in various spheres of life, the «western» background of cultural values and information environment, the shift of sex-role identification has a significant influence on gender-specific and age-specific dynamics and significance of different groups of personalities in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents are based on the data of content analysis and a questionnaire survey of 2,273 students, grades 5-11. The features of the structure of ideals and anti-idials of boys and girls, which are formed under the influence of gender identification are characterized. The analysis of the students’ groups of ideals and anti-idials is held depending on their belonging to the Russian and foreign cultures. The students’ representations of the ideals and anti-idials are of a mixed structure, dominated by the personalities of the real people in comparison with the images (characters of works of literature, cinema, cartoons. The sphere of political culture and ideology (politicians, historical figures that presents male personalities is significant for boys. For girls, besides politics, the literary field (writers and movie actors is more important, where the
Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael
2016-01-01
District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating...... is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...
Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana
2012-01-01
This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin ideal animated characters or (2) animated characters with no thin ideal features or (3) 'real' human actors with no thin ideal features. After watching, their state body satisfaction was measured. Girls with higher levels of thin ideal internalisation showed higher body satisfaction after exposure to the thin ideal characters than after exposure to animated or real characters featuring no thin ideal features. No differences on body satisfaction between the exposure conditions were found in girls with lower levels of thin ideal internalisation. The results might suggest that young girls who internalised the thin ideal are inspired by thin ideal characters in children's media.
Pond, Ian; Edabi, Alireza; Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher
2015-11-01
Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) modeling has established itself as a critical design tool in many engineering applications, thanks to its superior computational efficiency. The drawbacks of RANS models are well known, but not necessarily well understood: poor prediction of transition, non equilibrium flows, mixing and heat transfer, to name the ones relevant to our study. In the present study, we use a DNS of a reciprocating channel flow driven by an oscillating pressure gradient to test several low- and high-Reynolds RANS models. Temperature is introduced as a passive scalar to study heat transfer modeling. Low-Reynolds models manage to capture the overall physics of wall shear and heat flux well, yet with some phase discrepancies, whereas high Reynolds models fail. Under the microscope of the integral method for wall shear and wall heat flux, the qualitative agreement appears more serendipitous than driven by the ability of the models to capture the correct physics. The integral method is shown to be more insightful in the benchmarking of RANS models than the typical comparisons of statistical quantities. The authors acknowledges the support of NSF and DOE under grant NSF/DOE 1258697 (VT) and 1258702 (NH).
Integration of Space Heating and Hot Water Supply in Low Temperature District Heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael
2014-01-01
pipes, where the water is at the highest temperature. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the temperatures in the network for which reason low temperature networks are proposed as a low loss solution for future district heating. However, the heating demand of the consumers involve both domestic......District heating makes it possible to provide heat for many consumers in an efficient manner. In particular, district heating based on combined heat and power production is highly efficient. One disadvantage of district heating is that there is a significant heat loss from the pipes...... to the surrounding ground. In larger networks involving both transmission and distribution systems, the heat loss is most significant from the distribution network. An estimate is that about 80-90 % of the heat loss occurs in the distribution system. In addition, the heat loss is naturally highest from the forward...
Malone-brayton cycle engine/heat pump
Gilmour, Thomas A.
1994-07-01
A machine, such as a heat pump, and having an all liquid heat exchange fluid, operates over a more nearly ideal thermodynamic cycle by adjustment of the proportionality of the volumetric capacities of a compressor and an expander to approximate the proportionality of the densities of the liquid heat exchange fluid at the chosen working pressures. Preferred forms of a unit including both the compressor and the expander on a common shaft employs difference in axial lengths of rotary pumps of the gear or vane type to achieve the adjustment of volumetric capacity. Adjustment of the heat pump system for differing heat sink conditions preferably employs variable compression ratio pumps.
Performances of four magnetic heat-pump cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.; Mel, V.C.; Chen, G.L.
1990-01-01
Magnetic heat pumps have been successfully used for refrigeration applications at near absolute-zero-degree temperatures. In these applications, a temperature lift of a few degrees in a cryogenic environment is sufficient and can be easily achieved by a simple magnetic heat-pump cycle. To extend magnetic heat pumping to other temperature ranges and other types of applications in which the temperature lift is more than just a few degrees requires more involved cycle processes. This paper investigates the characteristics of a few better-known thermomagnetic heat-pump cycles (Carnot, Ericsson, Stirling, and regenerative) in extended ranges of temperature lift. The regenerative cycle is the most efficient one. For gadolinium operating between 0 and 7 T (Tesla) in a heat pump cycle with a heat-rejection temperature of 320 K, our analysis predicted a 42% loss in coefficient of performance at 260 K cooling temperature, and a 15% loss in capacity at 232 K cooling temperature for the constant-field cycle as compared with the ideal regenerative cycle. Such substantial penalties indicate that the potential irreversibilities from this one source (the additional heat transfer that would be needed for the constant-field vs. the ideal regenerative cycle) may adversely affect the viability of certain proposed MHP concepts if the relevant loss mechanisms are not adequately addressed
Quantum phase space for an ideal relativistic gas in d spatial dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, M.; Vera Mendoza, H.
1992-01-01
We present the closed formula for the d-dimensional invariant phase-space integral for an ideal relativistic gas in an exact integral form. In the particular cases of the nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic limits the phase-space integrals are calculated analytically. Then we consider the d-dimensional invariant phase space with quantum statistic and derive the cluster decomposition for the grand canonical and canonical partition functions as well as for the microcanonical and grand microcanonical densities of states. As a showcase, we consider the black-body radiation in d dimensions (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishwakarma, J P; Nath, G
2010-01-01
A self-similar solution for the propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which is rotating about the axis of symmetry, is investigated. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a piston (an inner expanding surface) and the dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient α R are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.
Heyting, G.F.
2004-01-01
In reaction to Doret De Ruyter's recent defence of the importance of ideals in education, I advocate cautiousness in three respects. First, I explain the importance of distinguishing ideals more sharply from goals by demonstrating the problems of considering ideals even approximately realisable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aittomaeki, A.; Maekinen, A.
2009-07-01
The efficient use of energy is playing an increasing role in saving natural resources and in maintaining competitiveness. The system integration plays an essential role when efficiency is maximized. Expressed in thermodynamical terms the question is about minimizing the loss of energy. When planning the integration of heating and cooling the impacts of different coupling possibilities and measurements should be compared. In this report the modeling or simulation of energy balances studies in different systems is described. In the system integration of different sports buildings the modeling parts are the following: office space with heating systems, indoor ice-skating rink, skiing tunnel, indoor swimming pool, sports-field and sport center
Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures
Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.
2006-01-01
In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.
Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is
Low-temperature behaviour of an ideal Bose gas and some forbidden thermodynamic cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Jincan; Lin Bihong
2003-01-01
Based on the equation of state of an ideal Bose gas, the heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure of the Bose system are derived and used to analyse the low-temperature behaviour of the Bose system. It is expounded that some important thermodynamic processes such as a constant pressure and an adiabatic process cannot be carried out from the region of T > T c to that of T c , where T c is the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the Bose system. Consequently, some typical thermodynamic cycles such as the Carnot cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto cycle, Ericsson cycle, Diesel cycle and Atkinson cycle cannot be operated across the critical temperature T c of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengwei Huang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both
Investigations on post-dryout heat transfer in bilaterally heated annular channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian, W.X.; Qiu, S.Z.; Jia, D.N.
2006-01-01
Post-dryout heat transfer in bilaterally heated vertical narrow annular channels with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm gap size has been experimentally investigated with deionized water under the condition of pressure ranging from 1.38 to 5.9 MPa and low mass flow rate from 42.9 to 150.2 kg/m 2 s. The experimental data was compared with well known empirical correlations including Groeneveld, Mattson, etc., and none of them gave an ideal prediction. Theoretical investigations were also carried out on post-dryout heat transfer in annular channels. Based on analysis of heat exchange processes arising among the droplets, the vapor and two tube walls of annular channel, a non-equilibrium mechanistic heat transfer model was developed. Comparison indicated that the present model prediction showed a good agreement with our experimental data. Theoretical calculation result showed that the forced convective heat transfer between the heated wall and vapor dominate the overall heat transfer. The heat transfer caused by the droplets direct contact to the wall and the interfacial convection/evaporation of droplets in superheated vapors also had an indispensable contribution. The radiation heat transfer would be neglected because of its small contribution (less than 0.11%) to the total heat transfer
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT WAYS OF CENTRAL HEATING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. E. Piir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article shows the calculation comparison of fuel for producing of heat-line water with a help of different technological installations, transforming (converting high-grade heat from burning process of fuel or in the process of non-reversible heat exchange with coolant (heating agent, or with a help of heat engines, which allow to decrease losses of working efficiency and thus to reduce the use of fuel. There were considered five types of plants beginning from the simplest one up to the most complex in two variants, when the heat exchangers and machines are perfect (ideal and when equipment has the known degree of efficiency (perfection:1 water-heat boiler station, working on organic fuel;2 electrical boiler station, obtaining energy on power transmission lines from condensing power station;3 line heater of TPP, obtaining steam from heating turbine;4 line heater CPP, powered by steam from pressure reducing unit;5 heat pump, producing energy on power supply lines from TPP.In this article were investigated three ideal reversible ways of transformation of high- grade heat into low-grade heat with a help of decreasing and increasing and combined (suggested by the authors heat transformers and their thermodynamic equivalence was shown in this article. And there were suggested universal installation for electric energy generation, cold and heat of two grades for heat-water supply and the heating process on the base of gascompressors gas turbines. These results are so important (actual for power engineers of the countries with increasing consumption of organic fuel and its enhancement in value and realizing programs of energy saving .The analysis shows, that the quality of produced low-grade heat per unit of used high-grade heat for ideal plants (installations is: electrical boiler unit – 0.7; water boiler unit – 1.0; for heat pump, heating turbine, combined heat transformers – 4
Combined cycle power plant with integrated low temperature heat (LOTHECO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakaras, E.; Doukelis, A.; Leithner, R.; Aronis, N.
2004-01-01
The major driver to enhance the efficiency of the simple gas turbine cycle has been the increase in process conditions through advancements in materials and cooling methods. Thermodynamic cycle developments or cycle integration are among the possible ways to further enhance performance. The current paper presents the possibilities and advantages from the LOTHECO natural gas-fired combined cycle concept. In the LOTHECO cycle, low-temperature waste heat or solar heat is used for the evaporation of injected water droplets in the compressed air entering the gas turbine's combustion chamber. Following a description of this innovative cycle, its advantages are demonstrated by comparison between different gas turbine power generation systems for small and large-scale applications, including thermodynamic and economic analysis. A commercial gas turbine (ALSTOM GT10C) has been selected and computed with the heat mass balance program ENBIPRO. The results from the energy analysis are presented and the features of each concept are discussed. In addition, the exergy analysis provides information on the irreversibilities of each process and suggested improvements. Finally, the economic analysis reveals that the combined cycle plant with a heavy-duty gas turbine is the most efficient and economic way to produce electricity at base load. However, on a smaller scale, innovative designs, such as the LOTHECO concept, are required to reach the same level of performance at feasible costs
Decomposition of fuzzy continuity and fuzzy ideal continuity via fuzzy idealization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahran, A.M.; Abbas, S.E.; Abd El-baki, S.A.; Saber, Y.M.
2009-01-01
Recently, El-Naschie has shown that the notion of fuzzy topology may be relevant to quantum paretical physics in connection with string theory and E-infinity space time theory. In this paper, we study the concepts of r-fuzzy semi-I-open, r-fuzzy pre-I-open, r-fuzzy α-I-open and r-fuzzy β-I-open sets, which is properly placed between r-fuzzy openness and r-fuzzy α-I-openness (r-fuzzy pre-I-openness) sets regardless the fuzzy ideal topological space in Sostak sense. Moreover, we give a decomposition of fuzzy continuity, fuzzy ideal continuity and fuzzy ideal α-continuity, and obtain several characterization and some properties of these functions. Also, we investigate their relationship with other types of function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santhanam, S.; Schilt, C.; Turker, B.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V.
2016-01-01
This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of biomass Gasifier–SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)–GT (Gas Turbine) systems on a small scale (100 kW_e). Evaluation of an existing biomass Gasifier–SOFC–GT system shows highest exergy losses in the gasifier, gas turbine and as waste heat. In order to reduce the exergy losses and increase the system's efficiency, improvements are suggested and the effects are analyzed. Changing the gasifying agent for air to anode gas gave the largest increase in the electrical efficiency. However, heat is required for an allothermal gasification to take place. A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration is proposed, with heat pipes placed in between stacks in series, rather than the widely considered approach of integrating the heat pipes within the SOFC stacks. The developed system based on a Gasifier–SOFC–GT combination improved with heat pipes and anode gas recirculation, increases the electrical efficiency from approximately 55%–72%, mainly due to reduced exergy losses in the gasifier. Analysis of the improved system shows that operating the system at possibly higher operating pressures, yield higher efficiencies within the range of the operating pressures studied. Further the system was scaled up with an additional bottoming cycle achieved electrical efficiency of 73.61%. - Highlights: • A new and simple strategy for heat pipe integration between SOFC and Gasifier is proposed. • Anode exhaust gas is used as a gasifying agent. • The new proposed Gasifier–SOFC–GT system achieves electrical efficiency of 72%. • Addition of steam rankine bottoming cycle to proposed system increases electrical efficiency to 73.61%.
Period doubling in a model of magnetoconvection with Ohmic heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, M. B. H.
2000-01-01
In this work it has been studied an idealized model of rotating nonlinear magneto convection to investigate the effects of Ohmic heating. In the over stable region it was found that Ohmic heating can lead to a period-doubling sequence
Numerical investigation of premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farzaneh, Meisam; Shafiey, Mohammad; Shams, Mehrzad [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Reza [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-07-15
In this paper, we perform a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional axisymmetric problem arising in premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger. The physical domain consists of two zones, porous and heat exchanger zones. Two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, gas and solid energy equations, and chemical species transport equations are solved and heat release is described by a multistep kinetics mechanism. The solid matrix is modeled as a gray medium, and the finite volume method is used to solve the radiative transfer equation to calculate the local radiation source/sink in the solid phase energy equation. Special attention is given to model heat transfer between the hot gas and the heat exchanger tube. Thus, the corresponding terms are added to the energy equations of the flow and the solid matrix. Gas and solid temperature profiles and species mole fractions on the burner centerline, predicted 2D temperature fields, species concentrations and streamlines are presented. Calculated results for temperature profiles are compared to experimental data. It is shown that there is good agreement between the numerical solutions and the experimental data and it is concluded that the developed numerical program is an excellent tool to investigate combustion in porous burner. (orig.)
FY 17 Q1 Commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage milestone report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-01-01
The commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage (AS-IHP) offers significant energy saving over a baseline heat pump with electric water heater. The saving potential is maximized when the AS-IHP serves coincident high water heating and high space cooling demands. A previous energy performance analysis showed that the AS-IHP provides the highest benefit in the hot-humid and hot-dry/mixed dry climate regions. Analysis of technical potential energy savings for these climate zones based on the BTO Market calculator indicated that the following commercial building market segments had the highest water heating loads relative to space cooling and heating loads education, food service, health care, lodging, and mercantile/service. In this study, we focused on these building types to conservatively estimate the market potential of the AS-IHP. Our analysis estimates maximum annual shipments of ~522,000 units assuming 100% of the total market is captured. An early replacement market based on replacement of systems in target buildings between 15 and 35 years old was estimated at ~136,000 units. Technical potential energy savings are estimated at ~0.27 quad based on the maximum market estimate, equivalent to ~13.9 MM Ton CO2 emissions reduction.
Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.
2013-05-24
Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test
Monstadt, J.; Schramm, S.
One of the most influential ideals for constructing and managing cities and infrastructures worldwide is that of the ‘networked city'. This ideal refers to the technological design and morphology of cities integrated and ordered by infrastructure networks and to a specific model in the operation,
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Pässler
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Detailed analytical and numerical analyses are performed for combinations of several complementary sets of measured heat capacities, for ZnSe and ZnTe, from the liquid-helium region up to 600 K. The isochoric (harmonic parts of heat capacities, CVh(T, are described within the frame of a properly devised four-oscillator hybrid model. Additional anharmonicity-related terms are included for comprehensive numerical fittings of the isobaric heat capacities, Cp(T. The contributions of Debye and non-Debye type due to the low-energy acoustical phonon sections are represented here for the first time by unprecedented, integral-free formulas. Indications for weak electronic contributions to the cryogenic heat capacities are found for both materials. A novel analytical framework has been constructed for high-accuracy evaluations of Debye function integrals via a couple of integral-free formulas, consisting of Debye’s conventional low-temperature series expansion in combination with an unprecedented high-temperature series representation for reciprocal values of the Debye function. The zero-temperature limits of Debye temperatures have been detected from published low-temperature Cp(T data sets to be significantly lower than previously estimated, namely, 270 (±3 K for ZnSe and 220 (±2 K for ZnTe. The high-temperature limits of the “true” (harmonic lattice Debye temperatures are found to be 317 K for ZnSe and 262 K for ZnTe.
Dependence of core heating properties on heating pulse duration and intensity
Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sunahara, Atsushi; Cai, Hongbo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki
2009-11-01
In the cone-guiding fast ignition, an imploded core is heated by the energy transport of fast electrons generated by the ultra-intense short-pulse laser at the cone inner surface. The fast core heating (˜800eV) has been demonstrated at integrated experiments with GEKKO-XII+ PW laser systems. As the next step, experiments using more powerful heating laser, FIREX, have been started at ILE, Osaka university. In FIREX-I (phase-I of FIREX), our goal is the demonstration of efficient core heating (Ti ˜ 5keV) using a newly developed 10kJ LFEX laser. In the first integrated experiments, the LFEX laser is operated with low energy mode (˜0.5kJ/4ps) to validate the previous GEKKO+PW experiments. Between the two experiments, though the laser energy is similar (˜0.5kJ), the duration is different; ˜0.5ps in the PW laser and ˜ 4ps in the LFEX laser. In this paper, we evaluate the dependence of core heating properties on the heating pulse duration on the basis of integrated simulations with FI^3 (Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting) code system.
Integration of Heat Transfer, Stress, and Particle Trajectory Simulation. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bui, Thuc; Read, Michael; Ives, Lawrence
2012-01-01
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed and currently markets Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) in the United States and abroad. BOA is a 3D, charged particle optics code that solves the electric and magnetic fields with and without the presence of particles. It includes automatic and adaptive meshing to resolve spatial scales ranging from a few millimeters to meters. It is fully integrated with CAD packages, such as SolidWorks, allowing seamless geometry updates. The code includes iterative procedures for optimization, including a fully functional, graphical user interface. Recently, time dependent, particle in cell capability was added, pushing particles synchronically under quasistatic electromagnetic fields to obtain particle bunching under RF conditions. A heat transfer solver was added during this Phase I program. Completed tasks include: (1) Added a 3D finite element heat transfer solver with adaptivity; (2) Determined the accuracy of the linear heat transfer field solver to provide the basis for development of higher order solvers in Phase II; (3) Provided more accurate and smoother power density fields; and (4) Defined the geometry using the same CAD model, while maintaining different meshes, and interfacing the power density field between the particle simulator and heat transfer solvers. These objectives were achieved using modern programming techniques and algorithms. All programming was in C++ and parallelization in OpenMP, utilizing state-of-the-art multi-core technology. Both x86 and x64 versions are supported. The GUI design and implementation used Microsoft Foundation Class.
Soft ideal topological space and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manash Borah
2019-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce fuzzy soft ideal and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological spaces and some properties of this space. Also we introduce fuzzy soft $I$-open set, fuzzy soft $\\alpha$-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft pre-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft semi-$I$-open set and fuzzy soft $\\beta$-$I$-open set and discuss some of their properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakanishi, Toshinari; Aso, Kazumasa [Kimura Chemical Plants Co., Ltd., Amagasaki City, Hyogo (Japan); Takamatsu, Takeichiro [Research Inst. of Industrial Technology, Suita-City, Osaka (Japan); Nakaiwa, Masaru [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Noda, Hideo; Kuratani, Nobuyuki [Kansai Chemical Engineearing Co., Ltd., Amagasaki-city, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshida, Kazufumi [Maruzen Petrochemical Co., Ltd., 25-10, Tokyo (Japan)
1999-07-01
To reduce the irreversible loss the Heat Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) is proposed by application of heat-pump technology. (Distillation column, which is an energy consuming separation unit, has been widely used in oil refinery and the other chemical-related plants. The reason why it is a major energy consumer is that a large amount of irreversible loss occurs in heat transfer within the process.) In this paper, current results on the study of HIDiC in both simulations and experiments are shown. HIDiC must be operated at a higher pressure in the rectifying section so as to make its temperature higher than that of the stripping section which stands parallel with the rectifying section. That makes heat transfer from the rectifying section to the stripping section. Because of vaporization in the stripping section and condensation in the rectifying section, the energy for the reboiler can be saved. The degree of energy saving can be expected to be much more than 30%, although the exact value depends on the characteristics of mixture to be separated. (The degree of energy saving is higher than the above, if the exhaust vapor from the HIDiC is used to heat the feed or the other processes.) To save energy by the HIDiC, high separation performances and heat transfer capabilities are required. It has been found out that the HIDiC, whose shape is like vertical shell and tube heat exchanger was enough to be practical use of the HIDiC from the static design principle points of view. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatani, Ali; Khazaeli, Ali; Roshandel, Ramin; Panjeshahi, Mohammad Hassan
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Using an integrated pre-reformer before feeding a DIR-MCFC is proposed. ► An ORC with different working fluid is used for waste heat recovery from the proposed plant. ► Performance of compound system is evaluated by thermodynamic analysis. ► An improvement on simultaneously heat integration between the units and waste heat recovery is performed. ► Overall energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 60.45% and 57.75%. - Abstract: This work deals with waste heat recovery from a proposed direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC), including an integrated pre-reformer. In this regard, some advantages are attainable over exhaust gas recycling. For instance, due to low temperature in the pre-reformer, carbon deposition and coke formation resulting from higher hydrocarbons can be eliminated. In this study, the cathode outlet provides the heat requirement for the pre-reforming process. After partial heat recovery from the cathode outlet, the stream still has a considerable energy and exergy (352.55 °C and 83.687 kW respectively). This study investigates waste heat recovery from the proposed DIR-MCFC, using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with two different configurations. In the first case, the cathode outlet provides the heat requirement for the pre-reforming process; then, it enters the heat recovery vapor generator of the organic Rankine cycle. In the second case, the cathode outlet is split into two streams for using in an ORC and supplying the pre-reforming process required heat. Several substances are selected as working fluids in order to compare their performance in the waste heat recovery system. The overall results at optimum conditions indicate that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the compound system are increased and its exergy loss is decreased with cathode splitting for all substances (1.1% average over all fluids). It is concluded that cathode splitting has a significant impact on the substances which
A Brief View of “Chinese Dream” the Value of the Ideal Faith Education for College Students
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李科; 燕爽
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the“Chinese dream”and“Chinese dream”the connotation of education, believe that the current to carry out the“Chinese dream” education is the best form of the ideal faith education of college students.＆quot;Chinese dream＆quot;rich ideal faith education value which contains the leading value, the incentive value, the integrated value and adding value Etc.
A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, Niels; Viereck, Peter; Pryds, Nini
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A comprehensive model was developed to optimize the integrated TEG-heat exchanger. • The developed model was validated with the experimental data. • The effect of using different interface materials on the output power was assessed. • The influence of TEG arrangement on the power production was investigated. • Optimized geometrical parameters and proper interface materials were suggested. - Abstract: In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness of the interface surfaces as well as the air gap thermal resistance at the interface. The combined CMY and parallel plate gap model is then further developed to simulate the thermal contact resistance for the case of an interface material. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data with an average deviation of 17% for the case without interface material and 12% in the case of including additional material at the interfaces. The model is then employed to evaluate the power production of the integrated system using different interface materials, including graphite, aluminum (Al), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) in a form of thin foils. The numerical results show that lead foil at the interface has the best performance, with an improvement in power production of 34% compared to graphite foil. Finally, the model predicts that for a certain flow rate, increasing the parallel TEG channels for the integrated systems with 4, 8, and 12 TEGs
Modest, Michael F
2013-01-01
The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...
Geothermal heat-pump systems of heat supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, G.P.
2004-01-01
The data on the multilayer operation of the objects, located in the climatic conditions of the central area of Russia and equipped with the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply are presented. The results of the analytical studies on evaluating the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply integration efficiency into the structure of the energy supply system, prevailing in the country, are presented [ru
Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery with Heat Pipe-Based Thermal Control
Brito, F. P.; Martins, Jorge; Hançer, Esra; Antunes, Nuno; Gonçalves, L. M.
2015-06-01
Heat pipe (HP)-based heat exchangers can be used for very low resistance heat transfer between a hot and a cold source. Their operating temperature depends solely on the boiling point of their working fluid, so it is possible to control the heat transfer temperature if the pressure of the HP can be adjusted. This is the case of the variable conductance HPs (VCHP). This solution makes VCHPs ideal for the passive control of thermoelectric generator (TEG) temperature levels. The present work assesses, both theoretically and experimentally, the merit of the aforementioned approach. A thermal and electrical model of a TEG with VCHP assist is proposed. Experimental results obtained with a proof of concept prototype attached to a small single-cylinder engine are presented and used to validate the model. It was found that the HP heat exchanger indeed enables the TEG to operate at a constant, optimal temperature in a passive and safe way, and with a minimal overall thermal resistance, under part load, it effectively reduces the active module area without deprecating the temperature level of the active modules.
Study on Product Innovative Design Process Driven by Ideal Solution
Zhang, Fuying; Lu, Ximei; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hui
Product innovative design in companies today relies heavily on individual members’ experience and creative ideation as well as their skills of integrating creativity and innovation tools with design methods agilely. Creative ideation and inventive ideas generation are two crucial stages in product innovative design process. Ideal solution is the desire final ideas for given problem, and the striving reaching target for product design. In this paper, a product innovative design process driven by ideal solution is proposed. This design process encourages designers to overcome their psychological inertia, to foster creativity in a systematic way for acquiring breakthrough creative and innovative solutions in a reducing sphere of solution-seeking, and results in effective product innovative design rapidly. A case study example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design process.
Critical behavior of the ideal-gas Bose-Einstein condensation in the Apollonian network.
de Oliveira, I N; dos Santos, T B; de Moura, F A B F; Lyra, M L; Serva, M
2013-08-01
We show that the ideal Boson gas displays a finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation transition in the complex Apollonian network exhibiting scale-free, small-world, and hierarchical properties. The single-particle tight-binding Hamiltonian with properly rescaled hopping amplitudes has a fractal-like energy spectrum. The energy spectrum is analytically demonstrated to be generated by a nonlinear mapping transformation. A finite-size scaling analysis over several orders of magnitudes of network sizes is shown to provide precise estimates for the exponents characterizing the condensed fraction, correlation size, and specific heat. The critical exponents, as well as the power-law behavior of the density of states at the bottom of the band, are similar to those of the ideal Boson gas in lattices with spectral dimension d(s)=2ln(3)/ln(9/5)~/=3.74.
Lacunary ideal convergence of multiple sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bipan Hazarika
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An ideal I is a family of subsets of N×N which is closed under taking finite unions and subsets of its elements. In this article, the concept of lacunary ideal convergence of double sequences has been introduced. Also the relation between lacunary ideal convergent and lacunary Cauchy double sequences has been established. Furthermore, the notions of lacunary ideal limit point and lacunary ideal cluster points have been introduced and find the relation between these two notions. Finally, we have studied the properties such as solidity, monotonic.
Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh
2014-06-01
Osseointegration is the more stable situation and results in a high success rate of dental implants. Heat generation during rotary cutting is one of the important factors influencing the development of osseointegration. To assess the various factors related to implant drills responsible for heat generation during osteotomy. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline and Pubmed database. Articles published in between 1960 to February 2013 were searched. The search is focused on heat generated by dental implant drills during osteotomy. Various factors related to implant drill such effect of number of blades; drill design, drill fatigue, drill speed and force applied during osteotomies which were responsible for heat generation were reviewed. Titles and abstracts were screened, and literature that fulfilled the inclusion criteria was selected for a full-text reading. The initial literature search resulted in 299 articles out of which only 70 articles fulfils the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Many factors related to implant drill responsible for heat generation were found. Successful preparation of an implant cavity with minimal damage to the surrounding bone depends on the avoidance of excessive temperature generation during surgical drilling. The relationship between heat generated and implant drilling osteotomy is multifactorial in nature and its complexity has not been fully studied. Lack of scientific knowledge regarding this issue still exists. Further studies should be conducted to determine the various factors which generate less heat while osteotomy such as ideal ratio of force and speed in vivo, exact time to replace a drill, ideal drill design, irrigation system, drill-bone contact area.
Performance analysis of a thermosize micro/nano heat engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie Wenjie; He Jizhou
2008-01-01
In a recent paper [A. Sisman, I. Muller, Phys. Lett. A 320 (2004) 360] the thermodynamic properties of ideal gases confined in a narrow box were examined theoretically. The so-called 'thermosize effects' similar to thermoelectric effects, such as Seebeck-like thermosize effect, Peltier-like thermosize effect and Thomson-like thermosize effect, were analyzed. Like the thermoelectric generator, based on the thermosize effects we have established a model of micro/nano scaled ideal gas heat engine cycle which includes two isothermal and two isobaric processes. The expressions of power output and efficiency of this cycle in the two cases of reversible and irreversible heat exchange are derived and the optimal performance characteristics of the heat engine is discussed by some numerical example. The results obtained here will provide theoretical guidance for the design of micro/nano scaled device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Rong Ji; Zhang, Xiao Hui; Wang, Rui Xiang; Xu, Shu Hui; Wang, Hua Sheng
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Solar collector integrates compound parabolic concentrator and pulsating heat pipe. • Concentrator of a concentration ratio 3.4 matches well heat flux of heat pipe. • Solar collector efficiency increases with decreasing absorber thermal resistance. • Maximum 50% efficiency of the integrated solar collector has been achieved. - Abstract: The paper reports an experimental investigation of a newly proposed solar collector that integrates a closed-end pulsating heat pipe (PHP) and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The PHP is used as an absorber due to its simple structure and high heat transfer capacity. The CPC has a concentration ratio of 3.4 and can be readily manufactured by three-dimensional printing. The CPC can significantly increase the incident solar irradiation intensity to the PHP absorber and also reduce the heat loss due to the decrease in the area of the hot surface. A prototype of the solar collector has been built, consisting of a PHP absorber bent by 4 mm diameter copper tube, CPC arrayed by 10 × 2 CPC units with the collection area of 300 × 427.6 mm 2 , a hot water tank and a glass cover. HFE7100 was utilized as the working fluid at a filling ratio of 40%. The operating characteristics and thermal efficiency of the solar collector were experimentally studied. The steady and periodic temperature fluctuations of the evaporation and condensation sections of the PHP absorber indicate that the absorber works well with a thermal resistance of about 0.26 °C/W. It is also found that, as the main factor to the the thermal performance of the collector, thermal resistance of the PHP absorber decreases with increasing evaporation temperature. The collector apparently shows start-up, operational and shutdown stages at the starting and ending temperatures of 75 °C. When the direct normal irradiance is 800 W/m 2 , the instantaneous thermal efficiency of the solar collector can reach up to 50%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen-Yu Chiang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, a complete evaluation procedure of energy-saving and efficiency improvement for a large-scale hospital retrofit project has been established and successfully validated in Taiwan. The retrofit scheme, in integrating the alternative hot water system, namely, a water source heat pump (WSHP, with the existing HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning system, enables the capability to meet the cooling and hot water demand simultaneously with a larger safety margin as well as saving energy. In addition, it has been found that the integrated system provides a new source for cooling which can be utilized as a system redundancy in avoiding system shutdown. This is very useful when considering in specific areas in the hospital, such as intensive care unit, or operation rooms, where cooling should not be interrupted on any occasion. In this study, it is validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of the newly added WSHP system, under heating and cooling mode, is 3.62 and 2.62, respectively. The recorded annual cost reduction by this integrated system is $102,564, with a payback of 1.2 years. The hospital after retrofit has been operating safer, with more redundancy, and more energy-efficient which warrants tremendous potential for implementation in the industry.
Parallel transport in ideal magnetohydrodynamics and applications to resistive wall modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finn, J.M.; Gerwin, R.A.
1996-01-01
It is shown that in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with an ideal Ohm close-quote s law, in the presence of parallel heat flux, density gradient, temperature gradient, and parallel compression, but in the absence of perpendicular compressibility, there is an exact cancellation of the parallel transport terms. This cancellation is due to the fact that magnetic flux is advected in the presence of an ideal Ohm close-quote s law, and therefore parallel transport of temperature and density gives the same result as perpendicular advection of the same quantities. Discussions are also presented regarding parallel viscosity and parallel velocity shear, and the generalization to toroidal geometry. These results suggest that a correct generalization of the Hammett endash Perkins fluid operator [G. W. Hammett and F. W. Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] to simulate Landau damping for electromagnetic modes must give an operator that acts on the dynamics parallel to the perturbed magnetic field lines. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Integrated Heat, Air and Moisture Modeling and Simulation in Hamlab, Reference: A41-T3-NL-05-2
Schijndel, van A.W.M.
2005-01-01
This paper gives an overview of recent developments and results of a new integrated heat, air and moisture (HAM) modeling toolkit in Matlab named HAMLab. The recent developments include integration of a whole building model with building systems and controllers, 2D/3D HAM transport in constructions
Experimental study on heat pipe assisted heat exchanger used for industrial waste heat recovery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Hongting; Yin, Lihui; Shen, Xiaopeng; Lu, Wenqian; Sun, Yuexia; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) was used to recycle the waste heat in a slag cooling process of steel industry. • An specially designed on-line cleaning device was construed and used to enhance the heat transfer of HPHE. • The performance characteristics of a HPHE has been assessed by integrating the first and second law of thermodynamics. • The optimum operation conditions was determined by integrating the first and the second law of thermodynamics. - Abstract: Steel industry plays an important role economically in China. A great amount of hot waste liquids and gases are discharged into environment during many steelmaking processes. These waste liquids and gases have crucial energy saving potential, especially for steel slag cooling process. It could be possible to provide energy saving by employing a waste heat recovery system (WHRS). The optimum operation condition was assessed by integrating the first and the second law of thermodynamics for a water–water heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) for a slag cooling process in steel industry. The performance characteristics of a HPHE has been investigated experimentally by analyzing heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness, exergy efficiency and number of heat transfer units (NTU). A specially designed on-line cleaning device was used to clean the heat exchange tubes and enhance heat transfer. The results indicated that the exergy efficiency increased with the increment of waste water mass flow rate at constant fresh water mass flow rate, while the effectiveness decreased at the same operation condition. As the waste water mass flow rate varied from 0.83 m"3/h to 1.87 m"3/h, the effectiveness and exergy efficiency varied from 0.19 to 0.09 and from 34% to 41%, respectively. In the present work, the optimal flow rates of waste water and fresh water were 1.20 m"3/h and 3.00 m"3/h, respectively. The on-line cleaning device had an obvious effect on the heat transfer, by performing
Heat of vaporization spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, D. Jr.
1978-01-01
Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulier, Yohann; Tremaine, Peter R.
2014-01-01
integral heat of solution method in a commercial calorimeter to be reported in the literature
Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.
1994-01-01
This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar base habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and heat pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum heat rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of heat pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-based prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were
Integration of Heat Exchangers with Thermoelectric Modules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rezaniakolaei, Alireza
2017-01-01
processes wherein the critical system components such as the TEG module and the heat exchangers are thermally coupled. The optimization techniques of the TEG systems coupled with the heat transfer through the system using a maximum efficiency-power map for waste heat recovery applications offer maximum...... thermally interdependent in the system designs. This chapter studies the effect of the heat exchangers design on system performance, and discusses the challenges through accurate analyses techniques while introducing proper cooling technologies. Proper design of a TEG system involves design optimization...
Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.C.; Feru, E.
2015-01-01
Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI
Phillips, Trisha
2011-02-01
Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarrella, Angelo; Capozza, Antonio; De Carli, Michele
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new simulation tool package that calculates the energy efficiency of an entire Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system. The package consists of two detailed models of borehole heat exchangers and heat pump equipment coupled in a single well-integrated calculation tool. It was used to analyze two types of ground heat exchangers in the same operating conditions for two Italian climates. Research focused on comparing a short helical-shaped pipe configuration with the more widespread and longer double U-tube. Analysis was carried out at the same energy exchange rate with the ground and addressed the difference in total borehole depth. The package also took into account the effects of the weather on the heat transfer between the heat exchanger and the surrounding ground. Analysis found that a much shorter total borehole depth was needed for the helical-shaped pipe, which consequently reduces installation costs. Therefore, this configuration may be a suitable alternative to conventional U-shaped tubes, especially for new residential housing with low energy loads and where deep probe drilling is not possible. Finally, this paper also investigates the influence of the axial effects in the ground on the seasonal energy efficiency of the whole system. -- Highlights: • A new model to evaluate the efficiency of the whole GSHP system is presented. • The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. • Two types of vertical ground heat exchangers are analyzed: helix and 2U-tube. • They are analyzed in the same operating conditions for two Italian climates. • With helical shaped pipe a shorter total borehole depth is required
Application of the Lion's integral to calculate heat transfer with the N2O4 turbulent flow in a tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrovich, V.Yu.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Nesterenko, V.B.
1976-01-01
When carrying out engineering calculation of heat transfer in the case of turbulent flow of non-equilibrium reacting gas in a tube, it is necessary to dispose of criterion dependence to calculate Nusselt number. As a rule, dependences obtained by empirical methods are not widely adopted. It is proposed that the integral of Lion type be used for the heat transfer calculation in the form of which an expression for Nusselt number has been written under the conditions of turbulent flow with a non-equilibrium chemical reaction. On calculating turbulent fluctuations Millionshchikov two-layer model is used. A simple approximation of source-discharge of the mass of mixture components is suggested for the sake of simplification of Lion integral. The proposed theoretical dependences for the heat transfer calculation when chemical reactions are available substantially extend the field of application of Lion integral and may be used designing equipment with a chemically reacting coolant
High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.
2016-01-01
Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...
Heat exchanger leakage problem location
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jícha Miroslav
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gashenko, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I.; Shmal, I.I.; Kouznetsov, V.D.
2001-01-01
The results of the calculational study using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermalhydraulic code performed on the influence of the heat losses to the ambient and the heat accumulated in the pipelines walls upon the evolution of the thermalhydraulic processes in the primary circuit of the integral test facility ISB-WWER when simulating the transients caused by the loss of the coolant are presented in the paper. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konefka, F; Contreras, J P; Puerta, J; Castro, E; MartIn, P
2008-01-01
The dispersion relation for dust acoustic waves (DA waves) functionally depends on the state equation for the charged dust grains. The ideal gas equation is usually used for studying the effect of temperature on this dispersion relation. However, since the space occupied by the grains can be important in high-density plasmas, the non-ideal effects can be important in this case. This paper analyses the dispersion relation for DA waves, when more precise state equations are used as those described for Pade approximants. The correction to the usual wave equation has been determined and the break point in density, where the ideal gas-state equation has been found. The non-ideal effects are more important for short wavelength ones, and the limits where those effects become important are also studied. Since there are several experimental results for these kinds of waves, the importance of the non-ideal effects in these cases is analysed in detail.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...
van den Boer, C.; Lansaat, L.; Muller, S.H.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Hilgers, F.J.M.
2015-01-01
Objective Assessment of humidifying function of tracheotomy speaking valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger. Design Ex vivo measurement of water exchange and storage capacity of three tracheotomy speaking valves: Humidiphon Plus, Spiro and ProTrach DualCare (with two different heat and
van den Boer, C.; Lansaat, L.; Muller, S. H.; van den Brekel, M. W. M.; Hilgers, F. J. M.
2015-01-01
Assessment of humidifying function of tracheotomy speaking valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger. Ex vivo measurement of water exchange and storage capacity of three tracheotomy speaking valves: Humidiphon Plus, Spiro and ProTrach DualCare (with two different heat and moisture
The predictive validity of ideal partner preferences: a review and meta-analysis.
Eastwick, Paul W; Luchies, Laura B; Finkel, Eli J; Hunt, Lucy L
2014-05-01
A central element of interdependence theory is that people have standards against which they compare their current outcomes, and one ubiquitous standard in the mating domain is the preference for particular attributes in a partner (ideal partner preferences). This article reviews research on the predictive validity of ideal partner preferences and presents a new integrative model that highlights when and why ideals succeed or fail to predict relational outcomes. Section 1 examines predictive validity by reviewing research on sex differences in the preference for physical attractiveness and earning prospects. Men and women reliably differ in the extent to which these qualities affect their romantic evaluations of hypothetical targets. Yet a new meta-analysis spanning the attraction and relationships literatures (k = 97) revealed that physical attractiveness predicted romantic evaluations with a moderate-to-strong effect size (r = ∼.40) for both sexes, and earning prospects predicted romantic evaluations with a small effect size (r = ∼.10) for both sexes. Sex differences in the correlations were small (r difference = .03) and uniformly nonsignificant. Section 2 reviews research on individual differences in ideal partner preferences, drawing from several theoretical traditions to explain why ideals predict relational evaluations at different relationship stages. Furthermore, this literature also identifies alternative measures of ideal partner preferences that have stronger predictive validity in certain theoretically sensible contexts. Finally, a discussion highlights a new framework for conceptualizing the appeal of traits, the difference between live and hypothetical interactions, and the productive interplay between mating research and broader psychological theories.
Integral transform method for solving time fractional systems and fractional heat equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arman Aghili
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, time fractional partial differential equation is considered, where the fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense. Laplace transform method has been applied to obtain an exact solution. The authors solved certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous time fractional heat equations using integral transform. Transform method is a powerful tool for solving fractional singular Integro - differential equations and PDEs. The result reveals that the transform method is very convenient and effective.
Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ki-Nam Jang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Yudow, B.D.; Sala, D.L.; Donakowski, T.D.; Swenson, P.F.
1979-08-01
Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems are energy systems for communities that provide heating, cooling, and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer a significant potential for energy savings. Results of the System Development Phase of the HP-ICES Project are given. The heat-actuated (gas) heat-pump incorporated into this HP-ICES concept is under current development and demonstration. The concurrent program was redirected in September 1977 toward large-tonnage applications; it is currently focusing on 60- to 400-ton built-up systems for multi-zone applications. This study evaluates the performance of a HAHP-ICES as applied to a community of residential and commercial buildings. To permit a general assessment of the concept in non-site-specific terms, the sensitivity of the system's performance and economics to climate, community size, utility rate structures, and economic assumptions is explored. (MCW)
Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.
2015-01-01
Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel
The heating operational summarization in three winters of a 5 MW test heating reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dazhong; Dong Duo; Su Qingshan; Zhang Yajun
1992-09-01
The 5 MW THR (5 MW test heating reactor) is a new type reactor with inherent safety developed by INET (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology). It is the first 'pressure vessel type' heating reactor in operation in the world. It was put into operation in November, 1989. Since then it has operated for three winter seasons. The total operation time has reached to 8174 hours and its availability of heating has reached to 99%. The advanced technology of this reactor has been proved in the past three years operation. The characteristics of power regulating, load following, reactivity disturbance and the variation of parameters under the condition of ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) were studied with experiments in 5 MW THR. The 5 MW THR is an ideal heating reactor and has outstanding performances
Heating great residential units with combustion-motor heat pumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vossen, W
1982-10-01
Economic usage of combustion-motor heat pumps requires: reliable technology and delivery of the heat pump; design and operation. The heat pump must be integrated perfectly into the heating system. This contributions is based on a three-year operational experience with over 150 heat pumps used mainly in residential and administrative buildings (plus commercial buildings, swimming pools, sport centres etc.). These are heat pumps operating on the compression principle with natural gas, liquid gas, or fuel oil.
Improved district heating substation efficiency with a new control strategy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafsson, Jonas; Delsing, Jerker; Deventer, Jan van
2010-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new alternative control approach for indirectly connected district heating substations. Simulations results showed that the new approach results in an increased ΔT across the substation. Results were obtained for both ideal and non-ideal operation of the system, meaning that less water must be pumped through the district heating network, and a higher overall fuel efficiency can be obtained in the district heating power plants. When a higher fuel efficiency is achieved, the usage of primary fuel sources can be reduced. Improved efficiency also increases the effective heat transfer capacity of a district heating network, allowing more customers to be connected to an existing network without increasing the heating plant or network capacity. Also, if combined heat and power plants are used to produce the heat, the increased ΔT will result in a further improved overall fuel efficiency, as more electricity can be produced with colder cooling water. The idea behind the new control method is to consider the temperature of the water supplying the district heating substation with heat, often referred to as the primary supply temperature. This represents a logical next step, as currently, the only parameter generally taken into account or measured when controlling the temperature level of the radiator circuit is the local outdoor temperature. In this paper we show how the primary supply temperature together with thermodynamic knowledge of the building can be used to maximize the ΔT across the district heating substation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Magdeldin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudra, Souman
alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...
Heat pipe thermodynamic cycle and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Y.
1985-01-01
A new type of thermodynamic cycle originating from extended application of the heat pipe principle is proposed and its thermal cycle is discussed from the viewpoint of theoretical thermal efficiency and Coefficient of Performance. An idealized structure that will meet the basic function for thermal systems is also suggested. A significant advantage of these systems is their use with lowtemperature energy sources found in nature or heat rejected from industrial sites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gertzos, K.P.; Pnevmatikakis, S.E.; Caouris, Y.G.
2008-01-01
The thermal behavior of a particular flat-plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is examined, experimentally and numerically. The particularity consists of the indirect heating of the service hot water, through a heat exchanger incorporated into front and back major surfaces of the ICSSWH. Natural and forced convection mechanisms are both examined. A prototype tank was fabricated and experimental data of temperature profiles are extracted, during various energy withdrawals. A 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and validated against experimental results. Numerical predictions are found highly accurate, providing thus the use of the 3D CFD model for the optimization of this and similar devices
Heat transfer and fluid flow in minichannels and microchannels
Kandlikar, Satish; Li, Dongqing; Colin, Stephane; King, Michael R
2014-01-01
Heat exchangers with minichannel and microchannel flow passages are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability to remove large heat fluxes under single-phase and two-phase applications. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Minichannels and Microchannels methodically covers gas, liquid, and electrokinetic flows, as well as flow boiling and condensation, in minichannel and microchannel applications. Examining biomedical applications as well, the book is an ideal reference for anyone involved in the design processes of microchannel flow passages in a heat exchanger. Each chapter is accompan
Small heating reactors for local heating of communities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seifritz, W.
1985-08-01
The incentives to introduce relatively small heating reactors for local heating of communities are presented and the reasons why this vertically integrated energy system will meet the requirement of an emission - free substitution system are outlined. (author)
Mean temperature profile at the entrance of a thermoacoustic stacked screen heat exchanger
Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; Oosterhuis, Joris; van der Meer, Theodorus H.
2015-01-01
In thermoacoustic devises, the thermoacoustic e ect occurs in the regenerator placed between two heat exchangers. The entrance e ects of such heat exchanger are investigated with two computational uid dynamics (CFD) test cases. The rst CFD test case models an ideal heat exchanger adjacent to an open
ν-Dimensional ideal quantum q-gas: Bose-Einstein condensation and λ-point transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R-Monteiro, M.; Roditi, I.; Rodrigues, L.M.C.S.
1994-01-01
The authors consider an ideal quantum q-gas in ν spatial dimensions and energy spectrum ω i αp α . Departing from the Hamiltonian H = ω[N], the authors study the effect of the deformation on thermodynamic functions and equation of state of that system. The virial expansion is obtained for the high temperature (or low density) regime. The critical temperature is higher than in non-deformed ideal gases. They show that Bose-Einstein condensation always exists (unless when ν/α = 1) for finite q but not for q = ∞. Employing numerical calculations and selecting for ν/α the values 3/2, 2 and 3, the authors show the critical temperature as a function of q, the specific heat C V and the chemical potential μ as functions of T/T c q for q = 1.05 and q= 4.5. C V exhibits a λ-point discontinuity in all cases, instead of the cusp singularity found in the usual ideal gas. The results indicate that physical systems which have quantum symmetries can exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon, the critical temperature being favored by the deformation parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.
2010-01-01
This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW P photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO 2 emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems.
Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, V.O.
1995-01-01
The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...... and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem...... and the Shafranov shift. The method had pedagogical merits as it simplifies the calculations, improves the physical understanding and facilitates an assessment of the approximations made in the calculations....
Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management
Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.
2017-12-01
Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.
Transformation of heat into mechanical energy by means of rotating systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mešina Marian
2018-01-01
Full Text Available All heat engines need two different temperatures for their work, T1
Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-08-01
The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)
Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Madzivhandila, V
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...
Certain variants of multipermutohedron ideals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quotient of an Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal is the number of .... It is clearly indicated in [10] that combinatorially defined monomial ideals ...... of the 31st Southeastern International Conference on Combinatorics, Graph Theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-03-01
For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.
Study of coupled heat and mass transfer during absorption of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(iii) The gas phase is ideal from thermodynamic point of view. (iv) Only mass transfer and no heat transfer takes place through the porous filter. (v) The thermal conductivity and specific heat of the hydride bed are assumed to be constant. This assumption underestimates the bed performance slightly, because in actual case ...
Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers
Vitale, N.; Yarr, George
1993-01-01
Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.
Pressurized oxy-coal combustion: Ideally flexible to uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zebian, Hussam; Mitsos, Alexander
2013-01-01
Simultaneous multi-variable gradient-based optimization with multi-start is performed on a 300 MWe wet-recycling pressurized oxy-coal combustion process with carbon capture and sequestration, subject to uncertainty in fuel, ambient conditions, and other input specifications. Two forms of flue gas thermal recovery are studied, a surface heat exchanger and a direct contact separation column. Optimization enables ideal flexibility in the processes: when changing the coal utilized, the performance is not compromised compared to the optimum performance of a process specifically designed for that coal. Similarly, the processes are immune to other uncertainties like ambient conditions, air flow, slurry water flow, atomizer stream flow and the oxidizer stream oxygen purity. Consequently, stochastic programming is shown to be unnecessary. Close to optimum design, the processes are also shown to be insensitive towards design variables such as the areas of the feedwater heaters. Recently proposed thermodynamic criteria are used as embedded design specifications in the optimization process, rendering it faster and more robust. - Highlights: • Proposed formulation to assess the flexibility of power generation processes facing uncertainties. • Obtained ideal flexibility of pressurized oxy-coal combustion with respect to coal type. • Performance of processes under uncertainty match performance of optimal processes for specific set of inputs. • Stochastic programming is not required and instead hierarchic optimization is utilized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sievers, U.; Schulz, S.; Dortmund Univ.
1981-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of pure substances in the state of the ideal gases serve as reference quantity for the calculation of the caloric quantities of real fluid pure substances and mixtures. All caloric quantities of pure ideal gases can be calculated as a function of temperature and density if the molar enthalpy and the molar entropy are known for a reference point and also the temperature dependence of the molar isochoric heat capacity exists. In this article the molar enthalpy, the molar entropy and the molar isochoric heat capacity are investigated more detailed. (RDE)
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gertzos, K.P.; Caouris, Y.G.; Panidis, T. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)
2010-08-15
Parameters that affect the temperature at which service hot water (SHW) is offered by an immersed tube heat exchanger (HX), inside a flat plate Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICSSWH), are examined numerically, by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The storage water is not refreshed and serves for heat accumulation. Service hot water is drawn off indirectly, through an immersed serpentine heat exchanger. For the intensification of the heat transfer process, the storage water is agitated by recirculation through a pump, which goes on only when service water flows inside the heat exchanger. Three main factors, which influence the performance, are optimized: The position of the HX relative to tank walls, the HX length and the tube diameter. All three factors are explored so that to maximize the service water outlet temperature. The settling time of the optimum configuration is also computed. Various 3-D CFD models were developed using the FLUENT package. The heat transfer rate between the two circuits of the optimum configuration is maintained at high levels, leading to service water outlet temperatures by 1-7 C lower than tank water temperatures, for the examined SHW flow rates. The settling time is retained at sufficient law values, such as 20 s. The optimal position was found to lay the HX in contact with the front and back walls of the tank, with an optimum inner tube diameter of 16 mm, while an acceptable HX length was found to be about 21.5 m. (author)
The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.; James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.
1991-01-01
A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab
Integration of a wood pellet burner and a Stirling engine to produce residential heat and power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardozo, Evelyn; Erlich, Catharina; Malmquist, Anders; Alejo, Lucio
2014-01-01
The integration a Stirling engine with a pellet burner is a promising alternative to produce heat and power for residential use. In this context, this study is focused on the experimental evaluation of the integration of a 20 kW th wood pellet burner and a 1 kW e Stirling engine. The thermal power not absorbed by the engine is used to produce hot water. The evaluation highlights the effects of pellet type, combustion chamber length and cycling operation on the Stirling engine temperatures and thermal power absorbed. The results show that the position of the Stirling engine is highly relevant in order to utilize as much as possible of the radiative heat from the burner. Within this study, only a 5 cm distance change between the Stirling engine and the pellet burner could result in an increase of almost 100 °C in the hot side of the engine. However, at a larger distance, the temperature of the hot side is almost unchanged suggesting dominating convective heat transfer from the hot flue gas. Ash accumulation decreases the temperature of the hot side of the engine after some cycles of operation when a commercial pellet burner is integrated. The temperature ratio, which is the relation between the minimum and maximum temperatures of the engine, decreases when using Ø8 mm wood pellets in comparison to Ø6 mm pellets due to higher measured temperatures on the hot side of the engine. Therefore, the amount of heat supplied to the engine is increased for Ø8 mm wood pellets. The effectiveness of the engine regenerator is increased at higher pressures. The relation between temperature of the hot side end and thermal power absorbed by the Stirling engine is nearly linear between 500 °C and 660 °C. Higher pressure inside the Stirling engine has a positive effect on the thermal power output. Both the chemical and thermal losses increase somewhat when integrating a Stirling engine in comparison to a stand-alone boiler for only heat production. The overall efficiency
Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeschke, M.; Schley, P.
1995-01-01
Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of the c p o correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were adjusted to selected c p o data calculated form spectroscopic data for temperatures ranging from 10 to 1000 K. The data sources used are discussed and compared with literature data deduced from theoretic models and caloric measurements. The parameters presented will be applied in a current GERG project for evaluating equations of state (e.g., the AGA 8 equation) for their suitability for calculating caloric properties
Performance of a forced convection solar drier integrated with gravel as heat storage material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohanraj, M. [Dr Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chandrasekar, P. [Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering Sciences
2009-07-01
Sun drying is the most common method used in India to dry agricultural products such as grains, fruits and vegetables. The rate of drying depends on solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, initial moisture content, type of crops, crop absorptivity and mass product per unit exposed area. However, this method of spreading the crop in a thin layer on the ground has several disadvantages. This paper reported on a study that focused on developing a forced convection solar drier integrated with heat storage materials for drying various agricultural crops. The indirect forced convection solar drier, integrated with gravel as a sensible heat material, was used to dry pineapple slices under conditions similar to those found in Pollachi, India. The performance of the system was discussed along with the drying characteristics, drying rate, and specific moisture extraction rate. The results showed that the moisture content (wet basis) of pineapple was reduced from about 87.5 to 14.5 per cent (equilibrium moisture content) in about 29 hours in the bottom tray and 32 hours in the top tray. The thermal efficiency of the solar air heater was also reviewed. 9 refs., 5 figs.
Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher P. Long
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.
Ideal energy self-sufficient bioclimatic house
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talamo, C.
1990-04-01
This paper points out some of the interesting architectural features of a conceptual house being designed to be self-sufficient relative to the use of conventional energy sources. Brief notes are given on the following special design characteristics: the house's orientation and form - essentially a V - shaped two storey design with an orientation such as to maximize the surface area exposed to winter insolation; its special low emissivity glazing equipped with nightfall insulating screens; the adoption of maximized insulation, in which case cost benefits were assessed based on amortization over the entire life span of the house; hybrid space heating and ventilation systems involving the integration of pumps and ventilators for air circulation, and the use of a varied mix of active and passive solar heating and cooling systems.
Performance analysis on free-piston Stirling cryocooler based on an idealized mathematical model
Guo, Y. X.; Chao, Y. J.; Gan, Z. H.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, B.
2017-12-01
Free-piston Stirling cryocoolers have extensive applications for its simplicity in structure and decrease in mass. However, the elimination of the motor and the crankshaft has made its thermodynamic characteristic different from that of Stirling cryocoolers with displacer driving mechanism. Therefore, an idealized mathematical model has been established, and with this model, an attempt has been made to analyse the thermodynamic characteristic and the performance of free-piston Stirling cryocooler. To certify this mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the model and a numerical model. This study reveals that due to the displacer damping force necessary for the production of cooling capacity, the free-piston Stirling cryocooler is inherently less efficient than Stirling cryocooler with displacer driving mechanism. Viscous flow resistance and incomplete heat transfer in the regenerator are the two major causes of the discrepancy between the results of the idealized mathematical model and the numerical model.
The Amount of Regenerated Heat Inside the Regenerator of a Stirling Engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Škorpík
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with analytical computing of the regenerated heat inside the regenerator of a Stirling engine. The total sum of the regenerated heat is constructed as a function of the crank angle in the case of Schmidt’s idealization.
Calculation on the heat of gasification for the saturated liquid of D2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Fangfang; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Zhu Zhenghe; Wang Hongbin; Zhou Weimin; Chen Hao; Liu Hongjie
2005-01-01
In general, the saturated stream is regarded as the ideal gas for calculating the heat of gasification for the saturated liquid. However, the result of calculation was not consistent with the general law if D 2 was treated as the ideal gas under T c =38.34 K, the critical temperature. Considering the change of the volume from the liquid state to the gas state, this paper implored the Clapeyron differential equation and the equation of vapor-liquid equilibrium, and then obtained the heat of gasification and the entropy from 20 K to 38 K and the saturation curve. The method avoided regarding the saturate gas D 2 as the ideal gas and ignoring the volume change from the liquid state to the gas state, improving the calculation exactitude. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gatti, Manuele; Martelli, Emanuele; Marechal, François; Consonni, Stefano
2014-01-01
The paper evaluates the thermodynamic performances and the energy integration of alternative schemes of a methanol absorption based acid gas removal process designed for CO 2 Capture and Storage. More precisely, this work focuses the attention on the Rectisol ® process specifically designed for the selective removal of H 2 S and CO 2 from syngas produced by coal gasification. The study addresses the following issues: (i) perform a review of the Rectisol ® schemes proposed by engineers and researchers with the purpose of determining the best one for CO 2 capture and storage; (ii) calibrate the PC-SAFT equation of state for CH 3 OH–CO 2 –H 2 S–H 2 –CO mixtures at conditions relevant to the Rectisol ® process; (iii) evaluate the thermodynamic performances and optimize the energy integration of a “Reference” scheme derived from those available in the literature; (iv) identify and assess alternative Rectisol ® schemes with optimized performance for CO 2 Capture and Storage and Heat Integration with utilities. On the basis of the analysis of the Composite Curves of the integrated process, we propose some possible improvements at the level of the process configuration, like the introduction of mechanical vapor recompression and the development of a two stage regeneration arrangement. - Highlights: • Comprehensive review of the Rectisol ® process configurations and applications. • Calibration of PC-SAFT equation of state for Rectisol ® -relevant mixtures. • Detailed process simulation and optimized Heat Integration, and utility design. • Development of alternative Rectisol ® schemes optimized for CO 2 Capture
The structure of ideal MHD Alfven modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S.; Lao, L.L.; Greene, J.M.; Strait, E.J.; Chance, M.S.
1991-01-01
Continuum Alfven modes have undergone a resurgence in interest with the recent realization that so-called Toroidicity-Induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE modes) can be destabilized either by energetic beam ions in a strongly heated plasma or by alpha particles in a burning plasma. The GATO Ideal MHD Stability code, which minimizes the potential energy according to a variational formulation, has now been modified to isolate and calculate stable continuum eigenmodes. The existence of the TAE mode and its associated gap has been verified, using this code, for a circular cross-section, finite aspect ratio equilibrium. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes obtained from this variational calculation are found to be in extremely good quantitative agreement with those obtained from the non-variational NOVA code. A systematic survey of the stable continuum has further revealed a surprising diversity in the structure of the continuum Alfven modes; the logarithmic singularity can be so broad, in some cases, as to occupy the whole cross-section. This has important implications for heating experiments which aim to locally excite the plasma by rf waves in the Alfven frequency range. The structure of several representative examples is discussed. The Alfven continuum, in general, and the TAE mode and its associated gap, in particular, are also found to be strongly modified by cross-sectional shaping. The dependence of the spectrum on various shaping factors is explored
Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...
Proportional and Integral Thermal Control System for Large Scale Heating Tests
Fleischer, Van Tran
2015-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) Flight Loads Laboratory is a unique national laboratory that supports thermal, mechanical, thermal/mechanical, and structural dynamics research and testing. A Proportional Integral thermal control system was designed and implemented to support thermal tests. A thermal control algorithm supporting a quartz lamp heater was developed based on the Proportional Integral control concept and a linearized heating process. The thermal control equations were derived and expressed in terms of power levels, integral gain, proportional gain, and differences between thermal setpoints and skin temperatures. Besides the derived equations, user's predefined thermal test information generated in the form of thermal maps was used to implement the thermal control system capabilities. Graphite heater closed-loop thermal control and graphite heater open-loop power level were added later to fulfill the demand for higher temperature tests. Verification and validation tests were performed to ensure that the thermal control system requirements were achieved. This thermal control system has successfully supported many milestone thermal and thermal/mechanical tests for almost a decade with temperatures ranging from 50 F to 3000 F and temperature rise rates from -10 F/s to 70 F/s for a variety of test articles having unique thermal profiles and test setups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing, Z.X.; Jiang, X.S.; Wu, Q.H.; Tang, W.H.; Hua, B.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive model of a small-scale integrated energy based district heating and cooling (DHC) system located in a residential area of hot-summer and cold-winter zone, which makes joint use of wind energy, solar energy, natural gas and electric energy. The model includes an off-grid wind turbine generator, heat producers, chillers, a water supply network and terminal loads. This research also investigates an optimal operating strategy based on Group Search Optimizer (GSO), through which the daily running cost of the system is optimized in both the heating and cooling modes. The strategy can be used to find the optimal number of operating chillers, optimal outlet water temperature set points of boilers and optimal water flow set points of pumps, taking into account cost functions and various operating constraints. In order to verify the model and the optimal operating strategy, performance tests have been undertaken using MATLAB. The simulation results prove the validity of the model and show that the strategy is able to minimize the system operation cost. The proposed system is evaluated in comparison with a conventional separation production (SP) system. The feasibility of investment for the DHC system is also discussed. The comparative results demonstrate the investment feasibility, the significant energy saving and the cost reduction, achieved in daily operation in an environment, where there are varying heating loads, cooling loads, wind speeds, solar radiations and electricity prices. - Highlights: • A model of a small-scale integrated energy based DHC system is presented. • An off-grid wind generator used for water heating is embedded in the model. • An optimal control strategy is studied to optimize the running cost of the system. • The designed system is proved to be energy efficient and cost effective in operation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.
2008-01-01
This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiati...... that a description of the non-linear heat transfer is essential. The resulting model is a non-linear first order stochastic differential equation for the heat transfer of the PV component....... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...
Polysun. PV, wind and power-heat-cogeneration in one design tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacoste, Baptiste; Wolf, Andreas; Witzig, Andreas [Vela Solaris AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Maerklin, Adrian [Envergate GmbH, Horn (Switzerland)
2010-07-01
In this article, the simulation software Polysun is presented, which by its fundamental concept favors the combination of several energy sources (e.g. PV, Solarthermal, oil/gas boiler) and consumers (heating, sanitary hot water, swimming pool) in one simulation setup. It is discussed how the state-of-the-art small wind turbines and power-heat-cogeneration shall be integrated into the simulation tool Polysun. A close collaboration between Vela Solaris and the manufacturer is important for model validation as well as for the building up of the Polysun component database. Wind measurement results are presented from the manufacturer Envergate, which is a typical partner of choice for such collaboration. The modular concept of Polysun provides the ideal basis for communicating the advantages of new hybrid systems in de-centralized electicity production both for educational purposes as well as in renewable energy system marketing and sales. Physics-based simulation and prediction of system performance helps in the decision phase and supports the implementation of modern energy efficient and/or renewable energy systems. (orig.)
The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack
1985-01-01
The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)
Optimizing the Costs of Solid Sorbent-Based CO_{2} Capture Process Through Heat Integration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)
2016-03-18
The focus of this project was the ADAsorb™ CO_{2} Capture Process, a temperature-swing adsorption process that incorporates a three-stage fluidized bed as the adsorber and a single-stage fluidized bed as the regenerator. ADAsorb™ system was designed, fabricated, and tested under DOE award DEFE0004343. Two amine-based sorbents were evaluated in conjunction with the ADAsorb™ process: “BN”, an ion-exchange resin; and “OJ”, a metal organic framework (MOF) sorbent. Two cross heat exchanger designs were evaluated for use between the adsorber and regenerator: moving bed and fluidized bed. The fluidized bed approach was rejected fairly early in the project because the additional electrical load to power blowers or fans to overcome the pressure drop required for fluidization was estimated to be nominally three times the electrical power that could be generated from the steam saved through the use of the cross heat exchanger. The Energy Research Center at Lehigh University built and utilized a process model of the ADAsorb™ capture process and integrated this model into an existing model of a supercritical PC power plant. The Lehigh models verified that, for the ADAsorb™ system, the largest contributor to parasitic power was lost electrical generation, which was primarily electric power which the host plant could not generate due to the extraction of low pressure (LP) steam for sorbent heating, followed by power for the CO_{2} compressor and the blower or fan power required to fluidize the adsorber and regenerator. Sorbent characteristics such as the impacts of moisture uptake, optimized adsorption and regeneration temperature, and sensitivity to changes in pressure were also included in the modeling study. Results indicate that sorbents which adsorb more than 1-2% moisture by weight are unlikely to be cost competitive unless they have an extremely high CO_{2} working capacity that well exceeds 15% by weight. Modeling also revealed
On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Cheng; Bai, Pu; Xin, Tuantuan; Hu, Yue; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yongping
2017-01-01
Highlights: •An improved solar energy integrated LRC fired power generation is proposed. •High efficient and economic feasible solar energy conversion is achieved. •Cold-end losses of the boiler and condenser are reduced. •The energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are improved. -- Abstract: A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal (LRC) fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump (AHP) was proposed. The proposed integrated system efficiently utilizes the solar energy collected from the parabolic trough to drive the AHP to absorb the low-grade waste heat of the steam cycle, achieving larger amount of heat with suitable temperature for coal’s moisture removal prior to the furnace. Through employing the proposed system, the solar energy could be partially converted into the high-grade coal’s heating value and the cold-end losses of the boiler and the steam cycle could be reduced simultaneously, leading to a high-efficient solar energy conversion together with a preferable overall thermal efficiency of the power generation. The results of the detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses showed that, using the proposed integrated concept in a typical 600 MW LRC-fired power plant could reduce the raw coal consumption by 4.6 kg/s with overall energy and exergy efficiencies improvement of 1.2 and 1.8 percentage points, respectively, as 73.0 MW th solar thermal energy was introduced. The cost of the solar generated electric power could be as low as $0.044/kW h. This work provides an improved concept to further advance the solar energy conversion and utilisation in solar-hybrid coal-fired power generation.
Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)
2012-05-15
The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly challenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), {chi}{sub ||} , and the perpendicular, {chi}{sub Up-Tack }, conductivities ({chi}{sub ||} /{chi}{sub Up-Tack} may exceed 10{sup 10} in fusion plasmas); (ii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality; and (iii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green's function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geometry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island), weakly chaotic (Devil's staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local parallel closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.
'Eco-house 99' - Full-scale demonstration of solar walls with building integrated heat storages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hummelshoej, R.M.; Rahbek, J.E. [COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS (Denmark)
2000-07-01
A critical issue for solar systems in northern latitudes is the economic profitability. It is often said that the techniques for solar utilisation are expensive and unprofitable. This is, however, not always the case. A new project with 59 low energy terrace houses was carried out in Kolding, Denmark. The houses are designed as ecological buildings with emphasis on total economy based on low operation and maintenance costs, energy conservation and passive/hybrid solar utilisation. Besides direct solar gain through windows, each house has a solar wall of 6-8.5 m{sup 2} on the south facade. The solar walls are used both for heating of ventilation air and for space heating. The solar walls deliver heat to the dwellings during the heating season. To optimise the energy utilisation from the solar walls, the energy is stored internally in building integrated heat storages. Two different new types of prefabricated heat storages are built into the houses. One is an internal concrete wall with embedded ventilation pipes, and the other is a hollow concrete element with integrated stone bed. The heat storages are mainly designed to store solar energy from the day to the evening and the night. Because the solar walls and the heat storages have been a part of the design process from the start, the additional expenses are as low as 30-140 Euro/m{sup 2} solar wall compared with the alternative facade. This is far less than what it costs to add a solar wall on an existing building. Measurements over one year show that the yield of the solar walls is in the range of 115-125 kWh/m{sup 2}/year as expected. With the actual financing, the annual payment of the additional expenses for the solar systems is between 1-6 Euro/m{sup 2} solar wall, while the annual savings are about 5 Euro/year/m{sup 2} (with an energy price of 0.042 Euro/kWh). Dependent on which alternative facade construction the solar wall system is compared with, the profit of the system is in the range of 1 to +4 Euro
Conditions of equilibrium of a rotating ideal fluid in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, N.P.
1986-01-01
Conditions of equilibrium of a rotating ideal fluid in parametrized post-Newtonian hydrodynamics are obtained by the variational method. They generalize the analogous equilibrium conditions in the post-Newtonian approximation of the general theory of relativity. A conservation law for the total energy is obtained by integrating the equations of motion
Integral transform solution of natural convection in a square cavity with volumetric heat generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. An
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The generalized integral transform technique (GITT is employed to obtain a hybrid numerical-analytical solution of natural convection in a cavity with volumetric heat generation. The hybrid nature of this approach allows for the establishment of benchmark results in the solution of non-linear partial differential equation systems, including the coupled set of heat and fluid flow equations that govern the steady natural convection problem under consideration. Through performing the GITT, the resulting transformed ODE system is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DBVPFD from the IMSL Library. Therefore, numerical results under user prescribed accuracy are obtained for different values of Rayleigh numbers, and the convergence behavior of the proposed eigenfunction expansions is illustrated. Critical comparisons against solutions produced by ANSYS CFX 12.0 are then conducted, which demonstrate excellent agreement. Several sets of reference results for natural convection with volumetric heat generation in a bi-dimensional square cavity are also provided for future verification of numerical results obtained by other researchers.
Thermodynamic properties of rotating trapped ideal Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yushan; Gu, Qiang
2014-01-01
Ultracold atomic gases can be spined up either by confining them in rotating frame, or by introducing “synthetic” magnetic field. In this paper, thermodynamics of rotating ideal Bose gases are investigated within truncated-summation approach which keeps to take into account the discrete nature of energy levels, rather than to approximate the summation over single-particle energy levels by an integral as it does in semi-classical approximation. Our results show that Bose gases in rotating frame exhibit much stronger dependence on rotation frequency than those in “synthetic” magnetic field. Consequently, BEC can be more easily suppressed in rotating frame than in “synthetic” magnetic field.
Distributed heat generation in a district heating system
Lennermo, Gunnar; Lauenberg, Patrick
2016-01-01
District heating (OH) systems need to be improved regarding integration of decentralised heat generation. Micro production, prosumers and smart grids are terms becoming more and more common in connection to the power grid. Concerning district heating, the development is slower, although improving. Today there are a number of such decentralised units for heat generation, mainly solar, that have been partly evaluated. Previous studies have shown that there is a need to deve...
Integrated Heat Exchange For Recuperation In Gas Turbine Engines
2016-12-01
combustion engines conduct heat transfer in the exhaust system. The exhaust valves have hollow stems containing sodium, which act as heat pipes with...is the use of heat pipes in internal combustion engines . Internal combustion engines have combustion chambers with temperatures as high as 2700 K...accomplished using evaporative heat pipes . This study explores the feasibility of embedding this heat exchange system within engines using a
Thermal Effect on Fracture Integrity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems
Zeng, C.; Deng, W.; Wu, C.; Insall, M.
2017-12-01
In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), cold fluid is injected to be heated up for electricity generation purpose, and pre-existing fractures are the major conduits for fluid transport. Due to the relative cold fluid injection, the rock-fluid temperature difference will induce thermal stress along the fracture wall. Such large thermal stress could cause the failure of self-propping asperities and therefore change the fracture integrity, which could affect the heat recovery efficiency and fluid recycling. To study the thermal effect on fracture integrity, two mechanisms pertinent to thermal stress are proposed to cause asperity contact failure: (1) the crushing between two pairing asperities leads to the failure at contact area, and (2) the thermal spalling expedites this process. Finite element modeling is utilized to investigate both failure mechanisms by idealizing the asperities as hemispheres. In the numerical analysis, we have implemented meso-scale damage model to investigate coupled failure mechanism induced by thermomechanical stress field and original overburden pressure at the vicinity of contact point. Our results have shown that both the overburden pressure and a critical temperature determine the threshold of asperity failure. Since the overburden pressure implies the depth of fractures in EGS and the critical temperature implies the distance of fractures to the injection well, our ultimate goal is to locate a region of EGS where the fracture integrity is vulnerable to such thermal effect and estimate the influences.
Finite element limit loads for non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shim, Do-Jun; Han, Tae-Song; Huh, Nam-Su
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The lower bound bulging factor of thin-walled pipe can be used for thick-walled pipe. • The limit loads are proposed for thick-walled, transition through-wall cracked pipe. • The correction factors are proposed for estimating limit loads of transition cracks. • The limit loads of short transition cracks are similar to those of idealized cracks. - Abstract: The present paper provides plastic limit loads for non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe. These solutions are based on detailed 3-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses which can be used for structural integrity assessment of nuclear piping. To cover a practical range of interest, the geometric variables and loading conditions affecting the plastic limit loads of thick-walled pipe with non-idealized through-wall cracks were systematically varied. In terms of crack orientation, both circumferential and axial through-wall cracks were considered. As for loading conditions, axial tension, global bending, and internal pressure were considered for circumferential cracks, whereas only internal pressure was considered for axial cracks. Furthermore, the values of geometric factor representing shape characteristics of non-idealized through-wall cracks were also systematically varied. In order to provide confidence in the present FE analyses results, plastic limit loads of un-cracked, thick-walled pipe resulting from the present FE analyses were compared with the theoretical solutions. Finally, correction factors to the idealized through-wall crack solutions were developed to determine the plastic limit loads of non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe
Acceleration waves in non-ideal magnetogasdynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Singh
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The problem of propagation of acceleration waves in an unsteady inviscid non-ideal gas under the influence of magnetic field is investigated. The characteristic solution to the problem in the neighbourhood of leading characteristics has been determined. An evolution equation governing the behaviour of acceleration waves has been derived. It is shown that a linear solution in the characteristic plane exhibits non-linear behaviour in physical plane. The effect of magnetic field on the formation of shock in non-ideal gas flow with planar and cylindrical symmetry is analysed. It is noticed that all compressive waves terminate into a shock wave. Further, we also compare/contrast the nature of solution in ideal and non-ideal magnetogasdynamic regime.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王伟; 南晓红; 马俊; 李飞
2011-01-01
对不同地区应用的几种不同形式空气源热泵辅助型太阳能热水系统设计方案进行介绍探讨,并以其为基础提出一种新的空气源热泵与太阳能热水系统集成的多功能系统设计方案。总结了不同地区、不同形式空气源热泵辅助型太阳能热水系统的设计方案、特点及新集成系统运行模式等,为我国不同地区应用此类系统时选择具体设计方案提供参考。%In this paper,different designs of the solar energy water heating system aided by air-source heat pump（SEWH-ASHP） are introduced and discussed,then a new integrate design between solar energy water heating system and air-source heat pump is given.Characters of different designs of the solar energy water heating system aided by air-source heat pump in different area are summed and the operational modes of the integrate system are analysed,which would be a useful reference to chose for designing and using the system of SEWH-ASHP and integrate system in different areas in China.
Direct Numerical Simulation of heat transfer in a turbulent flume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergant, R.; Tiselj, I.
2001-01-01
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) can be used for the description of turbulent heat transfer in the fluid at low Reynolds numbers. DNS means precise solving of Navier-Stoke's equations without any extra turbulent models. DNS should be able to describe all relevant length scales and time scales in observed turbulent flow. The largest length scale is actually dimension of system and the smallest length and time scale is equal to Kolmogorov scale. In the present work simulations of fully developed turbulent velocity and temperature fields were performed in a turbulent flume (open channel) with pseudo-spectral approach at Reynolds number 2670 (friction Reynolds number 171) and constant Prandtl number 5.4, considering the fluid temperature as a passive scalar. Two ideal thermal boundary conditions were taken into account on the heated wall. The first one was an ideal isothermal boundary condition and the second one an ideal isoflux boundary condition. We observed different parameters like mean temperature and velocity, fluctuations of temperature and velocity, and auto-correlation functions.(author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šarevski, Milan N.; Šarevski, Vasko N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • High pressure ratio, high speed, transonic R718 centrifugal compressors. • High efficient industrial evaporators/concentrators with turbo thermal vapor recompression. • Utilization of waste heat from industrial thermal and processing systems. • R718 is an ideal refrigerant for the novel high-temperature industrial heat pumps. • Application of single-stage R718 centrifugal compressors. - Abstract: Characteristics of R718 centrifugal compressors are analyzed and range of their applications in industrial high-temperature heat pumps, district heating systems and geothermal green house heating systems are estimated. Implementation of turbo compressor thermal vapor recompression in industrial evaporating/concentrating plants for waste heat utilization results in a high energy efficiency and in other technical, economical and environmental benefits. A novel concept of turbo compression R718 heat pumps is proposed and an assessment of their thermal characteristics is presented for utilization of waste heat from industrial thermal plants and systems (boilers, furnaces, various technological and metallurgical cooling processes, etc.), and for applications in district heating and geothermal green house heating systems. R718 is an ideal refrigerant for the novel high-temperature turbo compression industrial heat pumps. Direct evaporation and condensation are advantages of the proposed system which lead to higher COP, and to simplification of the plant and lower cost.
Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training
Hornsby, Adam N.; Love, Bradley C.
2014-01-01
People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making. PMID:24955325
Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training.
Hornsby, Adam N; Love, Bradley C
2014-06-01
People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making.
Modular Micromachined Si Heat Removal (MOMS Heat Removal): Electronic Integration and System Test
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Brown, Elliott
2003-01-01
...: (1) insulated-gated bipolar transistors (IGBTs), and (2) laterally-diffused (LD) MOSFETs. Heat pipes were found to provide little or no advantage over conventional copper-based heat spreaders in both device applications...
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
Application of the heat-balance and refined integral methods to the Korteweg-de Vries equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myers Timothy G.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider approximate travelling wave solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The heat-balance integral method is first applied to the problem, using two different quartic approximating functions, and then the refined integral method is investigated. We examine two types of solution, chosen by matching the wave speed to that of the exact solution and by imposing the same area. The first set of solutions is generally better with an error that is fixed in time. The second set of solutions has an error that grows with time. This is shown to be due to slight discrepancies in the wave speed.
Enhancement of heat transfer using nanofluids - An overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godson, Lazarus; Mohan Lal, D. [Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering., College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Raja, B. [Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing-Kancheepuram Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai 600 036, Tamil Nadu (India); Wongwises, S. [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow (FUTURE), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)
2010-02-15
A colloidal mixture of nano-sized particles in a base fluid, called nanofluids, tremendously enhances the heat transfer characteristics of the original fluid, and is ideally suited for practical applications due to its marvelous characteristics. This article addresses the unique features of nanofluids, such as enhancement of heat transfer, improvement in thermal conductivity, increase in surface volume ratio, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, etc. In addition, the article summarizes the recent research in experimental and theoretical studies on forced and free convective heat transfer in nanofluids, their thermo-physical properties and their applications, and identifies the challenges and opportunities for future research. (author)
Childlessness Intentions and Ideals in Europe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miettinen, Anneli
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Using data from Eurobarometer Surveys 2001–2011 we examine trends and correlates of childlessness intentions and ideals across Europe over the past decade. We distinguish childlessness as a personal preference (personal ideal number of children is zero from intended childlessness (intention to have no children as these reflect somewhat different dimensions of childlessness as a conscious decision. We find that, on average, childlessness as a personal preference is relatively rare in Europe, although in some western European countries a sizeable proportion of young adults express a desire to have no children. Intentional childlessness is slightly more common than ideal childlessness is, since about 11% of currently childless young adults aged 18 to 40 years in Europe intend to have no children. We analyse factors related to childlessness intentions and ideals on the individual and country levels. A weaker individual socioeconomic position influences the intention to remain childless through various channels, such as unemployment or low socioeconomic status. Associations between individual’s social position and ideal childlessness are less clear. Results also indicate that macro-economic conditions do not have a direct impact on intentional childlessness, whereas a higher prevalence of traditional family values in a country is related to a lower likelihood of individuals considering childlessness to be their ideal family form.
Two-Step Condensation of the Ideal Bose Gas in Highly Anisotropic Traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum states. In the second step, at a significantly lower temperature, the ground state becomes macroscopically occupied. It should be possible to verify these predictions using present-day atom traps. The two-step behavior can occur in a rather general class of anisotropic traps, including the box potential. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Hyun-Sik; Choi, Ki-Yong; Cho, Seok; Park, Choon-Kyung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Song, Chul-Hwa; Chung, Moon-Ki
2004-01-01
An experiment on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) for an advanced integral type reactor, SMART-P, has been performed, and its experimental results have been analyzed using a best-estimated system analysis code, MARS. The experiment is performed to investigate the performance of the passive residual heat removal system using the high temperature and high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility (VISTA) which simulates the SMART-P. The natural circulation performance of the PRHRS, the heat transfer characteristics of the PRHRS heat exchangers and the emergency cooldown tank (ECT), and the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary loop are investigated. The experimental results show that the coolant flows steadily in the PRHRS loop and the heat transfer through the PRHRS heat exchanger in the emergency cooldown tank is sufficient enough to enable a natural circulation of the coolant. Analysis on a typical PRHRS test has been carried out using the MARS code. The overall trends of the calculated flow rate, pressure, temperature, and heat transfer rate in the PRHRS are similar to the experimental data. There is good agreement between the experimental data and the calculated one for the fluid temperature in the PRHRS steam line. However, the calculated fluid temperature in the PRHRS condensate line is higher, the calculated coolant outlet temperature is lower, and the heat transfer rate through the PRHRS heat exchanger is lower than the experimental data. It seems that it is due to an insufficient heat transfer modeling in the pool such as the emergency cooldown tank in the MARS calculation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Yingru; Chen, Jincan
2007-01-01
An irreversible cycle model of the Diesel heat engine is established in which the temperature dependent heat capacities of the working fluid, the irreversibilities resulting from non-isentropic compression and expansion processes and heat leak losses through the cylinder wall are taken into account. The adiabatic equation of ideal gases with temperature dependent heat capacity is strictly deduced without using the additional approximation condition in the relevant literature and is used to analyze the performance of the Diesel heat engine. Expressions for the work output and efficiency of the cycle are derived by introducing the pressure ratio and the compression and expansion efficiencies. The performance characteristic curves of the Diesel heat engine are presented for a set of given parameters. The optimum criteria of some important parameters such as the work output, efficiency, pressure ratio and temperatures of the working fluid are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable heat capacities, heat leak and other parameters on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The results obtained may provide a theoretical basis for both optimal design and operation of real Diesel heat engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benjaminsson, Johan; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Uddgren, Roger
2010-09-15
The background of this report is to investigate and highlight the benefits of establishing a biogas plant nearby a combined energy plant where steam and district heat is available. By using heat from the combined energy plant, more biogas can be produced as vehicle fuel instead of being used as fuel to heat the digester, the biogas upgrading plant or the dryer. The project's objective is to analyze where it is interesting with integration of heat to the biogas plant and to compare alternative technologies and possible integration options. The stakeholders of the study are industries with access to organic matter for biogas production and heat producers who can deliver thermal energy into biogas plants. The project was implemented by collection of information from the Haendeloe combined energy plant outside Norrkoeping where there is a cogeneration plant, an ethanol plant and a biogas plant. Case studies for the study have been carried out with proposals regarding how heat flows from the power plant and ethanol plant can be further integrated with the biogas plant. As case studies, both the current design of the biogas plant, as well as a fictional case in which half of all distillery residues was digested, have been evaluated. The case studies show that in today's biogas plant it is not economical to replace the existing biogas upgrading unit with water absorption to chemical absorption. The upgrading cost with water absorption at today's smaller facility is 0.11 kr/kWh and in order to obtain the same total cost of chemical absorption a steam price of 0.15 kr/kWh is required. For large gas flows, chemical absorption is an advantage since the technology is more suitable for upscaling in comparison with water absorption that must be delivered in multiple lines. Nevertheless, a possibility to recover waste heat from chemical absorption is necessary if the technology shall be competitive. If waste heat from both water absorption and chemical absorption
2012-06-06
...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products Containing Same, DN 2899; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR 210.8(b)).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinson-Rider, G.
1977-10-04
A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.
Heat integration of an Olefins Plant: Pinch Analysis and mathematical optimization working together
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Beninca
2011-03-01
Full Text Available This work explores a two-step, complexity reducing methodology, to analyze heat integration opportunities of an existing Olefins Plant, identify and quantify reduction of energy consumption, and propose changes of the existing heat exchanger network to achieve these goals. Besides the analysis of plant design conditions, multiple operational scenarios were considered to propose modifications for handling real plant operation (flexibility. On the strength of plant complexity and large dimension, work methodology was split into two parts: initially, the whole plant was evaluated with traditional Pinch Analysis tools. Several opportunities were identified and modifications proposed. Modifications were segregated to represent small and independent portions of the original process. One of them was selected to be re-analyzed, considering two scenarios. Reduction of problem dimension allowed mathematical methodologies (formulation with decomposition, applying LP, MILP and NLP optimization methods to synthesize flexible networks to be applied, generating a feasible modification capable of fulfilling the proposed operational scenarios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2012-07-01
This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, R.A.
1999-01-01
The dispersion of tetraphenylborate in continuous stirred tank reactors plays a significant role in the utility achieved from the tetraphenylborate. Investigating idealized mixing of the materials can illuminate how this dispersion occurs
Integrating financial and strategic planning.
Pivnicny, V C
1989-09-01
As hospitals face mounting profitability and liquidity concerns, the need to integrate strategic and financial planning also will continue to grow. This article describes a process for integrating these planning functions and the ideal organizational framework to facilitate the process. Obstacles to the integration of these planning processes also are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauser, Hanns Christoph [HCR Consulting, Ingenieurbuero fuer Kaelte- und Klimatechnik, Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)
2010-09-15
The contribution under consideration reports on the behaviour of a cycle-integrated system and derives criteria for the attaining high degrees of temperature changes. Since cycle-integrated system also realizes a reheating and a re-cooling apart from a heat recovery, also the behaviour of such a system is presented according to feeding coldness and warmth into the cycle.
InP-based photonic integrated circuit platform on SiC wafer.
Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi
2017-11-27
We have numerically investigated the properties of an InP-on-SiC wafer as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. By bonding a thin InP-based semiconductor on a SiC wafer, SiC can be used as waveguide cladding, a heat sink, and a support substrate simultaneously. Since the refractive index of SiC is sufficiently low, PICs can be fabricated using InP-based strip and rib waveguides with a minimum bend radius of approximately 7 μm. High-thermal-conductivity SiC underneath an InP-based waveguide core markedly improves heat dissipation, resulting in superior thermal properties of active devices such as laser diodes. The InP-on-SiC wafer has significantly smaller thermal stress than InP-on-SiO 2 /Si wafer, which prevents the thermal degradation of InP-based devices during high-temperature processes. Thus, InP on SiC provides an ideal platform for high-performance PICs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naghavi, M.S.; Ong, K.S.; Badruddin, I.A.; Mehrali, M.; Silakhori, M.; Metselaar, H.S.C.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to model theoretically a solar hot water system consisting of an array of ETHPSC (evacuated tube heat pipe solar collectors) connected to a common manifold filled with phase change material and acting as a LHTES (latent heat thermal energy storage) tank. Solar energy incident on the ETHPSC is collected and stored in the LHTES tank. The stored heat is then transferred to the domestic hot water supply via a finned heat exchanger pipe placed inside the tank. A combination of mathematical algorithms is used to model a complete process of the heat absorption, storage and release modes of the proposed system. The results show that for a large range of flow rates, the thermal performance of the ETHPSC-LHTES system is higher than that of a similar system without latent heat storage. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the efficiency of the introduced system is less sensitive to the draw off water flowrate than a conventional system. Analysis indicates that this system could be applicable as a complementary part to conventional ETHPSC systems to be able to produce hot water at night time or at times with weak radiation. - Highlights: • The ETHPSC is integrated with PCM at manifold side for night hot water demands. • The thermal performance of the ETHPSC-PCM is often higher than the baseline model. • The efficiency of the proposed model is stable for different flow rates. • Using PCM as thermal storage increases reliability on the performance of the system.
Two Fundamental Problems and Two Periods of German Speculative Idealism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. ZOLOTUKHIN
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The author’s concerns are with the philosophical and theological problems integral to German Speculative Idealism. Two key ideas permeated the whole of German Idealism: the idea of divine self-realization / self-understanding and the idea of gravitating between the poles of theism and pantheism. The author attempts to explain how these two ideas are related throughout the course of German Idealism. He includes in this study not only Fichte /the elder/, Schelling, and Hegel, but also the so-called speculative theists (Fichte /the younger/ and others, whose thought in both ideology and methodology resembles that of Schelling and Hegel. The author demonstrates using the writings of the philosophers that the two ideas may be related though the concept of creativity . If God realizes himself in the world and through the world, then it makes sense to say that philosophical theology is replete with pantheism. But if the divine realization takes place ontologically before the process of creation and is in itself an act which takes place within the divine Being Himself, the process is then clearly theistic. Idealists of the older school do not link creation with the Absolute - they reject this point or they speak about creation in reference to the act of divine self-realization. Idealists of the younger generation, on the contrary, hold that the act of divine self-realization precedes that of creation. The author opines that it is this point which allows us to diﬀ erentiate between a philosophical system which leans towards pantheism from one which tends toward theism. The older idealists were indeed mostly pantheists, while the younger generation was mostly theistic. In view of this, German Idealism may be considered to be divided into two periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koku, Oludolapo; Perry, Simon; Kim, Jin-Kuk
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Development of thermal integration modelling framework for the utilisation of LNG cold energy. • Feasibility study for various design options for the integration of low-temperature cold energy. • Provision of a design approach for achieving efficient use of cold energy in LNG terminals. • Understanding of techno-economic impacts associated with the thermal integration of LNG cold energy. - Abstract: This paper addresses a conceptual study investigating the techno-economic feasibility for the thermal Integration of LNG cold vaporisation energy in power generation applications. In conventional regasification systems, this valuable LNG cold energy is often being wasted to ambient heat sources, representing a thermodynamic inefficient process with a significant thermal impact on the local environment. A combined facility consisting of a non-integrated Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) and an LNG receiving terminal employing traditional Open Rack Vaporisers (ORV) technology, has been modelled, as a base case. Retrofit strategies for the integration of LNG cold energy have been investigated, and their impacts on power production and system efficiency are systematically compared. Retrofit design options considered in this work include the use of a propane Rankine cycle coupled with the direct expansion of natural gas, the integration of a closed-loop water cycle or open-loop water circuit with a steam Rankine cycle, and the facilitation of integrated air cooling for a gas turbine
Integrated system of nuclear reactor and heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, B.N.; Schluderberg, D.C.
1977-01-01
The invention concerns PWRs in which the heat exchanger is associated with a pressure vessel containing the core and from which it can be selectively detached. This structural configuration applies to electric power generating uses based on land or on board ships. An existing reactor of this kind is fitted with a heat exchanger in which the tubes are 'U' shaped. This particular design of heat exchangers requires that the ends of the curved tubes be solidly maintained in a tube plate of great thickness, hence difficult to handle and to fabricate and requiring unconventional fine control systems for the control rods and awkward coolant pump arrangements. These complications limit the thermal power of the system to level below 100 megawatts. On the contrary, the object of this invention is to provide a one-piece PWR reactor capable of reaching power levels of 1500 thermal megawatts at least. For this, a pressure vessel is provided in the cylindrical assembly with not only a transversal separation on a plane located between the reactor and the heat exchanger but also a cover selectively detachable which supports the fine control gear of the control rods. Removing the cover exposes a part of the heat exchanger for easy inspection and maintenance. Further, the heat exchanger can be removed totally from the pressure vessel containing the core by detaching the cylindrical part, which composes the heat exchanger section, from the part that holds the reactor core on a level with the transversal separation [fr
Spin interaction with an ideal fermi gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aizenstadt, V.V.; Malyshev, V.A.
1987-01-01
The authors consider the equilibrium dynamics of a system consisting of a spin interacting with an ideal Fermi gas on the lattice Z/sup v, v ≥ 3. They present two examples; when this system is unitarily equivalent to an ideal Fermi gas or to a spin in an ideal Fermi gas without interactions between them
Numerical study of non-ideal Vlasov-BGK plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levchenko, V.D.; Sigov, Y.S.; Premuda, F.
1995-01-01
A relatively simple quasi-classical description of quantum plasmas using as first approximation the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision integral, if combined with the modern numerical simulation methods, might be effective tool of a deep study of non-ideal plasma kinetics in a variety of urgent applications as inertial confinement and cold fusion, transport and collective properties of highly condensed plasmas in liquid metals, semi- and superconductors and others. Consider one-dimensional degenerate plasma consisting of thermal electrons and thermal bosons (deuterons) in the vicinity of the equilibrium Fermi- and Bose-type distributions respectively. In the frame of our rough mixed model we solve Vlasov-BGK-Poisson eqs using simplified version of the SUR code
Idealization of The Real Stirling Cycle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Červenka Libor
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a potential idealization of the real Stirling cycle. This idealization is performed by modifying the piston movement corresponding to the ideal Stirling cycle. The focus is on the cycle thermodynamics with respect to the indicated efficiency and indicated power. A detailed 1-D simulation model of a Stirling engine is used as a tool for this assessment. The model includes real non-zero volumes of heater, regenerator, cooler and connecting pipe. The model is created in the GT Power commercial simulation software.
Fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideals of hyper BCK-algebras
Jun, Young Bae; Shim, Wook Hwan
2002-01-01
We consider the fuzzification of the notion of implicative hyper BCK-ideals, and then investigate several properties. Using the concept of level subsets, we give a characterization of a fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideal. We state a relation between a fuzzy hyper BCK-ideal and a fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideal. We establish a condition for a fuzzy hyper BCK-ideal to be a fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideal. Finally, we introduce the notion of hyper homomorphisms of hyper ...
Changing Masculinity Ideals in a Danish Context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bloksgaard, Lotte; Christensen, Ann-Dorte
, indicating that Danish masculinity ideals may be under change. Also several Nordic studies emphasize that traditional masculinity ideals are challenged by new, more ‘modern’ masculinity ideals related to fatherhood, child care and gender equality. The first part of the paper develops an analytical model......The purpose of this paper is to localize and discuss different masculinity ideals in a Danish context, and how these are overlapping and competing. The paper is based primarily on results from five focus group interviews with higher and lower educated men, respectively (n=50). This qualitative...... analysis builds on a survey conducted in the project ‘MARS’, which analyses the relation between masculinity and work-related accidents in two male dominated occupations. The survey shows that traditional masculinity ideals (the MRNI scale, Levant 2007) only find very low support (10 %) among the workers...
INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. KRISHNASWAMY
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.
Thermal electron heating rate: a derivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoegy, W.R.
1983-11-01
The thermal electron heating rate is an important heat source term in the ionospheric electron energy balance equation, representing heating by photoelectrons or by precipitating higher energy electrons. A formula for the thermal electron heating rate is derived from the kinetic equation using the electron-electron collision operator as given by the unified theory of Kihara and Aono. This collision operator includes collective interactions to produce a finite collision operator with an exact Coulomb logarithm term. The derived heating rate O(e) is the sum of three terms, O(e) O(p) + S + O(int), which are respectively: (1) primary electron production term giving the heating from newly created electrons that have not yet suffered collisions with the ambient electrons, (2) a heating term evaluated on the energy surface m(e)/2 E(T) at the transition between Maxwellian and tail electrons at E(T), and (3) the integral term representing heating of Maxwellian electrons by energetic tail electrons at energies ET. Published ionospheric electron temperature studies used only the integral term O(int) with differing lower integration limits. Use of the incomplete heating rate could lead to erroneous conclusions regarding electron heat balance, since O(e) is greater than O(int) by as much as a factor of two
Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon
2007-01-01
The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...... loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......, calculations show that the yearly thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems is strongly reduced if the hot water tank has a thermal bridge located at the top of the tank....
The effect of the reference frame on the thermophysical properties of an ideal gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speziale, Cg.
1986-01-01
The effect that the frame of reference has on the thermophysical properties of an ideal gas is examined from a fundamental theoretical standpoint based on the Boltzmann equation. In continuum mechanics, the principle of material frame in deference forbids the thermophysical properties of a fluid or solid to depend in any way on the motion of the reference frame. It is demonstrated that the Boltzmann equation is only consistent with material frame-indeffrence in a strong approximate sense provided that the gas is not highly rarefield and, thus, well within the limits of classical continuum mechanics. Estimates of the mean free times for which material frame-indifference can be invoked in the modeling of gas flows are provided from an analysis of the problem of heat conduction in a rigidly rotating gas. Applications of these results in obtaining asymptotic solutions of the Boltzmann equation for the continuum description of an ideal gas are discussed briefly
Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marin, Otilia; Leca, Aureliu
2004-01-01
After 50 years of centralized economy, since 1989, Romania faces many challenges related to the internal conditions and to the new trends in energy markets over the world as: the existing low efficiency and availability, fast structural changes; the decentralization and privatization of the energy sector with new structures and entities; integration in EU and NATO structures. At present, with transition from the national vertical integrated monopolies to an open market, the determination of the global optimum development scenario of the power and heat sector becomes more important in order to find the policy which can lead the own strategies of different companies involved on market to a sustainable development of the society. The paper presents four long term development scenarios of the electricity and heat sector quantified from different points of view: technical, economical, environmental, social criteria, security of supply, risk diminishing etc and it continues by determining the long term global optimum development scenario integrated in the sustainable energy system. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yucheng Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.
Time-Dependent Heat Conduction Problems Solved by an Integral-Equation Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberaigner, E.R.; Leindl, M.; Antretter, T.
2010-01-01
Full text: A classical task of mathematical physics is the formulation and solution of a time dependent thermoelastic problem. In this work we develop an algorithm for solving the time-dependent heat conduction equation c p ρ∂ t T-kT, ii =0 in an analytical, exact fashion for a two-component domain. By the Green's function approach the formal solution of the problem is obtained. As an intermediate result an integral-equation for the temperature history at the domain interface is formulated which can be solved analytically. This method is applied to a classical engineering problem, i.e. to a special case of a Stefan-Problem. The Green's function approach in conjunction with the integral-equation method is very useful in cases were strong discontinuities or jumps occur. The initial conditions and the system parameters of the investigated problem give rise to two jumps in the temperature field. Purely numerical solutions are obtained by using the FEM (finite element method) and the FDM (finite difference method) and compared with the analytical approach. At the domain boundary the analytical solution and the FEM-solution are in good agreement, but the FDM results show a signicant smearing effect. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cignitti, Stefano; Woodley, John M.; Abildskov, Jens
2017-01-01
This contribution presents an integrated framework for product-process design. The framework integrates the two design problems into one and finds the optimal solution through simultaneous optimization. The framework consists of four hierarchical steps and uses a set of methods, tools and databases...... for property prediction, novel fluid design and mathematical programming. The application of the framework is targeted for waste heat recovery design systems, where the sensitivity of product and process design variables is high and the simultaneous design is necessary. The sustainable design solutions...... are showcased in this paper for mixed refrigeration design....
Improved reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rie Beck; Mariager, Christian; Laustsen, Christoffer
2017-01-01
In this study we demonstrate how reconstruction for IDEAL spiral CSI (spectroscopic imaging scheme developed for hyperpolarized dynamic metabolic MR imaging) can be improved by using regularization with a sparsity constraint. By exploiting sparsity of the spectral domain, IDEAL spiral CSI can...
Investigating synoptic-scale monsoonal disturbances in an idealized moist model
Clark, S.; Ming, Y.
2017-12-01
Recent studies have highlighted the potential utility of a theory for a "moisture-dynamical" instability in explaining the time and spatial scales of intra-seasonal variability associated with the Indian summer monsoon. These studies suggest that a localized region in the subtropics with mean low-level westerly winds and mean temperature increasing poleward will allow the formation of westward propagating precipitation anomalies associated with moist Rossby-like waves. Here we test this theory in an idealized moist model with realistic radiative transfer by inducing a local poleward-increasing temperature gradient by placing a continent with simplified hydrology in the subtropics. We experiment with different treatments of land-surface hydrology, ranging from the extreme (treating land as having the same heat capacity as the slab ocean used in the model, and turning off evaporation completely over land) to the more realistic (bucket hydrology, with a decreased heat capacity over land), and different continental shapes, ranging from a zonally-symmetric continent, to Earth-like continental geometry. Precipitation rates produced by the simulations are analyzed using space-time spectral analysis, and connected to variability in the winds through regression analysis. The observed behavior is discussed with respect to predictions from the theory.
Hung, Min-Sheng; Ho, Chia-Chin; Chen, Chih-Pin
2016-08-01
This study developed a microfluidic platform for replicating and detecting DNA in real time by integrating a laser and a microfluidic device composed of polydimethylsiloxane. The design of the microchannels consisted of a laser-heating area and a detection area. An infrared laser was used as the heating source for DNA replication, and the laser power was adjusted to heat the solutions directly. In addition, strong biotin-avidin binding was used to capture and detect the replicated products. The biotin on one end was bound to avidin and anchored to the surface of the microchannels, whereas the biotin on the other end was bound to the quantum dots (Qdots). The results showed that the fluorescent intensity of the Qdots bound to the replicated products in the detection area increased with the number of thermal cycles created by the laser. When the number of thermal cycles was ≥10, the fluorescent intensity of the Qdots was directly detectable on the surface of the microchannels. The proposed method is more sensitive than detection methods entailing gel electrophoresis.
Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min
2016-04-01
Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, S.-O.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.-J.
2002-01-01
A CANDU reactor has the unique features and the intrinsic safety related characteristics that distinguish it from other water-cooled thermal reactors. If there is the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a coincident failure of the emergency coolant injection (ECI) system, the heavy water moderator is continuously cooled, providing a heat sink for decay heat produced in the fuel. Therefore, it is one of major concerns to estimate the local subcooling of moderator inside the calandria vessel under postulated accident in CANDU safety analyses. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), a regulatory body in Canada, categorized the integrity of moderator as a generic safety issue and recommended that a series of experimental works be performed to verify the safety evaluation codes for individual simulated condition of nuclear power plant, comparing with the results of three-dimensional experimental data. In this study, three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer have been performed to assess thermal-hydraulic characteristics for moderator simulation conducted by SPEL (Sheridan Park Experimental Laboratory) experimental facility. The parametric study has also carried out to investigate the effect of major parameters such as flowrate, temperature, and heat load generated from the heaters on the temperature and flow distribution inside the moderator. Three flow patterns have been identified in the moderator with flowrate, heat generation, or both. As the transition of fluid flow is progressed, it is found that the dimensionless numbers (Ar) and the ratio of buoyancy to inertia forces are constant. (author)
Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.
Correa, Luis A
2014-04-01
It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.
CISBAT 2007 - Solar collectors (heat and electricity)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
This is the third part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Building and urban integration of renewables the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Facade integration of solar thermal collectors: present and future', 'Long term experiences with a versatile PV in roof system', 'Development of a design and performance prediction tool for the ground source heat pump and underground thermal storage system', 'Hygrothermal performance of earth-to-air heat exchanger: long-term data evaluation and short-term simulation' as well as 'The real cost of heating your home: a comparative assessment of home energy systems with external costs'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage', 'Analysis of forced convection for evaporative air flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels', 'Renewable energy technology in Mali: constraints and options for a sustainable development', 'Effect of duct width in ducted photovoltaic facades', 'Design and actual measurement of a ground source heat pump system using steel foundation piles as ground heat exchangers', 'Development of an integrated water-water heat pump unit for low energy house and its application', 'PV effect in multilayer cells and blending of fullerene/poly (3-hexylthiophene) and phthalocyanine having NIR charge transfer absorption band', 'CdTe photovoltaic systems - an alternative energetic', 'Integration of renewable energy sources in a town, examples in Grenoble', 'A prospective analysis method for the conception of solar integration solutions in buildings' and 'Energy and aesthetic improvements for building integration of cost effective solar energy systems'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shao, Nan; You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena
2013-01-01
The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of micro-sized Distributed Energy Rescores (DERs), due to physical bottlenecks, e.g. load capacities of cables and transformers and voltage limitations. In this study, integration impacts of heat pumps (HPs) an...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olsson, Marcus; Nordman, Roger; Taherzadeh, Mohammad
2011-07-01
Plants for bioethanol production have been planned in several cities in Sweden, including Boraas. This report provides answers to general questions regarding how such a facility's energy demand is affected by the external integration with a heat and power plant and the internal energy integration between process units. Heat integration of a bioethanol plant means that energy is reused as much as is technically possible; this sets a practical minimum level for the energy demand of the plant. In the study, ethanol production from cellulose has been simulated using Aspen Plus. Weak acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis have been simulated, each with 50,000 and 100,000 tonnes of ethanol per year, resulting in four simulation cases. In all cases, heat integration is evaluated using pinch analysis. The steam in the ethanol plant has been covered by steam from a heat and power plant similar to that found today in Boraas. It is important to note that the energy quotas reported here includes energy use for upgrading the residual products. This leads to lower energy quotas than would be the case if the upgrading of residuals were allocated outside of the ethanol production. The conclusions from the project are: - The steam demand of the ethanol plant leads to a reduction in both the electricity and heat production of the heat and power plant. For the weak acid hydrolysis, the electricity loss is relatively high, 26-98%, which will affect the revenue significantly. The loss of electricity production is lower for the enzymatic process: 11-47%. - The difference in decreased electricity between the theoretical case of heating the raw material and the two alternative heating cases is about a factor of two, so the design of the heating of raw material is extremely important. - The reduced heat output of the power plant can, in most cases, be balanced by the surplus heat from the ethanol plant, but to completely balance the shortage, heat over 100 deg C must be used
Simplified models of the symmetric single-pass parallel-plate counterflow heat exchanger: a tutorial
Pickard, William F.; Abraham-Shrauner, Barbara
2018-03-01
The heat exchanger is important in practical thermal processes, especially those of (i) the molten-salt storage schemes, (ii) compressed air energy storage schemes and (iii) other load-shifting thermal storage presumed to undergird a Smart Grid. Such devices, although central to the utilization of energy from sustainable (but intermittent) renewable sources, will be unfamiliar to many scientists, who nevertheless need a working knowledge of them. This tutorial paper provides a largely self-contained conceptual introduction for such persons. It begins by modelling a novel quantized exchanger,1 impractical as a device, but useful for comprehending the underlying thermophysics. It then reviews the one-dimensional steady-state idealization which demonstrates that effectiveness of heat transfer increases monotonically with (device length)/(device throughput). Next, it presents a two-dimensional steady-state idealization for plug flow and from it derives a novel formula for effectiveness of transfer; this formula is then shown to agree well with a finite-difference time-domain solution of the two-dimensional idealization under Hagen-Poiseuille flow. These results are consistent with a conclusion that effectiveness of heat exchange can approach unity, but may involve unwelcome trade-offs among device cost, size and throughput.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perelomova, Anna [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: anpe@mif.pg.gda.pl
2006-08-28
The equation of energy balance is subdivided into two dynamics equations, one describing evolution of the dominative sound, and the second one responsible for acoustic heating. The first one is the famous KZK equation, and the second one is a novel equation governing acoustic heating. The novel dynamic equation considers both periodic and non-periodic sound. Quasi-plane geometry of flow is supposed. Subdividing is provided on the base of specific links of every mode. Media with arbitrary thermic T(p,{rho}) and caloric e(p,{rho}) equations of state are considered. Individual roles of thermal conductivity and viscosity in the heating induced by aperiodic sound in the ideal gases and media different from ideal gases are discussed.
Perelomova, Anna
2006-08-01
The equation of energy balance is subdivided into two dynamics equations, one describing evolution of the dominative sound, and the second one responsible for acoustic heating. The first one is the famous KZK equation, and the second one is a novel equation governing acoustic heating. The novel dynamic equation considers both periodic and non-periodic sound. Quasi-plane geometry of flow is supposed. Subdividing is provided on the base of specific links of every mode. Media with arbitrary thermic T(p,ρ) and caloric e(p,ρ) equations of state are considered. Individual roles of thermal conductivity and viscosity in the heating induced by aperiodic sound in the ideal gases and media different from ideal gases are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perelomova, Anna
2006-01-01
The equation of energy balance is subdivided into two dynamics equations, one describing evolution of the dominative sound, and the second one responsible for acoustic heating. The first one is the famous KZK equation, and the second one is a novel equation governing acoustic heating. The novel dynamic equation considers both periodic and non-periodic sound. Quasi-plane geometry of flow is supposed. Subdividing is provided on the base of specific links of every mode. Media with arbitrary thermic T(p,ρ) and caloric e(p,ρ) equations of state are considered. Individual roles of thermal conductivity and viscosity in the heating induced by aperiodic sound in the ideal gases and media different from ideal gases are discussed
Heat Loss Evaluation of the SMART-ITL Primary System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, Sung Uk; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Park, Keun Tae; Park, Hyun Sik; Yi, Sung Jae
2013-01-01
It is considered that the heat loss rate is one of the critical factors affecting the transient behavior of an integral effect test facility. This paper presents the experimental results of the heat loss rate for the primary system of a SMART-ITL (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Integral Test Loop) facility including the pressurizer (PZR). To evaluate the heat loss rate of the primary system, two different approaches were pursued, i. e., integral and differential approaches. The integral approach is a constant temperature method which controls the core and PZR powers at a desired temperature condition and the differential approach is a natural cooling-down measurement method that lasts for a long period of time. In the present work, the heat losses derived from integral and differential approaches were acquired for the primary system of the SMART-ITL. The results obtained by the two approaches were very similar. In addition, an empirical correlation with respect to the difference between the wall temperature and the ambient temperature was proposed to represent the heat loss characteristics of the SMART-ITL facility. The estimated heat losses could be used to estimate the heat loss during the tests and code simulations
Asymptotic sequences over ideals and projectively equivalent ideals with respect to modules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naghipour, R.; Sedghi, M.
2007-09-01
Let R be a commutative Noetherian ring, and let N be a non-zero finitely generated R-module. The purpose of this paper is to show that if I and J are projectively equivalent ideals w.r.t. N, then a sequence x := x 1 , . . . , x n of elements of R is an asymptotic sequence over I w.r.t. N if and only if it is an asymptotic sequence over J w.r.t. N. Also, it is shown that if R is local, then the lengths of all maximal asymptotic sequences over an ideal I w.r.t. N are the same. As a consequence we derive a generalization of Rees' theorem. (author)
Ideal MHD stability and characteristics of edge localized modes on CFETR
Li, Ze-Yu; Chan, V. S.; Zhu, Yi-Ren; Jian, Xiang; Chen, Jia-Le; Cheng, Shi-Kui; Zhu, Ping; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Xia, Tian-Yang; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Wang, Xiao-Gang; the CFETR Physics Team
2018-01-01
Investigation on the equilibrium operation regime, its ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability and edge localized modes (ELM) characteristics is performed for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). The CFETR operation regime study starts with a baseline scenario (R = 5.7 m, B T = 5 T) derived from multi-code integrated modeling, with key parameters {{β }N},{{β }T},{{β }p} varied to build a systematic database. These parameters, under profile and pedestal constraints, provide the foundation for the engineering design. The long wavelength low-n global ideal MHD stability of the CFETR baseline scenario, including the wall stabilization effect, is evaluated by GATO. It is found that the low-n core modes are stable with a wall at r/a = 1.2. An investigation of intermediate wavelength ideal MHD modes (peeling ballooning modes) is also carried out by multi-code benchmarking, including GATO, ELITE, BOUT++ and NIMROD. A good agreement is achieved in predicting edge-localized instabilities. Nonlinear behavior of ELMs for the baseline scenario is simulated using BOUT++. A mix of grassy and type I ELMs is identified. When the size and magnetic field of CFETR are increased (R = 6.6 m, B T = 6 T), collisionality correspondingly increases and the instability is expected to shift to grassy ELMs.
Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN
Quantum surface tension in ideal gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sisman, A.
2005-01-01
Due to wave character of atoms, an ideal gas confined in a finite domain exhibits Casimir like size effects. These effects become appreciable in a domain with at least one dimension in the order of micron. On this scale, thermodynamic state functions of an ideal gas become shape and size dependent and some new effects appear. In the literature, only some domains of regular shapes have been considered. In this study, the results are generalized to a domain of an arbitrary shape by using Weyl s conjecture for density of states. It is seen that free energy expression of an ideal Maxwellian gas consists of a classical volume dependent term and also a quantum originated surface dependent term, which causes a quantum surface tension. In a rectangular box filled by an ideal gas and separated by a movable wall into two parts, it is shown that a lateral force appears on the movable wall due to quantum surface tension
Heat transfer from the moving heat source of arbitrary shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fomin, Sergei A.
2000-01-01
The present research is related to contact melting by a moving heat source of arbitrary shape. Heat conduction in the melting material is governed by 3D differential equation, where the thermal conductivity of the surrounding material is assumed to be strongly temperature dependent. By using the Green's formula, the boundary-value problem is converted to the boundary integral equation. This non-linear equation is solved numerically by interactions utilizing the boundary element method. Different shapes of heat sources are investigated. Since the obtained integral equation is the Fredholm type equation of the first kind and belongs to the family of so-called ill-posed problems, therefore, supplementary computations, that verify the stability of numerical algorithm, are provided. For the special cases associated with thermodrilling technology, some analytical estimations and solutions are obtained. Particularly, if the melting velocity is high (Pe>10), asymptotic solutions are found. In this case the integral equation is significantly reduced, that simplifies the computations. Numerical results are in good agreement with the closed-form solutions available for the elliptical shape of a solid-liquid interface. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard, Aude
2017-01-01
This file on renewable heat contains four articles which themes are: waste heat (from incineration plants or industrial sites) is an emerging sector full of resources, which benefits now of a financial subsidy from ADEME, the French organization for energy and environment; an example is given with Chamtor, a highly energy-consuming cereal transformer. The second article presents an urban eco-district in Paris that is fed by the heat issued by a data center. The third article (Integrating objectives matching the ambitions, clear and on the long term) presents some recommendations from the French Renewable Energy Association (SER) towards a better energy valorization of residual wastes. The fourth article presents two examples of energy valorization of wastes in Brittany, one with the valorization of high-energy solid wastes for supplying heat to a milk farm and greenhouses, the other one concerns the development of a heat network supplied by an incineration plant, with a mix of energy sources such as wastes, wood and gas, and a special juridical scheme
Analysis of the internal heat losses in a thermoelectric generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Eriksen, Dan
2014-01-01
and radiative heat losses, including surface to surface radiation. For radiative heat losses it is shown that for the temperatures considered here, surface to ambient radiation is a good approximation of the heat loss. For conductive heat transfer the module efficiency is shown to be comparable to the case...... of radiative losses. Finally, heat losses due to internal natural convection in the module is shown to be negligible for the millimetre sized modules considered here. The combined case of radiative and conductive heat transfer resulted in the lowest efficiency. The optimized load resistance is found...... to decrease for increased heat loss. The leg dimensions are varied for all heat losses cases and it is shown that the ideal way to construct a TEG module with minimal heat losses and maximum efficiency is to either use a good insulating material between the legs or evacuate the module completely, and use...
Application of heat pipes in nuclear reactors for passive heat removal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haque, Z.; Yetisir, M., E-mail: haquez@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)
2013-07-01
This paper introduces a number of potential heat pipe applications in passive (i.e., not requiring external power) nuclear reactor heat removal. Heat pipes are particularly suitable for small reactors as the demand for heat removal is significantly less than commercial nuclear power plants, and passive and reliable heat removal is required. The use of heat pipes has been proposed in many small reactor designs for passive heat removal from the reactor core. This paper presents the application of heat pipes in AECL's Nuclear Battery design, a small reactor concept developed by AECL. Other potential applications of heat pipes include transferring excess heat from containment to the atmosphere by integrating low-temperature heat pipes into the containment building (to ensure long-term cooling following a station blackout), and passively cooling spent fuel bays. (author)
Predicting film genres with implicit ideals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew McGregor Olney
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.
Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.
Olney, Andrew McGregor
2012-01-01
We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.
Certain Solutions Of Shock-Waves In Non-Ideal Gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanti Pandey
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In present paper non similar solutions for plane, cylindrical and spherical unsteady flows of non-ideal gas behind shock wave of arbitrary strength initiated by the instantaneous release of finite energy and propagating in a non-ideal gas is investigated. Asymptotic analysis is applied to obtain a solution up to second order. Solution for numerical calculation Runga-Kutta method of fourth order is applied and is concluded that for non-ideal case there is a decrease in velocity, pressure and density for 0th and IInd order in comparison to ideal gas but a increasing tendency in velocity, pressure and density for Ist order in comparison to ideal gas. The energy of explosion J0 for ideal gas is greater in comparison to non-ideal gas for plane, cylindrical and spherical waves.
Arithmetically Related Ideal Topologies and the Infinitude of Primes ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
algebra. Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 11N80, 11N25, 11A41, 11T99, 13A15, 20M25 Keywords: x-ideal, topological semigroup, ideal topology, infinitude of primes, generalized primes and integers, distribution, integers, specified multiplicative constraints, primes, ideals, multiplicative ideal theory, semigroup
Passive safety systems for decay heat removal of MRX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochiai, M; Iida, H; Hoshi, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Ship System Lab.
1996-12-01
The MRX (marine Reactor X) is an advanced marine reactor, its design has been studied in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is characterized by four features, integral type PWR, in-vessel type control rod drive mechanisms, water-filled containment vessel and passive decay heat removal system. A water-filled containment vessel is of great advantage since it ensures compactness of a reactor plant by realizing compact radiation shielding. The containment vessel also yields passive safety of MRX in the event of a LOCA by passively maintaining core flooding without any emergency water injection. Natural circulation of water in the vessels (reactor and containment vessels) is one of key factors of passive decay heat removal systems of MRX, since decay heat is transferred from fuel rods to atmosphere by natural circulation of the primary water, water in the containment vessel and thermal medium in heat pipe system for the containment vessel water cooling in case of long terms cooling after a LOCA as well as after reactor scram. Thus, the ideal of water-filled containment vessel is considered to be very profitable and significant in safety and economical point of view. This idea is, however, not so familiar for a conventional nuclear system, so experimental and analytical efforts are carried out for evaluation of hydrothermal behaviours in the reactor pressure vessel and in the containment vessel in the event of a LOCA. The results show the effectiveness of the new design concept. Additional work will also be conducted to investigate the practical maintenance of instruments in the containment vessel. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetzel, M.C.; Vieira, A.T.; Patton, D.C.
1994-01-01
Detailed containment and Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS) performance evaluations often are required to support major plant modifications, such as power up-rates and steam generator replacements. These UHS and containment pressure and temperature response evaluations are interrelated. Not only is the containment heat load to the UHS a factor in these evaluations, but other heat loads, such as those from the spent fuel pool, may change as a result of the plant modification and impact containment or UHS response. Our experience is that if an integrated containment/UHS response model is developed prior to the feasibility evaluations for such plant modifications, significant savings in engineering hours can be achieved. This paper presents an overview of such a front-end engineering tool that has been developed and used to support engineering evaluations. 3 refs., 2 figs
Introduction to statistical physics
Huang, Kerson
2009-01-01
A Macroscopic View of MatterViewing the World at Different Scales Thermodynamics The Thermodynamic Limit Thermodynamic TransformationsClassic Ideal Gas First Law of Thermodynamics Magnetic SystemsHeat and EntropyThe Heat Equations Applications to Ideal Gas Carnot Cycle Second Law of Thermodynamics Absolute Temperature Temperature as Integrating Factor EntropyEntropy of Ideal Gas The Limits of ThermodynamicsUsing ThermodynamicsThe Energy EquationSome Measurable Coefficients Entropy and Loss TS Diagram Condition for Equilibrium Helmholtz Free EnergyGibbs Potential Maxwell Relations Chemical Pote
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, D.J.W.
1977-01-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)
1977-12-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.
Design and analysis of heat recovery system in bioprocess plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastasovski, Aleksandar; Rašković, Predrag; Guzović, Zvonimir
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Heat integration of a bioprocess plant is studied. • Bioprocess plant produces yeast and ethyl-alcohol. • The design of a heat recovery system is performed by batch pinch analysis. • Direct and indirect heat integration approaches are used in process design. • The heat recovery system without a heat storage opportunity is more profitable. - Abstract: The paper deals with the heat integration of a bioprocess plant which produces yeast and ethyl-alcohol. The referent plant is considered to be a multiproduct batch plant which operates in a semi-continuous mode. The design of a heat recovery system is performed by batch pinch analysis and by the use of the Time slice model. The results obtained by direct and indirect heat integration approaches are presented in the form of cost-optimal heat exchanger networks and evaluated by different thermodynamic and economic indicators. They signify that the heat recovery system without a heat storage opportunity can be considered to be a more profitable solution for the energy efficiency increase in a plant
Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Muktadir Rahman, Md
2016-03-01
The well known relation for ideal classical gas $\\Delta \\epsilon^2=kT^2 C_V$ which does not remain valid for quantum system is revisited. A new connection is established between energy fluctuation and specific heat for quantum gases, valid in the classical limit and the degenerate quantum regime as well. Most importantly the proposed Biswas-Mitra-Bhattacharyya (BMB) conjecture (Biswas $et.$ $al.$, J. Stat. Mech. P03013, 2015.) relating hump in energy fluctuation and discontinuity of specific heat is proved and precised in this manuscript.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, Diana C; Mahecha, Cesar A; Hoyos, Luis J; Acevedo, Leonardo; Villamizar Jaime F
2010-01-01
The process of crude distillation impacts the economy of any refinery in a considerable manner. Therefore, it is necessary to improve it taking good advantage of the available infrastructure, generating products that conform to the specifications without violating the equipment operating constraints or plant restrictions at industrial units. The objective of this paper is to present the development of an optimization model for a Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) system at a ECOPETROL S.A. refinery in Barrancabermeja, involving the typical restrictions (flow according to pipeline capacity, pumps, distillation columns, etc) and a restriction that has not been included in bibliographic reports for this type of models: the heat integration of streams from Atmospheric Distillation Towers (ADTs) and Vacuum Distillation Towers (VDT) with the heat exchanger networks for crude pre-heating. On the other hand, ADTs were modeled with Metamodels in function of column temperatures and pressures, pump a rounds flows and return temperatures, stripping steam flows, Jet EBP ASTM D-86 and Diesel EBP ASTM D-86. Pre-heating trains were modeled with mass and energy balances, and design equation of each heat exchanger. The optimization model is NLP, maximizing the system profit. This model was implemented in GAMSide 22,2 using the CONOPT solver and it found new operating points with better economic results than those obtained with the normal operation in the real plants. It predicted optimum operation conditions of 3 ADTs for constant composition crude and calculated the yields and properties of atmospheric products, additional to temperatures and duties of 27 Crude Oil exchangers.
Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend
2010-01-01
The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design o...
IDEAL STRUCTURE OF UNIFORM ROE ALGEBRAS OVER SIMPLE CORES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN XIAOMAN; WANG QIN
2004-01-01
This paper characterizes ideal structure of the uniform Roe algebra B* (X) over sinple cores X. A necessary and sufficient condition for a principal ideal of B*(X) to be spatial is given and an example of non-spatial ideal of B* (X) is constructed. By establishing an one-one correspondence between the ideals of B* (X) and the ω-filters on X, the maximal ideals of B* (X) are completely described by the corona of the Stone-Cech compactification of X.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Nakagawa, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment
2002-12-01
A helium/helium intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an essential component for demonstration of future nuclear process heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The IHX with a heat capacity of 10 MW has 96 helically-coiled heat transfer tubes. Structural design for the IHX had been conducted through elastic-creep analysis of superalloy Hastelloy XR components such as heat transfer tubes and center pipe. In the HTTR rise-to-power test, it was clarified that temperature of the coolant in the IHX at the reactor scrams changes more rapidly than expected in the design. Effects of the IHX coolant temperature change, at anticipated reactor scram from the full power of 30 MW at high temperature test operation, on structural integrity of the heat transfer tubes and the lower reducer of the center pipe were investigated analytically based on the coolant temperature data obtained from the rise-to-power test. As results of the assessment, it was confirmed that cumulative principal creep strain, cumulative creep and fatigue damage factor of the IHX components during 10{sup 5} h of the HTTR lifetime should be below the allowable limits, which are established in the high-temperature structural design code for the HTGR Class 1 components. (author)
Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction
Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani
2017-06-01
Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.
The performance evaluation of a micro/nano-scaled cooler working with an ideal Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Juncheng; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan
2012-01-01
Based on the size effect of a confined ideal Bose gas, the design concept of a quantum cooler is originally put forward. The cooler consists of two long tubes with the same length but different sizes of cross section, which are filled up with the ideal Bose gas, and is operated between two heat reservoirs. Expressions for the refrigeration rate and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooler are derived. The effects of the size effect on the refrigeration rate and COP are discussed. The general performance characteristics of the cooler are revealed. -- Highlights: ► The design concept of a quantum cooler is originally put forward. ► Expressions for the refrigeration rate and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooler are derived. ► The effects of the size effect on the refrigeration rate and COP are discussed. ► The general performance characteristics of the cooler are revealed. ► The results obtained are more general and significant than those in the current literature.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Madzivhandila, VA
2011-03-01
Full Text Available (flue gas) stream of a heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) design of the Elcogas plant adopted from previous studies. The underlying support for this idea was the direct relationship between efficiency of the IGCC and the boiler feedwater...
The brave new researcher of doctoral integrity training
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Degn, Lise; Ørberg, Jakob Williams
2018-01-01
Research integrity has become a major concern for both higher education institutions and research policy makers in the recent decades, and since 2000 there has been an explosive boom of national and international codes and agreements on ‘responsible conduct of research’ and ’research integrity...... are constructed and negotiated within the courses. The field of research integrity teaching is still emergent and course leaders and teachers are often key actors in framing and promoting certain understandings of research integrity in their discipline. Hence, the four research integrity courses explored...... the following questions: 1) What attitudes, behaviors, and notions of the ‘ideal researcher’ aree constructed and promoted in the local research integrity training for PhD fellows? 2) How do these ideals relate to other concerns and pressures among the course leaders, teachers and PhD fellows? 3) Are other...
Analysis of an ideal amorphous solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To, L.T.; Stachurski, Z.H.
2004-01-01
Full text: In geometrical terms, amorphous solids are fundamentally different from crystalline solids in that they can not be constructed by the crystallographic method of translation of the basis along a lattice. Therefore, to study amorphous structures we must invoke concepts and use measures different to those used for ordered structures. Nevertheless, an ideal amorphous solid must share together with the ideal crystalline solid in the same definition of the term 'ideal'. In both cases it must be a perfect body, in which perfection is carried through in every detail to an unlimited (infinite) size without fault or defect. The latest results on this research will be presented. To qualify for a solid, rigid body, close packing of the spheres is required. For an ideal amorphous solids composed of hard spheres of identical size, we impose a stricter condition for the packing, namely, to be such that all spheres are in fixed positions (no loose spheres). To define the ideal solid, we must define what we mean by a perfect amorphous structure. Here, perfection is defined by, first the definition of imperfections, and next by the requirement of absence of imperfections of any kind. We envisage two types of defects: (i) geometrical, and (ii) statistical. Geometrical defects are: a sphere of different size, a loose sphere, and a vacancy. A statistical defect is defined with respect to two statistical functions: Ψ(N C ), and Φ(S β ). The former describes the probability of a given sphere having nc number of touching contacts, and the latter describes the disposition of the contacts on the surface of the sphere. Defects relating to the two functions will be described. The results for the functions, Ψ(N C ), and Φ(S β ), for the corresponding radial distribution function, and so called blocking number will be presented from simulations of an ideal amorphous solid
Cooling Acoustic Transcucer with Heat Pipes
2009-07-19
circuits to a heat sink. [0009] In Kan et al (United States Patent No. 6,528,909), a spindle motor assembly is disclosed which has a shaft with an...integral heat pipe. The shaft with the integral heat pipe improves the thermal conductively of the shaft and the spindle motor assembly. The shaft ...2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known in the art that transducers, designed to project acoustic power, are often limited by the
Cooling Acoustic Transducer with Heat Pipes
2009-07-29
a heat sink. [0009] In Kan et al (United States Patent No. 6,528,909), a spindle motor assembly is disclosed which has a shaft with an integral...heat pipe. The shaft with the integral heat pipe improves the thermal conductively of the shaft and the spindle motor assembly. The shaft includes...Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known in the art that transducers, designed to project acoustic power, are often limited by the build
Chaos and Integrability in Ideal Body-Fluid Interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Johan Rønby
2011-01-01
by generating Poincare sections from numerically obtained solutions. By identifying the chaotic solutions and studying the body and vortex orbits, we obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the causes of chaotic behavior. As is well-known from dynamical system theory, the chaos can often be traced back...... of relative equilibria, their stability, and the qualitatively dierent kinds of motion is studied analytically and numerically. We then perform small parametric perturbations destroying the symmetry or conservation law that makes the system integrable. The emergence of chaos in the system is diagnosed...... contains both regular and chaotic regions, and may be understood from KAM theory. We also discover two separate chaotic regimes in the interaction of a body and one point vortex when the body is either noncircular or has asymmetric internal mass distribution. For one of these chaotic regimes the eect...
EDUCATIONAL IDEAL OF UKRAINIAN ETHNOPEDAGOGIES: CARPATHIAN VECTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelly Lysenko
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Educational ideal, methods, forms and means of folk-educational influence on its formation, starting from the first years of baby’s life are topical problems for researchers. The main element is an aim. The aim is an ideal image of the expecting result which is regarded as a guide for the educational activity of a certain ethnic community. The content of the notion of educational ideal is the imagery about the most important qualities of a personality, their manners, culture of relationship in the society, behavior. Ukrainian mentality is practicality, rationality, generosity, intellect in general. It is fully reflected in the pedagogical aim. At the same time mental means spiritual. That is something in thoughts and intents of a person. It is important to emphasize that Ukrainian ethos was formed on the basis of several groups, not only having formed a nation, but also having synthesized the temperament, traditions and customs, clothes and everyday life, culture in general. Hutsul, Boyko, Lemko (121 ethnic groups all together differ by the uniqueness of the appearance. At the same time their internal essence, that is educational ideal, world view, ethic morals, are unchangeable. Educational ideal is historically determined. Esthetic strategies, formation of creativity, development of the abilities by the means of folk crafts and trades, upbringing of a host pierce through the educational ideal of nowadays Ukrainians. The people aim to bring up their children as true citizens: good kids mean quiet old age, while with evil children old age becomes a hell. Thus, the educational ideal of the Ukrainians should be considered as a basis for modern educational technologies projection.
The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students
Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.
2009-01-01
The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elgoibar, Patricia; Lindholst, Morten
2016-01-01
illustrates the negotiation process between a team manager at TNK - a leading multinational software development company- and one of his team members. The employee is willing to negotiate an I-deal with the objective of attending a training course abroad. This case is a two-party employment deal-making......, and professionals; as well as in students from different cultural backgrounds. The feedback from the students shows a clear understanding of the information described in the test as well as a satisfactory learning experience in the concept of I-deals terms, understanding of the concept of BATNA in negotiation......, and the importance of taking into account the interests of the other party and parties when negotiating this type of agreements....
Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak
2011-01-01
It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...
Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
2008-01-01
The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....
District Heating Expansion Potential with Low-Temperature and End-Use Heat Savings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Steffen; Grundahl, Lars
2018-01-01
District heating has the potential to play a key role in the transition towards a renewable energy system. However, the development towards reduced heat demands threatens the feasibility of district heating. Despite this challenge, opportunity exists in the form of fourth generation district...... heating, which operates at lower temperatures and enables better renewable integration. This article investigates this challenge by examining the district heating potential within three scenarios: The first is a reference scenario with current heat demand and temperatures, the second includes heat demand...... costs. The models are applied using an example case of The Northern Region of Denmark. The article concludes that the district heating potential is highest in the reference scenario. When heat savings are introduced, district heating expansions, in most cases, will not be feasible. Introducing low...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei
2015-01-01
Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction
Hoehl, Melanie M; Weißert, Michael; Dannenberg, Arne; Nesch, Thomas; Paust, Nils; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Slocum, Alexander H; Steigert, Juergen
2014-06-01
This paper introduces a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA purification platform (LabTube). We demonstrate LabTube-based fully automated DNA purification of as low as 100 cell-equivalents of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in water, milk and apple juice in a laboratory centrifuge, followed by integrated and automated LAMP amplification with a reduction of hands-on time from 45 to 1 min. The heating system consists of two parallel SMD thick film resistors and a NTC as heating and temperature sensing elements. They are driven by a 3 V battery and controlled by a microcontroller. The LAMP reagents are stored in the elution chamber and the amplification starts immediately after the eluate is purged into the chamber. The LabTube, including a microcontroller-based heating system, demonstrates contamination-free and automated sample-to-answer nucleic acid testing within a laboratory centrifuge. The heating system can be easily parallelized within one LabTube and it is deployable for a variety of heating and electrical applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara
2010-01-01
Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.
Off-diagonal long-range order, cycle probabilities, and condensate fraction in the ideal Bose gas.
Chevallier, Maguelonne; Krauth, Werner
2007-11-01
We discuss the relationship between the cycle probabilities in the path-integral representation of the ideal Bose gas, off-diagonal long-range order, and Bose-Einstein condensation. Starting from the Landsberg recursion relation for the canonic partition function, we use elementary considerations to show that in a box of size L3 the sum of the cycle probabilities of length k>L2 equals the off-diagonal long-range order parameter in the thermodynamic limit. For arbitrary systems of ideal bosons, the integer derivative of the cycle probabilities is related to the probability of condensing k bosons. We use this relation to derive the precise form of the pik in the thermodynamic limit. We also determine the function pik for arbitrary systems. Furthermore, we use the cycle probabilities to compute the probability distribution of the maximum-length cycles both at T=0, where the ideal Bose gas reduces to the study of random permutations, and at finite temperature. We close with comments on the cycle probabilities in interacting Bose gases.
Ideal flow theory for the double - shearing model as a basis for metal forming design
Alexandrov, S.; Trung, N. T.
2018-02-01
In the case of Tresca’ solids (i.e. solids obeying the Tresca yield criterion and its associated flow rule) ideal flows have been defined elsewhere as solenoidal smooth deformations in which an eigenvector field associated everywhere with the greatest principal stress (and strain rate) is fixed in the material. Under such conditions all material elements undergo paths of minimum plastic work, a condition which is often advantageous for metal forming processes. Therefore, the ideal flow theory is used as the basis of a procedure for the preliminary design of such processes. The present paper extends the theory of stationary planar ideal flow to pressure dependent materials obeying the double shearing model and the double slip and rotation model. It is shown that the original problem of plasticity reduces to a purely geometric problem. The corresponding system of equations is hyperbolic. The characteristic relations are integrated in elementary functions. In regions where one family of characteristics is straight, mapping between the principal lines and Cartesian coordinates is determined by linear ordinary differential equations. An illustrative example is provided.
Atmospheric Circulation Response to Episodic Arctic Warming in an Idealized Model
Hell, M. C.; Schneider, T.; Li, C.
2017-12-01
Recent Arctic sea ice loss has drawn attention as a potential driver of fall/winter circulation changes. Past work has shown that sea ice loss can be related to a stratospheric polar vortex breakdown, with the result of long-delayed surface weather phenomena in late winter/early spring. In this study, we separate the atmospheric dynamic components and mean timescales to episodic polar surface heat fluxes using large ensembles of an idealized GCM in absence of continents and seasons. The atmospheric ensemble-mean response is linear related to the surface forcing strength and insensitive to the forcing symmetry. Analyses in the Transformed Eulerian Mean show that the responses can be separated into 1) an in-phase thermal adjustment, and 2) a lagged, eddy-driven component invoking long-standing anomalies in the lower stratosphere. The mid-latitude adjustment to the episodically reduced baroclinity leads to stratosphere-directed eddy-heat fluxes, establishing a stratospheric temperature anomaly responsible for vortex break down. In addition, we discuss the dependence on the background state via correlation in ensemble member space. Thus, we range the role of arctic perturbations in the transient large-scale circulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Maraver
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs, coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling demands in the tertiary sector. The thermodynamic approach was complemented, to avoid its possible limitations, by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the pump of the ORC. The working fluids considered are: n-pentane, n-heptane, octamethyltrisiloxane, toluene and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane. In addition, the energy and environmental performance of the different optimal CCHP plants was investigated. The optimal plant from the energy and environmental point of view is the one integrated by a toluene recuperative ORC, although it is limited to a development with a turbine type expander. Also, the trigeneration plant could be developed in an energy and environmental efficient way with an n-pentane recuperative ORC and a volumetric type expander.
Masculinity Ideals in a Contemporary Danish Context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bloksgaard, Lotte; Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup
2015-01-01
discourses of gender. The article is based on a mixed methods design, consisting of: (1) a quantitative survey among lower-educated men in two male-dominated occupations, and (2) a qualitative, explorative analysis of data from five focus group interviews with both lower- and higher-educated men. The two...... occupations in the survey constitute a critical case, based on the argument that if traditional masculinity ideals are rejected here—among lower-educated men, who are likely to be more supportive of traditional gender ideals than the more highly educated—then Danish men in general are likely to reject...... traditional masculinity ideals. Both the quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that traditional patriarchal masculinity ideals are not the most legitimate among the men. They seem to subscribe to more gender equality friendly masculinities, although this picture is not clear-cut as we also see...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borna Doračić
2018-03-01
Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.
Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl-Thingvad, Signe
2015-01-01
Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...
On the containment hierarchy for simplicial ideals
Lampa-Baczyńska, Magdalena; Malara, Grzegorz
2014-01-01
The purpose of this note is to study containment relations and asymptotic invariants for ideals of fixed codimension skeletons (simplicial ideals) determined by arrangements of $n + 1$ general hyperplanes in the $n-$dimensional projective space over an arbitrary field.
Fusion rings and fusion ideals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Troels Bak
by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...
Idealism and materialism in perception.
Rose, David; Brown, Dora
2015-01-01
Koenderink (2014, Perception, 43, 1-6) has said most Perception readers are deluded, because they believe an 'All Seeing Eye' observes an objective reality. We trace the source of Koenderink's assertion to his metaphysical idealism, and point to two major weaknesses in his position-namely, its dualism and foundationalism. We counter with arguments from modern philosophy of science for the existence of an objective material reality, contrast Koenderink's enactivism to his idealism, and point to ways in which phenomenology and cognitive science are complementary and not mutually exclusive.
Effectiveness of a heat exchanger in a heat pump clothes dryer
Nasution, A. H.; Sembiring, P. G.; Ambarita, H.
2018-02-01
This paper deals with study on a heat pump clothes dryer coupled with a heat exchanger. The objective is to explore the effects of the heat exchanger on the performance of the heat pump dryer. The heat pump dryer consists of a vapor compression cycle and integrated with a drying room with volume 1 m3. The power of compressor is 800 Watt and the refrigerant of the cycle is R22. The heat exchanger is a flat plate type with dimensions of 400 mm × 400 mm × 400 mm. The results show the present of the heat exchanger increase the performance of the heat pump dryer. In the present experiment the COP, TP and SMER increase 15.11%, 4.81% and 58.62%, respectively. This is because the heat exchanger provides a better drying condition in the drying room with higher temperature and lower relative humidity in comparison with heat pump dryer without heat exchanger. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also high, it is above 50%. It is suggested to install a heat exchanger in a heat pump dryer.
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
Tong, Nelson Y O; Leung, Dennis Y C
2012-01-01
A photochemistry coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based numerical model has been developed to model the reactive pollutant dispersion within urban street canyons, particularly integrating the interrelationship among diurnal heating scenario (solar radiation affections in nighttime, daytime, and sun-rise/set), wind speed, building aspect ratio (building-height-to-street-width), and dispersion of reactive gases, specifically nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) such that a higher standard of air quality in metropolitan cities can be achieved. Validation has been done with both experimental and numerical results on flow and temperature fields in a street canyon with bottom heating, which justifies the accuracy of the current model. The model was applied to idealized street canyons of different aspect ratios from 0.5 to 8 with two different ambient wind speeds under different diurnal heating scenarios to estimate the influences of different aforementioned parameters on the chemical evolution of NO, NO2 and O3. Detailed analyses of vertical profiles of pollutant concentrations showed that different diurnal heating scenarios could substantially affect the reactive gases exchange between the street canyon and air aloft, followed by respective dispersion and reaction. Higher building aspect ratio and stronger ambient wind speed were revealed to be, in general, responsible for enhanced entrainment of O3 concentrations into the street canyons along windward walls under all diurnal heating scenarios. Comparatively, particular attention can be paid on the windward wall heating and nighttime uniform surface heating scenarios.
Karakter Ideal Konselor Multibudaya Berdasarkan Nilai Luhur Semar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nora Yuniar Setyaputri
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Nowadays a lot of counselor labeling their counselee which caused counselor’s lack of multicultural insights. Labeling may have a poor impact on the counselor’s decision in selecting counseling intervention strategies. The multicultural insights of counselors must be enhanced by building an ideal character in themselves. This ideal character is concerned with the understanding and behavior of counselors to respond the condition of heterogeneous counselees and how high the curiosity, interest and motivation of counselors to constantly add multicultural insights that they have. The noble values contained within Semar can be attributed to how the ideal character of multicultural counselors. This study aims to explain the ideal character of multicultural counselor taken from the noble value of Semar as well as linking the character with multicultural competence of counselor. This research uses qualitative approach of library research type. The ideal characteristics of multicultural counselors that can be formulated include: (1 religious; (2 neutral; (3 tolerance; (4 sincere; (5 discipline; (6 social care; (7 friendly; (8 fair; (9 honest; (10 supple; (11 democratic; and (12 curiosity. Abstrak: Saat ini banyak konselor yang melakukan pelabelan karena kurangnya wawasan multibudaya konselor tersebut. Pelabelan yang dilakukan oleh konselor ini dapat berdampak kurang baik terhadap pemilihan strategi intervensi konselor terhadap konselinya. Wawasan multibudaya yang dimiliki konselor harus ditingkatkan dengan cara membangun karakter yang ideal pada diri mereka. Karakter ideal ini berkaitan dengan pemahaman dan perilaku konselor untuk menyikapi kondisi konseli yang heterogen serta seberapa tinggi rasa ingin tahu, minat maupun motivasi konselor untuk senantiasa menambah wawasan multibudaya yang mereka miliki. Nilai-nilai luhur yang terdapat di dalam diri Semar dapat dikaitkan dengan bagaimana karakter ideal konselor multibudaya. Penelitian ini
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blarke, Morten
2011-01-01
cogeneration plants rather than central power plants are giving way for wind power in the electricity mix. Could intermittent renewables be a threat to the system-wide energy, economic and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration have to offer? This paper investigates how existing cogeneration...... plants may adapt their plant design and operational strategy to improve the co-existence between cogeneration and intermittent renewables. A novel intermittency-friendly and super-efficient concept in cogeneration is presented that involves integrating a high-pressure compression heat pump using heat...
Kirshbaum, Daniel; Merlis, Timothy; Gyakum, John; McTaggart-Cowan, Ron
2017-04-01
The impact of cloud diabatic heating on baroclinic life cycles has been studied for decades, with the nearly universal finding that this heating enhances the system growth rate. However, few if any studies have systematically addressed the sensitivity of baroclinic waves to environmental temperature. For a given relative humidity, warmer atmospheres contain more moisture than colder atmospheres. They also are more prone to the development of deep moist convection, which is itself a major source of diabatic heating. Thus, it is reasonable to expect faster baroclinic wave growth in warmer systems. To address this question, this study performs idealized simulations of moist baroclinic waves in a periodic channel, using initial environments with identical relative humidities, dry stabilities, and dry available potential energies but varying environmental temperatures and moist instabilities. While the dry versions of these simulations exhibit virtually identical wave growth, the moist versions exhibit major differences in life cycle. Counter-intuitively, despite slightly faster initial wave growth, the warmer and moister waves ultimately develop into weaker baroclinic systems with an earlier onset of the decay phase. An energetics analysis reveals that the reduced wave amplitude in the warmer cases stems from a reduced transfer of available potential energy into eddy potential energy. This reduced energy transfer is associated with an unfavorable phasing of mid-to-upper-level thermal and vorticity anomalies, which limits the meridional heat flux.
Pragmatism vs. Idealism and the Identity Crisis of OER Advocacy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajiv Sunil Jhangiani
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The open education (OE movement is in its adolescent years and experiencing an identity crisis as it is pulled towards both pragmatism (marked by an emphasis on cost savings, resources, and incremental change and idealism (marked by an emphasis on permissions, practices, and radical change. In this article, I describe these tensions (free vs. freedom; evolution vs. revolution; and resources vs. practices before going on to argue in favour of a nuanced resolution to this Eriksonian crisis that reflects the diverse needs and motivations of educators. The merits of an integrated approach and its implications for the future trajectory of the OE movement are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lodi, C.; Bacher, Peder; Cipriano, J.
2012-01-01
reduce the ventilation thermal losses of the building by pre-heating the fresh air. Furthermore, by decreasing PV module temperature, the ventilation air heat extraction can simultaneously increase electrical and thermal energy production of the building. A correct prediction of the PV module temperature...... and heat transfer coefficients is fundamental in order to improve the thermo-electrical production.The considered grey-box models are composed of a set of continuous time stochastic differential equations, holding the physical description of the system, combined with a set of discrete time measurement......This paper deals with grey-box modelling of the energy transfer of a double skin Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system. Grey-box models are based on a combination of prior physical knowledge and statistics, which enable identification of the unknown parameters in the system and accurate...