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Sample records for idaho explosives detection

  1. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  2. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  3. Portable raman explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  4. Airport testing an explosives detection portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhykerd, C.; Linker, K.; Hannum, D.; Bouchier, F.; Parmeter, J.

    1998-08-01

    At the direction of the US Congress, following the Pan Am 103 and TWA 800 crashes, the Federal Aviation Administration funded development of non-invasive techniques to screen airline passengers for explosives. Such an explosives detection portal, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was field tested at the Albuquerque International airport in September 1997. During the 2-week field trial, 2,400 passengers were screened and 500 surveyed. Throughput, reliability, maintenance and sensitivity were studied. Follow-up testing at Sandia and at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was conducted. A passenger stands in the portal for five seconds while overhead fans blow air over his body. Any explosive vapors or dislodged particles are collected in vents at the feet. Explosives are removed from the air in a preconcentrator and subsequently directed into an ion mobility spectrometer for detection. Throughput measured 300 passengers per hour. The non-invasive portal can detect subfingerprint levels of explosives residue on clothing. A survey of 500 passengers showed a 97% approval rating, with 99% stating that such portals, if effective, should be installed in airports to improve security. Results of the airport test, as well as operational issues, are discussed.

  5. Nanosensors for trace explosive detection

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, co...

  6. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  7. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  8. Trace Explosives Detection by Photoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Some field tests in counter-terrorism efforts to detect explosive traces employ chemistries that yield colored products. We have examined a test kit of this kind, ETKPlus, based on widely used chemistries and employed extensively by the Israel Police. Our investigation focuses on the prospect of gaining sensitivity by replacing the normal colorimetric modality with photoluminescence detection, which, to our knowledge, has not been explored to date. We find two or more orders of magnitude sens...

  9. Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 8 March 2004 - 7 March 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development...Laboratory (NRL) to improve explosive detection using nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) is summarized. The work includes studies of the effects...superconducting coils for explosive detection. Additional studies involving slowly rotating NQR measurements were also pursued. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear

  10. Explosives detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  11. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David Steven [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  13. NQR Stimulation Technique for Explosives Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A method of customization stimulation signal based on direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) for Nuclear Quadrapole Resonance Explosives Detection System is presented. DDS has many advantages, such as high frequency resolution, high convert speed,

  14. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  15. Infrared hyperspectral standoff detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F.; Hugger, S.; Jarvis, J.; Blattmann, V.; Kinzer, M.; Yang, Q. K.; Ostendorf, R.; Bronner, W.; Driad, R.; Aidam, R.; Wagner, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate imaging standoff detection of solid traces of explosives using infrared laser backscattering spectroscopy. Our system relies on active laser illumination in the 7 μm-10 μm spectral range at fully eye-safe power levels. This spectral region comprises many characteristic absorption features of common explosives, and the atmospheric transmission is sufficiently high for stand-off detection. The key component of our system is an external cavity quantum cascade laser with a tuning range of 300 cm-1 that enables us to scan the illumination wavelength over several of the characteristic spectral features of a large number of different explosives using a single source. We employ advanced hyperspectral image analysis to obtain fully automated detection and identification of the target substances even on substrates that interfere with the fingerprint spectrum of the explosive to be detected due to their own wavelength-dependent scattering contributions to the measured backscattering spectrum. Only the pure target spectra of the explosives have to be provided to the detection routine that nevertheless accomplishes reliable background suppression without any a-priory-information about the substrate.

  16. Photoluminescent Detection of Dissolved Underwater Trace Explosives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A portable, rapid, and economical method for in situ trace explosive detection in aqueous solutions was demonstrated using photoluminescence. Using europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the reagent, dissolved nitroglycerin was fluorescently tagged and detected in seawater solutions without sample preparation, drying, or preconcentration. The chemical method was developed in a laboratory setting and demonstrated in a flow-through configuration using lightweight, inexpensive, commercial component...

  17. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Kapoor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technological challenges in post-war scenario worldwide is thedetection of landmines using these trace vapour signatures and neutralising them safely.  Differenttypes of explosives are utilised as the main charge in antipersonnel and antitank landmines. Inthis paper, an effort has been made to review the techniques so far available based on explosivevapour detection especially to detect the landmines. A comprehensive compilation of relevantinformation on the techniques is presented, and their maturity levels, shortcomings, and difficultiesfaced are highlighted.

  18. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.

    2011-01-01

    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed...... as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  19. Nitroaromatic explosives detection using electrochemically exfoliated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ying Teng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of paramount importance from security point of view. Graphene sheets obtained from the electrochemical anodic exfoliation of graphite foil in different electrolytes (LiClO4 and Na2SO4) were compared and tested as electrode material for the electrochemical detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater. Voltammetry analysis demonstrated the superior electrochemical performance of graphene produced in LiClO4, resulting in higher sensitivity and linearity for the explosives detection and lower limit of detection (LOD) compared to the graphene obtained in Na2SO4. We attribute this to the presence of oxygen functionalities onto the graphene material obtained in LiClO4 which enable charge electrostatic interactions with the –NO2 groups of the analyte, in addition to π-π stacking interactions with the aromatic moiety. Research findings obtained from this study would assist in the development of portable devices for the on-site detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  20. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft operator's...

  1. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  2. Reconstruction of a Phreatic Explosion from Block Dispersion Modeling at King's Bowl, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.; Borg, C.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.; Haberle, C. W.; Guy, H.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, B.; Neish, C.; Kim, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB), located in Idaho's eastern Snake River Plain, was formed by a phreatic blast through a mostly-congealed lava lake. Blocks up to ~2m diameter were ejected from the vent to form a ballistic ejecta blanket extending radially more than 100m. The blocks on the western side of the KB fissure are extraordinarily well exposed, as the fine fraction was blown eastward by ambient winds during the explosion. We present preliminary modeling results using the western ballistic blocks of KB to calculate the energy of the eruption, and the water volume necessary to create the blast. This work is presented in conjunction with two other 2014 AGU conference abstracts submitted by NASA SSERVI funded FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team members: Hughes et al., which introduces the geology of KB and Sears et al., which discusses field observation and data trends. Results of this research are extensible to steam-driven pits on other solar system bodies, including those observed on Mars, Phobos, Deimos, and the asteroids. Over 600 blocks ranging from .2 to 2m in diameter were mapped using differential GPS and measured for 3 axial lengths and vesicularity. Mass calculations were corrected using a scaling factor determined from measurements of 100 blocks at KB, coupled with targeted density measurements. The dispersed block trajectories were modeled using a fourth order Runge-Kutta solution of the equations of motion to calculate suites of possible ejection speeds and angles. The resulting characteristic vent velocities were used to calculate the kinetic energy necessary to evacuate the crater at KB; energy required for fragmentation is neglected at this time. Total mass in the kinetic energy calculations was calculated by two separate methods: 1) current volume expression of the KB crater and 2) an additive solution of the ejecta field as determined from radial transect surveys. From the kinetic energy we calculated the

  3. Method and system for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  4. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  5. Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbaek; Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Boisen, Anja;

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for trace detection of explosives in the gas phase using novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy substrates. Novel substrates that produce an exceptionally large enhancement of the Raman effect were used to amplify the Raman signal of explosives molecu...... process compared to existing commercial substrates. Therefore it is believed that these novel substrates will be able to make SERS more applicable in mobile explosives detection systems to be deployed in for example landmine clearance actions....

  6. Photoluminescent Detection of Dissolved Underwater Trace Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tye Langston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable, rapid, and economical method for in situ trace explosive detection in aqueous solutions was demonstrated using photoluminescence. Using europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the reagent, dissolved nitroglycerin was fluorescently tagged and detected in seawater solutions without sample preparation, drying, or preconcentration. The chemical method was developed in a laboratory setting and demonstrated in a flow-through configuration using lightweight, inexpensive, commercial components by directly injecting the reagents into a continually flowing seawater stream using a small amount of organic solvent (approximately 8% of the total solution. Europium's vulnerability to vibrational fluorescence quenching by water provided the mode of detection. Without nitroglycerin in the seawater solution, the reagent's fluorescence was quenched, but when dissolved nitroglycerin was present, it displaced the water molecules from the europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone compound and restored fluorescence. This effort focused on developing a seawater sensor, but performance comparisons were made to freshwater. The method was found to perform better in freshwater and it was shown that certain seawater constituents (such as calcium have an adverse impact. However, the concentrations of these constituents are not expected to vary significantly from the natural seawater used herein.

  7. Detection of Chemical Precursors of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Certain selected chemicals associated with terrorist activities are too unstable to be prepared in final form. These chemicals are often prepared as precursor components, to be combined at a time immediately preceding the detonation. One example is a liquid explosive, which usually requires an oxidizer, an energy source, and a chemical or physical mechanism to combine the other components. Detection of the oxidizer (e.g. H2O2) or the energy source (e.g., nitromethane) is often possible, but must be performed in a short time interval (e.g., 5 15 seconds) and in an environment with a very small concentration (e.g.,1 100 ppm), because the target chemical(s) is carried in a sealed container. These needs are met by this invention, which provides a system and associated method for detecting one or more chemical precursors (components) of a multi-component explosive compound. Different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are loaded (by doping, impregnation, coating, or other functionalization process) for detecting of different chemical substances that are the chemical precursors, respectively, if these precursors are present in a gas to which the CNTs are exposed. After exposure to the gas, a measured electrical parameter (e.g. voltage or current that correlate to impedance, conductivity, capacitance, inductance, etc.) changes with time and concentration in a predictable manner if a selected chemical precursor is present, and will approach an asymptotic value promptly after exposure to the precursor. The measured voltage or current are compared with one or more sequences of their reference values for one or more known target precursor molecules, and a most probable concentration value is estimated for each one, two, or more target molecules. An error value is computed, based on differences of voltage or current for the measured and reference values, using the most probable concentration values. Where the error value is less than a threshold, the system concludes that the target

  8. Detectability of the First Cosmic Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, R S; Johnson, J L; Whalen, D J; Mesinger, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a fully self-consistent simulation of a synthetic survey from the furthermost cosmic explosions. The appearance of the first generation of stars (Pop III) in the Universe represents a critical point during cosmic evolution signaling the end of the dark ages, a period of absence of light sources. Despite their importance, there is no confirmed detection of Pop III stars so far. A fraction of these primordial stars are expected to die as pair-instability supernovae (PISN), and should be bright enough to be observed up to a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. While the quest for Pop III stars continues, detailed theoretical models and computer simulations serve as a testbed for their observability. With the upcoming near-infrared missions, estimates of the feasibility of detecting PISN are not only timely but imperative. To address this problem, we combine state of art cosmological and radiative simulations into a complete and self-consistent framework which includes detailed features of the...

  9. Study of Associated α Particle Imaging Technique for Explosives Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The explosive detecting technique about neutron mainly include the thermal neutron analysis (TNA), the fast neutron analysis (FNA), the pulse fast and thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) and the associated α particle imaging technique about fast neutron (API).

  10. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. S., E-mail: jingsong-li@ahu.edu.cn; Yu, B. [Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation of Ministry of Education, Anhui University, Hefei (China); Fischer, H. [Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Chen, W. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l’Atmosphére, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Dunkerque (France); Yalin, A. P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1374 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  11. Contributed review: quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J S; Yu, B; Fischer, H; Chen, W; Yalin, A P

    2015-03-01

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  12. Autonomous Underwater Munitions and Explosives of Concern Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    MR-201002) Autonomous Underwater Munitions and Explosives of Concern Detection System March 2015 This document has been... Autonomous Underwater Munitions and Explosives of Concern Detection System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...Certification Program (ESTCP), 4800 Mark Center Drive , Suite 17D08,Alexandria,VA,22350-3605 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  13. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technolo...

  14. Detection of Plastic Explosive Traces in the Human Thermal Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowadia, Huban A.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    Aviation security requires the detection of explosive devices which terrorists, posing as passengers, may conceal beneath their clothing. Our goal is to understand the generation, transport, and collection of trace signals from such concealed explosives, which are found in the natural convective plume produced by the human body. Previous work (APS/DFD96, CG10) has visualized this plume and shown that concealed volatile explosives (e.g. TNT) produce a detectable vapor signal therein. Plastic explosives, on the other hand, have vanishingly low vapor pressures and are thus considered very difficult to detect. Present experiments use a dispersal chamber to collect and sample the plumes of human subjects wearing concealed gauze patches containing milligrams of RDX, the primary component of plastic explosives such as C-4. These experiments address the effects of agitation, clothing, temperature and humidity on trace detectability. Further experiments address the effects of oily vs. dry skin, contaminated clothing vs. gauze patches, and residual contamination left on skin previously in contact with RDX. The key role of airborne contaminated textile fibers is noted. Knowledge thus gained contributes to the design of an explosive detection portal for aviation security screening. (Research supported by FAA Grant 93-G-052.)

  15. The limit of detection for explosives in spectroscopic differential reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Vishwanathan, Karthik; Hummel, Rolf E.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of recent terrorist attacks, such as the 2008 Mumbai hotel explosion or the December 25th 2009 "underwear bomber", our group has developed a technique (US patent #7368292) to apply differential reflection spectroscopy to detect traces of explosives. Briefly, light (200-500 nm) is shone on a surface such as a piece of luggage at an airport. Upon reflection, the light is collected with a spectrometer combined with a CCD camera. A computer processes the data and produces in turn a differential reflection spectrum involving two adjacent areas of the surface. This differential technique is highly sensitive and provides spectroscopic data of explosives. As an example, 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) displays strong and distinct features in differential reflectograms near 420 nm. Similar, but distinctly different features are observed for other explosives. One of the most important criteria for explosive detection techniques is the limit of detection. This limit is defined as the amount of explosive material necessary to produce a signal to noise ratio of three. We present here, a method to evaluate the limit of detection of our technique. Finally, we present our sample preparation method and experimental set-up specifically developed to measure the limit of detection for our technology. This results in a limit ranging from 100 nano-grams to 50 micro-grams depending on the method and the set-up parameters used, such as the detector-sample distance.

  16. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  17. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites.

  18. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  19. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  20. Ultrasensitive optoelectronic sensors for nitrogen oxides and explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikolajczyk, J.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes application of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) for detection of nitrogen oxides and vapours of explosives. The oxides are important greenhouse gases that are of large influence on environment, living organisms and human health. These compounds are also markers of some human diseases as well as they are emitted by commonly used explosives. Therefore sensitive nitrogen oxides sensors are of great importance for many applications, e. g. for environment protection (air monitoring), for medicine investigation (analyzing of exhaled air) and finally for explosives detection. In the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT different types of optoelectronic sensors employing CEAS were developed. They were designed to measure trace concentration of nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. The sensors provide opportunity for simultaneous measurement of these gases concentration at ppb level. Their sensitivity is comparable with sensitivities of instruments based on other methods, e.g. gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. Our sensors were used for some explosives detection as well. The experiment showed that the sensors provide possibility to detect explosive devices consisting of nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, TNT, PETN, RDX and HMX.

  1. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  2. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  3. Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Detection of Pesticides and Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting OP pesticides and explosives. CNTs and functionalized silica nanoparticles have been chosen for this study. The biosensors were combined with the flow-injection system, providing great advantages for onsite, real-time, and continuous detection of environmental pollutants such as OPs and TNT. The sensors take advantage of the electrocatalytic properties of CNTs, which makes it feasible to achieve a sensitive electrochemical detection of the products from enzymatic reactions at low potential. This approach uses a large aspect ratio of silica nanoparticles, which can be used as a carrier for loading a large amount of electroactive species, such as poly(guanine), for amplified detection of explosives. These methods offer a new environmental monitoring tool for rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive detection of OPs or TNT compounds.

  4. Genetically engineered microorganisms for the detection of explosives' residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eShemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture and use of explosives throughout the past century has resulted in the extensive pollution of soils and groundwater, and the widespread interment of landmines imposes a major humanitarian risk and prevents civil development of large areas. As most current landmine detection technologies require actual presence at the surveyed areas, thus posing a significant risk to personnel, diverse research efforts are aimed at the development of remote detection solutions. One possible means proposed to fulfill this objective is the use of microbial bioreporters: genetically engineered microorganisms tailored to generate an optical signal in the presence of explosives’ vapors. The use of such sensor bacteria will allow to pinpoint the locations of explosive devices in a minefield. While no study has yet resulted in a commercially operational system, significant progress has been made in the design and construction of explosives-sensing bacterial strains. In this article we review the attempts to construct microbial bioreporters for the detection of explosives, and analyze the steps that need to be undertaken for this strategy to be applicable for landmine detection.

  5. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, A.A.; Ruiter, C.J. de; Ehlerding, A.; McFee, J.E.; Svinsås, E.; Rheenen, A.D. van

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and

  6. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, A.A.; Ruiter, C.J. de; Ehlerding, A.; McFee, J.E.; Svinsås, E.; Rheenen, A.D. van

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and coun

  7. Detection of explosive remnants of war by neutron thermalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, F D; Drosg, M; Smit, F D; Wikner, C

    2012-01-01

    The HYDAD-D landmine detector (Brooks and Drosg, 2005) has been modified and field-tested for 17 months in a variety of soil conditions. Test objects containing about the same mass of hydrogen (20g) as small explosive remnants of war, such as antipersonnel landmines, were detected with efficiency 100% when buried at cover depths up to 10cm. The false alarm rate under the same conditions was 9%. Plots of detection efficiency versus false alarm rate are presented.

  8. Quantum control for initiation and detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Grane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R. Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We employ quantum control methods towards detection and quantum controlled initiation (QCI) of energetic materials. Ultrafast pulse shaping of broadband Infrared ({approx}750 nm to 850 run) and ultraviolet (266 nm, 400 nm) light is utilized for control. The underlying principals behind optimal control can be utilized to both detect and initiate explosives. In each case, time dependent phase shaped electric fields drive the chemical systems towards a desired state. For optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) a phase specific broadband infrared pulse is created which increases not only the sensitivity of detection but also the selectivity of an explosive's spectral signatures in a background of interferents. QCI on the other hand, seeks to initiate explosives by employing shaped ultraviolet light. QCI is ideal for use with explosive detonators as it removes the possibility of unintentional initiation from an electrical source while adding an additional safety feature, initiation only with the proper pulse shape. Quantum control experiments require: (1) the ability to phase and amplitude shape the laser pulse and (2) the ability to effectively search for the pulse shape which controls the reaction. In these adaptive experiments we utilize both global and local optimization search routines such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and downhill simplex. Pulse shaping the broadband IR light, produced by focusing 800 nm light through a pressurized tube of Argon, is straightforward as commercial pulse shapers are available at and around 800 nm. Pulse shaping in the UV requires a home built shaper. Our system is an acoustic optical modulator (AOM) pulse shaper in which consists of a fused silica AOM crystal placed in the Fourier plane of a 4-f zero dispersion compressor.

  9. Explosives Detection in a Lasing Plasmon Nanocavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    2014; published online 20 July 2014 References 1. Peng, G. et al. Diagnosing lung cancer in exhaled breath using gold nanoparticles. Nature Nanotech . 4...Zhu, J., Kim, W. & Yang, L. Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers. Nature Nanotech . 6, 428–432 (2011). 22

  10. Neurophysiological Procedures for the Detection of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    34 behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. The laboratory rat was not initially considered a candidate fcr the bio- detection system, primarily...educational programs, language acquisition in humans and the traditional bar pressing of the laboratory rat . The behaviors emitted in operant conditioning

  11. Novel Methods for Detecting Buried Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-10

    bullets. The present practice is to detect the presence of metal with an ANPSS-12 metal detector , and then probe with a short stick to identify the...experiment” describing how fusion operates is derived from considering how a soldier actually uses a metal detector . It is argued that the audible...a serious alternative to a stick, when used in concert with a metal detector . Recent breakthroughs in NQR physics, receiver design, and signal

  12. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Desmet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action. The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.

  13. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-01

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA®) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a 252Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>μs) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS—an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS—a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS—a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD—a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  14. Parameters of explosives detection through tagged neutron method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasaryan, Kh.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belichenko, S.G., E-mail: consul757@mail.ru; Bestaev, R.R.; Gavryuchenkov, A.V.; Karetnikov, M.D.

    2015-06-01

    The potentialities of tagged neutron method (TNM) for explosives detection are examined on the basis of an idealized geometrical model. The model includes ING-27 14 MeV neutron generator with a built-in α-detector, a LYSO γ-detector and samples of material to be identified of approximately 0.3 kg each: explosives imitators (trinitrotoluene - TNT, tetryl, RDX and ammonium nitrate), legal materials (sugar, water, silk and polyethylene). The samples were unshielded or shielded by a paper layer of various thicknesses. The experimental data were interpreted by numerical simulation using a Poisson distribution of signals with the statistical parameters defined experimentally. The detection parameters were obtained by a pattern classification theory and a Bayes classifier.

  15. Detection of explosives traces on documents by attenuated total reflection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreysho, A. S.; Bertseva, E. V.; Korepanov, V. S.; Morosov, A. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The technical devices of explosives trace detection are discussed in this work. The attenuated total reflection method (ATR) is considered for detection of explosives traces on different things (documents, clothes, fingers). The results of experiments with Fourier spectrometer and ATR attachment for explosive trace detection are presented. The optical scheme and design of the compact testing device are discussed. The device includes the document information scanner and at the same time - the trace detector of explosives on the document cover.

  16. Broadband infrared imaging spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This manuscript describes advancements toward a mobile platform for standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using broadband infrared spectroscopic imaging. In conjunction with this, we are developing a technology for detection based on photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). PT-IRIS leverages one or more IR quantum cascade lasers (QCL), tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. Here we describe methods to increase both sensitivity to trace explosives and selectivity between different analyte types by exploiting a broader spectral range than in previous configurations. Previously we demonstrated PT-IRIS at several meters of standoff distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the infrared eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). Sensitivity to explosive traces as small as a single 10 μm diameter particle (~1 ng) has been demonstrated.

  17. Extension of a standoff explosive detection system to CBRN threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alan; Waterbury, Rob; Rose, Jeremy; Pohl, Ken; Eisterhold, Megan; Thorn, Thelma; Lee, Keesoo; Dottery, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Recent progress has been made on an explosive laser standoff detection system called TREDS-2 constructed from COTS components. The TREDS-2 system utilizes combination of Laser Induced Breakdown (LIBS), Townsend Effect Plasma Spectroscopy (TEPS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques with chemometric algorithms to detect hazardous materials. Extension of the detection capability of the TREDS-2 system on the real-time point detection of chemical, biological, radioactive, and nuclear threats has been tested and presented in this report. System performance of surface detection of a variety of CBRNE materials is shown. An overview of improvements to the explosives detection capabilities is given first. Challenges to sensing some specific CBRN threats are then discussed, along with the initial testing of TREDS-2 on CBRN surrogates on a limited number of surfaces. Signal processing using chemometric algorithms are shown as a demonstration of the system's capabilities. A path forward for using the specific technologies is also provided, as well as a discussion of the advantages that each technology brings to the CBRNE detection effort.

  18. Surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Fritjof; Hagemann, Jan; Wellhausen, Mike; Funke, Sebastian; Lenth, Christoph; Rotter, Frank; Gundrum, Lars; Plachetka, Ulrich; Moormann, Christian; Strube, Moritz; Walte, Andreas; Wackerbarth, Hainer

    2013-10-01

    A detector which can detect a broad range of explosives without false alarms is urgently needed. Vibrational spectroscopy provides specific spectral information about molecules enabling the identification of analytes by their "fingerprint" spectra. The low detection limit caused by the inherent weak Raman process can be increased by the Surface Enhanced Raman (SER) effect. This is particularly attractive because it combines low detection limits with high information content for establishing molecular identity. Based on SER spectroscopy we have constructed a modular detection system. Here, we want to show a combination of SER spectroscopy and chemometrics to distinguish between chemically similar substances. Such an approach will finally reduce the false alarm rate. It is still a challenge to determine the limit of detection of the analyte on a SER substrate or its enhancement factor. For physisorbed molecules we have applied a novel approach. By this approach the performance of plasmonic substrates and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) enhancement of explosives can be evaluated. Moreover, novel nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced IR absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy will be presented. The enhancement factor and a limit of detection are estimated.

  19. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Larry, E-mail: larry.hudson@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  20. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry for explosives trace detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna; Elfving, Anders; Elfsberg, Mattias; Hurtig, Tomas; Johansson, Niklas; Al-Khalili, Ahmed; Käck, Petra; Wallin, Sara; Östmark, Henric

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a laser ionization mass spectrometric system to be applied for screening for security related threat substances, specifically explosives. The system will be part of a larger security checkpoint system developed and demonstrated within the FP7 project EFFISEC to aid border police and customs at outer border checks. The laser ionization method of choice is SPI (single photon ionization), but the system also incorporates optional functionalities such as a cold trap and/or a particle concentrator to facilitate detection of minute amounts of explosives. The possibility of using jet-REMPI as a verification means is being scrutinized. Automated functionality and user friendliness is also considered in the demo system development.

  1. Novel signal-amplifying fluorescent nanofibers for naked-eye-based ultrasensitive detection of buried explosives and explosive vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; La, Anthony; Ding, Yu; Liu, Yixin; Lei, Yu [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2012-09-11

    A novel electrospun fluorescent nanofiberous membrane with a function like ''molecular wires'' was developed via electrospinning for the detection of ultra-trace nitro explosive vapors and buried explosives by naked eye under UV excitation. The high binding affinity between the electron-deficient nitro explosives and the sensing film results in a rapid, dramatic quenching in its fluorescence emission. A wide spectrum of nitro explosives, in particular, TNT, Tetryl, RDX, PETN and HMX could be ''visually'' detected at their sub-equilibrium vapors (less than 10 ppb, 74 ppt, 5 ppt, 7 ppt and 0.1 ppt, respectively) released from 1 ng explosives residues. Such outstanding sensing performance could be attributed to the proposed ''sandwich-like'' conformation between pyrene and phenyl pendants of PS which may allow efficient long-range energy migration similar to ''molecular wire'', thus achieving amplified fluorescence quenching. Its application for the detection of buried explosives in soil by naked eye was also demonstrated, indicating its potential application for landmine mapping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the detection of buried explosives without the use of any advanced analytical instrumentation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  3. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  4. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Detection of explosive remnants of war by neutron thermalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, F.D., E-mail: frank.brooks@uct.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Drosg, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Wien A-1090 (Austria); Smit, F.D.; Wikner, C. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2012-01-15

    The HYDAD-D landmine detector () has been modified and field-tested for 17 months in a variety of soil conditions. Test objects containing about the same mass of hydrogen (20 g) as small explosive remnants of war, such as antipersonnel landmines, were detected with efficiency 100% when buried at cover depths up to 10 cm. The false alarm rate under the same conditions was 9%. Plots of detection efficiency versus false alarm rate are presented. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new version of the HYDAD-D antipersonnel landmine detector is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field tests were carried out for 17 months under different conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dummy antipersonnel mines were detected with 100% efficiency at cover depths up to 10 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are presented as plots of landmine detection efficiency versus false alarm rate.

  6. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  7. Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yigang; Li, Yuanjing; Wang, Haidong; Li, Tiezhu; Wu, Bin

    2007-08-01

    The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20 kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9 MeV electron accelerator with an average electron current of 100 μA, resulted in a photoneutron yield of >10 11 n/s. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the radiation field is composed of X-ray pulses, fast neutron pulses and thermal neutrons. Both the X-ray and fast neutron pulses are 5 μs wide with a 300 Hz repetition frequency. The thermal neutron flux, which is higher than 10 4 n/cm 2/s, is essentially time invariant. A time shielding circuit was developed for the spectrometry system to halt the sampling process during the intense X-ray pulses. Paraffin, boron carbide and lead were used to protect the detector from interference from the X-rays, fast neutrons, thermal neutrons and background γ-rays coming from the system materials induced by photoneutrons. 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) scintillators were chosen as the detectors to detect the photoneutrons induced γ-rays from the inspected explosive simulant. Nitrogen (6.01 cps) 10.828 MeV γ-rays were detected with one detector from a 50 kg carbamide block placed 60 cm in front of the detector. A collimator was used to reduce the number of background 10.828 MeV γ-rays coming from the nitrogen in the air to improve the signal to background ratio from 0.136 to 1.81. A detector array of seven 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) detectors was used to measure the 2-D distributions of N and H in the sample. The combination of photoneutron analysis and X-ray imaging shows promise for enhancing explosives detection capabilities.

  8. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short Jr., Billy Joe [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  9. Recent development of two new UV Raman standoff explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterbury, Rob; Babnick, Robert; Cooper, Justin L.; Ford, Alan R.; Herrera, Francisco; Hopkins, Adam J.; Pohl, Ken; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Sandoval, Juan; Vunck, Darius

    2016-05-01

    Alakai Defense Systems has created two new short range UV Raman standoff explosive detection sensors. These are called the Critical Infrastructure Protection System (CIPS) and Portable Raman Improvised Explosive Detection System (PRIED) and work at standoff ranges of 10cm and 1-10m respectively. Both these systems are designed to detect neartrace quantities of explosives and Homemade Explosives. A short description of the instruments, design trades, and CONOPS of each design is presented. Data includes a wide variety of explosives, precursors, TIC/TIM's, narcotics, and CWA simulants

  10. A non-imaging polarized terahertz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Meyer, Doug

    2011-06-01

    Existing terahertz THz systems for detecting concealed explosives are not capable of identifying explosive type which leads to higher false alarm rates. Moreover, some of those systems are imaging systems that invade personal privacy, and require more processing and computational resources. Other systems have no polarization preference which makes them incapable of capturing the geometric features of an explosive. In this study a non-imaging polarized THz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives overcoming the forgoing shortcomings is developed. The system employs a polarized passive THz sensor in acquiring emitted data from a scene that may have concealed explosives. The acquired data are decomposed into their natural resonance frequencies, and the number of those frequencies is used as criteria in detecting the explosive presence. If the presence of an explosive is confirmed, a set of physically based retrieval algorithms is used in extracting the explosive dielectric constant/refractive index value from natural resonance frequencies and amplitudes of associated signals. Comparing the refractive index value against a database of refractive indexes of known explosives identifies the explosive type. As an application, a system having a dual polarized radiometer operating within the frequency band of 0.62- 0.82 THz is presented and used in detecting and identifying person borne C-4 explosive concealed under a cotton garment. The system showed higher efficiencies in detecting and identifying the explosive.

  11. The nitrogen camera and the detection of concealed explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, W. P.

    1993-06-01

    The nitrogen camera is an instrument based on a nuclear technique which is capable of imaging nitrogen concentrations with surface densities and amounts typical of currently concealed conventional explosives. Its signal is the totality of high-energy gamma rays detected in the multiscalar mode after the irradiation of a target pixel by a beam from a 50 MeV electron racetrack microtron. The sole interfering signal, from 13C, can be disentangled by two methods. Images of 180 2 × 2 cm 2 pixels, which are shown, eventually will be produced in ˜ 7.2 s. Progress towards an operational nitrogen camera is discussed.

  12. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  13. Very Sensitive Optical System with the Concentration and Decomposition Unit for Explosive Trace Detection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The vapour pressure of most explosives is very low. Therefore, the explosive trace detection is very difficult. To overcome the problem, concentration units can be applied. At the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT, an explosive vapour concentration and decomposition unit to operate with an optoelectronic sensor of nitrogen dioxide has been developed. This unit provides an adsorption of explosive vapours from the analysed air and then their thermal decomposition. The thermal decomposition is ma...

  14. Explosive hazard detection using synthetic aperture acoustic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, E.; Keller, J. M.; Stone, K.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to detect explosive hazards designed to attack vehicles from the side of a road, using a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor. This is done by first processing the raw data using a back-projection algorithm to form images. Next, an RX prescreener creates a list of possible targets, each with a designated confidence. Initial experiments are performed on libraries of the highest confidence hits for both target and false alarm classes generated by the prescreener. Image chips are extracted using pixel locations derived from the target's easting and northing. Several feature types are calculated from each image chip, including: histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and generalized column projection features where the column aggregator takes the form of the minimum, maximum, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, and the one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT). A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is then utilized to evaluate feature type performance during training and testing in order to determine whether the two classes are separable. This will be used to build an online detection system for road-side explosive hazards.

  15. Development of an explosive detection system using a proton accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Y S; Lee, J H

    2002-01-01

    The technology of explosive detection using radiation had been studied. On the basis that explosives has nitrogen atoms, the proof of principle experiments had been performed with the gamma ray which interacts with nitrogen atoms. The production of the gamma ray had been confirmed and, the scattered gamma ray from nitrogen had been observed in the experiment at Seoul National University. According to the experimental results, the specifications of the accelerator had been determined, 1.8MeV and 10mA. For a long-life time, a TCP type ion source using rf power have been developed. A tandem type accelerator had been chosen, and the important technologies, accelerating column and high voltage power supply, had been developed. On the basis of these technologies, the 1MV tandem accelerator had been constructed. The production process of C-13 film had been developed, and a 20kW water-cooled target had been fabricated. For gamma ray detection, a array detector with 9 BGO had been constructed, and the SW had been deve...

  16. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Mullis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was $136\\pm 38~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$136±38kcal⋅BWkg0.75 or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ($\\mathrm{RER}=70~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$RER=70kcal⋅BWkg0.75. No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854 was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study’s population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council’s (NRC maintenance energy requirement of $132~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$132kcal⋅BWkg0.75 (National Research Council (NRC, 1974 and the $139\\pm 42~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$139±42kcal⋅BWkg0.75 reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990. Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc. have similar energy requirements.

  17. Detection of drugs and plastic explosives using neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br; Crispim, V.R; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: verginia@com.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The unique ability of neutrons to image certain elements and isotopes that are either completely undetectable or poorly detected by other Non-Destructive-Assay (NDA) methods makes neutron radiography an important tool for the NDA community. Neutron radiography, like other imaging techniques takes a number of different forms (i.e. / that is film, radioscopic, transfer methods, tomography, etc.) In this work report the Neutron Tomography System developed, which will allow inspections NDA of samples with high efficiency, in terms of minors measure time and the result analysis, and the application for detection of drugs and plastic explosives, which is very important for the combat to the terrorism and drug trafficking. The neutron tomography system developed is third generation. Therefore a rotary table driven by a step motor connected to a computerized motion control system has been installed at the sample position. In parallel to this a suitable electronic imaging device has been designed and can be controlled by a computer in order to synchronize the software the detector and of the rotary table with the aim of an automation of measurements. To obtain 2D tomography image, a system with an electronic imaging system for producing real time neutron radiography. Images are processing digital for cancel random noise effects and to optimize spatial resolution. Finally, using a (ARIEN) algorithm reconstruction of tomography images by finite element maximum entropy. The system was installed adjacent to the exit of the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta Reactor in the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) - which is an organ of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN - Brazil).The Argonauta reactor operates at 340 watts, being that the characteristics of the neutron beam on the plane of the image: thermal neutron flux 4,46 x10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. In the tomography assays, several encapsulated samples of paste, rock and cocaine powder and plastic explosives devices

  18. Real-time change detection for countering improvised explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Dennis W. J. M.; van Rens, Kris; van Lint, Hugo; Jaspers, Egbert G. T.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2014-03-01

    We explore an automatic real-time change detection system to assist military personnel during transport and surveillance, by detection changes in the environment with respect to a previous operation. Such changes may indicate the presence of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which can then be bypassed. While driving, images of the scenes are acquired by the camera and stored with their GPS positions. At the same time, the best matching reference image (from a previous patrol) is retrieved and registered to the live image. Next a change mask is generated by differencing the reference and live image, followed by an adaptive thresholding technique. Post-processing steps such as Markov Random Fields, local texture comparisons and change tracking, further improve time- and space-consistency of changes and suppress noise. The resulting changes are visualized as an overlay on the live video content. The system has been extensively tested on 28 videos, containing over 10,000 manually annotated objects. The system is capable of detecting small test objects of 10 cm3 at a range of 40 meters. Although the system shows an acceptable performance in multiple cases, the performance degrades under certain circumstances for which extensions are discussed.

  19. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  20. Multivariate acoustic detection of small explosions using Fisher's combined probability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J; Taylor, Steven R

    2013-03-01

    A methodology for the combined acoustic detection and discrimination of explosions, which uses three discriminants, is developed for the purpose of identifying weak explosion signals embedded in complex background noise. By utilizing physical models for simple explosions that are formulated as statistical hypothesis tests, the detection/discrimination approach does not require a model for the background noise, which can be highly complex and variable in practice. Fisher's Combined Probability Test is used to combine the p-values from all multivariate discriminants. This framework is applied to acoustic data from a 400 g explosion conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  1. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, R L; Dunn, W L; Heider, S; Matthew, C; Yang, X

    2012-07-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of "signatures" obtained from a test target to a collection of "templates", sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8L and larger.

  2. GPS detection and monitoring of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; von Frese, Ralph; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies by Park et al. (2011) revealed that an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) induces the acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and generate the traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). GPS technique allows for the ionospheric disturbance observation with high accuracy, which, in turn, enables detection of the TID induced by the UNE. This study suggests the detection and verification method of the TID using GPS observations. TID waves can be identified from the continuous data span of the total electron content (TEC) along the ray path between the GPS satellites and the observing stations. Since the TID is a high frequency and low amplitude signal, it should be properly isolated from the raw TEC observation. In this study, we applied the numerical derivative method, referred to as the numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivative method. The detected TID-like signals can be verified by its array signature under the assumption that the TID induced from a point source tends to propagate with the constant speed. Moreover, the location of the point source can be computed using the array pattern of TID observations from multiple GPS stations. In this study, two UNEs conducted by the U.S. in 1992 and two UNEs conducted by North Korea in 2006 and 2009 were investigated. The propagation speed of the U.S. UNEs was about 573 m/s and 740 m/s, respectively, while the recent North Korean UNEs propagation speed was less than 300 m/s. This result can be explained by the explosion yields and the depth of the UNEs: the depth of the US UNEs were about 0.3 km with the explosion yield of up to 20 kiloton, while the North Korean UNEs were at about 1 km depth with the yield of less than a few kilotons. In addition, we observed that the TID waves from these four UNE events were highly correlative, and distinguished from waveforms due to other types of events, such as an earthquake. As a case study, we selected the recent Tohoku earthquake of 2011, and

  3. Explosives tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  4. Chemicapacitive microsensors for detection of explosives and TICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay V.; Hobson, Stephen T.; Cemalovic, Sabina; Mlsna, Todd E.

    2005-10-01

    Seacoast Science develops chemical sensors that use polymer-coated micromachined capacitors to measure the dielectric permittivity of an array of selectively absorbing materials. We present recent results demonstrating the sensor technology's capability to detect components in explosives and toxic industrial chemicals. These target chemicals are detected with functionalized polymers or network materials, chosen for their ability to adsorb chemicals. When exposed to vapors or gases, the permittivity of these sorbent materials changes depending on the strength of the vapor-sorbent interaction. Sensor arrays made of ten microcapacitors on a single chip have been previously shown to detect vapors of organic compounds (chemical warfare agents, industrial solvents, fuels) and inorganic gases (SO2, CO2, NO2). Two silicon microcapacitor structures were used, one with parallel electrode plates and the other with interdigitated "finger-like" electrodes. The parallel-plates were approximately 300 μm wide and separated by 750 nm. The interdigitated electrodes were approximately 400 μm long and were elevated above the substrate to provide faster vapor access. Eight to sixteen of these capacitors are fabricated on chips that are 5 x 2 mm and are packaged in less than 50 cm3 with supporting electronics and batteries, all weighing less than 500 grams. The capacitors can be individually coated with different materials creating a small electronic nose that produces different selectivity patterns in response to different chemicals. The resulting system's compact size, low-power consumption and low manufacturing costs make the technology ideal for integration into various systems for numerous applications.

  5. Detection of a huge explosion in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cusumano, G; Chincarini, G; Panaitescu, A; Burows, D N; La Parola, V; Sakamoto, T; Campana, S; Mineo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Angelini, L; Barthelemy, S; Beardmore, A P; Boyd, P T; Cominsky, L; Gronwall, C; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Giommi, P; Goad, M; Hurley, K; Kennea, J A; Mason, K O; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Palmer, D M; Roming, P W A; Wells, A; White, N E; Zhang, B

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of high energy photons that can last from about 10 milliseconds to 10 minutes. Their origin and nature have puzzled the scientific community for about 25 years until 1997, when the first X-ray afterglows of long (> 2 s duration) bursts were detected and the first optical and radio counterparts were found. These measurements established that long GRBs are typically at high redshift (z 1.6) and are in sub-luminous star-forming host galaxies. They are likely produced in core-collapse explosions of a class of massive stars that give rise to highly relativistic jets (collapsar model). Internal inhomogeneities in the velocity field of the relativistic expanding flow lead to collisions between fast moving and slow moving fluid shells and to the formation of internal shock waves. These shocks are believed to produce the observed prompt emission in the form of irregularly shaped and spaced pulses of gamma-rays, each pulse corresponding to a distinct internal collision. The ex...

  6. Flow immunosensor detection of explosives and drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Judd, Linda L.; Yu, Hao; Myles, June; Ligler, Frances S.

    1994-03-01

    An antibody-based biosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory which is capable of detecting both drugs and explosives present at low levels in an aqueous sample. In the flow immunosensor, antibodies are immobilized onto a solid substrate, allowed to bind a fluorescently labeled signal molecule, placed in a small column and attached to a buffer flow. Upon sample introduction, an amount of the fluorescent signal molecule is released that is proportional to the concentration of applied sample. The response time of the sensor is under a minute, and multiple samples can be analyzed without the need for additional reagents. Quantitative assays are being developed for a variety of compounds, including TNT, DNT, PETN, and cocaine. The laboratory prototype has been used to study how choice of fluorophore, antibody density, and flow rate affect the signal intensity and column lifetime. A self-contained commercial instrument which can analyze up to seven different compounds from a single sample is currently being engineered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement.

  7. Detection of Explosives Under Covering Soap Using THz Spectral Dynamics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

    The method of THz spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for identification of compound media and detection of their components. We considered the examples simulating the real case of NG and TNB explosives mixed with soap in different ratio - as a sum of two signals, passed through explosive and harmless material. Our investigations showed that spectrograms of the sum of THz pulses widely differ from spectrograms and dynamics of spectral lines for pulse passed through soap. So it is possible to detect the presence of explosive in the mixture with soap even if the amplitude of the pulse from explosive is 20 times less than the amplitude of the signal from soap. Therefore, the method allows detecting and identifying explosive in compound media with high probability and can be very effective for defense and security applications.

  8. Behavioural and genetic evidence for C. elegans' ability to detect volatile chemicals associated with explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-09-07

    Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles.

  9. Feature Extraction and Selection From the Perspective of Explosive Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, S K

    2009-09-01

    Features are extractable measurements from a sample image summarizing the information content in an image and in the process providing an essential tool in image understanding. In particular, they are useful for image classification into pre-defined classes or grouping a set of image samples (also called clustering) into clusters with similar within-cluster characteristics as defined by such features. At the lowest level, features may be the intensity levels of a pixel in an image. The intensity levels of the pixels in an image may be derived from a variety of sources. For example, it can be the temperature measurement (using an infra-red camera) of the area representing the pixel or the X-ray attenuation in a given volume element of a 3-d image or it may even represent the dielectric differential in a given volume element obtained from an MIR image. At a higher level, geometric descriptors of objects of interest in a scene may also be considered as features in the image. Examples of such features are: area, perimeter, aspect ratio and other shape features, or topological features like the number of connected components, the Euler number (the number of connected components less the number of 'holes'), etc. Occupying an intermediate level in the feature hierarchy are texture features which are typically derived from a group of pixels often in a suitably defined neighborhood of a pixel. These texture features are useful not only in classification but also in the segmentation of an image into different objects/regions of interest. At the present state of our investigation, we are engaged in the task of finding a set of features associated with an object under inspection ( typically a piece of luggage or a brief case) that will enable us to detect and characterize an explosive inside, when present. Our tool of inspection is an X-Ray device with provisions for computed tomography (CT) that generate one or more (depending on the number of energy levels used

  10. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  11. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  12. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, R.L.; Dunn, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-5205 (United States); Heider, S., E-mail: s79a81@ksu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-5205 (United States); Matthew, C.; Yang, X. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-5205 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of 'signatures' obtained from a test target to a collection of 'templates', sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8 L and larger. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signature-based radiation-scanning techniques applied to detection of explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples served as surrogate explosive samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signatures of a target compared to collections of templates of surrogate explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Figure-of-merit determined for neutron and neutron-induced gamma-ray signatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discrimination of surrogate explosive from inert samples of 3.8 L and larger.

  13. Very Sensitive Optical System with the Concentration and Decomposition Unit for Explosive Trace Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakrzewska Beata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vapour pressure of most explosives is very low. Therefore, the explosive trace detection is very difficult. To overcome the problem, concentration units can be applied. At the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT, an explosive vapour concentration and decomposition unit to operate with an optoelectronic sensor of nitrogen dioxide has been developed. This unit provides an adsorption of explosive vapours from the analysed air and then their thermal decomposition. The thermal decomposition is mainly a chemical reaction, which consists in breaking up compounds into two or more simple compounds or elements. During the heating process most explosive particles, based on nitro aromatics and alkyl nitrate, release NO2 molecules and other products of pyrolysis. In this paper, the most common methods for the NO2 detection were presented. Also, an application of the concentration and decomposition unit in the NO2 optoelectronic sensor has been discussed.

  14. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Joshua D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nemzek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  15. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: A demonstration using rocky mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Pilliod, D.S.; Arkle, R.S.; Waits, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  16. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren S Goldberg

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus. We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  17. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection Using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to bui...

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Sources Used in The Detection of Explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Melanie J. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Explosives detection is a necessary and wide spread field of research. From large shipping containers to airline luggage, numerous items are tested for explosives every day. In the area of trace explosives detection, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the technique employed most often because it is a quick, simple, and accurate way to test many items in a short amount of time. Detection by IMS is based on the difference in drift times of product ions through the drift region of an IMS instrument. The product ions are created when the explosive compounds, introduced to the instrument, are chemically ionized through interactions with the reactant ions. The identity of the reactant ions determines the outcomes of the ionization process. This research investigated the reactant ions created by various ionization sources and looked into ways to manipulate the chemistry occurring in the sources.

  20. Investigations of Novel Sensor Technology for Explosive Specific Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    improvised explosive devices (IEDs);Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance ( NQR ); Ion Mobility 69 Spectrometry (lMS); Fido sensor; electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD...6.1.1 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance ( NQR )................................................................. 14 6.1.2 High Temperature Superconductor...HTS) for NQR . ............................................ 14 6.1.3 RF atomic magnetometer for NQR

  1. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimy Young

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and nitroglycerin (NG as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME, coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30 to determine the true positive rates (TPR and false positive detection rates (FPR for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.

  2. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A Review of Applied Explosive Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    4 Table 2. Examples of some techniques used for hazard detection .*Note...integrate chemical and explosive hazard detection equipment. An important attribute of this ATO involved taking a phenomenology-based approach to...needed. This report briefly discusses the current technologies used for trace hazard detection , focusing on emerging laser-based efforts for standoff

  3. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm(-1) were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of oral administration of metronidazole and doxycycline on olfactory capabilities of explosives detection dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Eileen K; Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Angle, T Craig; Behrend, Ellen N; Moore, George E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole or doxycycline on olfactory function in explosives detection (ED) dogs. ANIMALS 18 ED dogs. PROCEDURES Metronidazole was administered (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days); the day prior to drug administration was designated day 0. Odor detection threshold was measured with a standard scent wheel and 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate, trinitrotoluene, and smokeless powder; weight, 1 to 500 mg) on days 0, 5, and 10. Lowest repeatable weight detected was recorded as the detection threshold. There was a 10-day washout period, and doxycycline was administered (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and the testing protocol repeated. Degradation changes in the detection threshold for dogs were assessed. RESULTS Metronidazole administration resulted in degradation of the detection threshold for 2 of 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate and trinitrotoluene). Nine of 18 dogs had a degradation of performance in response to 1 or more explosives (5 dogs had degradation on day 5 or 10 and 4 dogs had degradation on both days 5 and 10). There was no significant degradation during doxycycline administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Degradation in the ability to detect odors of explosives during metronidazole administration at 25 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours, indicated a potential risk for use of this drug in ED dogs. Additional studies will be needed to determine whether lower doses would have the same effect. Doxycycline administered at the tested dose appeared to be safe for use in ED dogs.

  5. Detection of explosive hazards using spectrum features from forward-looking ground penetrating radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Justin; Havens, Timothy C.; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2011-06-01

    Buried explosives have proven to be a challenging problem for which ground penetrating radar (GPR) has shown to be effective. This paper discusses an explosive hazard detection algorithm for forward looking GPR (FLGPR). The proposed algorithm uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain spectral features of anomalies in the FLGPR imagery. Results show that the spectral characteristics of explosive hazards differ from that of background clutter and are useful for rejecting false alarms (FAs). A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed in order to select a subset of spectral features to produce a more generalized classifier. Furthermore, a GA-based K-Nearest Neighbor probability density estimator is employed in which targets and false alarms are used as training data to produce a two-class classifier. The experimental results of this paper use data collected by the US Army and show the effectiveness of spectrum based features in the detection of explosive hazards.

  6. Design and optimization of polymeric silole and boronate photoluminescent probes for improved explosives detection applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrosilylation of silole and silafluorene fluorophores is an effective polymerization tool for the synthesis of [Sigma]*-[Pi]/[Pi]* delocalized structures. Improvements in molecular weights (4000-20 000), reaction conditions (0 -50 ⁰C), and functional group variety were obtained for 1, 1-polysilole and 1,1-polysilafluorene materials. The polymers were screened for their ability to detect organic based explosives by a fluorescence quenching mechanism. The explosives screened include the nitro...

  7. The analysis of high explosives by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: multiplexed detection of negative ion adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, John A; McCord, Bruce R

    2005-01-01

    The negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection of adducts of high explosives with chloride, formate, acetate, and nitrate was used to demonstrate the gas-phase interaction of neutral explosives with these anions. The relative intensities of the adduct species were determined to compare the competitive formation of the selected high explosives and anions. The relative stability of the adduct species varies, yielding preferential formation of certain anionic adducts with different high explosives. To exploit this effect, an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/ESI-MS method was developed and used for the simultaneous analysis of high explosives using two different techniques for the addition of the anionic additives; pre- and post-column. The results show that the pre-column approach provides similar results with improved selectivity for specific explosives. By detecting characteristic adduct species for each explosive, this method provides a qualitative and quantitative approach for the analysis and identification of high explosives.

  8. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2016-04-01

    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  9. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R.; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2+) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and 1H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection.

  10. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  11. Improved Explosive Collection and Detection with Rationally Assembled Surface Sampling Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-09-21

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  12. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  13. A simulation study of fast neutron interrogation for standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, S. A.; Dunn, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique utilizes radiation detector responses, called "signatures," and compares these to "templates" in order to differentiate targets that contain certain materials, such as explosives or drugs, from those that do not. Our investigations are aimed at the detection of nitrogen-rich explosives contained in improvised explosive devices. We use the term "clutter" to refer to any non-explosive materials with which the interrogating radiation may interact between source and detector. To deal with the many target types and clutter configurations that may be encountered in the field, the use of "artificial templates" is proposed. The MCNP code was used to simulate 14.1 MeV neutron source beams incident on one type of target containing various clutter and sample materials. Signatures due to inelastic-scatter and prompt-capture gamma rays from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and two scattered neutron signatures were considered. Targets containing explosive materials in the presence of clutter were able to be identified from targets that contained only non-explosive ("inert") materials. This study demonstrates that a finite number of artificial templates is sufficient for IED detection with fairly good sensitivity and specificity.

  14. PINS Measurements of Explosive Simulants for Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury

    2008-06-01

    As part of its efforts to prevent the introduction of explosive threats on commercial flights, the Transportation Security Administration (TSL) is evaluating new explosives detection systems (EDSs) for use in air cargo inspection. The TSL has contracted Battelle to develop a new type of explosives simulant to assist in this development. These are designed to mimic the elemental profile (C, H, N, O, etc.) of explosives as well as their densities. Several “neutron in—gamma out” (n,?) techniques have been considered to quantify the elemental profile in these new simulants and the respective explosives. The method chosen by Battelle is Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS), developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Battelle wishes to validate that the simulants behave like the explosive threats with this technology. The results of the validation measurements are presented in this report.

  15. Multiple Kernel Learning for Explosive Hazard Detection in Forward-Looking Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    34Feature analysis for the NIITEK ground penetrating radar using order weighted averaging operators for landmine detection", Proc. SPIE 5415, 953-962...This paper proposes an effective anomaly detection algorithm for forward-looking ground - penetrating radar (FLGPR). The challenges in detecting...TERMS explosive hazards detection, ground - penetrating radar , false alarm rejection, multiple kernel learning, feature-level fusion Timothy C. Havens

  16. Multi-Phenomenology Explosion Monitoring (Multi-PEM). Signal Detection. Research to target smaller sources for tomorrow’s missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-12

    This a guide on how to detect and identify explosions from various sources. For example, nuclear explosions produce acoustic, optical, and EMP outputs. Each signal can be buried in noise, but fusing detection statistics from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic signals results in clear detection otherwise unobtainable.

  17. Detection of Explosives by Using a Neutron Source Based on a Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers an opportunity of detecting explosives by using radiation capture of a neutron with nitrogen nucleus. Proton LINAC is offered as the neutron source with the following parameters: proton energy five Mega electron Volts , beam pulse current one and seven-tenths milliampere, duration of the current pulse two hundreds microseconds, repetition rate fifty Hertz. The reaction in which neutrons are formed is lithium (p,n) beryllium. It is shown that this neutron source will have the intensity of ten to the twelfth degree neutron per second that will allow one to detect explosives of the size of a tennis ball.

  18. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues.

  19. Fluorescent proteins as biosensors by quenching resonance energy transfer from endogenous tryptophan: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Alexa; Sarette, Joseph; Shawler, Evan; Lee, Taeyoung; Freund, Steve; Holwitt, Eric; Hicks, Barry W

    2013-10-15

    Ensuring domestic safety from terrorist attack is a daunting challenge because of the wide array of chemical agents that must be screened. A panel of purified fluorescent protein isoforms (FPs) was screened for the ability to detect various explosives, explosive simulants, and toxic agents. In addition to their commonly used visible excitation wavelengths, essentially all FPs can be excited by UV light at 280 nm. Ultraviolet illumination excites electrons in endogenous tryptophan (W) residues, which then relax by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to the chromophore of the FP, and thus the FPs emit with their typical visible spectra. Taking advantage of the fact that tryptophan excitation can be quenched by numerous agents, including nitroaromatics like TNT and nitramines like RDX, it is demonstrated that quenching of visible fluorescence from UV illumination of FPs can be used as the basis for detecting these explosives and explosive degradation products. This work provides the foundation for production of an array of genetically-modified FPs for in vitro biosensors capable of rapid, simultaneous, sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of explosive or toxic agents. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Detection and decontamination of residual energetics from ordnance and explosives scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Carina M; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Don L; Crawford, Ronald L

    2004-02-01

    Extensive manufacturing of explosives in the last century has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and waters. Decommissioning and cleanup of these materials has also led to concerns about the explosive hazards associated with residual energetics still present on the surfaces of ordnance and explosives scrap. Typically, open burning or detonation is used to decontaminate ordinance and explosive scrap. Here the use of an anaerobic microbiological system applied as a bioslurry to decontaminate energetics from the surfaces of metal scrap is described. Decontamination of model metal scrap artificially contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and of decommissioned mortar rounds still containing explosives residue was examined. A portable ion mobility spectrometer was employed for the detection of residual explosives residues on the surfaces of the scrap. The mixed microbial populations of the bioslurries effectively decontaminated both the scrap and the mortar rounds. Use of the ion mobility spectrometer was an extremely sensitive field screening method for assessing decontamination and is a method by which minimally trained personnel can declare scrap clean with a high level of certainty.

  1. Polyfunctional Lewis acids: intriguing solid-state structure and selective detection and discrimination of nitroaromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy P, Chinna Ayya; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy

    2015-06-08

    Synthesis and crystal structures of three porphyrin-based polyfunctional Lewis acids 1-3 are reported. Intermolecular HgCl⋅⋅⋅HgCl (linear and μ-type) interactions in the solid state of the peripherally ArHgCl-decorated compound 3 lead to a fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture. Compound 3 shows a selective fluorescence quenching response to picric acid and discriminates other nitroaromatic-based explosives. For the first time, an electron-deficient polyfunctional Lewis acid is shown to be useful for the selective detection and discrimination of nitroaromatic explosives. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant and detection limits of compound 3 for picric acid are the best among the reported small-molecular receptors for nitroaromatic explosives. The electronic structure, Lewis acidity, and selective sensing characteristics of 3 are well corroborated by DFT calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A portable fluorescence detector for fast ultra trace detection of explosive vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yunhong; He, Gang; Wang, Qi; Fang, Yu

    2011-10-01

    This paper developed a portable detector based on a specific material-based fluorescent sensing film for an ultra trace detection of explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or its derivate 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), in ambient air or on objects tainted by explosives. The fluorescent sensing films are based on single-layer chemistry and the signal amplification effect of conjugated polymers, which exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter response time to TNT or DNT at their vapor pressures. Due to application of the light emitting diode and the solid state photomultiplier and the cross-correlation-based circuit design technology, the device has the advantages of low-power, low-cost, small size, and an improved signal to noise ratio. The results of the experiments showed that the detector can real-time detect and identify of explosive vapors at extremely low levels; it is suitable for the identification of suspect luggage, forensic analyses, or battlefields clearing.

  3. Detection of buried explosives using portable neutron sources with nanosecond timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A V; Evsenin, A V; Gorshkov, I Yu; Osetrov, O I; Vakhtin, D N

    2004-07-01

    Significant reduction of time needed to identify hidden explosives and other hazardous materials by the "neutron in, gamma out" method has been achieved by introducing timed (nanosecond) neutron sources-the so-called nanosecond neutron analysis technique. Prototype mobile device for explosives' detection based on a timed (nanosecond) isotopic (252)Cf neutron source has been created. The prototype is capable of identifying 400 g of hidden explosives in 10 min. Tests have been also made with a prototype device using timed (nanosecond) neutron source based on a portable D-T neutron generator with built-in segmented detector of accompanying alpha-particles. The presently achieved intensity of the neutron generator is 5x10(7)n/s into 4pi, with over 10(6) of these neutrons being correlated with alpha-particles detected by the built-in alpha-particle detector. Results of measurements with an anti-personnel landmine imitator are presented.

  4. Narrow-Band Processing and Fusion Approach for Explosive Hazard Detection in FLGPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    for the NIITEK ground penetrating radar using order weighted averaging operators for landmine detection‖, Proc. SPIE 5415, 953-962 (2004). [6...proposes an effective anomaly detection algorithm for a forward-looking ground - penetrating radar (FLGPR). One challenge for threat detection using FLGPR...explosive hazards detection, ground - penetrating radar , narrow-band processing, false alarm rejection, fusion, Gabor filters Timothy C. Havens, James M

  5. Optimum frequencies for regional detection of cavity-decoupled explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-03-21

    The natures of compressional (P) waves that originate in the crust, propagate in the crust and upper mantle, and are observed as Pg, Pn, and anti P waves at regional distances are examined. The discussion includes the observed variations of amplitude with epicentral distance for these waves as well as an estimate of values for the specific dissipation function Q/sub ..cap alpha../ in different regions. Studies were made on theoretical source and propagation functions for direct, reflected, and head waves as approximations for the observed Pg, anti P, and Pn, respectively. It was concluded that the classical (critically refracted) head wave is not very significant in regional observations, and that the related interference head wave and diving wave are more likely observed as Pn. Using an assumed seismic noise spectrum and the constant Q/sub ..cap alpha../ model for seismic attenuation, relations were derived for the frequencies corresponding to maximum signal-to-noise ratio for the classical and interference head waves and for the direct, reflected, and diving waves. The relations among seismic frequency, epicentral distance, anelastic attenuation, and explosion yield are illustrated for a simple source and propagation model.

  6. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2011-10-18

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  7. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2012-10-16

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  8. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  9. Ground Penetrating Radar: Ultra-wideband radars for improvised explosive devices and landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.

    2008-01-01

    For last two decades Ultra-Wideband Ground Penetrating Radars seemed to be a useful tool for detection and classification of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However limitations of radar technology considerably limited operational use of these radars. Recent research at TU Delft so

  10. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Brandon W [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Chichester, David L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2014-01-07

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  11. Ground Penetrating Radar: Ultra-wideband radars for improvised explosive devices and landmine detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yarovoy, A.

    2008-01-01

    For last two decades Ultra-Wideband Ground Penetrating Radars seemed to be a useful tool for detection and classification of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However limitations of radar technology considerably limited operational use of these radars. Recent research at TU Delft solves the bottleneck problems.

  12. Phased-Array Monolithic PEM for FT Spectrometry With Applications in Explosive Detection and CB Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 PHASED-ARRAY MONOLITHIC PEM FOR FT SPECTROMETRY WITH APPLICATIONS IN EXPLOSIVE DETECTION AND CB DEFENSE Tudor N. Buican* Semiotic ...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Semiotic Engineering Associates LLC Albuquerque, NM 87108 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  13. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brandon W [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Chichester, David L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2014-01-07

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  14. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  15. A luminescent nanocrystal marker for the selective and ultrasensitive detection of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, Shyam; Grana Suarez, Laura; Verboom, Willem; Mahalingam, V.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a luminescent probe for the selective and sensitive detection of an explosive, i.e., picric acid (PA), based on the luminescence quenching of CeIII and TbIII co-doped Sr2GdF7 nanocrystals. A new colloidal synthesis route at low temperature (80 °C) was developed to synthesize the

  16. Metal-organic polyhedra-coated si nanowires for the sensitive detection of trace explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Anping; Zhu, Wei; Shang, Jin; Klootwijk, Johan H.; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Smet, de Louis

    2017-01-01

    Surface-modified silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have proven to be a promising platform for molecular recognition in miniature sensors. In this work, we present a novel nanoFET/device for the sensitive and selective detection of explosives based on affinity layers of

  17. Micro-calorimetric sensor for vapor phase explosive detection with optimized heat profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Olsen, J.; Privorotskaya, N.

    2010-01-01

    A heater design, used in a micro-calorimetric sensor, has been optimized for temperature uniformity in order to increase the sensitivity and reliability of detection of trace amounts of explosives. In this abstract the design, fabrication and characterization is described. The performance of the ...

  18. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...

  19. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and he

  20. Detection of explosives, shielded nuclear materials and other hazardous substances in cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Kalinin, Valery

    2006-05-01

    Nanosecond Neutron Analysis / Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) has been used to create devices for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. Explosives and other hazardous materials are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays form reactions of fast neutrons with the materials inside the container. Depending on the dimensions of the inspected containers, the detecting system consists of one or several detection modules, each of which contains a small neutron generator with built-in position sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. Array of several detectors of fast neutrons is used to detect neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission of nuclear materials. These neutrons can penetrate thick layers of lead shielding, which can be used to conceal gamma-radioactivity from nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 code was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Capability of the device to detect 1 kg of explosive imitator inside container filled with suitcases and other baggage items has been confirmed experimentally. First experiments with heavily shielded nuclear materials have been carried out.

  1. Detecting the bonding state of explosive welding structures based on EEMD and sensitive IMF time entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yue; Zhang, Zhousuo; Liu, Qiang; Cheng, Wei; Yuan, Feichen

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing application of explosive welding structures in many engineering fields, interface bonding state detection has become more and more significant to avoid catastrophic accidents. However, the complexity of the interface bonding state makes this task challenging. In this paper, a new method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and sensitive intrinsic mode function (IMF) time entropy is proposed for this task. As a self-adaptive non-stationary signal analysis method, EEMD can decompose a complicated signal into a set of IMFs with truly physical meaning, which is beneficial to allocate the structural vibration response signal containing a wealth of bonding state information to certain IMFs. Then, the time entropies of these IMFs are calculated to quantitatively assess the bonding state of the explosive welding structure. However, the IMF time entropies have different sensitivities to the bonding state. Therefore, the most sensitive IMF time entropy is selected based on a distance evaluation technique to detect the bonding state of explosive welding structures. The proposed method is applied to bonding state detection of explosive welding pipes in three cases, and the results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  3. A Photoluminescence-Based Field Method for Detection of Traces of Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a photoluminescence-based field method for detecting traces of explosives. In its standard version, the method utilizes a commercially available color spot test kit for treating explosive traces on filter paper after swabbing. The colored products are fluorescent under illumination with a laser that operates on three C-size flashlight batteries and delivers light at 532 nm. In the fluorescence detection mode, by visual inspection, the typical sensitivity gain is a factor of 100. The method is applicable to a wide variety of explosives. In its time-resolved version, intended for in situ work, explosives are tagged with europium complexes. Instrumentation-wise, the time-resolved detection, again visual, can be accomplished in facile fashion. The europium luminescence excitation utilizes a laser operating at 355 nm. We demonstrate the feasibility of CdSe quantum dot sensitization of europium luminescence for time-resolved purposes. This would allow the use of the above 532 nm laser.

  4. Stand-off detection of traces of explosives and precursors on fabrics by UV Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Roberto; Almaviva, Salvatore; Botti, Sabina; Cantarini, Luciano; Colao, Francesco; Fiorani, Luca; Nuvoli, Marcello; Palucci, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    At the Diagnostic and Metrology Laboratory (ENEA) is under development a stand-off apparatus for trace detection of explosive compounds. The system is based on the Raman technique due to the high discrimination capabilities. All the optoelectronics components of the apparatus have been carefully designed as well as their optical matching. The main goal will be to detect low trace components within the respect of the eye safe regulation.

  5. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Explosive Detection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    information for two real objects and Cua, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1987. one phantom caused by shielding required for radiological safety...one or mowe instruments, system funcionality , throughput. and ay will rais one or * a low false alarm rate is asured both by the more detection

  6. Trace detection of explosive materials in air cargo containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezierska, M.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Ruiter, J.C. de; Koomen, G.C.M.; Slegt, M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the Netherlands a research project called “Security through innovation - risk-oriented detection in a drive-through set-up” has been carried out by TNO Defense, Security and Safety (TNO) and by Dutch Customs. In 2009 and 2010, a

  7. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  8. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project "Accelerators & Detectors" (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  9. Mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates: a reusable chemsensor for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of explosives is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this work, electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates (En-AlPs) were synthesized by a one-pot condensation process. The mesoporous structure and strong blue emission of En-AlPs were confirmed by the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy images and fluorescence spectra. The materials En-AlPs can serve as sensitive chemosensors for various electron deficient nitroderivatives, with the quenching constant and the detection limit up to 1.5×106 M-1 and 0.3 ppm in water solution. More importantly, the materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol, showing potential applications in explosives detection.

  10. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly, B; Csikai, J

    2001-01-01

    Systematic measurements were carried out on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons combined with the thermal neutron reflection method for the identification of land mines and illicit drugs via he detection of H, C, N, and O elements as their major constituents. While ur present results show that these methods are capable of indicating the anomalies in bulky materials and observation of the major elements, e termination of the exact atom fractions needs further investigation.

  11. Explosive Residue Detection Using Polypeptide-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2) developed a signal-generation system that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the detection of small organic compounds ; and 3...identified a TNT receptor that specifically binds TNT compared to its metabolite DNT. The EC50 for the TNT receptor in the yeast-based one-hybrid assay is...IVES) process that leads to a greatly accelerated cycle of receptor modification and diversification. The IVES process uses the estrogen receptor

  12. Gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry as a hyphenated technique for improved explosives detection and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, AL; Marsden, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is currently being successfully applied to the problem of on-line trace detection of plastic and other explosives in airports and other facilities. The methods of sample retrieval primarily consist of batch sampling for particulate residue on a filter card for introduction into the IMS. The sample is desorbed into the IMS using air as the carrier and negative ions of the explosives are detected, some as an adduct with a reagent ion such as Cl(-). Based on studies and tests conducted by different airport authorities, this method seems to work well for low vapor pressure explosives such as RDX and PETN, as well as TNT that are highly adsorptive and can be found in nanogram quantities on contaminated surfaces. Recently, the changing terrorist threat and the adoption of new marking agents for plastic explosives has meant that the sample introduction and analysis capabilities of the IMS must be enhanced in order to keep up with other detector developments. The IMS has sufficient analytical resolution for a few threat compounds but the IMS Plasmogram becomes increasingly more difficult to interpret when the sample mixture gets more complex.

  13. Ag nanocluster/DNA hybrids: functional modules for the detection of nitroaromatic and RDX explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Natalie; Sharon, Etery; Golub, Eyal; Willner, Itamar

    2014-08-13

    Luminescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by nucleic acids are implemented as optical labels for the detection of the explosives picric acid, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The sensing modules consist of two parts, a nucleic acid with the nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NCs and a nucleic acid functionalized with electron-donating units, including L-DOPA, L-tyrosine and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA, self-assembled on a nucleic acid scaffold. The formation of donor-acceptor complexes between the nitro-substituted explosives, exhibiting electron-acceptor properties, and the electron-donating sites, associated with the sensing modules, concentrates the explosives in close proximity to the Ag NCs. This leads to the electron-transfer quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs by the explosive molecule. The quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs provides a readout signal for the sensing process. The sensitivities of the analytical platforms are controlled by the electron-donating properties of the donor substituents, and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA was found to be the most sensitive donor. Picric acid, TNT, and RDX are analyzed with detection limits corresponding to 5.2 × 10(-12) M, 1.0 × 10(-12) M, and 3.0 × 10(-12) M, respectively, using the 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA-modified Ag NCs sensing module.

  14. Multi-modal, ultrasensitive detection of trace explosives using MEMS devices with quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Omid; Kim, Seonghwan

    2016-05-01

    Multi-modal chemical sensors based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been developed with an electrical readout. Opto-calorimetric infrared (IR) spectroscopy, capable of obtaining molecular signatures of extremely small quantities of adsorbed explosive molecules, has been realized with a microthermometer/microheater device using a widely tunable quantum cascade laser. A microthermometer/microheater device responds to the heat generated by nonradiative decay process when the adsorbed explosive molecules are resonantly excited with IR light. Monitoring the variation in microthermometer signal as a function of illuminating IR wavelength corresponds to the conventional IR absorption spectrum of the adsorbed molecules. Moreover, the mass of the adsorbed molecules is determined by measuring the resonance frequency shift of the cantilever shape microthermometer for the quantitative opto-calorimetric IR spectroscopy. In addition, micro-differential thermal analysis, which can be used to differentiate exothermic or endothermic reaction of heated molecules, has been performed with the same device to provide additional orthogonal signal for trace explosive detection and sensor surface regeneration. In summary, we have designed, fabricated and tested microcantilever shape devices integrated with a microthermometer/microheater which can provide electrical responses used to acquire both opto-calorimetric IR spectra and microcalorimetric thermal responses. We have demonstrated the successful detection, differentiation, and quantification of trace amounts of explosive molecules and their mixtures (cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)) using three orthogonal sensing signals which improve chemical selectivity.

  15. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  16. Development of chemiresponsive sensors for detection of common homemade explosives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, Christopher M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2012-05-01

    Field-structured chemiresistors (FSCRs) are polymer based sensors that exhibit a resistance change when exposed to an analyte of interest. The amount of resistance change depends on the polymer-analyte affinity. The affinity can be manipulated by modifying the polymer within the FSCRs. In this paper, we investigate the ability of chemically modified FSCRs to sense hydrogen peroxide vapor. Five chemical species were chosen based on their hydrophobicity or reactivity with hydrogen peroxide. Of the five investigated, FSCRs modified with allyl methyl sulfide exhibited a significant response to hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additionally, these same FSCRs were evaluated against a common interferrant in hydrogen peroxide detection, water vapor. For the conditions investigated, the FSCRs modified with allyl methyl sulfide were able to successfully distinguish between water vapor and hydrogen peroxide vapor. A portion of the results presented here will be submitted to the Sensors and Actuators journal.

  17. Remote laser drilling and sampling system for the detection of concealed explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, D.; Pschyklenk, L.; Theiß, C.; Holl, G.

    2017-05-01

    The detection of hazardous materials like explosives is a central issue in national security in the field of counterterrorism. One major task includes the development of new methods and sensor systems for the detection. Many existing remote or standoff methods like infrared or raman spectroscopy find their limits, if the hazardous material is concealed in an object. Imaging technologies using x-ray or terahertz radiation usually yield no information about the chemical content itself. However, the exact knowledge of the real threat potential of a suspicious object is crucial for disarming the device. A new approach deals with a laser drilling and sampling system for the use as verification detector for suspicious objects. Central part of the system is a miniaturised, diode pumped Nd:YAG laser oscillator-amplifier. The system allows drilling into most materials like metals, synthetics or textiles with bore hole diameters in the micron scale. During the drilling process, the hazardous material can be sampled for further investigation with suitable detection methods. In the reported work, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to monitor the drilling process and to classify the drilled material. Also experiments were carried out to show the system's ability to not ignite even sensitive explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The detection of concealed hazardous material is shown for different explosives using liquid chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry.

  18. Rapid and sensitive measurements of nitrate ester explosives using microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccin, Evandro; Dossi, Nicolò; Cagan, Avi; Carrilho, Emanuel; Wang, Joseph

    2009-03-01

    This article describes an effective microchip protocol based on electrophoretic-separation and electrochemical detection for highly sensitive and rapid measurements of nitrate ester explosives, including ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), propylene glycol dinitrate (PGDN) and glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin, NG). Factors influencing the separation and detection processes were examined and optimized. Under the optimal separation conditions obtained using a 15 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) containing 20 mM SDS, and applying a separation voltage of 1500 V, the four nitrate ester explosives were separated within less than 3 min. The glassy-carbon amperometric detector (operated at -0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl) offers convenient cathodic detection down to the picogram level, with detection limits of 0.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm for PGDN and for NG, respectively, along with good repeatability (RSD of 1.8-2.3%; n = 6) and linearity (over the 10-60 ppm range). Such effective microchip operation offers great promise for field screening of nitrate ester explosives and for supporting various counter-terrorism surveillance activities.

  19. An excimer-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentration of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Budovich, V. L.; Budovich, D. V.

    2014-05-01

    A new method of explosives detection based on the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and ionization by an excimer emitter has been developed jointly with a portable detector. The excimer emitter differs from usual UVionizing lamps by mechanism of emitting, energy and spectral characteristics. The developed and applied Ar2-excimer emitter has the working volume of 1 cm3, consuming power 0.6 W, the energy of photons of about 10 eV (λ=126 nm), the FWHM radiation spectrum of 10 nm and emits more than 1016 photon per second that is two orders of magnitude higher than UV-lamp of the same working volume emits. This also exceeds by an order of magnitude the quantity of photons per second for 10-Hz solid state YAG:Nd3+ - laser of 1mJ pulse energy at λ=266 nm that is also used to ionize the analyte. The Ar2-excimer ionizes explosives by direct ionization mechanism and through ionization of organic impurities. The developed Ar2-excimer-based ion source does not require cooling due to low level discharge current of emitter and is able to work with no repair more than 10000 hrs. The developed excimer-based explosives detector can analyze both vapors and traces of explosives. The FAIMS spectra of the basic types of explosives like trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), nitroglycerine (NG), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) under Ar2-excimer ionization are presented. The detection limit determined for TNT vapors equals 1x10-14 g/cm3, for TNT traces- 100 pg.

  20. Development of graphene nanoplatelet embedded polymer microcantilever for vapour phase explosive detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Pandey, Swapnil; Ramgopal Rao, V. [Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-28

    In this work, a graphene based strain sensor has been reported for explosive vapour detection applications by exploiting the piezoresistive property of graphene. Instead of silicon based cantilevers, a low cost polymeric micro-cantilever platform has been used to fabricate this strain sensor by embedding the graphene nanoplatelet layer inside the beam. The fabricated devices were characterized for their mechanical and electromechanical behaviour. This device shows a very high gauge factor which is around ~144. Also the resonant frequency of these cantilevers is high enough such that the measurements are not affected by environmental noise. These devices have been used in this work for reliable detection of explosive vapours such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene down to parts-per-billion concentrations in ambient conditions.

  1. Formation of pyrene excimers in mesoporous ormosil thin films for visual detection of nitro-explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazkilic, Pinar; Yildirim, Adem; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-04-09

    We report the preparation of mesoporous thin films with bright pyrene excimer emission and their application in visual and rapid detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapors. The fluorescent films were produced by physically encapsulating pyrene molecules in the organically modified silica (ormosil) networks which were prepared via a facile template-free sol-gel method. Formation and stability of pyrene excimer emission were investigated in both porous and nonporous ormosil thin films. Excimer emission was significantly brighter and excimer formation ability was more stable in porous films compared to nonporous films. Rapid and selective quenching was observed in the excimer emission against vapors of nitroaromatic molecules; trinitrotoluene (TNT), dinitrotoluene (DNT), and nitrobenzene (NB). Fluorescence quenching of the films can be easily observed under UV light, enabling the naked-eye detection of nitro-explosives. Furthermore, excimer emission signal can be recovered after quenching and the films can be reused at least five times.

  2. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2015-01-01

    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent...... Boston Marathon bombing and nerve gas attacks on civilians in the Middle East. To prevent such tragic disasters, security personnel must be able to find, identify and deactivate the threats at multiple locations and levels. This involves major technical and practical challenges, such as detection...... for label-free ultrasensitive vibrational "fingerprinting" of a variety of molecular compounds. Performance highlights include attomolar detection of TNT and DNT explosives, a sensitivity that few, if any, other technique can compete with. Moreover, instrumentation needed for SERS analysis are becoming...

  3. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E

    2017-03-04

    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  4. Pulsed spectrometer for nuclear quadrupole resonance for remote detection of nitrogen in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anferov, V. P.; Mozjoukhine, G. V.; Fisher, R.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a pulsed spectrometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance on the nuclei of nitrogen N-14 with fast Fourier transform. The use of a multipulse sequence, four channel system for data registration and processing permits detection of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signal in the presence of strong interference and the piezo effect. Using this spectrometer we registered the NQR signal from an explosive sample of 150 g (92% RDX) at a distance of 22 cm, and the time of detection was 81 s.

  5. Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

  6. Micro-calorimetric sensor for vapour phase explosive detection with optimized heat profile

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A heater design, used in a micro-calorimetric sensor, has been optimized for temperature uniformity and the sensor has been used for detection of trace amounts of explosives. In this abstract the design, characterization and functionality is described. The performance of the novel heater design is characterized by measuring the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) values and by mapping the temperature distribution using Raman spectroscopy. The new heater design has increased the tempe...

  7. Optical detection of buried explosive hazards: a longitudinal comparison of three types of imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewski, James J.; Hibbitts, Charles H.; Davis, Luke; Bursley, James

    2013-06-01

    Visual detection of soil disturbances is a surprisingly effective, but far from perfect way of detecting buried explosive threats such as landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). This effort builds upon the few systematic studies of optical detection in this area. It investigates observer sensitivity to optical information produced by the burial of anti-tank and small anti-personnel landmines asking "How detectable are disturbed soil signatures captured in visible (VIS), shortwave infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR), bands?" "Which band or bands are most effective for detection?" and "How well does each band support detection in the natural environment over time?" Using signal detection procedures this study presented young adults photographs showing soil disturbed by landmine burial or adjacent undisturbed surfaces with instructions to make decisions about the presence or absence of a disturbance. Stimuli spanned a six-week time period over which VIS, SWIR, and TIR imagery was collected. Results show that (a) signal strength persists surprisingly well over the observation period, (b) generally, SWIR and VIS show consistently strong performance for large anti-tank mines and SWIR shows the soil signature for the small, anti-personnel mine remarkably well. TIR lags the other two bands when using d' to measure performance, but shows promising hit rates for anti-tank mine signatures under appropriate conditions. Generally, results show that the SWIR and VIS bands show most promise as a practical means of explosive hazards detection, although TIR can work effectively for large anti-tank mines under certain conditions. Limitations and implications for further research are discussed.

  8. On-site Rapid Detection of Trace Non-volatile Inorganic Explosives by Stand-alone Ion Mobility Spectrometry via Acid-enhanced Evaporization

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    New techniques for the field detection of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are urgently developed. Although ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been proved to be the most effective method for screening organic explosives, it still faces a major challenge to detect inorganic explosives owing to their low volatilities. Herein, we proposed a strategy for detecting trace inorganic explosives by thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS) with sample-to-sample analysis time ...

  9. Transport simulation and image reconstruction for fast-neutron detection of explosives and narcotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Fast-neutron inspection techniques show considerable promise for explosive and narcotics detection. A key advantage of using fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), which are the primary constituents of these materials. We are currently investigating two interrogation methods in detail: Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis (PFNA). FNTS is being studied for explosives and narcotics detection in luggage and small containers for which the transmission ratio is greater than about 0.01. The Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is being used to simulate neutron transmission through a series of phantoms for a few (3-5) projection angles and modest (2 cm) resolution. Areal densities along projection rays are unfolded from the transmission data. Elemental abundances are obtained for individual voxels by tomographic reconstruction, and these reconstructed elemental images are combined to provide indications of the presence or absence of explosives or narcotics. PFNA techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in cargo containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the resulting high-energy gamma-ray signatures. Analytic models and Monte-Carlo simulations are being used to explore the range of capabilities of PFNA techniques and to provide insight into systems engineering issues. Results of studies from both FNTS and PFNA techniques are presented.

  10. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  11. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  12. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  13. Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide: An effective approach to identification of improvised explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao

    Vapor detection has been proven as one of the practical, noninvasive methods suitable for explosives detection among current explosive detection technologies. Optical methods (especially colorimetric and fluorescence spectral methods) are low in cost, provide simple instrumentation alignment, while still maintaining high sensitivity and selectivity, these factors combined facilitate broad field applications. Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) represents an effective approach to noninvasive detection of peroxide-based explosives, though development of such a sensor system with high reliability and sufficient sensitivity (reactivity) still remains challenging. Three vapor sensor systems for H2O2 were proposed and developed in this study, which exploited specific chemical reaction towards H2O2 to ensure the selectivity, and materials surface engineering to afford efficient air sampling. The combination of these features enables expedient, cost effective, reliable detection of peroxide explosives. First, an expedient colorimetric sensor for H2O2 vapor was developed, which utilized the specific interaction between Ti(oxo) and H2O2 to offer a yellow color development. The Ti(oxo) salt can be blended into a cellulose microfibril network to produce tunable interface that can react with H2O2. The vapor detection limit can reach 400 ppb. To further improve the detection sensitivity, a naphthalimide based fluorescence turn-on sensor was designed and developed. The sensor mechanism was based on H2O2-mediated oxidation of a boronate fluorophore, which is nonfluorescent in ICT band, but becomes strongly fluorescent upon conversion into the phenol state. The detection limit of this sensory material was improved to be below 10 ppb. However, some technical factors such as sensor concentration, local environment, and excitation intensity were found difficult to control to make the sensor system sufficiently reproducible. To solve the problem, we developed a

  14. Detection of explosive events by monitoring acoustically-induced geomagnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J P; Rock, D R; Shaeffer, D L; Warshaw, S I

    1999-10-07

    The Black Thunder Coal Mine (BTCM) near Gillette, Wyoming was used as a test bed to determine the feasibility of detecting explosion-induced geomagnetic disturbances with ground-based induction magnetometers. Two magnetic observatories were fielded at distances of 50 km and 64 km geomagnetically north from the northernmost edge of BTCM. Each observatory consisted of three separate but mutually orthogonal magnetometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) timing, battery and solar power, a data acquisition and storage system, and a three-axis seismometer. Explosions with yields of 1 to 3 kT of TNT equivalent occur approximately every three weeks at BTCM. We hypothesize that explosion-induced acoustic waves propagate upward and interact collisionally with the ionosphere to produce ionospheric electron density (and concomitant current density) perturbations which act as sources for geomagnetic disturbances. These disturbances propagate through an ionospheric Alfven waveguide that we postulate to be leaky (due to the imperfectly conducting lower ionospheric boundary). Consequently, wave energy may be observed on the ground. We observed transient pulses, known as Q-bursts, with pulse widths about 0.5 s and with spectral energy dominated by the Schumann resonances. These resonances appear to be excited in the earth-ionosphere cavity by Alfven solitons that may have been generated by the explosion-induced acoustic waves reaching the ionospheric E and F regions and that subsequently propagate down through the ionosphere to the atmosphere. In addition, we observe late time (> 800 s) ultra low frequency (ULF) geomagnetic perturbations that appear to originate in the upper F region ({approximately}300 km) and appear to be caused by the explosion-induced acoustic wave interacting with that part of the ionosphere. We suggest that explosion-induced Q-bursts may be discriminated from naturally occurring Q-bursts by association of the former with the late time explosion-induced ULF

  15. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  16. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  17. Detection of buried explosives using portable neutron sources with nanosecond timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A.V. E-mail: apl@atom.nw.ru; Evsenin, A.V.; Gorshkov, I.Yu.; Osetrov, O.I.; Vakhtin, D.N

    2004-07-01

    Significant reduction of time needed to identify hidden explosives and other hazardous materials by the 'neutron in, gamma out' method has been achieved by introducing timed (nanosecond) neutron sources--the so-called nanosecond neutron analysis technique. Prototype mobile device for explosives' detection based on a timed (nanosecond) isotopic {sup 252}Cf neutron source has been created. The prototype is capable of identifying 400 g of hidden explosives in 10 min. Tests have been also made with a prototype device using timed (nanosecond) neutron source based on a portable D-T neutron generator with built-in segmented detector of accompanying {alpha}-particles. The presently achieved intensity of the neutron generator is 5x10{sup 7} n/s into 4{pi}, with over 10{sup 6} of these neutrons being correlated with {alpha}-particles detected by the built-in {alpha}-particle detector. Results of measurements with an anti-personnel landmine imitator are presented.

  18. D-D neutron-scatter measurements for a novel explosives-detection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, A.L.; Flaska, M. [Department of NERS, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, K.J., E-mail: Kearfott@umich.edu [Department of NERS, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2012-11-21

    A series of measurements has been completed that provides a benchmark for Monte Carlo simulations related to an algorithm for explosives detection using active neutron interrogation. The original simulations used in algorithm development, based on land-sea cargo container screening, have been adapted to model active neutron interrogation of smaller targets. These smaller-scale measurements are easily accomplished in a laboratory environment. Benchmarking measurements were completed using a D-D neutron generator, two neutron detectors, as well as a variety of scatter media including the explosives surrogate melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}). Measurements included 90 Degree-Sign , 120 Degree-Sign , or 150 Degree-Sign neutron scatter geometries and variations in source-detector shielding, target presence, and target identity. Comparisons of measured and simulated neutron fluxes were similar, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.7. The simulated detector responses also matched very closely with the measured photon and neutron pulse height distributions, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9. The experiments and simulations also provided insight into potential application of the new method to the problem of explosives detection in small objects such as luggage and small packages.

  19. Metal-Organic Polyhedra-Coated Si Nanowires for the Sensitive Detection of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Anping; Zhu, Wei; Shang, Jin; Klootwijk, Johan H; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Huskens, Jurriaan; de Smet, Louis C P M

    2017-01-11

    Surface-modified silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have proven to be a promising platform for molecular recognition in miniature sensors. In this work, we present a novel nanoFET device for the sensitive and selective detection of explosives based on affinity layers of metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs). The judicious selection of the geometric and electronic characteristics of the assembly units (organic ligands and unsaturated metal site) embedded within the MOP cage allowed for the formation of multiple charge-transfer (CT) interactions to facilitate the selective explosive inclusion. Meanwhile, the host-stabilized CT complex inside the cage acted as an effective molecular gating element to strongly modulate the electrical conductance of the silicon nanowires. By grafting the MOP cages onto a SiNW-FET device, the resulting sensor showed a good electrical sensing capability to various explosives, especially 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), with a detection limit below the nanomolar level. Importantly, coupling MOPs-which have tunable structures and properties-to SiNW-based devices may open up new avenues for a wide range of sensing applications, addressing various target analytes.

  20. Position-adaptive explosive detection concepts for swarming micro-UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmic, Rastko R.; Mitra, Atindra

    2008-04-01

    We have formulated a series of position-adaptive sensor concepts for explosive detection applications using swarms of micro-UAV's. These concepts are a generalization of position-adaptive radar concepts developed for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For radar applications, this concept is developed with platforms within a UAV swarm that spatially-adapt to signal leakage points on the perimeter of complex clutter environments to collect information on embedded objects-of-interest. The concept is generalized for additional sensors applications by, for example, considering a wooden cart that contains explosives. We can formulate system-of-systems concepts for a swarm of micro-UAV's in an effort to detect whether or not a given cart contains explosives. Under this new concept, some of the members of the UAV swarm can serve as position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of the UAV swarm can serve as position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chem./bio sensors that function as "electronic noses". The final objective can be defined as improving the particle count for the explosives in the air that surrounds a cart via development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms in order to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics. We report on recent simulation results with regard to designing optimal sensor placement for explosive or other chemical agent detection. This type of information enables the development of intelligent control algorithms for UAV swarm applications and is intended for the design of future system-of-systems with adaptive intelligence for advanced surveillance of unknown regions. Results are reported as part of a parametric investigation where it is found that the probability of contaminant detection depends on the air flow that carries contaminant particles, geometry of the surrounding space, leakage areas, and other factors. We present a concept of position

  1. Use of canines for explosives detection in the personnel access control function at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Results of experiments in the use of canines for explosive detection are discussed. Results of the experiments show that the tests identified the training and environmental problems associated with the use of macrosmatic animals in this environment. There may be more problems discovered in subsequent programs, but it is felt that the major problems were identified. The encouraging thing is that the identified problems are solvable by fairly straightforward adjustments in the training and environmental areas. It appears that canines in the personnal search application can achieve a better than 95% probability of detection, with a false alarm rate of less that 5% and an average per person search time of 20 seconds.

  2. Xsense: using nanotechnology to combine detection methods for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to produce a handheld explosives sensor the Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners. Using micro- and nano technological approaches it will be attempted to integrate four detection principles into a single de...... device. At the end of the project, the consortium aims at having delivered a sensor platform consisting of four independent detector principles capable of detecting concentrations of TNT at sub parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations and with a false positive rate less than 1 parts...

  3. Detection of Nitroaromatic Explosives Using an Electrical- Electrochemical and Optical Hybrid Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Aguilar, Alvaro

    In today's world there is a great need for sensing methods as tools to provide critical information to solve today's problems in security applications. Real time detection of trace chemicals, such as explosives, in a complex environment containing various interferents using a portable device that can be reliably deployed in a field has been a difficult challenge. A hybrid nanosensor based on the electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the interaction of the reduction products with conducting polymer nanojunctions in an ionic liquid was fabricated. The sensor simultaneously measures the electrochemical current from the reduction of TNT and the conductance change of the polymer nanojunction caused from the reduction product. The hybrid detection mechanism, together with the unique selective preconcentration capability of the ionic liquid, provides a selective, fast, and sensitive detection of TNT. The sensor, in its current form, is capable of detecting parts per trillion level TNT in the presence of various interferents within a few minutes. A novel hybrid electrochemical-colorimetric (EC-C) sensing platform was also designed and fabricated to meet these challenges. The hybrid sensor is based on electrochemical reactions of trace explosives, colorimetric detection of the reaction products, and unique properties of the explosives in an ionic liquid (IL). This approach affords not only increased sensitivity but also selectivity as evident from the demonstrated null rate of false positives and low detection limits. Using an inexpensive webcam a detection limit of part per billion in volume (ppbV) has been achieved and demonstrated selective detection of explosives in the presence of common interferences (perfumes, mouth wash, cleaners, petroleum products, etc.). The works presented in this dissertation, were published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS, 2009) and Nano Letters (2010), won first place in the National Defense Research

  4. Adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) for explosive hazard detection using wideband electromagnetic induction (WEMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvey, Brendan; Zare, Alina; Cook, Matthew; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    The adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) estimates the squared cosine of the angle between a known target vector and a sample vector in a transformed coordinate space. The space is transformed according to an estimation of the background statistics, which directly effects the performance of the statistic as a target detector. In this paper, the ACE detection statistic is used to detect buried explosive hazards with data from a Wideband Electromagnetic Induction (WEMI) sensor. Target signatures are based on a dictionary defined using a Discrete Spectrum of Relaxation Frequencies (DSRF) model. Results are summarized as a receiver operator curve (ROC) and compared to other leading methods.

  5. Assessing Miniaturized Sensor Performance using Supervised Learning, with Application to Drug and Explosive Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne

    of sensors, as the sensors are designed to provide robust and reliable measurements. That means, the sensors are designed to have repeated measurement clusters. Sensor fusion is presented for the sensor based on chemoselective compounds. An array of color changing compounds are handled and in unity they make......This Ph.D. thesis titled “Assessing Miniaturized Sensor Performance using Supervised Learning, with Application to Drug and Explosive Detection” is a part of the strategic research project “Miniaturized sensors for explosives detection in air” funded by the Danish Agency for Science and Technology...... before the sensor responses can be applied to supervised learning algorithms. The technologies used for sensing consist of Calorimetry, Cantilevers, Chemoselective compounds, Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. Each of the sensors have their own strength and weaknesses...

  6. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  7. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  8. Multi-band sensor-fused explosive hazards detection in forward-looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Becker, John; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    Explosive hazard detection and remediation is a pertinent area of interest for the U.S. Army. There are many types of detection methods that the Army has or is currently investigating, including ground-penetrating radar, thermal and visible spectrum cameras, acoustic arrays, laser vibrometers, etc. Since standoff range is an important characteristic for sensor performance, forward-looking ground-penetrating radar has been investigated for some time. Recently, the Army has begun testing a forward-looking system that combines L-band and X-band radar arrays. Our work focuses on developing imaging and detection methods for this sensor-fused system. In this paper, we investigate approaches that fuse L-band radar and X-band radar for explosive hazard detection and false alarm rejection. We use multiple kernel learning with support vector machines as the classification method and histogram of gradients (HOG) and local statistics as the main feature descriptors. We also perform preliminary testing on a context aware approach for detection. Results on government furnished data show that our false alarm rejection method improves area-under-ROC by up to 158%.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Intrusion Detection System (SCADA IDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Verba; Michael Milvich

    2008-05-01

    Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting malicious activity.

  10. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices using sequential injection capillary electrophoresis and contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Gustavo A; Nai, Yi H; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2011-12-01

    A simple sequential injection capillary electrophoresis (SI-CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) has been developed for the rapid separation of anions relevant to the identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Four of the most common explosive tracer ions, nitrate, perchlorate, chlorate, and azide, and the most common background ions, chloride, sulfate, thiocyanate, fluoride, phosphate, and carbonate, were chosen for investigation. Using a separation electrolyte comprising 50 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, 50 mM cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, pH 8.9 and 0.05% poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) in a hexadimethrine bromide (HDMB)-coated capillary it was possible to partially separate all 10 ions within 90 s. The combination of two cationic polymer additives (PEI and HDMB) was necessary to achieve adequate selectivity with a sufficiently stable electroosmotic flow (EOF), which was not possible with only one polymer. Careful optimization of variables affecting the speed of separation and injection timing allowed a further reduction of separation time to 55 s while maintaining adequate efficiency and resolution. Software control makes high sample throughput possible (60 samples/h), with very high repeatability of migration times [0.63-2.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 240 injections]. The separation speed does not compromise sensitivity, with limits of detection ranging from 23 to 50 μg·L(-1) for all the explosive residues considered, which is 10× lower than those achieved by indirect absorbance detection and 2× lower than those achieved by C(4)D using portable benchtop instrumentation. The combination of automation, high sample throughput, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection makes this methodology ideal for the rapid identification of inorganic IED residues.

  11. Trace detection of explosives and their precursors by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Botti, S.; Cantarini, L.; Palucci, A.; Puiu, A.; Rufoloni, A.; Landstrom, L.; Romolo, F. S.

    2012-10-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy measurements on some common military explosives were performed with a table-top micro-Raman system integrated with a Serstech R785 minispectrometer. Serstech R785 is a miniaturised spectrometer suitable for Raman and NIR measurements. Integration of R785 in our table-top system aims to the realization of a portable SERS detector, able to perform in-situ measurements. SERS Spectra were obtained exciting the substance of interest with a 785 nm diode-laser, while these substances were deposited starting from commercial solutions on commercial SERS substrates, to improve the detection sensitivity. The amount of the sampled substance was determined through the analysis of images of the substrate covered with the residue of explosive. In fact, once the solvent is completely evaporated, the residue of explosive was observed to be uniformly distributed on the substrate surface. Images acquired with a Scanning Electron Microscope provided further details of the deposition process showing that a fraction of the active SERS sites are completely covered with the analyte while other sites appear to be empty; from the analysis of the images the sampled quantity was estimated to be about 200 pg. The main Raman features of each substance were clearly identified, the spectral resolution was sufficiently high to clearly distinguish spectra belonging to different substances.

  12. Multiple kernel learning for explosive hazard detection in forward-looking ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Stone, Kevin; Anderson, Derek T.; Keller, James M.; Ho, K. C.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes an effective anomaly detection algorithm for forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR). The challenges in detecting explosive hazards with FLGPR are that there are multiple types of targets buried at different depths in a highly-cluttered environment. A wide array of target and clutter signatures exist, which makes classifier design difficult. Recent work in this application has focused on fusing the classifier results from multiple frequency subband images. Each sub-band classifier is trained on suites of image features, such as histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and local binary patterns (LBP). This prior work fused the sub-band classifiers by, first, choosing the top-ranked feature at each frequency sub-band in the training data and then accumulating the sub-band results in a confidence map. We extend this idea by employing multiple kernel learning (MKL) for feature-level fusion. MKL fuses multiple sources of information and/or kernels by learning the weights of a convex combination of kernel matrices. With this method, we are able to utilize an entire suite of features for anomaly detection, not just the top-ranked feature. Using FLGPR data collected at a US Army test site, we show that classifiers trained using MKL show better explosive hazard detection capabilities than single-kernel methods.

  13. Combined pre-concentration and real-time in-situ chemical detection of explosives in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dock, Matthew L.; Harper, Ross J.; Knobbe, Ed

    2010-04-01

    ICx Nomadics has developed the first known real-time sensor system that is capable of detecting chemical signatures emanating from underwater explosives, based upon the same amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP) fluorescence-quenching transduction mechanism that the Fido® family of explosives detectors utilizes. The SeaPup is capable of real-time detection of the trace chemical signatures emanating from submerged explosive compounds and has been successfully tested on various marine platforms, including a crawler robot, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). The present work is focused on advances in underwater in-situ chemical sensing; wherein trace amounts of dissolved explosive compounds may be detected and discriminated from other chemical species found in the marine environment. Recent progress with the SeaPup platform have focused on increasing the sensitivity of the AFP matrix through the development of a preconcentration system designed to harvest explosive analytes from a larger sample volume over a predetermined period of time. This permits real time monitoring of chemical plumes during the approach to a potential source, combined with the lowered limit of detection from extended sampling of targeted items. SeaPup has been shown to effectively map "explosive scent plumes" emanating from an underwater source of TNT, and the preconcentration system has previously been demonstrated to enhance sensitivity be over 2 orders of magnitude in a time window of minutes.

  14. Detection of drugs and explosives using neutron computerized tomography and artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21945-970, Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)], E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, A.X. [DNC/Poli, PEN COPPE CT, UFRJ Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941-972, Caixa Postal 68509, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    In this study the development of a methodology to detect illicit drugs and plastic explosives is described with the objective of being applied in the realm of public security. For this end, non-destructive assay with neutrons was used and the technique applied was the real time neutron radiography together with computerized tomography. The system is endowed with automatic responses based upon the application of an artificial intelligence technique. In previous tests using real samples, the system proved capable of identifying 97% of the inspected materials.

  15. Fabrication of SERS swab for direct detection of trace explosives in fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhengjun; Du, Hongjie; Cheng, Fansheng; Wang, Cong; Wang, Canchen; Fan, Meikun

    2014-12-24

    Swab sampling is of great importance in surface contamination analysis. A cotton swab (cotton Q-tip) was successfully transformed into surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate (SERS Q-tip) through a bottom-up strategy, where Ag NPs were first self-assembled onto the Q-tip followed by in situ growing. The capability for direct swab detection of Raman probe Nile Blue A (NBA) and a primary explosive marker 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) using the SERS Q-tip was explored. It was found that at optimum conditions, a femotogram of NBA on glass surface could be swab-detected. The lowest detectable amount for 2,4-DNT is only ∼1.2 ng/cm(2) (total amount of 5 ng) on glass surface, 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than similar surface analysis achieved with infrared technique, and comparable even with that obtained by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Finally, 2,4-DNT left on fingerprints was also analyzed. It was found that SERS signal of 2,4-DNT from 27th fingerprint after touching 2,4-DNT powder can still be clearly identified by swabbing with the SERS Q-tip. We believe this is the first direct SERS swabbing test of explosives on fingerprint on glass. Considering its relative long shelf life (>30 d), the SERS Q-tip may find great potential in future homeland security applications when combined with portable Raman spectrometers.

  16. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  17. Progress on detection of liquid explosives using ultra-low field MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, Michelle A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matlashov, Andrei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volegov, Petr L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schuttz, Larry M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baguisa, Shermiyah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunkerley, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Magnelind, Per [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Owens, Tuba [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandin, Henrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbaitis, Algis [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are widely used in medicine, chemistry and industry. Over the past several years there has been increasing interest in performing NMR and MRI in the ultra-low field (ULF) regime, with measurement field strengths of 10-100 microTesla and pre-polarization fields of 30-50 mTesla. The real-time signal-to-noise ratio for such measurements is about 100. Our group at LANL has built and demonstrated the performance of SQUID-based ULF NMR/MRI instrumentation for classification of materials and detection of liquid explosives via their relaxation properties measured at ULF, using T{sub 1}, and T{sub 2}, and T{sub 1} frequency dispersion. We are also beginning to investigate the performance of induction coils as sensors. Here we present recent progress on the applications of ULF MR to the detection of liquid explosives, in imaging and relaxometry.

  18. Detection of an outburst one year prior to the explosion of SN 2011ht

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M; Kotak, R; Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Polshaw, J; Drake, A J; Boles, T; Lee, C -H; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E A; Price, P A; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2013-01-01

    Using imaging from the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we identify a precursor outburst at epochs 287 and 170 days prior to the reported explosion of the purported Type IIn supernova (SN) 2011ht. In the Pan-STARRS data, a source coincident with SN 2011ht is detected exclusively in the \\zps\\ and \\yps-bands. An absolute magnitude of M$_z\\simeq$-11.8 suggests that this was an outburst of the progenitor star. Unfiltered, archival Catalina Real Time Transient survey images also reveal a coincident source from at least 258 to 138 days before the main event. We suggest that the outburst is likely to be an intrinsically red eruption, although we cannot conclusively exclude a series of erratic outbursts which were observed only in the redder bands by chance. This is only the fourth detection of an outburst prior to a claimed SN, and lends credence to the possibility that many more interacting transients have pre-explosion outbursts, which have been missed by current surveys.

  19. Curvelet filter based prescreener for explosive hazard detection in hand-held ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie L.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; Parker, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards, above and below ground, are a serious threat to civilians and soldiers. In an attempt to mitigate these threats, different forms of explosive hazard detection (EHD) exist; e.g., multi-sensor hand-held platforms, downward looking and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. Robust detection of these threats resides in the processing and fusion of different data from multiple sensing modalities, e.g., radar, infrared, electromagnetic induction (EMI), etc. Herein, we focus on a new energy-based prescreener in hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). First, we Curvelet filter B-scan signal data using either Reverse-Reconstruction followed by Enhancement (RRE) or selectivity with respect to wedge information in the Curvelet transform. Next, we aggregate the result of a bank of matched filters and run a size contrast filter with Bhattacharyya distance. Alarms are then combined using weighted mean shift clustering. Results are demonstrated in the context of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve performance on data from a U. S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of the day.

  20. Detection of plastic explosives by thermic neutron radiography; Deteccao de explosivos plasticos por neutrongrafia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacidume, Leo R.; Crispim, Verginia R.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the potentiality of the neutron radiography technique, allied to the computerized tomography by transmission, to both detect and visualize plastic explosive samples in several hidden conditions, using a simple scanner as a digitalisation instrument. Each tomographic essay was obtained in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta Research Reactor of IEN/CNEN, in groups of six neutron radiographic projections, performed with an angular increment of 30 in a period of time of 30 minutes for each projection. Two groups of tomographic reconstructions were generated, distinguished by the digitalisation process of the interested lines in the reconstruction plane coming from the projection groups, utilizing a scanner and a microdensitometer, respectively. The reconstruction of the bi-dimensional image of the transverse section, in relation to this plane, was processed making use of the Image reconstruction algorithmic of an image based on the maximum entropy principle (ARIEM). From the qualitative analysis of the images, we conclude that the neutron radiographic system was able to detect the explosive sample in a satisfactory way while the quantitative analysis confirmed the application effectiveness of a scanner to acquire the projection dates whose objective is only a reconnaissance. (author)

  1. Detection of plastic explosives using thermal neutron radiography; Deteccao de explosivos plasticos por neutrongrafia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacidume, Leo Ryoske

    1999-12-01

    The work aims to demonstrate the potentiality of the neutron radiography technique, allied to the computerized tomography by transmission, to both detect and visualize plastic explosive samples in several hidden conditions, using a simple scanner as a digitalisation instrument. Each tomographic essay was obtained in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta Research Reactor of IEN/CNEN, in groups of six neutron radiographic projections, performed with an angular increment of 30 deg C, in a period of time of 30 minutes for each projection. Two groups of tomographic reconstructions were generated, distinguished by the digitalisation process of the interested lines in the reconstruction plane coming from the projection groups, utilization a scanner and a microdensitometer, respectively. The reconstruction of the bi-dimensional image of the transverse section, in relation to this plane, was processed making use of the Image Reconstruction Algorithmic of an Image based on the Maximum Entropy principle (ARIEM). From the qualitative analysis of the images, we conclude that the neutron radiographic system was able to detect the explosive sample in a satisfactory way while the quantitative analysis confirmed the application effectiveness of a scanner to acquire the projection dates whose objective is only a reconnaissance. (author)

  2. DETECTION OF AN OUTBURST ONE YEAR PRIOR TO THE EXPLOSION OF SN 2011ht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, M.; Magee, M.; Kotak, R.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Polshaw, J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Drake, A. J. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Advanced Computing Research, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Boles, T. [Coddenham Astronomical Observatory, Suffolk IP6 9QY (United Kingdom); Lee, C.-H. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P. W. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A., E-mail: m.fraser@qub.ac.uk [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2013-12-10

    Using imaging from the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we identify a precursor outburst at 287 and 170 days prior to the reported explosion of the purported Type IIn supernova (SN) 2011ht. In the Pan-STARRS data, a source coincident with SN 2011ht is detected exclusively in the z {sub P1} and y {sub P1}-bands. An absolute magnitude of M{sub z} ≅ –11.8 suggests that this was an outburst of the progenitor star. Unfiltered, archival Catalina Real Time Transient Survey images also reveal a coincident source from at least 258 to 138 days before the main event. We suggest that the outburst is likely to be an intrinsically red eruption, although we cannot conclusively exclude a series of erratic outbursts which were observed only in the redder bands by chance. This is only the fourth detection of an outburst prior to a claimed SN, and lends credence to the possibility that many more interacting transients have pre-explosion outbursts, which have been missed by current surveys.

  3. Radio interferometric detection of a traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Allen, B. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Burke, B. F.; Greenfield, P. E.; Lawrence, C. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was detected over Owens Valley, California, on May 18, 1980, by a highly sensitive very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio astronomy experiment. This TID is interpreted as the response of the ionosphere to a gravity wave excited in the neutral atmosphere by the explosion of Mount St. Helens that took place at 1532 UT on that day. A model, invoking the point-excitation of internal gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere, which fits observations of the TID at several other stations, leads to identification of the features observed in the VLBI data. Small-amplitude higher-frequency changes in the ionosphere were detected for several hours after the passage of the large-amplitude Mount St. Helens TID, but it is not clear whether these were excited by the passage of the gravity wave or were background fluctuations.

  4. Radio interferometric detection of a traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Allen, B. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Burke, B. F.; Greenfield, P. E.; Lawrence, C. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was detected over Owens Valley, California, on May 18, 1980, by a highly sensitive very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio astronomy experiment. This TID is interpreted as the response of the ionosphere to a gravity wave excited in the neutral atmosphere by the explosion of Mount St. Helens that took place at 1532 UT on that day. A model, invoking the point-excitation of internal gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere, which fits observations of the TID at several other stations, leads to identification of the features observed in the VLBI data. Small-amplitude higher-frequency changes in the ionosphere were detected for several hours after the passage of the large-amplitude Mount St. Helens TID, but it is not clear whether these were excited by the passage of the gravity wave or were background fluctuations.

  5. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices and Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact portable and standalone point sensor has been developed for the detection and identification of precursors of improvised explosive devices (IEDs and to be part of a network of sensors for the discovery of hidden bomb factories in homeland security applications. The sensor is based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and it implements a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser source (EC-QCL. It makes use of an optical cell purposely designed with a miniaturized internal volume, to achieve fast response and high sensitivity, and that can also be heated to improve sensitivity towards less volatile compounds. The sensor has been assembled and successfully tested in the lab with several compounds, including IED’s precursors such as acetone, nitromethane, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The identification capability and limits of detection near the ppm level have been estimated for all these compounds.

  6. Joint analysis of infrasound and seismic signals by cross wavelet transform: detection of Mt. Etna explosive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cannata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The prompt detection of explosive volcanic activity is crucial since this kind of activity can release copious amounts of volcanic ash and gases into the atmosphere, causing severe dangers to aviation. In this work, we show how the joint analysis of seismic and infrasonic data by wavelet transform coherence (WTC can be useful to detect explosive activity, significantly enhancing its recognition that is normally done by video cameras and thermal sensors. Indeed, the efficiency of these sensors can be reduced (or inhibited in the case of poor visibility due to clouds or gas plumes. In particular, we calculated the root mean square (RMS of seismic and infrasonic signals recorded at Mt. Etna during 2011. This interval was characterised by several episodes of lava fountains, accompanied by lava effusion, and minor strombolian activities. WTC analysis showed significantly high values of coherence between seismic and infrasonic RMS during explosive activity, with infrasonic and seismic series in phase with each other, hence proving to be sensitive to both weak and strong explosive activity. The WTC capability of automatically detecting explosive activity was compared with the potential of detection methods based on fixed thresholds of seismic and infrasonic RMS. Finally, we also calculated the cross correlation function between seismic and infrasonic signals, which showed that the wave types causing such seismo-acoustic relationship are mainly incident seismic and infrasonic waves, likely with a common source.

  7. Feasibility of fast neutron analysis for the detection of explosives buried in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, A.A. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Canada); McFee, J.E., E-mail: John.McFee@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Canada); Bowman, C.L.; Mosquera, C. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Canada); Andrews, H.R.; Kovaltchouk, V.D.; Ing, H. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada)

    2011-12-11

    A commercialized thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensor has been developed to confirm the presence of buried bulk explosives as part of a multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection system. Continuing improvements to the TNA system have included the use of an electronic pulsed neutron generator that offers the possibility of applying fast neutron analysis (FNA) methods to improve the system's detection capability. This paper describes an investigation into the use of FNA as a complementary component in such a TNA system. The results of a modeling study using simple geometries and a full model of the TNA sensor head are presented, as well as preliminary results from an experimental associated particle imaging (API) system that supports the modeling study results. The investigation has concluded that the pulsed beam FNA approach would not improve the detection performance of a TNA system for landmine or buried IED detection in a confirmation role, and could not be made into a practical stand-alone detection system for buried anti-tank landmines. Detection of buried landmines and IEDs by FNA remains a possibility, however, through the use of the API technique.

  8. Detection of adsorbed explosive molecules using thermal response of suspended microfabricated bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Dechang; Greve, Anders; Hales, Jan Harry;

    2008-01-01

    Here we present a thermophysical technique that is capable of differentiating vapor phase adsorbed explosives from nonexplosives and is additionally capable of differentiating individual species of common explosive vapors. This technique utilizes pairs of suspended microfabricated silicon bridges...

  9. Detection of hidden explosives by using tagged neutron beams with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesente, Silvia; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Lunardon, Marcello; Viesti, Giuseppe E-mail: giuseppe.viesti@pd.infn.it; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Blagus, Sasha; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2004-10-01

    Non-destructive inspection of luggage has been simulated in laboratory conditions by using a 14 MeV tagged neutron beam and BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors (Tagged Neutron Inspection System, TNIS). The tagged neutron beam is produced by detecting the associated alpha particle emitted in the D+T reaction by means of a YAP:Ce scintillator. The TNIS intrinsic time resolution has been measured to be {delta}t=0.9 ns [FWHM], which allows inspection of a minimum voxel of 5 cm depth along the neutron flight path. This characteristic is demonstrated by identifying graphite and water samples hidden inside a hard plastic suitcase filled with background material. Finally, explosive devices such as small anti-personnel or anti-tank landmines have been inspected when placed inside the suitcase. In the case of relatively large explosive objects such as an anti-tank landmine, the system is capable of testing directly the TNT charge inside the device, separating this material from the external plastic case. Further developments of the TNIS concept are discussed.

  10. Point and standoff detection of trace explosives using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu; Liu, Xunchen; Van Neste, C. W.; Thundat, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Chemical sensors based on micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS) offer many advantages. However, obtaining chemical selectivity in M/NEMS sensors using chemoselective interfaces has been a longstanding challenge. Despite their many advantages, M/NEMS devices relying on chemoselective interfaces do not have sufficient selectivity. Therefore, highly sensitive and selective detection and quantification of chemical molecules using real-time, miniature sensor platforms still remains as a crucial challenge. Incorporating photothermal/photoacoustic spectroscopic techniques with M/NEMS using quantum cascade lasers can provide the chemical selectivity without sacrificing the sensitivity of the miniaturized sensing system. Point sensing is defined as sensing that requires collection and delivery of the target molecules to the sensor for detection and analysis. For example, photothermal cantilever deflection spectroscopy, which combines the high thermomechanical sensitivity of a bimetallic microcantilever with high selectivity of the mid infrared (IR) spectroscopy, is capable of obtaining molecular signatures of extremely small quantities of adsorbed explosive molecules (tens of picogram). On the other hand, standoff sensing is defined as sensing where the sensor and the operator are at distance from the target samples. Therefore, the standoff sensing is a non-contact method of obtaining molecular signatures without sample collection and processing. The distance of detection depends on the power of IR source, the sensitivity of a detector, and the efficiency of the collecting optics. By employing broadly tunable, high power quantum cascade lasers and a boxcar averager, molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds (1 μg/cm2 of RDX) on a stainless steel surface has been achieved at a distance of five meters.

  11. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry for sensitive detection of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shasha; Dou, Jian; Wang, Weiguo; Chen, Chuang; Hua, Lei; Zhou, Qinghua; Hou, Keyong; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2013-01-02

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a key trace detection technique for explosives and the development of a simple, stable, and efficient nonradioactive ionization source is highly demanded. A dopant-assisted negative photoionization (DANP) source has been developed for IMS, which uses a commercial VUV krypton lamp to ionize acetone as the source of electrons to produce negative reactant ions in air. With 20 ppm of acetone as the dopant, a stable current of reactant ions of 1.35 nA was achieved. The reactant ions were identified to be CO(3)(-)(H(2)O)(n) (K(0) = 2.44 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) by atmospheric pressure time-of-flight mass spectrometry, while the reactant ions in (63)Ni source were O(2)(-)(H(2)O)(n) (K(0) = 2.30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Finally, its capabilities for detection of common explosives including ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), N-nitrobis(2-hydroxyethyl)amine dinitrate (DINA), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were evaluated, and the limits of detection of 10 pg (ANFO), 80 pg (TNT), and 100 pg (DINA) with a linear range of 2 orders of magnitude were achieved. The time-of-flight mass spectra obtained with use of DANP source clearly indicated that PETN and DINA can be directly ionized by the ion-association reaction of CO(3)(-) to form PETN·CO(3)(-) and DINA·CO(3)(-) adduct ions, which result in good sensitivity for the DANP source. The excellent stability, good sensitivity, and especially the better separation between the reactant and product ion peaks make the DANP a potential nonradioactive ionization source for IMS.

  12. Detection of explosive substances by tomographic inspection using neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, M.; Boston, A. J.; Grint, A. N.; Nolan, P. J.; Joyce, M. J.; Mackin, R. O.; D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.; Peyton, A. J.; van Silfhout, R.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years the detection and identification of hazardous materials has become increasingly important. This work discusses research and development of a technique which is capable of detecting and imaging hidden explosives. It is proposed to utilise neutron interrogation of the substances under investigation facilitating the detection of emitted gamma radiation and scattered neutrons. Pulsed fast neutron techniques are attractive because they can be used to determine the concentrations of the light elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) which can be the primary components of explosive materials. Using segmented High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors and digital pulse processing [R.J. Cooper, G. Turk, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, J. Simpson, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, in press; I. Lazarus, D.E. Appelbe, A. J. Boston, P.J. Coleman-Smith, J.R. Cresswell, M. Descovich, S.A.A. Gros, M. Lauer, J. Norman, C.J. Pearson, V.F.E. Pucknell, J.A. Sampson, G. Turk, J.J. Valiente-Dobón, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 51 (2004) 1353; R.J. Cooper, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.N. Grint, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, D.P. Scraggs, G. Turk, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Application, 2006. [1-3

  13. Buried explosive hazard detection using forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.; Spain, C. J.

    2011-06-01

    Trainable size-contrast filters, similar to local dual-window RX anomaly detectors, utilizing the Bhattacharyya distance are used to detect buried explosive hazards in forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery. The imagery, captured from a moving vehicle, is geo-referenced, allowing projection of pixel coordinates into (UTM) Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. Size-contrast filter detections for a particular frame are projected into UTM coordinates, and peaks are detected in the resulting density using the mean-shift algorithm. All peaks without a minimum number of detections in their local neighborhood are discarded. Peaks from individual frames are then combined into a single set of tentative hit locations, and the same mean-shift procedure is run on the resulting density. Peaks without a minimum number of hit locations in their local neighborhood are removed. The remaining peaks are declared as target locations. The mean-shift steps utilize both the spatial and temporal information in the imagery. Scoring is performed using ground truth locations in UTM coordinates. The size-contrast filter and mean-shift parameters are learned using a genetic algorithm which minimizes a multiobjective fitness function involving detection rate and false alarm rate. Performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on multiple lanes from a recent collection at a US Army test site.

  14. Algorithm fusion in forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery for buried explosive hazard detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. T.; Keller, James M.; Sjahputera, Ozy

    2011-06-01

    In this article, we propose a method to fuse multiple algorithms in a long wave infrared (LWIR) system in the context of forward looking buried explosive hazard detection. A pre-screener is applied first, which is an ensemble of local RX filters and mean shift clustering in UTM space. Hit correspondence is then performed with an algorithm based on corner detection, local binary patterns (LBP), multiple instance learning (MIL) and mean shift clustering in UTM space. Next, features from image chips are extracted from UTM confidence maps based on maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These sources are then fused using an ordered weighted average (OWA). While this fusion approach has yet to improve the overall positive detection rate in LWIR, we do demonstrate false alarm reduction. Targets that are not detected by our system are also not detected by a human under visual inspection. Experimental results are shown based on field data measurements from a US Army test site.

  15. The sensitivity studies of a landmine explosive detection system based on neutron backscattering using Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hamda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a Monte Carlo simulation of a landmine detection system, using the MCNP5 code, for the detection of concealed explosives such as trinitrotoluene and cyclonite. In portable field detectors, the signal strength of backscattered neutrons and gamma rays from thermal neutron activation is sensitive to a number of parameters such as the mass of explosive, depth of concealment, neutron moderation, background soil composition, soil porosity, soil moisture, multiple scattering in the background material, and configuration of the detection system. In this work, a detection system, with BF3 detectors for neutrons and sodium iodide scintillator for g-rays, is modeled to investigate the neutron signal-to-noise ratio and to obtain an empirical formula for the photon production rate Ri(n,γ= SfGfMf(d,m from radiative capture reactions in constituent nuclides of trinitrotoluene. This formula can be used for the efficient landmine detection of explosives in quantities as small as ~200 g of trinitrotoluene concealed at depths down to about 15 cm. The empirical formula can be embedded in a field programmable gate array on a field-portable explosives' sensor for efficient online detection.

  16. Inspection tester for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  17. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  18. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on THz for CBRN and Explosives Detection and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy

    2017-01-01

    This work is intended to jointly address the development, realization and applications of emitters and detectors of terahertz (THz-0.3 THz up to 10 THz) and their application to diagnostics of CBRN effects and detection of explosives and CBRN. Hazardous substances typically exhibit rotational and vibrational transitions in this region, hence giving access to spectroscopic analysis of a large variety of molecules which play a key role in security as well as various other areas, e.g. air pollution, climate research, industrial process control, agriculture, food industry, workplace safety and medical diagnostics can be monitored by sensing and identifying them via THz (0.3 to 10 THz) and mid infrared (MIR-10 THz to 100 THz) absorption “finger prints”. Most plastics, textiles and paper are nearly transparent for THz radiation.

  20. Polysiloxane-Modified Tetraphenylethene: Synthesis, AIE Properties, and Sensor for Detecting Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaosheng; Yang, Zhaomin; Ren, Zhongjie; Yan, Shouke

    2016-11-01

    Polysiloxane-modified tetraphenylethene (PTPESi) is successfully synthesized by attaching tetraphenylethene (TPE) units onto methylvinyldiethoxylsiloxane and subsequent polycondensation. Introducing polysiloxane into TPE has minimal effect on the photophysical properties and aggregation-induced emission behavior of TPE. The highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO) energy levels of PTPESi are located mainly on the tetraphenylethene moieties. The fluorescence intensity and the half width of the emission peak of PTPESi before and after annealing at 120 °C for 12 h are nearly the same, indicating high thermal stability and morphological stability. In addition, use of PTPESi film as a sensor toward the vapor-phase detection of explosives is also studied and it displays quite high fluorescence quenching efficiency and good reversibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. THz reflection spectroscopy of C-4 explosive and its detection through interferometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Amartya; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Federici, John F.

    2006-02-01

    In recent times, Terahertz (1 THz = 10 12 cycles/sec and 300 μm in wavelength) spectroscopy has become a promising technique for spectroscopic identification of different materials having contemporary interest. In this study we report a direct measurement of reflection spectra of the explosive C-4, which shows significant absorption around 0.8 THz, using THz time domain spectroscopic techniques. A contrast in reflection of around 8% has also been observed between the neighboring frequencies of 0.7 THz and 0.9 THz. The spectral data have been used to create realistic synthetic images for use in simulations of interferometric detection in a stand-off THz imaging system. The results obtained are analyzed using Artificial Neural Networks for positive identification of the agents with an interferometric array of few linear detectors in near field mode.

  2. STARR: shortwave-targeted agile Raman robot for the detection and identification of emplaced explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.

    2014-05-01

    In order to combat the threat of emplaced explosives (land mines, etc.), ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) has developed a multi-sensor, robot mounted sensor capable of identification and confirmation of potential threats. The system, known as STARR (Shortwave-infrared Targeted Agile Raman Robot), utilizes shortwave infrared spectroscopy for the identification of potential threats, combined with a visible short-range standoff Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system for material confirmation. The entire system is mounted onto a Talon UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle), giving the sensor an increased area search rate and reducing the risk of injury to the operator. The Raman HSI system utilizes a fiber array spectral translator (FAST) for the acquisition of high quality Raman chemical images, allowing for increased sensitivity and improved specificity. An overview of the design and operation of the system will be presented, along with initial detection results of the fusion sensor.

  3. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the remote detection of explosives at level of fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Palucci, A.; Lazic, V.; Menicucci, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Pistilli, M.; De Dominicis, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of some common military explosives and theirs precursors deposited on white varnished car's external and black car's internal or external plastic. The residues were deposited by an artificial silicon finger, to simulate material manipulation by terrorists when preparing a car bomb, leaving traces of explosives on the parts of a car. LIBS spectra were acquired by using a first prototype laboratory stand-off device, developed in the framework of the EU FP7 313077 project EDEN (End-user driven DEmo for CBRNe). The system operates at working distances 8-30 m and collects the LIBS in the spectral range 240-840 nm. In this configuration, the target was moved precisely in X-Y direction to simulate the scanning system, to be implemented successively. The system is equipped with two colour cameras, one for wide scene view and another for imaging with a very high magnification, capable to discern fingerprints on a target. The spectral features of each examined substance were identified and compared to those belonging to the substrate and the surrounding air, and those belonging to possible common interferents. These spectral differences are discussed and interpreted. The obtained results show that the detection and discrimination of nitro-based compounds like RDX, PETN, ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea nitrate (UN) from organic interfering substances like diesel, greasy lubricants, greasy adhesives or oils in fingerprint concentration, at stand-off distance of some meters or tenths of meters is feasible.

  4. Nitro explosive detection: from basic science to detection at a distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Celia; Peroza, Carlos; Hernandez, Samuel; Castro, Miguel

    2006-05-01

    Standoff detection of landmines has long been central to improve quality of life in a number of countries around the world. A large body of work in the literature focuses on detection of TNT in soil as central to landmine detection. In this presentation, we summarize our efforts toward detection of TNT, from traces to bulk amounts, based on the absorption fingerprint of TNT. Light absorption by TNT is broken into three regions: (1) visible light absorption by TNT, and (2) formation and detection of NO II upon UV irradiation of TNT and (3) formation and detection of NO following UV absorption by NO II. The absorption spectrum of TNT powder and particles has been determined from spectral analysis of backscattered visible light in traditional optical and near field optical microscopy measurements, respectively. The smallest amount of TNT detected in the near field measurements is 7 femtograms. The absorption spectra of TNT are rich in structure and similar to the one measured for gas phase NO II, with lines due to roto vibronic coupling of electronic excited states. Measurements of the backscattered visible light on samples, placed about 5 to 10 meters from the laser source, indicate a clear change in intensity as compared to samples containing TNT. Turning to the second light absorption region, NO II is detected upon UV irradiation of solid TNT. NO can also be detected by photolysis of NO II.

  5. Detection of nitro-organic and peroxide explosives in latent fingermarks by DART- and SALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Frederick; Seviour, John; Lim, Angelina Yimei; Elumbaring-Salazar, Cheryl Grace; Loke, Jason; Ma, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The ability of two mass spectrometric methods, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) and direct analysis in real time (DART-MS), to detect the presence of seven common explosives (six nitro-organic- and one peroxide-type) in spiked latent fingermarks has been examined. It was found that each explosive could be detected with nanogram sensitivity for marks resulting from direct finger contact with a glass probe by DART-MS or onto stainless steel target plates using SALDI-TOF-MS for marks pre-dusted with one type of commercial black magnetic powder. These explosives also could be detected in latent marks lifted from six common surfaces (paper, plastic bag, metal drinks can, wood laminate, adhesive tape and white ceramic tile) whereas no explosive could be detected in equivalent pre-dusted marks on the surface of a commercial lifting tape by the DART-MS method due to high background interference from the tape material. The presence of TNT and Tetryl could be detected in pre-dusted latent fingermarks on a commercial lifting tape for up to 29 days sealed and stored under ambient conditions.

  6. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  7. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Standoff Detection of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    interest.4 Photothermal spectroscopy encompasses a group of highly sensitive methods that can be used to detect trace levels of optical absorption...evaluated a variety of QCLs in this platform allowing for detection limits in the ppb range and we believe that this sensor platform is an important

  8. Eye-safe UV Raman spectroscopy for remote detection of explosives and their precursors in fingerprint concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Angelini, F.; Chirico, R.; Palucci, A.; Nuvoli, M.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of Raman investigation performed at stand-off distance between 6-10 m with a new apparatus, capable to detect traces of explosives with surface concentrations similar to those of a single fingerprint. The device was developed as part of the RADEX prototype (RAman Detection of EXplosives) and is capable of detecting the Raman signal with a single laser shot of few ns (10-9 s) in the UV range (wavelength 266 nm), in conditions of safety for the human eye. This is because the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the human eye is established to be 3 mJ/cm2 in this wavelength region and pulse duration. Samples of explosives (PETN, TNT, Urea Nitrate, Ammonium Nitrate) were prepared starting from solutions deposited on samples of common fabrics or clothing materials such as blue jeans, leather, polyester or polyamide. The deposition process takes place via a piezoelectric-controlled plotter device, capable of producing drops of welldefined volume, down to nanoliters, on a surface of several cm2, in order to carefully control the amount of explosive released to the tissue and thus simulate a slight stain on a garment of a potential terrorist. Depending on the type of explosive sampled, the detected density ranges from 0.1 to 1 mg/cm2 and is comparable to the density measured in a spot on a dress or a bag due to the contact with hands contaminated with explosives, as it could happen in the preparation of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a terrorist. To our knowledge the developed device is at the highest detection limits nowadays achievable in the field of eyesafe, stand-off Raman instruments. The signals obtained show some vibrational bands of the Raman spectra of our samples with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), allowing us to identify with high sensitivity (high number of True Positives) and selectivity (low number of False Positives) the explosives, so that the instrument could represent the basis for an automated and remote monitoring

  9. Saturation Transfer Difference NMR as an Analytical Tool for Detection and Differentiation of Plastic Explosives on the Basis of Minor Plasticizer Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    SATURATION TRANSFER DIFFERENCE NMR AS AN ANALYTICAL TOOL FOR DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF PLASTIC EXPLOSIVES...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2010 – Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Saturation Transfer Difference NMR as an Analytical Tool for Detection and... NMR methodology has been developed to support the unambiguous identification and discrimination of Semtex and C-4 plastic explosive mixtures in

  10. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at ˜10-50 Hz and emits ˜106n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45±0.1 MeV (DD) neutron pulses of ˜25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm3 in volume.

  11. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, 3077 Teagarden Street, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Lane, Stephen [NSF Center for Biophotonics and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA, 95817 (United States)

    2011-12-13

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINE CLEARANCE ROBOT WITH HIGH SERVICEABILITY AND MANOEUVRABILITY FOR DETECTION AND DISACTIVATION OF EXPLOSIVE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mironov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A team of the BNTU researchers has developed an anti-personnel mine clearance robot that makes it possible to detect, disactivate or transport explosive objects to safe places excluding any danger to  human life. Performance characteristics of the anti-personnel mine clearance robot  surpass foreign analogues. 

  13. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  14. Carbon nanotubes-based chemiresistive immunosensor for small molecules: Detection of nitroaromatic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miso; Cella, Lakshmi N; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing focus on use of one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires, as transducer elements for label-free chemiresistive/field-effect transistor biosensors as they provide label-free and high sensitivity detection. While research to-date has elucidated the power of carbon nanotubes- and other 1-D nanostructure- based field effect transistors immunosensors for large charged macromolecules such as proteins and viruses, their application to small uncharged or charged molecules has not been demonstrated. In this paper we report a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-based chemiresistive immunosensor for label-free, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a small molecule. The newly developed immunosensor employed a displacement mode/format in which SWNTs network forming conduction channel of the sensor was first modified with trinitrophenyl (TNP), an analog of TNT, and then ligated with the anti-TNP single chain antibody. Upon exposure to TNT or its derivatives the bound antibodies were displaced producing a large change, several folds higher than the noise, in the resistance/conductance of SWNTs giving excellent limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor detected between 0.5 ppb and 5000 ppb TNT with good selectivity to other nitroaromatic explosives and demonstrated good accuracy for monitoring TNT in untreated environmental water matrix. We believe this new displacement format can be easily generalized to other one-dimensional nanostructure-based chemiresistive immuno/affinity-sensors for detecting small and/or uncharged molecules of interest in environmental monitoring and health care. PMID:20688506

  15. Improving the detection of explosive hazards with LIDAR-based ground plane estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, A.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional point clouds generated by LIDAR offer the potential to build a more complete understanding of the environment in front of a moving vehicle. In particular, LIDAR data facilitates the development of a non-parametric ground plane model that can filter target predictions from other sensors into above-ground and below-ground sets. This allows for improved detection performance when, for example, a system designed to locate above-ground targets considers only the set of above-ground predictions. In this paper, we apply LIDAR-based ground plane filtering to a forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) sensor system and a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor system designed to detect explosive hazards along the side of a road. Additionally, we consider the value of the visual magnitude of the LIDAR return as a feature for identifying anomalies. The predictions from these sensors are evaluated independently with and without ground plane filtering and then fused to produce a combined prediction confidence. Sensor fusion is accomplished by interpolating the confidence scores of each sensor along the ground plane model to create a combined confidence vector at specified points in the environment. The methods are tested along an unpaved desert road at an arid U.S. Army test site.

  16. iWEDS-An Intelligent Explosive Detection and Terrorist Tracking System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Hariharan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the greatest threats to national security nowadays. Military or police forces are not sufficient to prevent these activities. In the year 2009 India faced one of the biggest terrorist attacks in Mumbai. According to the report published by Times of India, more than 600 people have been killed and several hundreds of people ravaged in various terrorist attacks in India in the last 6 years. The main problem behind this massacre is the group which is acting behind this who already know the ineffectiveness of our security systems. Even now we are following traditional metal detection doors and hand held metal detectors. No autonomous system is being used by any security forces in India till now. The main problem with the traditional systems is their bulkiness so that the intruder can easily bypass the security mechanism by following an alternate path. Here we are proposing a highly effective wireless sensor network solution; intelligent Wireless Explosive Detection System (iWEDS to tackle this problem. The sensors are organized in such a manner that it has been embedded with the road reflectors, so that nobody even knows about the security system and no one can bypass it. Other key advantages are: these systems are low powered, fully automated and can support real-time tracking. Though iWEDS can perform automated operation we are proposing it only for assisting the police and military forces.

  17. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  18. A Sparse Semi-Blind Source Identification Method and Its Application to Raman Spectroscopy for Explosives Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and reliable detection and identification of unknown chemical substances is critical to homeland security. It is challenging to identify chemical components from a wide range of explosives. There are two key steps involved. One is a nondestructive and informative spectroscopic technique for data acquisition. The other is an associated library of reference features along with a computational method for feature matching and meaningful detection within or beyond the library. Recently several experimental techniques based on Raman scattering have been developed to perform standoff detection and identification of explosives, and they prove to be successful under certain idealized conditions. However data analysis is limited to standard least squares method assuming the complete knowledge of the chemical components. In this paper, we develop a new iterative method to identify unknown substances from mixture samples of Raman spectroscopy. In the first step, a constrained least squares method decomposes the dat...

  19. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  20. Extended adaptive mutation operator for training an explosive hazard detection prescreener in forward looking infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravinder; Price, Stanton R.; Anderson, Derek T.

    2015-05-01

    A big challenge with forward looking (FL), versus downward looking, sensors mounted on a ground vehicle for explosive hazard detection (EHD) is they "see everything", on and off road. Even if a technology such as road detection is used, we still have to find and subsequently discriminate targets versus clutter on the road and often road side. When designing an automatic detection system for FL-EHD, we typically make use of a prescreener to identify regions of interest (ROI) instead of searching for targets in an inefficient brute force fashion by extracting complicated features and running expensive classifiers at every possible translation, rotation and scale. In this article, we explore the role of genetic algorithms (GAs), specifically with respect to a new adaptive mutation operator, for learning the parameters of a FL-EHD prescreener in FL infrared (FLIR) imagery. The proposed extended adaptive mutation (eAM) algorithm is driven by fitness similarities in the chromosome population. Currently, our prescreener consists of many free parameters that are empirically chosen by a researcher. The parameters are learned herein using the proposed optimization technique and the performance of the system is measured using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on data obtained from a U.S. Army test site that includes a variety of target types buried at varying depths and from different times of day. The proposed technique is also applied to numerous synthetic fitness landscapes to further assess the effectiveness of the eAM algorithm. Results show that the new adaptive mutation technique converges faster to a better solution than a GA with fixed mutation.

  1. Geometry-independent neutral desorption device for the sensitive EESI-MS detection of explosives on various surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haiwei; Yang, Shuiping; Li, Jianqiang; Hu, Bin; Chen, Huanwen; Zhang, Lili; Fei, Qiang

    2010-04-01

    A novel geometry-independent neutral desorption (GIND) device was successfully developed, which made neutral desorption (ND) sampling easier and more robust on virtually all types of surfaces. The GIND device features a small air-tight enclosure with fixed space between the ND gas emitter, the sample surface, and the sample collector. Besides easy fabrication and convenient use, this configuration facilitates efficient neutral sample transfer and results in high sensitivity by preventing material loss during the ND process. The effects of various operating parameters of the GIND device such as desorption gas composition, surface wetness, gas flow rate, distance between the surface and the gas emitter, internal diameter of the sample outlet, and GIND device material were experimentally investigated. By using the GIND device, trace amounts of typical explosives such as TNT, RDX, HMX, TATP, etc., were successfully sampled from many different kinds of surfaces, including human skin, glove, glass, envelope, plastic, leather, glass, and clothes. GIND-sampled explosives were detected by multiple-stage extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Ion/molecule reactions of explosives such as RDX and TATP were implemented in the EESI source for the rapid detection with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. The typical time for a single sample analysis was a few seconds. Successful transportation of the neutral analytes over a distance longer than 10 m was demonstrated, without either significant signal loss or serious delay of signal response. The limit of detection for these explosives in the study was in the range of ca. 59-842 fg (S/N = 3, n = 8) on various surfaces. Acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) values (ca. 4.6-10.2%, n = 8) were obtained for all the surfaces tested, showing the successful sampling of trace non-volatile explosive compounds (sub-picogram) by the GIND device for the EESI mass spectrometric analysis.

  2. Detection of the improvised explosives ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea nitrate (UN) using non-aqueous solvents with electrospray ionization and MS/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Inge; McCord, Bruce

    2013-10-15

    In this study methods for the detection of trace levels of the improvised explosives urea nitrate and ammonium nitrate were developed using electrospray ionization with infusion. By using a non-aqueous solvent mixture containing 95% acetone with 5% 2-methoxyethanol we were able to preserve the urea and ammonium nitrate ion pairs and discriminate between these and other similar salts. Negative ion electrospray ionization was used for urea nitrate detection and positive ion electrospray ionization was used for ammonium nitrate. Two specific adduct ions were detected for each explosive with ammonium nitrate producing m/z 178 [2AN+NH4](+) and m/z 258 ions [3AN+NH4](+) while urea nitrate produced m/z 185 [UN+NO3](-) and m/z 248 [UN+HNO3+NO3](-) The specificity of the analysis was examined by mixing the different explosives with various salts and interferents. Adduct ions formed in the gas phase were found to be useful in distinguishing between ion pairs and mixed salts. Overall the method demonstrates the sensitive detection of both explosives, and more specifically the potential to determine intact urea nitrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Paul T.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Veitch, Scott; Hanson, Al; Kusterbeck, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 μm × 500 μm, L × W × D) fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments). Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h). Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface. PMID:24583970

  4. Inadequate peak expiratory flow meter characteristics detected by a computerised explosive decompression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Atkins, P.R.; Pedersen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The dynamic response of mini-Wright (MW), Vitalograph (V), TruZone (TZ), MultiSpiro (MS) and pneumotachograph (PT) flow meters was tested by delivering two differently shaped flow-time profiles from a computer controlled explosive decompression device fitted with a fast response solenoid...... dynamic response. Results: The absolute (% of mean) flow differences in l/min for the V, MW, and PT PEF meters were 25 (4.7), 20 (3.9), and 2 (0.3), respectively, at PEF ≈500 l/min, and 25 (10.5), 20 (8.7) and 6 (3.0) at ≈200 l/min. For TZ and MS meters at ≈500 l/min the differences were 228 (36.......1) and 257 (39.2), respectively, and at ≈200 l/min they were 51 (23.9) and 1 (0.5). All the meters met ATS accuracy requirements when tested with their waveforms. Conclusions: An improved method for testing the dynamic response of flow meters detects marked overshoot (underdamping) of TZ and MS responses...

  5. A Novel Immunoreagent for the Specific and Sensitive Detection of the Explosive Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Weller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Triacetone triperoxide (TATP is a primary explosive, which was used in various terrorist attacks in the past. For the development of biosensors, immunochemical µ-TAS, electronic noses, immunological test kits, or test strips, the availability of antibodies of high quality is crucial. Recently, we presented the successful immunization of mice, based on the design, synthesis, and conjugation of a novel TATP derivative. Here, the long-term immunization of rabbits is shown, which resulted in antibodies of extreme selectivity and more than 1,000 times better affinity in relation to the antibodies from mice. Detection limits below 10 ng L−1 (water were achieved. The working range covers more than four decades, calculated from a precision profile. The cross-reactivity tests revealed an extraordinary selectivity of the antibodies—not a single compound could be identified as a relevant cross-reactant. The presented immunoreagent might be a major step for the development of highly sensitive and selective TATP detectors particularly for security applications.

  6. Robot Assisted Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring and Detection of Explosives in Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Freeman,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, remote environment monitoring has been significantly improved with wireless sensor networking technology. This paper presents the real time streaming of an indoor environment using a wireless sensor network and a set of self-navigating robots. Mobile robots with mounted sensors will autonomously navigate through an indoor area with unknown obstacles. The robots will be able toavoid obstacles and move around the region. The robots sense the environmental parameters of the region, and send that data to the remote monitoring terminals using an underlying wireless sensornetwork. This design is applicable to networks where some of the sensors may not have sufficient range to sense data more accurately and closer monitoring is required. Effective path planning for the mobile robot is achieved by combining a map of the area, the sensor readings and the radio strength of the sensor network. Email alerts can be sent to officials if the sensed data goes above a predefined threshold level, thus successfully detecting the presence of explosives in a given area. This system streams the data in realtimeto the Internet making it possible for authorized personnel to view the status of the environment online.

  7. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 µm × 500 µm, L × W × D fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA, then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments. Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h. Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface.

  8. Seismic detection of increased degassing before Kīlauea's 2008 summit explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica H.; Poland, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 explosion that started a new eruption at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, was not preceded by a dramatic increase in earthquakes nor inflation, but was associated with increases in SO2 emissions and seismic tremor. Here we perform shear wave splitting analysis on local earthquakes spanning the onset of the eruption. Shear wave splitting measures seismic anisotropy and is traditionally used to infer changes in crustal stress over time. We show that shear wave splitting may also vary due to changes in volcanic degassing. The orientation of fast shear waves at Kīlauea is usually controlled by structure, but in 2008 showed changes with increased SO2 emissions preceding the start of the summit eruption. This interpretation for changing anisotropy is supported by corresponding decreases in Vp/Vs ratio. Our result demonstrates a novel method for detecting changes in gas flux using seismic observations and provides a new tool for monitoring under-instrumented volcanoes.

  9. Use of artificial neural networks in drug and explosive detection through tomographic images with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Crispim, Verginia R.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.b, E-mail: verginia@con.ufri.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufri.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The artificial neural network technique was used to identify drugs and plastic explosives, from a tomography composed by a set of six neutrongraphic projections obtained in real time. Bidimensional tomographic images of samples of drugs, explosives and other materials, when digitally processed, yield the characteristic spectra of each type of material. The information contained in those spectra was then used for ANN training, the best images being obtained when the multilayer perceptron model, the back-propagation training algorithm and the Cross-validation interruption criterion were used. ANN showed to be useful in forecasting presence of drugs and explosives hitting a rate of success above 97 %. (author)

  10. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...2013www.ll.mit.edu Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives (PHASE) is a promising new technology that detects trace explosive residues from significant... photoacoustic phenomena resulting from ultraviolet laser excitation. Exposed explosives are excited up to 100 meters away by using PHASE’s

  11. Idaho Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Gay Davis; Esposito, Louis; Montgomery, Martin

    1979-07-01

    Idaho's energy problems have increased at alarming rates due to their dependency on imports of gas and oil. The large hydroelectric base developed in Idaho has for years kept the electric rates relatively low and supplied them with energy on a consumer demand basis. However, this resource cannot be 4expected to meet their growing demands in the years to come. Energy alternatives, in whatever form, are extremely important to the future welfare of the State of Idaho. This handbook addresses the implications, uses, requirements and regulations governing one of Idaho's most abundant resources, geothermal energy. The intent of the Idaho Geothermal Handbook is to familiarize the lay person with the basis of geothermal energy in Idaho. The potential for geothermal development in the State of Idaho is tremendous. The authors hope this handbook will both increase your knowledge of geothermal energy and speed you on your way to utilizing this renewable resource.

  12. Very Sensitive Optical System with the Concentration and Decomposition Unit for Explosive Trace Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beata Zakrzewska

    2015-01-01

    .... To overcome the problem, concentration units can be applied. At the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT, an explosive vapour concentration and decomposition unit to operate with an optoelectronic sensor of nitrogen dioxide has been developed...

  13. Functionalisation of the hinge region in receptor molecules for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2003-01-01

    The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Particle size analysis of prepared solutions and fingerprint deposits of high explosive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) was tasked via the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct various studies involving the detection and measurement of explosive materials and their associated residues. This report details the results of an investigation to determine the particle size characteristics of the explosive materials used in the design, development, and testing of trace explosives detection systems. These materials, in the form of water suspensions of plastic explosives, are used to provide a quantitative means of monitoring the performance characteristics of the detection systems. The purpose of this investigation is to provide data that allows a comparison between the particles deposited using the suspension standards and the particles deposited from fingerprints. This information may support the development of quality control aids, measurement methods, or performance criteria specifications for the use of trace explosives detection systems. For this report, particle size analyses were completed on explosives standard suspensions/solutions for composition C-4, Semtex-H, and Detasheet and fingerprints for C-4, Detasheet, and pentolite. Because of the difficulty in collecting microscopic images of the particles in the suspensions from test protocol surfaces, this paper discusses the characteristics of the particles as they are found on metal, glass, and paper. The results of the particle characterization analyses indicate that the water suspensions contain particulate composed of binder materials and dissolved portions of the explosive compounds. Upon drying of the water suspensions, significant particle nucleation and growth is observed. The nucleated particulate is comparable to the particulate deposited by fingerprints.

  15. Developing Methods for Detection of Munitions and Explosives of Concern in Offshore Wind Energy Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, J. K.; Carton, G.

    2016-12-01

    Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC) have been acknowledged globally as a topic of concern. Increasing use of coastal and continental shelf environments for renewable energy development and other activities has and continues to place humans in contact with legacy military munitions. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recognized the need to develop guidance concerning methods for MEC detection in the case of offshore energy development. The study was designed to identify the most likely MEC to be encountered in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Wind Energy Areas (WEA), review available technologies and develop a process for selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies for their detection. The process for selecting and optimizing technologies and methods for detection of MEC in BOEM OCS WEAs was developed and tested through the synthesis of historical research, physical site characterization, remote sensing technology review, and in-field trials. To test the selected approach, designated personnel were tasked with seeding a portion of the Delaware WEA with munitions surrogates, while a second group of researchers not privy to the surrogate locations, tested and optimized the selected methodology. The effectiveness of a methodology will be related to ease of detection and other associated parameters. The approach for the in-field trial consists of a combination of wide-area assessment surveying by vessel mounted 230/550 kHz Edgetech 6205 Phase Measuring sonar and near-seafloor surveying using a Teledyne Gavia autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with high-resolution 900/1800 kHz Marine Sonics side-scan sonar, Geometrics G880-AUV cesium-vapor magnetometer, and 2 megapixel Point Grey color camera. Survey parameters (e.g. track-line spacing, coverage overlap, AUV altitude) were varied to determine the optimal survey methods, as well as simulate MEC burial to test magnetometer range performance. Preliminary results indicate the

  16. Detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using a mobile platform for photothermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; McGill, R. Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This manuscript describes the results of recent tests regarding standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using a mobile platform. We are developing a technology for detection based on photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more microfabricated IR quantum cascade lasers, tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. Increased sensitivity to explosives and selectivity between different analyte types is achieved by narrow bandpass IR filters in the collection path. We have previously demonstrated the technique at several meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the infrared eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). Sensitivity to explosive traces as small as a single 10 μm diameter particle (~1 ng) has been demonstrated. Analytes tested here include RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate and sucrose. The substrates tested in this current work include metal, plastics, glass and painted car panels.

  17. Sensitivity Comparison of Vapor Trace Detection of Explosives Based on Chemo-Mechanical Sensing with Optical Detection and Capacitive Sensing with Electronic Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strle, Drago; Štefane, Bogdan; Zupanič, Erik; Trifkovič, Mario; Maček, Marijan; Jakša, Gregor; Kvasič, Ivan; Muševič, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The article offers a comparison of the sensitivities for vapour trace detection of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives of two different sensor systems: a chemo-mechanical sensor based on chemically modified Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilevers based on Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology with optical detection (CMO), and a miniature system based on capacitive detection of chemically functionalized planar capacitors with interdigitated electrodes with a comb-like structure with electronic detection (CE). In both cases (either CMO or CE), the sensor surfaces are chemically functionalized with a layer of APhS (trimethoxyphenylsilane) molecules, which give the strongest sensor response for TNT. The construction and calibration of a vapour generator is also presented. The measurements of the sensor response to TNT are performed under equal conditions for both systems, and the results show that CE system with ultrasensitive electronics is far superior to optical detection using MEMS. Using CMO system, we can detect 300 molecules of TNT in 10+12 molecules of N2 carrier gas, whereas the CE system can detect three molecules of TNT in 10+12 molecules of carrier N2. PMID:24977388

  18. Raman detection of improvised explosive device (IED) material fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology on several real world surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Mikella E.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    The requirement to detect hazardous materials (i.e., chemical, biological, and explosive) on a host of materials has led to the development of hazard detection systems. These new technologies and their capabilities could have immediate uses for the US military, national security agencies, and environmental response teams in efforts to keep people secure and safe. In particular, due to the increasing use by terrorists, the detection of common explosives and improvised explosive device (IED) materials have motivated research efforts toward detecting trace (i.e., particle level) quantities on multiple commonly encountered surfaces (e.g., textiles, metals, plastics, natural products, and even people). Non-destructive detection techniques can detect trace quantities of explosive materials; however, it can be challenging in the presence of a complex chemical background. One spectroscopic technique gaining increased attention for detection is Raman. One popular explosive precursor material is ammonium nitrate (AN). The material AN has many agricultural applications, however it can also be used in the fabrication of IEDs or homemade explosives (HMEs). In this paper, known amounts of AN will be deposited using an inkjet printer into several different common material surfaces (e.g., wood, human hair, textiles, metals, plastics). The materials are characterized with microscope images and by collecting Raman spectral data. In this report the detection and identification of AN will be demonstrated.

  19. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  20. Demonstration of submersible high-throughput microfluidic immunosensors for underwater explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, André A; Charles, Paul T; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2011-11-15

    Significant security threats posed by highly energetic nitroaromatic compounds in aquatic environments and the demilitarization and pending cleanup of areas previously used for munitions manufacture and storage represent a challenge for less expensive, faster, and more sensitive systems capable of analyzing groundwater and seawater samples for trace levels of explosive materials. Presented here is an inexpensive high throughput microfluidic immunosensor (HTMI) platform intended for the rapid, highly selective quantitation of nitroaromatic compounds in the field. Immunoaffinity and fluorescence detection schemes were implemented in tandem on a novel microfluidic device containing 39 parallel microchannels that were 500 μm tall, 250 μm wide, and 2.54 cm long with covalently tethered antibodies that was engineered for high-throughput high-volume sample processing. The devices were produced via a combination of high precision micromilling and hot embossing. Mass transfer limitations were found in conventional microsystems and were minimized due to higher surface area to volume ratios that exceeded those possessed by conventional microdevices and capillaries. Until now, these assays were limited to maximum total volume flow rates of ~1 mL/min due in part to kinetics and high head pressures of single microchannels. In the design demonstrated here, highly parallelized microchannels afforded up to a 100-fold increase in total volume flow rate while maintaining favorable kinetic constraints for efficient antigen-antibody interaction. The assay employed total volume throughput of up to 6 mL/min while yielding signal-to-noise ratios of >15 in all cases. In addition to samples being processed up to 60 times faster than in conventional displacement-based immunoassays, the current system was capable of quantitating 0.01 ng/mL TNT samples without implementing offline preconcentration, thereby, demonstrating the ability to improve sensitivity by as much as 2 orders of magnitude

  1. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  2. A positively charged silver nanowire membrane for rapid on-site swabbing extraction and detection of trace inorganic explosives using a portable Raman spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-e Shi; Wenshou Wang; Jinhua Zhan

    2016-01-01

    The sensitive and on-site detection of inorganic explosives has raised serious concerns regarding public safety.However,high stability and non-volatility features currently limit their rapid on-site detection.Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is emerging as a powerful technique for the trace-level detection of different molecules.Plasmonic Ag nanowires were produced by a hydrothermal synthesis method using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a negatively charged stabilizer.Here,we report a rapid detection method for inorganic explosives based on a simple surface swab with a positively charged diethyldithiocarbamate-modified Ag nanowire membrane coupled with SERS.This membrane,serving as an excellent SERS substrate with high uniformity,stability,and reusability,can capture both typical oxidizers in inorganic explosives and organic nitro-explosives,via electrostatic interaction.The detection level of perchlorates (ClO4-),chlorates (ClO3-),nitrates (NO3-),picric acid,and 2,4-dinitrophenol is as high as 2.0,1.7,0.1,45.8,and 36.6 ng,respectively.In addition,simulated typical inorganic explosives such as black powders,firecrackers,and match heads could also be detected.We believe that this membrane represents an attractive alternative for rapid on-site detection of inorganic explosives with high efficiency.

  3. Application of Solid Sorbent Collection Techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection to the Analysis of Explosives in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Methods were developed for the determination of several explosives components (nitro-organic compounds) in environmental waters. The methods are based on Porapak resin adsorption and Amberlite XAD-4 resin adsorption of the explosives are measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The technique provides a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity for these compounds in actual samples. Detection limits approach 1 microgram/l for many components.

  4. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    of anthropogenic changes associated with underground nuclear activities, whether declared or clandestine, presents a difficult challenge, since it is necessary to discriminate subtle, often weak signals of interest on a background of irrelevant or uninteresting changes. In this contribution we focus on the use...... detection (MAD) algorithm proposed by Nielsen et. al. (1998). The multispectral data are pre-processed by orthorectification, illumination angle correction and image registration. The technique is applied to historical underground nuclear explosions detonated at the NTS between 1984 and 1992. The detected...

  5. Negative-ion formation in the explosives RDX, PETN, and TNT by using the reversal electron attachment detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumsellek, S.; Alajajian, S. H.; Chutjian, A.

    1992-01-01

    First results of a beam-beam, single-collision study of negative-ion mass spectra produced by attachment of zero-energy electrons to the molecules of the explosives RDX, PETN, and TNT are presented. The technique used is reversal electron attachment detection (READ) wherein the zero-energy electrons are produced by focusing an intense electron beam into a shaped electrostatic field which reverses the trajectory of electrons. The target beam is introduced at the reversal point, and attachment occurs because the electrons have essentially zero longitudinal and radial velocity. The READ technique is used to obtain the 'signature' of molecular ion formation and/or fragmentation for each explosive. Present data are compared with results from atmospheric-pressure ionization and negative-ion chemical ionization methods.

  6. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    . The technology is based on an array of chemoselective compounds immobilized on a solid support. Upon exposure to the analyte in suspicion the colorimetric array changes color. Each chosen compound reacts chemo-selectively with analytes of interest. A change in a color signature indicates the presence of unknown...... explosives and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We are working towards the selection of compounds that undergo color changes in the presence of explosives and VOCs, as well as the development of an immobilization method for the molecules. Digital imaging of the colorimetric array before and after exposure...

  7. Idaho GPW Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-10-01

    Idaho holds enormous resources - among the largest in theUnited States - of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped. According to U.S. Geological Survey estimates, Idaho ranks seventh among the 50 states in developable geothermal energy. These resources could provide up to 20% of Idaho's heat and power needs. W h y G e o t h e r m a l ?Homegrown Energy It's here, right beneath our feet! No need to import! Current Development Idaho already boasts 70 direct-use g..

  8. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  9. Inadequate peak expiratory flow meter characteristics detected by a computerised explosive decompression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Atkins, P.R.; Pedersen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The dynamic response of mini-Wright (MW), Vitalograph (V), TruZone (TZ), MultiSpiro (MS) and pneumotachograph (PT) flow meters was tested by delivering two differently shaped flow-time profiles from a computer controlled explosive decompression device fitted with a fast response solenoid...

  10. Low-Frequency Synthetic Aperture Sonar For Detecting Explosives in Harbors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, A.L.D.; Vossen, R. van; Vlaming, G.

    2012-01-01

    Naval mines and underwater improvised explosive devices in harbors can halt or block maritime transport, causing local disruptions that can impact national and regional economies considerably. Securing harbors against such threats is implemented in the Netherlands through cooperation between civil a

  11. Validation of a Miniaturized Spectrometer for Trace Detection of Explosives by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Almaviva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS measurements of some common military explosives were performed with a table-top micro-Raman system integrated with a Serstech R785 miniaturized device, comprising a spectrometer and detector for near-infrared (NIR laser excitation (785 nm. R785 was tested as the main component of a miniaturized SERS detector, designed for in situ and stand-alone sensing of molecules released at low concentrations, as could happen in the case of traces of explosives found in an illegal bomb factory, where solid microparticles of explosives could be released in the air and then collected on the sensor’s surface, if placed near the factory, as a consequence of bomb preparation. SERS spectra were obtained, exciting samples in picogram quantities on specific substrates, starting from standard commercial solutions. The main vibrational features of each substance were clearly identified also in low quantities. The amount of the sampled substance was determined through the analysis of scanning electron microscope images, while the spectral resolution and the detector sensitivity were sufficiently high to clearly distinguish spectra belonging to different samples with an exposure time of 10 s. A principal component analysis procedure was applied to the experimental data to understand which are the main factors affecting spectra variation across different samples. The score plots for the first three principal components show that the examined explosive materials can be clearly classified on the basis of their SERS spectra.

  12. Evaluation of One-Sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Remote Detection of Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Si:znal-to-Noise Ratic 0:’ -:.-e NMR Exceri."ent", Journal o_ magnetji c Resonance 2 4, :4. 1. Hu.;chnson, ed. , The ARRL Handbook f4or tne Radio...6. 3. M. Dobratz, ed., LLNL Exzlos -4-ves Handbook -- Prc,_ert_-es o~Chemical E’xolosives and Explosives Simulants, ner: cfCalifornia Technical

  13. A colorimetric receptor combined with a microcantilever sensor for explosive vapor detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.; Park, J.S.; Sessler, J.L.; Gaitas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted to the synthesis of molecular receptors that can function as chemosensors for nitroaromatic explosives. In spite of several advantages, these receptors suffer from low sensitivity and difficulties translating the response into the gas phase. We have combined tetra

  14. Multiple kernel based feature and decision level fusion of iECO individuals for explosive hazard detection in FLIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stanton R.; Murray, Bryce; Hu, Lequn; Anderson, Derek T.; Havens, Timothy C.; Luke, Robert H.; Keller, James M.

    2016-05-01

    A serious threat to civilians and soldiers is buried and above ground explosive hazards. The automatic detection of such threats is highly desired. Many methods exist for explosive hazard detection, e.g., hand-held based sensors, downward and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. In addition, multiple sensors are used to tackle this extreme problem, such as radar and infrared (IR) imagery. In this article, we explore the utility of feature and decision level fusion of learned features for forward looking explosive hazard detection in IR imagery. Specifically, we investigate different ways to fuse learned iECO features pre and post multiple kernel (MK) support vector machine (SVM) based classification. Three MK strategies are explored; fixed rule, heuristics and optimization-based. Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on data from a U.S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of day. Specifically, the results reveal two interesting things. First, the different MK strategies appear to indicate that the different iECO individuals are all more-or-less important and there is not a dominant feature. This is reinforcing as our hypothesis was that iECO provides different ways to approach target detection. Last, we observe that while optimization-based MK is mathematically appealing, i.e., it connects the learning of the fusion to the underlying classification problem we are trying to solve, it appears to be highly susceptible to over fitting and simpler, e.g., fixed rule and heuristics approaches help us realize more generalizable iECO solutions.

  15. Broad spectrum infrared thermal desorption of wipe-based explosive and narcotic samples for trace mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Staymates, Matthew; Sisco, Edward

    2017-08-07

    Wipe collected analytes were thermally desorbed using broad spectrum near infrared heating for mass spectrometric detection. Employing a twin tube filament-based infrared emitter, rapid and efficiently powered thermal desorption and detection of nanogram levels of explosives and narcotics was demonstrated. The infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) platform developed here used multi-mode heating (direct radiation and secondary conduction from substrate and subsequent convection from air) and a temperature ramp to efficiently desorb analytes with vapor pressures across eight orders of magnitude. The wipe substrate experienced heating rates up to (85 ± 2) °C s(-1) with a time constant of (3.9 ± 0.2) s for 100% power emission. The detection of trace analytes was also demonstrated from complex mixtures, including plastic-bonded explosives and exogenous narcotics, explosives, and metabolites from collected artificial latent fingerprints. Manipulation of the emission power and duration directly controlled the heating rate and maximum temperature, enabling differential thermal desorption and a level of upstream separation for enhanced specificity. Transitioning from 100% power and 5 s emission duration to 25% power and 30 s emission enabled an order of magnitude increase in the temporal separation (single seconds to tens of seconds) of the desorption of volatile and semi-volatile species within a collected fingerprint. This mode of operation reduced local gas-phase concentrations, reducing matrix effects experienced with high concentration mixtures. IRTD provides a unique platform for the desorption of trace analytes from wipe collections, an area of importance to the security sector, transportation agencies, and customs and border protection.

  16. Comparison of spatial frequency domain features for the detection of side attack explosive ballistics in synthetic aperture acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Josh; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Ball, John E.; Keller, James M.; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards in current and former conflict zones are a threat to both military and civilian personnel. As a result, much effort has been dedicated to identifying automated algorithms and systems to detect these threats. However, robust detection is complicated due to factors like the varied composition and anatomy of such hazards. In order to solve this challenge, a number of platforms (vehicle-based, handheld, etc.) and sensors (infrared, ground penetrating radar, acoustics, etc.) are being explored. In this article, we investigate the detection of side attack explosive ballistics via a vehicle-mounted acoustic sensor. In particular, we explore three acoustic features, one in the time domain and two on synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) beamformed imagery. The idea is to exploit the varying acoustic frequency profile of a target due to its unique geometry and material composition with respect to different viewing angles. The first two features build their angle specific frequency information using a highly constrained subset of the signal data and the last feature builds its frequency profile using all available signal data for a given region of interest (centered on the candidate target location). Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on cross-validation experiments for data collected at a U.S. Army test site on different days with multiple target types and clutter. Our preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that the top performing feature is the unrolled two dimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of SAA beamformed imagery.

  17. Development of highly sensitive and selective antibodies for the detection of the explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) by bioisosteric replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Almut; Biyikal, Mustafa; Rurack, Knut; Weller, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    An improved antibody against the explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was developed. The immunogen was designed by the concept of bioisosteric replacement, which led to an excellent polyclonal antibody with extreme selectivity and immunoassays of very good sensitivity. Compounds such as nitroglycerine, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, hexogen (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitroaniline, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, octogen (HMX), triacetone triperoxide, ammonium nitrate, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and nitrobenzene were tested for potential cross-reactivity. The detection limit of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was determined to be around 0.5 µg/l. The dynamic range of the assay was found to be between 1 and 1000 µg/l, covering a concentration range of three decades. This work shows the successful application of the bioisosteric concept in immunochemistry by exchange of a nitroester to a carbonate diester. The antiserum might be used for the development of quick tests, biosensors, microtitration plate immunoassays, microarrays and other analytical methods for the highly sensitive detection of PETN, an explosive frequently used by terrorists, exploiting the extreme difficulty of its detection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Gaussian mixture models for measuring local change down-track in LWIR imagery for explosive hazard detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Christopher J.; Anderson, Derek T.; Keller, James M.; Popescu, Mihail; Stone, Kevin E.

    2011-06-01

    Burying objects below the ground can potentially alter their thermal properties. Moreover, there is often soil disturbance associated with recently buried objects. An intensity video frame image generated by an infrared camera in the medium and long wavelengths often locally varies in the presence of buried explosive hazards. Our approach to automatically detecting these anomalies is to estimate a background model of the image sequence. Pixel values that do not conform to the background model may represent local changes in thermal or soil signature caused by buried objects. Herein, we present a Gaussian mixture model-based technique to estimate the statistical model of background pixel values. The background model is used to detect anomalous pixel values on the road while a vehicle is moving. Foreground pixel confidence values are projected into the UTM coordinate system and a UTM confidence map is built. Different operating levels are explored and the connected component algorithm is then used to extract islands that are subjected to size, shape and orientation filters. We are currently using this approach as a feature in a larger multi-algorithm fusion system. However, in this article we also present results for using this algorithm as a stand-alone detector algorithm in order to further explore its value in detecting buried explosive hazards.

  19. Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can accoun...

  20. Application of Advanced Methods for Identification and Detection of Nuclear Explosions from the Asian Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    enhancement and identification. The MARS code now accepts from one up to three components of seismic data and applies a series of narrow band... seismic event data to determine its effectiveness as a discriminant between earthquakes and underground explosions. In Section III we discuss the results...remove signal distortion due to instrumental factors, and to perform polarization filtering on multicomponent data . Improvements have also been imple

  1. International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (4th) Held in Jerusalem, Israel on September 7 - 10, 1992. Programs and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    techniques - 1992 status T. Gozani. Science Application International Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA 8:40 G1 Explosive detection by pure 14N NQR M.L...an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) known as IONSCAN (Barringer Instruments, Inc). The IONSCAN collects particulate explosives residue on a membrane...injector at 145 * C and a Model 5970 mass spectrometer or a flame ionization detector was used to obtain the data. The gas chromatograph was operated

  2. Location and detection of explosive-contaminated human fingerprints on distant targets using standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, P.; Gaona, I.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Detection of explosive-contaminated human fingerprints constitutes an analytical challenge of high significance in security issues and in forensic sciences. The use of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor working at 31 m distance to the target, fitted with 2D scanning capabilities and designed for capturing spectral information from laser-induced plasmas of fingerprints is presented. Distribution chemical maps based on Na and CN emissions are used to locate and detect chloratite, DNT, TNT, RDX and PETN residues that have been deposited on the surface of aluminum and glass substrates. An effectiveness of 100% on fingerprints detection, regardless the substrate scanned, is reached. Environmental factors that affect the prevalence of the fingerprint LIBS response are discussed.

  3. An optical fiber taper fluorescent probe for detection of nitro-explosives based on tetraphenylethylene with aggregation-induced emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fukun; Cui, Minxin; Ma, Jiajun; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we report a novel optical fiber taper fluorescent probe for detection of nitro-explosives. The probe was fabricated by an in-situ photo-plating through evanescent wave and transmitted light initiated thiol-ene ;click; reaction, from which a cross-linked fluorescence porous polymer film was covalently bonded on the surface of the fiber taper. The film exhibits well-organized porous structure due to the presence of polyhedral oligomeric vinylsilsesquioxane moieties, and simultaneously displays strong fluorescence from tetraphenylethylene with aggregation-induced emission property. These two characters make the probe show a remarkable sensitivity, anti-photo-bleaching and a repeatability in detection of TNT and DNT vapors by fluorescence quenching. In addition, the detection is not interfered in the presence of other volatile organic gases.

  4. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang

    2015-05-29

    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  5. Frequency based detection and monitoring of small scale explosive activity by comparing satellite and ground based infrared observations at Stromboli Volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Anna; Dehn, Jonathan; Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle

    2014-08-01

    Thermal activity is a common precursor to explosive volcanic activity. The ability to use these thermal precursors to monitor the volcano and obtain early warning about upcoming activity is beneficial for both human safety and infrastructure security. By using a very reliably active volcano, Stromboli Volcano in Italy, a method has been developed and tested to look at changes in the frequency of small scale explosive activity and how this activity changes prior to larger, ash producing explosive events. Thermal camera footage was used to designate parameters for typical explosions at Stromboli (size of spatter field, cooling rate, frequency of explosions) and this information was applied to characterize explosions in satellite imagery. Satellite data from The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and US/Japan designed Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for numerous periods in 2002 to 2009 were analyzed for thermal features which were used to calculate an estimate of the level of activity during the given time period. The results at Stromboli showed a high level of small scale explosions which stop completely prior to large paroxysmal eruptive episodes. This activity also corresponds well to seismic and infrasonic records at Stromboli, indicating that this thermal infrared monitoring method may be used in conjunction with other detection methods where available, and also indicates that it may be a useful method for volcano monitoring when other methods (e.g. seismic instrumentation, infrasound arrays, etc.) are not available.

  6. Explosive Strength of the Knee Extensors: The Influence of Criterion Trial Detection Methodology on Measurement Reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirnberger Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess test-retest reproducibility of explosive strength measurements during single-joint isometric knee extension using the IsoMed 2000 dynamometer. Thirty-one physically active male subjects (mean age: 23.7 years were measured on two occasions separated by 48–72 h. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 and the coefficient of variation (CV were calculated for (i maximum torque (MVC, (ii the peak rate of torque development (RTDpeak as well as for (iii the average rate of torque development (RTD and the impulse taken at several predefined time intervals (0–30 to 0–300 ms; thereby explosive strength variables were derived in two conceptually different versions: on the one hand from the MVC-trial (version I, on the other hand from the trial showing the RTDpeak (version II. High ICC-values (0.80–0.99 and acceptable CV-values (1.9–8.7% could be found for MVC as well as for the RTD and the impulse taken at time intervals of ≥100 ms, regardless of whether version I or II was used. In contrast, measurements of the RTDpeak as well as the RTD and the impulse taken during the very early contraction phase (i.e. RTD/impulse0–30ms and RTD/impulse0–50ms showed clearly weaker reproducibility results (ICC: 0.53–0.84; CV: 7.3–16.4% and gave rise to considerable doubts as to clinical usefulness, especially when derived using version I. However, if there is a need to measure explosive strength for earlier time intervals in practice, it is, in view of stronger reproducibility results, recommended to concentrate on measures derived from version II, which is based on the RTDpeak-trial.

  7. The protein scaffold of the lipocalin odorant-binding protein is suitable for the design of new biosensors for the detection of explosive components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramoni, Roberto [Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Bellucci, Stefano [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Grycznyski, Ignacy [University of North Texas, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Grycznyski, Zigmunt [University of North Texas, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Grolli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Staiano, Maria [Istituto di Biochimica della Proteine, CNR, Naples (Italy); Bellis, Giovanni De [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Micciulla, Federico [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pastore, Roberto [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Tiberia, Alessandra [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Conti, Virna [Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Merli, Elisa [Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Varriale, Antonio [Istituto di Biochimica della Proteine, CNR, Naples (Italy); Rossi, Mose' [Istituto di Biochimica della Proteine, CNR, Naples (Italy); D' Auria, Sabato [Istituto di Biochimica della Proteine, CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The detection of hazard exposure is a current priority, including the detection of traces of explosive molecules in different environments like luggage storage rooms and public places, and is becoming a major requirement for homeland security. In the present study we carried out a preliminary investigation on the binding capacities of four forms of the lipocalin odorant-binding protein (OBP) for the detection of explosive components such as diphenylamine, dimethyl-phthalate, resorcinol and dinitrotoluene. The experimental results, showing that OBP binds these compounds with affinity constants ranging between 80 nM and 10.6 mM, indicate that this protein can be used as a probe for the realization of a biosensor to sense explosive compounds.

  8. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  9. Detecting explosive molecules from nanoliter solution: A new paradigm of SERS sensing on hydrophilic photonic crystal biosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Xi, Yuting; Le Duff, Paul; Chong, Xinyuan; Li, Erwen; Ren, Fanghui; Rorrer, Gregory L; Wang, Alan X

    2017-02-15

    We demonstrate a photonic crystal biosilica surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on a diatom frustule with in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to detect explosive molecules from nanoliter (nL) solution. By integrating high density Ag NPs inside the nanopores of diatom biosilica, which is not achievable by traditional self-assembly techniques, we obtained ultra-high SERS sensitivity due to dual enhancement mechanisms. First, the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal biosilica with three dimensional morphologies was obtained by electroless-deposited Ag seeds at nanometer sized diatom frustule surface, which provides high density hot spots as well as strongly coupled optical resonances with the photonic crystal structure of diatom frustules. Second, we discovered that the evaporation-driven microscopic flow combined with the strong hydrophilic surface of diatom frustules is capable of concentrating the analyte molecules, which offers a simple yet effective mechanism to accelerate the mass transport into the SERS substrate. Using the inkjet printing technology, we are able to deliver multiple 100pico-liter (pL) volume droplets with pinpoint accuracy into a single diatom frustule with dimension around 30µm×7µm×5µm, which allows for label-free detection of explosive molecules such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) down to 10(-10)M in concentration and 2.7×10(-15)g in mass from 120nL solution. Our research illustrates a new paradigm of SERS sensing to detect trace level of chemical compounds from minimum volume of analyte using nature created photonic crystal biosilica materials.

  10. Photonic crystal fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Wei, Heming; Feng, Wenlin

    2016-02-08

    We report a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer used as a gas sensor device which exhibits high sensitivity to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT). The interferometric sensor head is formed by embedding a segment of large-mode-area/grapefruit PCF between standard single-mode fibers via butt coupling, which produces two small air gaps in between terminated fiber ends with ceramic ferrule connectors as coupling regions, which also serve as inlet/outlet for the gas. The spectral response of the interferometer is investigated in terms of its wavelength spectrum. The selectivity to TNT vapor is achieved by immobilizing a molecular recognition ployallylamine layer on the inner surface of the holey region of the PCF. The TNT-induced variations of the interference fringes are measured and the sensing capability of the proposed sensor is demonstrated experimentally.

  11. Demonstrated Wavelength Portability of Raman Reference Data for Explosives and Chemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As Raman spectroscopy continues to evolve, questions arise as to the portability of Raman data: dispersive versus Fourier transform, wavelength calibration, intensity calibration, and in particular the frequency of the excitation laser. While concerns about fluorescence arise in the visible or ultraviolet, most modern (portable systems use near-infrared excitation lasers, and many of these are relatively close in wavelength. We have investigated the possibility of porting reference data sets from one NIR wavelength system to another: We have constructed a reference library consisting of 145 spectra, including 20 explosives, as well as sundry other compounds and materials using a 1064 nm spectrometer. These data were used as a reference library to evaluate the same 145 compounds whose experimental spectra were recorded using a second 785 nm spectrometer. In 128 cases of 145 (or 88.3% including 20/20 for the explosives, the compounds were correctly identified with a mean “hit score” of 954 of 1000. Adding in criteria for when to declare a correct match versus when to declare uncertainty, the approach was able to correctly categorize 134 out of 145 spectra, giving a 92.4% accuracy. For the few that were incorrectly identified, either the matched spectra were spectroscopically similar to the target or the 785 nm signal was degraded due to fluorescence. The results indicate that imported data recorded at a different NIR wavelength can be successfully used as reference libraries, but key issues must be addressed: the reference data must be of equal or higher resolution than the resolution of the current sensor, the systems require rigorous wavelength calibration, and wavelength-dependent intensity response should be accounted for in the different systems.

  12. Research and development of a compact discharge-driven D-D fusion neutron source for explosive detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: kiyoshi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Kai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Takamatsu, Teruhisa [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Hotta, Eiki [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamauchi, Kunihito [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) devices. With a 50 mm-thick water-jacketed IEC device (IEC20C) of a 200 mm inner diameter, it can produce 10{sup 7} neutrons/s stably in CW mode for 80 kV and 80 mA. Ample 10.8 MeV {gamma}-rays produced through (n, {gamma}) reaction with nitrogen atoms in the melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) powder (explosive simulant) are clearly measured by a BGO-NaI-combined scintillation sensor with distinct difference in cases with and without melamine. This proves feasibility of the identification of the buried landmines.

  13. Development and Performance of an Ultrawideband Stepped-Frequency Radar for Landmine and Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-11-01

    Under support from the Army Research Laboratory's Partnerships in Research Transition program, a stepped-frequency radar (SFR) is currently under development, which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth. The SFR is a vehicle-mounted forward-looking ground-penetrating radar designed for high-resolution detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices. The SFR can be configured to precisely excise prohibited or interfering frequency bands and also possesses frequency-hopping capabilities. This paper discusses the expected performance features of the SFR as derived from laboratory testing and characterization. Ghosts and artifacts appearing in the range profile arise from gaps in the operating band when the system is configured to omit specific frequencies. An analysis of these effects is discussed and our current solution is presented. Future prospects for the SFR are also discussed, including data collection campaigns at the Army's Adelphi Laboratory Center and the Countermine Test Site.

  14. Rapid on-site detection of explosives on surfaces by ambient pressure laser desorption and direct inlet single photon ionization or chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, S; Hölzer, J; Rittgen, J; Pütz, M; Schulte-Ladbeck, R; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    Considering current security issues, powerful tools for detection of security-relevant substances such as traces of explosives and drugs/drug precursors related to clandestine laboratories are required. Especially in the field of detection of explosives and improvised explosive devices, several relevant compounds exhibit a very low vapor pressure. Ambient pressure laser desorption is proposed to make these substances available in the gas phase for the detection by adapted mass spectrometers or in the future with ion-mobility spectrometry as well. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal desorption approach, by which the sample surface is probed for explosive traces by a wipe pad being transferred to a thermal desorber unit, by the ambient pressure laser desorption approach presented here, the sample is directly shockwave ablated from the surface. The laser-dispersed molecules are sampled by a heated sniffing capillary located in the vicinity of the ablation spot into the mass analyzer. This approach has the advantage that the target molecules are dispersed more gently than in a thermal desorber unit where the analyte molecules may be decomposed by the thermal intake. In the technical realization, the sampling capillary as well as the laser desorption optics are integrated in the tip of an endoscopic probe or a handheld sampling module. Laboratory as well as field test scenarios were performed, partially in cooperation with the Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA, Wiesbaden, Germany), in order to demonstrate the applicability for various explosives, drugs, and drug precursors. In this work, we concentrate on the detection of explosives. A wide range of samples and matrices have been investigated successfully.

  15. Real-time, wide-area hyperspectral imaging sensors for standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Tazik, Shawna; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the detection and analysis of targets located within complex backgrounds. HSI can detect threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have size, weight, and power limitations that prohibit their use for field-portable and/or real-time applications. Current generation systems commonly provide an inefficient area search rate, require close proximity to the target for screening, and/or are not capable of making real-time measurements. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of real-time, wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize shortwave infrared (SWIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. SWIR HSI sensors provide wide-area imagery with at or near real time detection speeds. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focusing on sensor design and detection results.

  16. Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Myakalwar, Ashwin; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Zhang, Chi; Kumar Anubham, Siva; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan; Kumar Gundawar, Manoj

    2015-08-01

    Despite its intrinsic advantages, translation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for material identification has been often impeded by the lack of robustness of developed classification models, often due to the presence of spurious correlations. While a number of classifiers exhibiting high discriminatory power have been reported, efforts in establishing the subset of relevant spectral features that enable a fundamental interpretation of the segmentation capability and avoid the ‘curse of dimensionality’ have been lacking. Using LIBS data acquired from a set of secondary explosives, we investigate judicious feature selection approaches and architect two different chemometrics classifiers -based on feature selection through prerequisite knowledge of the sample composition and genetic algorithm, respectively. While the full spectral input results in classification rate of ca.92%, selection of only carbon to hydrogen spectral window results in near identical performance. Importantly, the genetic algorithm-derived classifier shows a statistically significant improvement to ca. 94% accuracy for prospective classification, even though the number of features used is an order of magnitude smaller. Our findings demonstrate the impact of rigorous feature selection in LIBS and also hint at the feasibility of using a discrete filter based detector thereby enabling a cheaper and compact system more amenable to field operations.

  17. Flow injection analysis of organic peroxide explosives using acid degradation and chemiluminescent detection of released hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Zakaria, Philip; Guijt, Rosanne; Macka, Mirek; Dicinoski, Greg; Breadmore, Michael; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of acid degradation of organic peroxides into hydrogen peroxide in a pneumatically driven flow injection system with chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and Cu(2+) as a catalyst (FIA-CL) was investigated for the fast and sensitive detection of organic peroxide explosives (OPEs). The target OPEs included hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). Under optimised conditions maximum degradations of 70% and 54% for TATP and HMTD, respectively were achieved at 162 µL min(-1), and 9% degradation for MEKP at 180 µL min(-1). Flow rates were precisely controlled in this single source pneumatic pressure driven multi-channel FIA system by model experiments on mixing of easily detectable component solutions. The linear range for detection of TATP, HMTD and H2O2 was 1-200 µM (r(2)=0.98-0.99) at both flow rates, while that for MEKP was 20-200 µM (r(2)=0.97) at 180 µL min(-1). The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.5 µM for TATP, HMTD and H2O2 and 10 µM for MEKP. The detection times varied from 1.5 to 3 min in this FIA-CL system. Whilst the LOD for H2O2 was comparable with those reported by other investigators, the LODs and analysis times for TATP and HMTD were superior, and significantly, this is the first time the detection of MEKP has been reported by FIA-CL.

  18. Raman Detection of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Material Fabricated Using Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Technology on Several Real World Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    fly mode improves sample throughput. Concentrations of deposited materials have been validated using a secondary UV - Vis measurement. This method has......34Detection of explosive related nitroaromatic compounds (ERNC) by laser-based ion mobility spectrometry ," Proceedings of the SPIE - The International

  19. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  20. Long range standoff detection of chemical and explosive hazards on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Christesen, Steven D.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Pearman, William F.; Chyba, Tom

    2009-09-01

    Fielded surface detection systems rely on contact with either the liquid contamination itself or the associated chemical vapor above the contaminated surface and do not provide a standoff or remote detection capability. Conversely, standoff chemical vapor sensing techniques have not shown efficacy in detecting those contaminants as liquids or solids on surfaces. There are a number of optical or spectroscopic techniques that could be applied to this problem of standoff chemical detection on surfaces. The three techniques that have received the most interest and development are laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy. Details will be presented on the development of these techniques and their applicability to detecting CBRNE contamination on surfaces.

  1. Long-range standoff detection of chemical, biological, and explosive hazards on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Pearman, William F.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Christesen, Steven D.

    2010-04-01

    Fielded surface detection systems rely on contact with either the liquid contamination itself or the associated chemical vapor above the contaminated surface and do not provide a standoff or remote detection capability. Conversely, standoff chemical vapor sensing techniques have not shown efficacy in detecting those contaminants as liquids or solids on surfaces. There are a number of optical or spectroscopic techniques that could be applied to this problem of standoff chemical detection on surfaces. The three techniques that have received the most interest and development are laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy. Details will be presented on the development of these techniques and their applicability to detecting CBRNE contamination on surfaces.

  2. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    underground explosions has led to significant progress in the development of geomechanics a science studying mechanical properties of rocks and rock...mining industry. One way to improve methods of fragmentation by explosives involves utilizing the geomechanical properties of the rock massif, in...Geomekhanika krupnomasshtabnykh vzryvov ( Geomechanics of large explosions), Nedra, Moscow, 319 pp. [This book in available in electronic format

  3. Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, Joel Del [Livermore, CA; Nunes,; Peter, J [Danville, CA; Alcaraz, Armando [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA

    2011-05-10

    A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

  4. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  5. 起爆药检测方法的研究进展%The research progress in detection methods of primary explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文豪; 周红; 孙玉友

    2014-01-01

    起爆药是物证鉴定中的常见检材,对起爆药进行检测具有重要意义。目前国内外往往把炸药检测的研究重点放在猛炸药,而对于起爆药检测却鲜有研究及报道。本文对国内外已报道过的常见起爆药的检测方法进行综述,包括传统检测方法和现代仪器检测方法,重点介绍了质谱法、色谱法、色质联用技术和毛细管电泳法等方法,并评价这些方法的适用性。%Primary explosives are common samples in the identification of physical evidence,and it is important to detect primary ex-plosives. However,more emphases are placed on the detection of high explosives than primary explosives presently. This paper re-views the domestic and international detection methods for common primary explosives,including traditional detection methods and modern instrumental detection methods,emphatically introduces mass spectrography,gas chromatography,liquid chromatography,gas chromatography-mass spectrography,liquid chromatography-mass spectrography and capillary electrophoresis,and evaluates the ap-plicability of these methods.

  6. Explosive hazard detection using MIMO forward-looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Darren; Ho, K. C.; Stone, Kevin; Keller, James M.; Popescu, Mihail; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Burns, Brian

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a machine learning algorithm for subsurface object detection on multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR). By detecting hazards using FLGPR, standoff distances of up to tens of meters can be acquired, but this is at the degradation of performance due to high false alarm rates. The proposed system utilizes an anomaly detection prescreener to identify potential object locations. Alarm locations have multiple one-dimensional (ML) spectral features, two-dimensional (2D) spectral features, and log-Gabor statistic features extracted. The ability of these features to reduce the number of false alarms and increase the probability of detection is evaluated for both co-polarizations present in the Akela MIMO array. Classification is performed by a Support Vector Machine (SVM) with lane-based cross-validation for training and testing. Class imbalance and optimized SVM kernel parameters are considered during classifier training.

  7. Micro-differential thermal analysis detection of adsorbed explosive molecules using microfabricated bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senesac, Larry R.; Yi, Dechang; Greve, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Although micromechanical sensors enable chemical vapor sensing with unprecedented sensitivity using variations in mass and stress, obtaining chemical selectivity using the micromechanical response still remains as a crucial challenge. Chemoselectivity in vapor detection using immobilized selectiv...

  8. Surface Coatings as Xenon Diffusion Barriers for Improved Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon detection systems, used within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). One type of radioxenon detection systems used in this context is the Swedish SAUNA system. This system uses a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell to measure the beta decay from radioxenon isotopes. The detector cell also acts as a container...

  9. Narrow-band processing and fusion approach for explosive hazard detection in FLGPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Keller, James M.; Ho, K. C.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes an effective anomaly detection algorithm for a forward-looking ground-penetrating radar(FLGPR). One challenge for threat detection using FLGPR is its high dynamic range in response to different kinds of targets and clutter objects. The application of a fixed threshold for detection in a full-band radar image often yields a large number of false alarms. We propose a method that uses both narrow-band and full-band radar processing, coupled with a classifier that uses complex-valued Gabor filter responses as the features. We then fuse the narrow-band and fullband images into a composite confidence map and detect local maxima in this map to produce candidate alarm locations. Full-band radar images provide a high degree of image resolution, while narrow-band images provide a means to detect targets which have a unique narrow-band signature. Experimental results for our improved detection techniques are demonstrated on data sets collected at a US Army test site.

  10. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  11. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn(2+) Tailored Hierarchical ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-10

    A simple method combing Mn(2+) doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn(2+) doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn(2+) concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn(2+). Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  12. Evaluation and Improvement of Spectral Features for the Detection of Buried Explosive Hazards Using Forward-Looking Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    for the NIITEK ground penetrating radar using order weighted averaging operators for landmine detection”, Proc. SPIE 5415, 953-962 (2004). [9] Sun, Y...and Li, J., "Plastic landmine detection using time-frequency analysis for forward-looking ground - penetrating radar ”, Proc. SPIE 5089, 851-862...REPORT Evaluation and Improvement of Spectral Features for the Detection of Buried Explosive Hazards Using Forward-Looking Ground - Penetrating Radar 14

  13. Investigation of context, soft spatial, and spatial frequency domain features for buried explosive hazard detection in FL-LWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stanton R.; Anderson, Derek T.; Stone, Kevin; Keller, James M.

    2014-05-01

    It is well-known that a pattern recognition system is only as good as the features it is built upon. In the fields of image processing and computer vision, we have numerous spatial domain and spatial-frequency domain features to extract characteristics of imagery according to its color, shape and texture. However, these approaches extract information across a local neighborhood, or region of interest, which for target detection contains both object(s) of interest and background (surrounding context). A goal of this research is to filter out as much task irrelevant information as possible, e.g., tire tracks, surface texture, etc., to allow a system to place more emphasis on image features in spatial regions that likely belong to the object(s) of interest. Herein, we outline a procedure coined soft feature extraction to refine the focus of spatial domain features. This idea is demonstrated in the context of an explosive hazards detection system using forward looking infrared imagery. We also investigate different ways to spatially contextualize and calculate mathematical features from shearlet filtered candidate image chips. Furthermore, we investigate localization strategies in relation to different ways of grouping image features to reduce the false alarm rate. Performance is explored in the context of receiver operating characteristic curves on data from a U.S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths, and times of day.

  14. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  15. Detection of explosives and other illicit materials by a single nanosecond neutron pulses — Monte Carlo simulation of the detection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewski, R.; Wiącek, U.; Dworak, D.; Drozdowicz, K.; Gribkov, V.

    2012-07-01

    Recent progress in the development of a Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects (explosives and other illicit materials) by means of measuring elastically and non-elastically scattered neutrons is presented. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having durations of the order of few nanoseconds, generated by a dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or a deuterium-tritium mixture as a working gas. A very short duration of the neutron pulse, as well as its high brightness and mono-chromaticity allows using time-of-flight methods with bases of about few meters to distinguish signals from neutrons scattered by different elements. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations of the scattered neutron field from several compounds (explosives and everyday use materials) are presented. The MCNP5 code has been used to get information on the angular and energy distributions of neutrons scattered by the above mentioned compounds assuming the initial neutron energies to be equal to 2.45 MeV (DD) and 14 MeV (DT). A new input has been elaborated that allows modeling not only a spectrum of the neutrons scattered at different angles but also their time history from the moment of generation up to the detection. Such an approach allows getting approximate signals registered by hypothetic scintillator + photomultipler probes placed at various distances from the scattering object, demonstrating principal capability of the method to identify an elemental content of the inspected objects. The extensive computations reveled also several limitations of the proposed method, namely: low number of neutrons reaching detector system, distortions and interferences of scattered neutron signals etc. Further more, preliminary results of the MCNP modeling of the hidden fissile materials detection process are presented.

  16. Luminescent metal-organic framework-functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposites and the reversible detection of high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2013-08-01

    Achieving both high specificity and sensitivity are essential for gas phase chemical detection systems. Recent implementation of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have shown great success in separation and storage systems for specific gas molecules. By implementing a MOF structure comprised of Zn2+ coordinated trans-stilbene derivatives, a gas responsive material has been created which exhibits a high photoluminescence quantum yield, offering new opportunities for chemical sensors. Here, we reveal a nanocomposite material, assembled from azobenzene functionalized graphene oxide and stilbene-MOF, that is capable of luminescent quenching by explosive gases. This unique system displays selectivity to dinitrotoluene (71% quenching) over trinitrotoluene (20% quenching) with sub ppm sensitivity and response times of less than a minute. We show that this implementation of a graphene-based MOF composite provides a unique strategy in the development of molecularly well-defined materials having rapid, reversible, and gas selective fluorescent quenching capabilities. This opens the way for new advances in the assembly of low density frameworks using isomerization suppressed materials.Achieving both high specificity and sensitivity are essential for gas phase chemical detection systems. Recent implementation of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have shown great success in separation and storage systems for specific gas molecules. By implementing a MOF structure comprised of Zn2+ coordinated trans-stilbene derivatives, a gas responsive material has been created which exhibits a high photoluminescence quantum yield, offering new opportunities for chemical sensors. Here, we reveal a nanocomposite material, assembled from azobenzene functionalized graphene oxide and stilbene-MOF, that is capable of luminescent quenching by explosive gases. This unique system displays selectivity to dinitrotoluene (71% quenching) over trinitrotoluene (20% quenching) with sub ppm sensitivity and

  17. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  18. Development Of An In Situ Passive Sampler For The Detection And Remediation of Explosive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    partitioning. This was attributed to the influence of the polar acetate group and likely due to dipole-dipole interactions between acetate and nitrate...nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4,6 trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl). These compounds are in the ppb ranges and were not detected in earlier studies. The...as the sorbent phase of choice. EVA has an acetate group on each monomer that gives the polymer a hydrophobic and hydrophilic moiety (Figure 1). This

  19. Research in Support of Electromagnetic Detection and Jamming of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-15

    CLASSIFICATION OF: A promising approach to detecting roadside bombs attached to command wires is the electromagnetic sensing and identification of the wires...Research 1350 Massachusetts Ave. Holyoke 727 Cambridge, MA 02138 - REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE b. ABSTRACT UU c. THIS PAGE UU 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report...attached to command wires is the electromagnetic sensing and identification of the wires. The lowest five resonant frequencies of the wires, along with

  20. Broad band tunable quantum cascade lasers for stand-off detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkov, Borislav; Fuchs, Frank; Kaster, Jan M.; Yang, Quankui; Bronner, Wolfgang; Aidam, Rolf; Köhler, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    We present experimental results on a Quantum cascade laser (QC laser) embedded in an external cavity. These results were obtained with a broadly tunable laser exceeding 80 cm-1 covering a characteristic absorption band of trinitrotoluene (TNT). By combining the laser source with a high performance IR imager a stand-off detection setup based on multi- spectral MIR backscattering spectroscopy has been realized. With this technique TNT surface-contaminations of as low as 10 μg/cm2 could be detected on surfaces such as an aluminum-sheet and standard car paint. The contrast of the detection technique depends on the reflectance of the surface. A surface leading to mirror-like reflectance of the IR laser radiation leads to absorbance-like signatures of the TNT contamination, while surfaces showing high absorbance of the laser light may induce a contrast-reversal in the resulting image of the TNT coverage. This effect can be explained by a theoretical model for thin film coated substrates taking into account differences in the reflectance. Limitations and further work needed to explore the full potential of the IR backscattering technique are also discussed.

  1. Fluorescent probes for detection of picric acid explosive: A greener approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Sudesna; Gogoi, Bedanta; Sen Sarma, Neelotpal, E-mail: neelot@iasst.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Green materials with advantages of low cost and high sensitivity are important from the perspective of human health, environment and homeland security. Herein, we have reported two cost effective modified biomaterials as fluorophores for detection of Picric acid in aqueous state. The biomaterials Scutellarin–Hispiduloside and Curcumin have been modified with green solvent glycerol for Picric acid detection in aqueous solution. The limit of detection for Picric acid by Scutellarin–Hispiduloside–glycerol and Curcumin–glycerol are 9.1×10{sup −8} M and 6.03×10{sup −8} M respectively. These luminescence based sensors have also been able to detect Picric acid in real samples with high efficiency. The fluorescence quenching efficiency of Scutellarin–Hispiduloside–glycerol has been found to be 99% while that for Curcumin–glycerol, it is 88.9% for 0.5 µM Picric acid in aqueous state. In both the cases, the quenching is governed by FRET between the fluorophore and the quencher and the FRET efficiency has been found to be 0.968 and 0.792 respectively. In addition, both the systems show excellent selectivity towards PA in presence of other nitroaromatic compounds and are also statistically accessible. The utilization of readily available cheap biomaterials without using multistep protocol for synthesis and devoid of any kind of sophisticated equipments for the processs further enhances the utility of the method. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign systems – Scutellarin, Hispiduloside and curcumin with green solvent glycerol – have been used for Picric acid sensing. • The method is simple and cost effective with a detection limit for CIG and CG found to be 9.1×10−8 M and 6.03×10−8 M of PA respectively. • Both the sensing systems were found to be highly selective for Picric acid in the presence of structurally similar compounds. • The quenching occurs by FRET between the fluorophore and the quencher and the FRET efficiency is determined

  2. Fusion of iECO image descriptors for buried explosive hazard detection in forward-looking infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stanton R.; Anderson, Derek T.; Havens, Timothy C.

    2015-05-01

    Data fusion is a powerful theory that often leads to significant performance gain and/or improved robustness of a given solution. In this article, we explore how fusion can be used to advance our previously established improved Evolutionary COnstructed (iECO) image descriptor framework. The goal of iECO is to learn a diverse set of individuals (variable length chromosome in a genetic algorithm). Each iECO individual encodes a unique composition of different low-level image transformations in the context of a high-level image descriptor. Herein, we investigate multiple kernel (MK) aggregation and MK learning (MKL) for "feature-level" fusion of iECO chromosomes. Specifically, we explore MKL group lasso (MKLGL) and we put forth a new way to directly assign kernel weights from a measure defined on the kernel matrices. The proposed work is presented in the context of buried explosive hazard detection (EHD) in forward looking (FL) imagery. Experiments are reported using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on data from a U.S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of day. We demonstrate that MK support vector machine (MKSVM) classification outperform single kernel SVM (SKSVM) classification and our weight assignment procedure generalizes well and outperforms MKLGL for EHD in FLIR.

  3. Ultraviolet Raman Wide-Field Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Standoff Trace Explosive Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufziger, Kyle T; Bykov, Sergei V; Asher, Sanford A

    2017-02-01

    We constructed the first deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman standoff wide-field imaging spectrometer. Our novel deep UV imaging spectrometer utilizes a photonic crystal to select Raman spectral regions for detection. The photonic crystal is composed of highly charged, monodisperse 35.5 ± 2.9 nm silica nanoparticles that self-assemble in solution to produce a face centered cubic crystalline colloidal array that Bragg diffracts a narrow ∼1.0 nm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) UV spectral region. We utilize this photonic crystal to select and image two different spectral regions containing resonance Raman bands of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and NH4NO3 (AN). These two deep UV Raman spectral regions diffracted were selected by angle tuning the photonic crystal. We utilized this imaging spectrometer to measure 229 nm excited UV Raman images containing ∼10-1000 µg/cm(2) samples of solid PETN and AN on aluminum surfaces at 2.3 m standoff distances. We estimate detection limits of ∼1 µg/cm(2) for PETN and AN films under these experimental conditions.

  4. Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2011-05-01

    Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because the signal from the contents is often overwhelmed by the much stronger Raman signal and/or fluorescence originating from the container itself. SORS overcomes these difficulties and generates clean Raman spectra from both the container and the contents with no prior knowledge of either. This is achieved by making two, or more, Raman measurements at various offsets between the collection and illumination areas, each containing different proportions of the fingerprint signals from the container and content materials. Using scaled subtraction, or multivariate statistical methods, the two orthogonal signals can be separated numerically, thereby providing a clean Raman spectrum of the contents without contamination from the container. Consequently, SORS promises to significantly improve threat detection capability and decrease the falsealarm rate compared with conventional Raman spectroscopy making it considerably more suitable as an alarm resolution methodology (e.g. at airports). In this paper, the technique and method are described and a study of offset value optimization is described illustrating the difference between one and two fixed spatial offsets. It is concluded that two fixed offsets yield an improvement in the SORS measurement which will help maximize the threat detection capability.

  5. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  6. Detection of the spectroscopic signatures of explosives and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Vivian; Cabanzo, Andrea; Baez, Bibiana; Correa, Sandra; Irrazabal, Maik; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel E.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    Detection and removal of antipersonnel and antitank landmines is a great challenge and a worldwide enviromental and humanitarian problem. Sensors tuned on the spectroscopic signature of the chemicals released from mines are a potential solution. Enviromental factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall precipitation, wind, sun irradiation, pressure, etc.) as well as soil characteristics (water content, compaction, porosity, chemical composition, particle size distribution, topography, vegetation, etc), have a direct impact on the fate and transport of the chemicals released from landmines. Chemicals such as TNT, DNT and their degradation products, are semi-volatile, and somewhat soluble in water. Also, they may adsorb strongly to soil particles, and are susceptible to degradation by microorganisms, light, or chemical agents. Here we show an experimental procedure to quantify the effect of the above variables on the spectroscopic signature. A number of soil tanks under controlled conditions are used to study the effect of temperature, water content, relative humidity and light radiation.

  7. Dye@bio-MOF-1 Composite as a Dual-Emitting Platform for Enhanced Detection of a Wide Range of Explosive Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Tian, Li; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Shiqiang; Wang, Peng; Liang, Yun; Zhang, Wanlin; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Guangtao

    2017-06-14

    By incorporating a cationic dye within a metal-organic framework (MOF) through an ion-exchange process, a responsive dye@bio-MOF-1 composite has been synthesized, serving as a dual-emitting platform for enhanced detection of different kinds of nitro-explosives, especially nitroalkanes, nitramines, and nitrate esters. The dye@bio-MOF-1 composite was constructed with free amines on their well-defined cavities, which is essential for the capture of explosives into their confined nanospace. It was observed that the encapsulation of explosives into the constructed dye@bio-MOF-1 composite could dramatically alter the luminescent properties of the dyes as well as the MOF skeletons owing to the size exclusivity and confinement-induced effect. For nitroaromatics, the dye@bio-MOF-1 composite exhibits turn-off responses via fluorescence quenching. Unexpectedly, the composite shows unique turn-on responses for aliphatic nitro-organics via confinement-induced enhancement, demonstrating enhanced ability to detecting different kinds of explosives selectively in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the dye@bio-MOF-1 film was facilely fabricated, making the chemical sensing more convenient and easier to realize the discrimination of the targeted explosives. The dual tunable responses indicate that dye@bio-MOF-1 composites are favorable materials for molecular sensing. On the basis of the host-guest properties of the constructed dye@bio-MOF-1 composite, our work can be further extended to sensing specific analytes with remarkable turn-on sensing properties, in particular those difficult to recognize with conventional methods.

  8. 76 FR 13345 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls... Resource Advisory Committee will meet Friday, March 25, 2011 in Idaho Falls, Idaho for a business meeting... Headquarters Office, 1405 Hollipark Drive, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  9. The performance of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for liquid explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Aviation security requirements adopted in 2014 require liquids to be screened at most airports throughout Europe, North America and Australia. Cobalt's unique Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS™) technology has proven extremely effective at screening liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGS) with extremely low false alarm rates. SORS is compatible with a wide range of containers, including coloured, opaque or clear plastics, glass and paper, as well as duty-free bottles in STEBs (secure tamper-evident bags). Our award-winning Insight range has been specially developed for table-top screening at security checkpoints. Insight systems use our patented SORS technology for rapid and accurate chemical analysis of substances in unopened non-metallic containers. Insight100M™ and the latest member of the range - Insight200M™ - also screen metallic containers. Our unique systems screen liquids, aerosols and gels with the highest detection capability and lowest false alarm rates of any ECAC-approved scanner, with several hundred units already in use at airports including eight of the top ten European hubs. This paper presents an analysis of real performance data for these systems.

  10. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  11. Stable luminescent metal-organic frameworks as dual-functional materials to encapsulate ln(3+) ions for white-light emission and to detect nitroaromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Shu-Ran; Du, Dong-Ying; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Bao, Shao-Juan; Li, Jing; Su, Zhong-Min; He, Wen-Wen; Fu, Qiang; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2015-04-06

    A stable porous carbazole-based luminescent metal-organic framework, NENU-522, was successfully constructed. It is extremely stable in air and acidic/basic aqueous solutions, which provides the strategy for luminescent material encapsulation of Ln(3+) ions with tunable luminescence for application in light emission. More importantly, Ln(3+)@NENU-522 can emit white light by encapsulating different molar ratios of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. Additionally, Tb(3+)@NENU-522 is found to be useful as a fluorescent indicator for the qualitative and quantitative detection of nitroaromatic explosives with different numbers of -NO2 groups, and the concentrations of complete quenching are about 2000, 1000, and 80 ppm for nitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, respectively. Meanwhile, Tb(3+)@NENU-522 displays high selectivity and recyclability in the detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  12. State summaries: Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillerman, V.S.; Weaver, M.J.; Bennett, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho's preliminary nonfuel mineral production value jumped to $893 million in 2005. Principal minerals by value included molybdenum concentrates, phosphate rock, sand and gravel, silver and portland cement. The state ranked second in phosphate and garnet production, third in silver and pumice, fourth in molybdenum concentrate production, and 21st overall. Majority of mining increases for the year were spurred by demand for metals by China's growing economy.

  13. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  14. Assessment of soil and water contaminants from selected locations in and near the Idaho Army National Guard Orchard Training Area, Ada County, Idaho, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the National Guard Bureau and the U.S. Geological Survey began a project to compile hydrogeologic data and determine presence or absence of soil, surface-water, and ground-water contamination at the Idaho Army National Guard Orchard Training Area in southwestern Idaho. Between June 2002 and April 2003, a total of 114 soil, surface-water, ground-water, precipitation, or dust samples were collected from 68 sample sites (65 different locations) in the Orchard Training Area (OTA) or along the vehicle corridor to the OTA. Soil and water samples were analyzed for concentrations of selected total trace metals, major ions, nutrients, explosive compounds, semivolatile organics, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Water samples also were analyzed for concentrations of selected dissolved trace metals and major ions. Distinguishing naturally occurring large concentrations of trace metals, major ions, and nutrients from contamination related to land and water uses at the OTA was difficult. There were no historical analyses for this area to compare with modern data, and although samples were collected from 65 locations in and near the OTA, sampled areas represented only a small part of the complex OTA land-use areas and soil types. For naturally occurring compounds, several assumptions were made?anomalously large concentrations, when tied to known land uses, may indicate presence of contamination; naturally occurring concentrations cannot be separated from contamination concentrations in mid- and lower ranges of data; and smallest concentrations may represent the lowest naturally occurring range of concentrations and (or) the absence of contaminants related to land and water uses. Presence of explosive, semivolatile organic (SVOC), and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in samples indicates contamination from land and water uses. In areas along the vehicle corridor and major access roads within the OTA, most trace metal, major ion, and nutrient concentrations in soil samples were

  15. Negative-ion formation in the explosives RDX, PETN, and TNT using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutijian, Ara; Boumsellek, S.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the search for high sensitivity and direct atmospheric sampling of trace species, techniques have been developed such as atmospheric-sampling, glow-discharge ionization (ASGDI), corona discharge, atmospheric pressure ionization (API), electron-capture detection (ECD), and negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) that are capable of detecting parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion concentrations of trace species. These techniques are based on positive- or negative-ion formation via charge-transfer to the target, or electron capture under multiple-collision conditions in a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies at the source temperature. One drawback of the high-pressure, corona- or glow-discharge devices is that they are susceptible to interferences either through indistinguishable product masses, or through undesired ion-molecule reactions. The ASGDI technique is relatively immune from such interferences, since at target concentrations of less than 1 ppm the majority of negative ions arises via electron capture rather than through ion-molecule chemistry. A drawback of the conventional ECD, and possibly of the ASGDI, is that they exhibit vanishingly small densities of electrons with energies in the range 0-10 millielectron volts (meV), as can be seen from a typical Maxwellian electron energy distribution function at T = 300 K. Slowing the electrons to these subthermal (less than 10 meV) energies is crucial, since the cross section for attachment of several large classes of molecules is known to increase to values larger than 10(exp -12) sq cm at near-zero electron energies. In the limit of zero energy these cross sections are predicted to diverge as epsilon(exp -1/2), where epsilon is the electron energy. In order to provide a better 'match' between the electron energy distribution function and attachment cross section, a new concept of attachment in an electrostatic mirror was developed. In this scheme, electrons are brought to a momentary halt by

  16. New application of scintillator ZnSe(Te) in scintielectronic detectors for detection of neutrons, medical imaging, explosive detection, and NDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Fedorov, Alexander G.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostioukevitch, Sergey A.

    2008-08-01

    Scintillators on the basis of AIIBVI compounds, such as ZnSe(Te), can be used for detection of secondary charged particles coming from nuclear reactions in which neutrons interact with target nuclei of atoms present in transparent materials of dispersion scintillation detectors matrices. Using unique properties of scintillator ZnSe(Te) we show possibility of increase detection efficiency for soft x-ray radiation (20 - 90 keV). The amorphous silicon flat panels and the photodiode arrays wide used for non-destructive testing and medical imaging (spatial resolution 20 - 400 mkm). By our estimations, using of such detectors in combination with thin film of ZnSe(Te) can increase efficiency of registration of x-ray radiation (for the source of 60-140kV) in 1,2 - 2 times. We obtained thin films (10-450mkm) of scintillator ZnSe(Te) on the different substrate materials and estimated the relative light yield of the layers deposited on the graphite and Al2O3 ceramic substrates and the bulk ZnSe(Te) crystal. Use of ZnSe(Te) in the low-energy "scintillator - photodiode" type detector allowed to increase accuracy of authentication of explosives (HEIMANN X-RAY INSPECTION SYSTEM EDtS10080). Using the dual energy digital radiography system prototype we obtained the x-ray images (60 projections of each object). These images are basic data for computer tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction of density and effective atomic number. The color identification palette provides clearly show variations of effective atomic number in biological and inorganic objects. So, for example, changes of calcium concentration in a bone. The research described in this publication was supported by STCU #4115 and NATO SfP-982823.

  17. Solid-state Forensic Finger sensor for integrated sampling and detection of gunshot residue and explosives: towards 'Lab-on-a-finger'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Ramírez, Julian; Samek, Izabela A; Anderson, Sean M; Windmiller, Joshua R; Wang, Joseph

    2013-09-21

    Increasing security needs require field-deployable, on-the-spot detection tools for the rapid and reliable identification of gunshot residue (GSR) and nitroaromatic explosive compounds. This manuscript presents a simple, all-solid-state, wearable fingertip sensor for the rapid on-site voltammetric screening of GSR and explosive surface residues. To fabricate the new Forensic Fingers, we screen-print a three-electrode setup onto a nitrile finger cot, and coat another finger cot with an ionogel electrolyte layer. The new integrated sampling/detection methodology relies on 'voltammetry of microparticles' (VMP) and involves an initial mechanical transfer of trace amounts of surface-confined analytes directly onto the fingertip-based electrode contingent. Voltammetric measurements of the sample residues are carried out upon bringing the working electrode (printed on the index finger cot) in direct contact with a second finger cot coated with an ionogel electrolyte (worn on the thumb), thus completing the solid-state electrochemical cell. Sampling and screening are performed in less than four minutes and generate distinct voltammetric fingerprints which are specific to both GSR and explosives. The use of the solid, flexible ionogel electrolyte eliminates any liquid handling which can resolve problems associated with leakage, portability and contamination. A detailed study reveals that the fingertip detection system can rapidly identify residues of GSR and nitroaromatic compounds with high specificity, without compromising its attractive behavior even after undergoing repeated mechanical stress. This new integrated sampling/detection fingertip strategy holds considerable promise as a rapid, effective and low-cost approach for on-site crime scene investigations in various forensic scenarios.

  18. Comparison of the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast assay and the Idaho Technology FilmArray RP assay for detection of respiratory viruses in pediatric patients at a cancer hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babady, N Esther; Mead, Peter; Stiles, Jeffrey; Brennan, Carrie; Li, Haijing; Shuptar, Susan; Stratton, Charles W; Tang, Yi-Wei; Kamboj, Mini

    2012-07-01

    Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as serious causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory viruses is essential for the early diagnosis and administration of appropriate antiviral therapy, as well as for the effective implementation of infection control measures. We compared the performance of two commercial assays, xTAG RVP Fast (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) and FilmArray RVP (FA RVP; Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT), in pediatric patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. These assays detect the following viruses: respiratory syncytial virus; influenza A and B viruses; parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4; human metapneumovirus; adenovirus; enterovirus-rhinovirus; coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, 229E, and OC43; and bocavirus. We tested a total of 358 respiratory specimens from 173 pediatric patients previously tested by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and viral culture. The overall detection rate (number of positive specimens/total specimens) for viruses tested by all methods was 24% for DFA/culture, 45% for xTAG RVP Fast, and 51% for FA RVP. The agreement between the two multiplex assays was 84.5%, and the difference in detection rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Overall, the FA RVP assay was more sensitive than the xTAG RVP Fast assay and had a turnaround time of approximately 1 h. The sensitivity, simplicity, and random-access platform make FA RVP an excellent choice for laboratory on-demand service with low to medium volume.

  19. Novel, real-time standoff detection of explosives and other substances concealed under clothing, integrated into standard TV images via data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Gohel, R. B.

    2009-05-01

    A novel and low-cost technique of standoff detection is presented that permits the detection of explosives and other contraband substances that are hidden under clothing at standoff distances . The technique uses NIR beams of wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls, combined with various signal recovery techniques commonly used in astronomy. This alternative technique, whilst sophisticated, utilises readily available optoelectronic components. It is inherently far more portable than currently available commercial alternatives and is easy to use. A pre-production prototype successfully detected and identified the common homemade explosives, ammonium nitrate and hydrogen peroxide, which were concealed behind clothing from a distance of 5 metres under daytime conditions. In principle, this distance could be extended as far as 50 metres without a significant increase in cost or complexity. Another advantage of this device is that apart from providing standoff chemical signatures and analyses of concealed substances, this it can simultaneously superimpose the chemical information on top of a normal TV image in a data fusion approach; that is, an image appears on the screen , the area/subject of interest can be zoomed in on and enlarged and a representation of a chemical spectrum appears on the screen underneath the image. A supplemental technique is also reported upon that, under the appropriate circumstances, enable actual imaging of concealed objects to be accomplished.

  20. Analytical detection of explosives and illicit, prescribed and designer drugs using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Bishu; Petersson, Fredrik; Juerschik, Simone [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Sulzer, Philipp; Jordan, Alfons [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Eduard-Bodem-Gasse 3, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann D. [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); IONICON Analytik GmbH, Eduard-Bodem-Gasse 3, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Watts, Peter; Mayhew, Chris A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 4TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    This work demonstrates the extremely favorable features of Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) for the detection and identification of solid explosives, chemical warfare agent simulants and illicit, prescribed and designer drugs in real time. Here, we report the use of PTR-TOF, for the detection of explosives (e.g., trinitrotoluene, trinitrobenzene) and illicit, prescribed and designer drugs (e.g., ecstasy, morphine, heroin, ethcathinone, 2C-D). For all substances, the protonated parent ion (as we used H{sub 3}O{sup +} as a reagent ion) could be detected, providing a high level of confidence in their identification since the high mass resolution allows compounds having the same nominal mass to be separated. We varied the E/N from 90 to 220 T{sub d} (1 T{sub d}=10{sup -17} Vcm{sup -1}). This allowed us to study fragmentation pathways as a function of E/N (reduced electric field). For a few compounds rather unusual E/N dependencies were also discovered.

  1. Understanding Chemical Sensitivity and Surface Response in Detecting Trace Levels of Explosives Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    the research conducted for our current ONR-CIED project focused in part on determining whether commonly encountered explosives have nonlinear optical...of urea that were moving on a baggage conveyor past the interrogation region. The speed of the conveyor belt was 0.5 m s−1 and given the...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT

  2. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Detection of Explosives Residues: A Review of Recent Advances, Challenges, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    including highly purified RDX, cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitrocellulose ...NC), and from operational explosives and propellants C-4, A-5, M-43, LX-14, and JA2 [22]. The observed LIBS spectra contained the expected C, H, N... Propellants , Explos Pyrotech 28:53–57 31. Gottfried JL, De Lucia Jr FC, Munson CA, Miziolek AW (2007) Spectrochim Acta B 62:1405–1411 32. Gottfried JL

  3. Purgeable organic compounds at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimer, Neil V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2016-05-25

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected groundwater samples from 31 wells at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory for purgeable organic compounds (POCs). The samples were collected and analyzed for the purpose of evaluating whether purge water from wells located inside an areal polygon established downgradient of the INTEC must be treated as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act listed waste.POC concentrations in water samples from 29 of 31 wells completed in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were greater than their detection limit, determined from detection and quantitation calculation software, for at least one to four POCs. Of the 29 wells with concentrations greater than their detection limits, only 20 had concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting limit as calculated with detection and quantitation calculation software. None of the concentrations exceeded any maximum contaminant levels established for public drinking water supplies. Most commonly detected compounds were 1,1,1-trichoroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene.

  4. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, John [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Haynes, Todd [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Seifert, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  5. Niche explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  6. Explosive Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCISCO; LITTLE

    2006-01-01

    I ducked involuntarily as the first set of explosions went off and made my way in double time to the street corner, where I had spotted an arcade that could be used for shelter. Running quickly in a crouched, military maneuver while inhaling gunpowder fumes, I was totally oblivious to the laughter and head-shaking coming

  7. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-05

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range.

  8. Raman spectroscopy for the detection of explosives and their precursors on clothing in fingerprint concentration: a reliable technique for security and counterterrorism issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Botti, S.; Cantarini, L.; Palucci, A.; Puiu, A.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.

    2013-10-01

    In this work we report the results of RS measurements on some common military explosives and some of the most common explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, such as polyester, leather and denim cotton at concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint. RS Spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope, focusing the light of a solid state GaAlAs laser emitting at 785 nm. A maximum exposure time of 10 s was used, focusing the beam in a 45 μm diameter spot on the sample. The substances were deposited starting from commercial solutions with a Micropipetting Nano-Plotter, ideal for generating high-quality spots by non-contact dispensing of sub-nanoliter volumes of liquids, in order to simulate a homogeneous stain on the fabric surface. Images acquired with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope provided further details of the deposition process showing single particles of micrometric volume trapped or deposited on the underlying tissues. The spectral features of each substance was clearly identified and discriminated from those belonging to the substrate fabric or from the surrounding fluorescence. Our results show that the application of RS using a microscope-based apparatus can provide interpretable Raman spectra in a fast, in-situ analysis, directly from explosive particles of some μm3 as the ones that it could be found in a single fingerprint, despite the contribution of the substrate, leaving the sample completely unaltered for further, more specific and propaedeutic laboratory analysis. The same approach can be envisaged for the detection of other illicit substances like drugs.

  9. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices by analysis of postblast residues using portable capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and indirect photometric detection with a light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Johns, Cameron; Kazarian, Artaches A; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Hilder, Emily F; Guijt, Rosanne M; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2007-09-15

    A commercial portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument has been used to separate inorganic anions and cations found in postblast residues from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) of the type used frequently in terrorism attacks. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the type of explosive used. The CE instrument was modified for use with an in-house miniaturized light-emitting diode (LED) detector to enable sensitive indirect photometric detection to be employed for the detection of 15 anions (acetate, benzoate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, cyanate, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, monomethylammonium, ethylammonium, potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, zinc, lead) as the target analytes. These ions are known to be present in postblast residues from inorganic IEDs constructed from ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixtures, black powder, and chlorate/perchlorate/sugar mixtures. For the analysis of cations, a blue LED (470 nm) was used in conjunction with the highly absorbing cationic dye, chrysoidine (absorption maximum at 453 nm). A nonaqueous background electrolyte comprising 10 mM chrysoidine in methanol was found to give greatly improved baseline stability in comparison to aqueous electrolytes due to the increased solubility of chrysoidine and its decreased adsorption onto the capillary wall. Glacial acetic acid (0.7% v/v) was added to ensure chrysoidine was protonated and to enhance separation selectivity by means of complexation with transition metal ions. The 12 target cations were separated in less than 9.5 min with detection limits of 0.11-2.30 mg/L (calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The anions separation system utilized a UV LED (370 nm) in conjunction with an aqueous chromate electrolyte (absorption maximum at 371 nm) consisting of 10 mM chromium(VI) oxide and 10 mM sodium chromate, buffered with 40 mM tris

  10. Mono-modal feature extraction for bonding quality detection of explosive clad structure with optimized dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yue; Zhang, Zhousuo; Wang, Hongfang; Yuan, Feichen

    2017-03-01

    Bonding quality detection of explosive clad structure is significant to prevent catastrophic accidents. Multi-modal features related to bonding quality are contained in structural vibration response signal. Different modal feature has different sensitivity to the bonding quality. Extracting the desired mono-modal feature from the vibration response signal is necessary. Due to the mode aliasing easily appeared in the process of extracting the desired mono-modal feature, there is no effective method for this task. Dual-tree complex wavelet with attractive properties such as shift invariance and reduced spectral aliasing may provide a better way to extract the mono-modal feature. However, the fixed basis functions independent of the analyzed signal may weak the advantage of the method and even reduce the accuracy of detection result. To overcome this shortcoming, a technique called optimized dual-tree complex wavelet transform (ODTCWT) is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyzed signal, the optimized dual-tree complex wavelet basis function is constructed by searching for the proper parameters of vanishing moment K and the order of filter L. The optimized dual-tree complex wavelet with improved wavelet filters can best matched the modal frequencies of the analyzed signal. The ODTCWT can extract the mono-modal feature from vibration response signal with lower mode aliasing. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method of constructing ODTCWT is illustrated by the simulated signal. The proposed ODTCWT is combined with time entropy to detecting bonding quality of explosive clad pipes. For comparison, un-optimized dual-tree complex wavelet transform (UODTCWT), second-generation wavelet transform (SGWT) and band-pass filter (BPF) are also used for this task to demonstrate the validity of ODTCWT.

  11. Detecting remotely triggered microseismicity around Changbaishan Volcano following nuclear explosions in North Korea and large distant earthquakes around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhigang; Li, Xuemei; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-01

    We conduct a systematic survey on locally triggered earthquakes by large distant earthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano, an active intraplate volcano on the border between China and North Korea. We examine waveforms of distant earthquakes recorded at broadband station Changbaishan (CBS) near the volcano with estimated dynamic stresses over 5 kPa between 2000 and 2016. Out of 26 selected distant earthquakes, three of them show positive evidence of triggering during large-amplitude surface waves. The earthquakes that had positive or possible evidences of triggering generated larger long-period surface waves, indicating that they are more efficient in triggering microseismicity. In addition, since 2006 North Korea has conducted five underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests only 140 km away from Changbaishan Volcano. By systematically examining waveforms of these UNEs recorded at station CBS, we find that none of them have triggered microearthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano.

  12. Cost effective nanostructured copper substrates prepared with ultrafast laser pulses for explosives detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Syed [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Podagatlapalli, G. Krishna; Soma, Venugopal Rao, E-mail: svrsp@uohyd.ernet.in, E-mail: soma-venu@yahoo.com [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad [Center for Nanotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-06-30

    Ultrafast laser pulses induced surface nanostructures were fabricated on a copper (Cu) target through ablation in acetone, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and chloroform. Surface morphological information accomplished from the field emission scanning electron microscopic data demonstrated the diversities of ablation mechanism in each case. Fabricated Cu substrates were utilized exultantly to investigate the surface plasmon (localized and propagating) mediated enhancements of different analytes using surface enhance Raman scattering (SERS) studies. Multiple utility of these substrates were efficiently demonstrated by collecting the SERS data of Rhodamine 6G molecule and two different secondary explosive molecules such as 5-amino-3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole and trinitrotoluene on different days which were weeks apart. We achieved significant enhancement factors of >10{sup 5} through an easily adoptable cleaning procedure.

  13. 爆炸物检测中NQR信号的处理及判识%Processing and Identifying NQR Signals in Explosive Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛云志; 郭华民

    2014-01-01

    介绍了基于核四极矩技术的爆炸物检测原理及信号处理方法。系统分析了NQR信号检测中主要误差来源,提出多种方法消除NQR信号处理中检测误差,主要包括相关累加消除随机噪声;单通道自适应消除振铃影响;相关性检测抑制同频干扰。实验表明相关检测可有效提高NQR信号信噪比,提高微弱NQR信号检测的准确性。%The principles of using nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) to detect explosive, as well as the methods of signal processing were introduced. The main error sources of NQR signal detection were analyzed. Several methods are proposed to eliminate the errors:correlation accumulation for eliminating thermal noises;single channel adaptive algorithm for eliminate ringing; and correlation detection to hold radiofrequency interference. The experimental results showed that the signal-to-noise ratio of NQR signals can be improved effectively using correlation detection, resulting in improved accuracy of signal detection.

  14. Libraries in Idaho: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/idaho.html Libraries in Idaho To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Boise Saint Alphonsus Health System - Boise Kissler Library and Research Center 1055 North Curtis Road Boise, ...

  15. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  16. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world. Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion. The term 'Explosive pleuritis' was originally described by Braman and Donat in 1986 as pleural effusions developing within hours of admission. We report a 38 years old male patient with minimal pleural effusion which progressed rapidly within one day to involve almost whole of the hemithorax. There were multiple loculations on ultrasonography of thorax. Pleural fluid was sero-sanguinous and revealed gram positive diplococcic. The patient improved with antibiotics and pigtail catheter drainage.

  17. Detectors for the Gamma-Ray Resonant Absorption (GRA) Method of Explosives Detection in Cargo: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Vartsky, D; Engler, G; Shor, A; Goldschmidt, A; Feldman, G; Bar, D; Orion, I; Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, David; Goldberg, Mark B.; Engler, Gideon; Shor, Asher; Goldschmidt, Aharon; Feldman, Gennady; Bar, Doron; Orion, Itzhak; Wielopolski, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Resonant Absorption (GRA) is an automatic-decision radiographic screening technique that combines high radiation penetration with very good sensitivity and specificity to nitrogenous explosives. The method is particularly well-suited to inspection of large, massive objects (since the incident gamma-ray probe is at 9.17 MeV) such as aviation and marine containers, heavy vehicles and railroad cars. Two kinds of gamma-ray detectors have been employed to date in GRA systems: 1) Resonant-response nitrogen-rich liquid scintillators and 2) BGO detectors. This paper analyses and compares the response of these detector-types to the resonant radiation, in terms of single-pixel figures of merit. The latter are sensitive not only to detector response, but also to accelerator-beam quality, via the properties of the nuclear reaction that produces the resonant gamma-rays. Generally, resonant detectors give rise to much higher nitrogen-contrast sensitivity in the radiographic image than their non-resonant detector ...

  18. Leidenfrost explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, F; Dorbolo, S

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing the behavior of Leidenfrost droplets composed by a mixture of water and surfactant (SDS, Sodium Dodecyl sulfate). When a droplet is released on a plate heated above a given temperature a thin layer of vapor isolates the droplet from the plate. The droplet levitates over the plate. This is called the Leidenfrost effect. In this work we study the influence of the addition of a surfactant on the Leidenfrost phenomenon. As the droplet evaporates the concentration of SDS rises up to two orders of magnitude over the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). An unexpected and violent explosive behavior is observed. The video presents several explosions taken with a high speed camera (IDT-N4 at 30000 fps). All the presented experiments were performed on a plate heated at 300{\\deg}C. On the other hand, the initial quantity of SDS was tuned in two ways: (i) by varying the initial concentration of SDS and (ii) by varying the initial size of the droplet. By measuring the volume of th...

  19. Ambient water quality in aquifers used for drinking-water supplies, Gem County, southwestern Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Hopkins, Candice B.

    2016-12-20

    concentrations greater than the EPA MCL of 10 micrograms per liter, and a sample from one well exceeded the MCL of 15 picocuries per liter for alpha particles. Although previous samples collected from some wells in Gem County contained nitrate concentrations greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L, the largest concentration detected in the current study was 5.2 mg/L. Total coliform bacteria was detected in four groundwater samples.Three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in samples collected from five wells, and five compounds of the triazine class of herbicides were detected in samples from five wells; no concentrations were greater than applicable EPA MCLs. Methane was detected in samples from 36 wells, with the concentration in 1 well large enough to be considered an explosion hazard by U.S. Office of Surface Mining guidelines. Stable isotope signatures of methane in six samples suggest that naturally occurring methane in Gem County is probably of both thermogenic and biogenic origin.

  20. Bouguer Gravity Grid for Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Idaho. Number of columns is 215 and number of rows is 320. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  1. Estimated Perennial Streams in Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Perennial streams in Idaho have been modeled using regression equations for 7-day, 2-year low flows (7Q2) described in Wood and others (2009, U.S. Geological Survey...

  2. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Pagoria, Philip F [Livermore, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA

    2011-09-27

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  3. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Peter J.; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

    2014-07-01

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  4. Effect of oblique incidence on silver nanomaterials fabricated in water via ultrafast laser ablation for photonics and explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Podagatlapalli, G. [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Hamad, Syed [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Ahamad Mohiddon, Md. [Centre for Nanotechnology University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Venugopal Rao, S., E-mail: svrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: •Effect of non-zero angle of incidence on ps ablation of Ag investigated. •Ag colloids were evaluated by TEM, UV–vis absorption spectra and fs-DFWM. •30° incident angle provided Ag NPs of small size with higher yields. •FESEM, AFM, Raman data revealed the fabrication of Ag nanostructures. •Utility of Ag nanostructures surfaces for multiple SERS studies demonstrated. -- Abstract: Picosecond (ps) laser ablation of silver (Ag) substrate submerged in double distilled water was performed at 800 nm for different angles of incidence of 5°, 15°, 30° and 45°. Prepared colloidal solutions were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy to explore their morphologies and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. Third order nonlinear optical (NLO) characterization of colloids was performed using degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) technique with ∼40 fs laser pulses at 800 nm and the NLO coefficients were obtained. Detailed analysis of the data obtained from colloidal solutions suggested that superior results in terms of yield, sizes of the NPs, SPR peak position were achieved for ablation performed at 30° incident angle. Surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of Rhodamine 6G from nanostructured substrates were investigated using excitation wavelengths of 532 and 785 nm. In both the cases substrates prepared at 30° incident angle exhibited superior enhancement in the Raman signatures with a best enhancement factor achieved being >10{sup 8}. SERS of an explosive molecule 5-amino, 3-nitro, -1H-1,2,4-nitrozole (ANTA) was also demonstrated from these nanostructured substrates. Multiple usage of Ag nanostructures for SERS studies revealed that structures prepared at 30° incident angle provided superior performance amongst all.

  5. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  6. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  7. Chaotic Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Tél, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

  8. In-Situ Real Time Detection of Explosive/Chemical Compounds in Mines Using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    short range similar to metal detectors and ground penetrating radar systems. Although in some ways a limitation, the short range allows accurate...The QR result is orthogonal to the presently used methods of metal detection and ground penetrating radar , and therefore provides an ideal...5020 14.ABSTRACT This program was part of DARPA’s "Dog Nose" initiative to develop landmine detection technology based upon the chemical signature of

  9. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  10. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  11. 76 FR 13976 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the authorities in... Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Caribou-Targhee National Forests' Eastern Idaho...

  12. Rotationally resolved infrared spectra of the explosive bouquet compounds associated with C-4 explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasp, Trocia N.; Johnson, Tiffani; Sullivan, Michael N.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2011-05-01

    The explosive material known as Composition C4, or simply C4, is an RDX based military grade explosive. RDX itself possesses a negligible vapor pressure at room temperature suggesting it is not a good target for conventional instruments designed to detect vapor phase chemical compounds. Recent research with canines has indicated that a better approach for detecting explosive vapors such as C4 is to focus on a characteristic mixture of impurities associated with the material. These characteristic mixtures of impurity vapors are referred to by canine researchers as the explosive bouquet and are fairly unique to the specific energetic material. In this paper, we will examine and report rotationally resolved infrared spectral signatures for the known compounds comprising the explosive bouquet for C4 based explosives including isobutylene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone.

  13. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  14. CFD simulation of vented explosion and turbulent flame propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulach Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very rapid physical and chemical processes during the explosion require both quality and quantity of detection devices. CFD numerical simulations are suitable instruments for more detailed determination of explosion parameters. The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vented explosion and turbulent flame spread with use of ANSYS Fluent software. The paper is focused on verification of preciseness of calculations comparing calculated data with the results obtained in realised experiments in the explosion chamber.

  15. 化工厂挥发类爆炸性气体泄漏检测系统的设计%Chemical Plant of Volatile Explosive Gas Leakage Detection System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菲

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current traditional chemical plant dangerous gas leakage detection system, explosive gas and weak in multilayer explosive gas, under the condition of the traditional intelligent detection method is larger error problem. Designed a set of virtual instrument based on the smell of the traditional Chinese medicine quality of volatile measurement system, the use of gas sensor array front-end DATA acquisition, the USB-DATA AD816 DATA collector collect real-time signal to LabVIEW2009 for development platform, through improving k-means clustering of multilayer explosive gas clustering analysis, through the weak signal strengthen explosion, hybrid gas explosion signal effectively classification of measurement, and realize the chemical plant volatile explosive gas of leak detection, the experimental results show that the method can better detection function, overcome the disadvantages of traditional methods.%针对当前传统的化工厂危险气体泄漏检测系统中,在多层爆炸性气体和弱爆炸性气体的条件下,传统的智能检测方法存在较大误差的问题.设计了一套基于虚拟仪器的气味挥发类中药品质测量系统,利用气敏传感器组成阵列进行前端数据采集,采用USB-DATA AD816数据采集器实时采集信号,以LabVIEW2009为开发平台,通过改进K均值聚类对多层爆炸气体聚类分析,通过弱爆炸信号加强,对混合爆炸气体信号进行有效的分类测量,实现化工厂挥发类爆炸性气体泄漏检测,实验结果表明,该方法能够较好的实现检测功能,克服传统方法存在的弊端.

  16. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  17. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF); Department of Justice. ACTION:...

  18. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  19. Weed hosts Globodera pallida from Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida (PCN), a restricted pest in the USA, was first reported in Bingham and Bonneville counties of Idaho in 2006. The US government and Idaho State Department of Agriculture hope to eradicate it from infested fields. Eradicating PCN will require depriving the n...

  20. Totally confined explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  1. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  2. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  3. NEW EXPLOSIVE WELDING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Lotous, V.; Dragobetskii, V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - analysis of the variety of factors of the physical phenomena accompanying the process of the power explosive effect for development of new processes of metal treatment: explosive film coating of hardening and updating of a superficial layer of an item. Industrial approbation of cladding techniques by explosion of item surfaces of complex configuration and determination of parameters of the process of the explosive welding of high-strength pig-iron (graphite of the spherical form) wi...

  4. Explosive Line Wave Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    curvature produced by each line wave generator. Piezoelectric pins were used for an additional assessment of the explosive lens design...to a visual assessment of the wave curvature from the high speed camera images, the explosive lens design was also evaluated using piezoelectric pins...High Explosive Firing Complex (HEFC). The various explosive line wave generators were taped vertically on a supporting board and the detonation wave

  5. Direct imaging of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, E.A.; Moler, R.B.; Saunders, A.W.; Trower, W.P. E-mail: trower@naxs.net

    2000-11-15

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, {approx}200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac[reg] dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  6. Direct imaging of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

    2000-01-01

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  7. Molecularly Imprinted Colloidal Array for Detection of Explosives%分子印迹纳米胶体阵列检测爆炸物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦薇; 薛飞; 黄舒悦; 孟子晖; 薛敏

    2012-01-01

    The molecularly imprinted colloidal microspheres with good monodispersity were prepared by using trinitrotoluene (TNT) as template, and acrylamide as monomer and polymerizing by emulsion polymerization. The colloidal microspheres were self-assembled into array by vertical deposition method on a quartz slide, and then molecularly-imprinted colloidal array (MICA) which had opal structure was peeled off and immobilized on glue tape. In this research, the influence of different detection environments on optical response of MICA was discussed, as well as the specific adsorption capacity in response of the optimum testing environment. The results showed that the response of TNT at the concentration of 20 mmol/L in methanol-aqueous (7:3, V/V) solution reached a redshift of 24 nm, which was 1. 4 times of non-molecularly-imprinted colloidal array and 23 times of its analogues. MICA simplified the preparation process of photonic crystals sensor, and represented a noval highly selective, real-time "naked-eye" detection method for explosive.%以三硝基甲苯(TNT)为模板,丙烯酰胺为功能单体,采用乳液聚合法制备具有单分散性的TNT分子印迹胶体小球.通过垂直沉降法自组装,并用胶带将得到的具有蛋白石结构的分子印迹胶体阵列(MICA)固化.研究其在不同比例的甲醇/水溶液中的光学响应,并在最优检测环境下进行特异性吸附实验.实验表明,当甲醇/水的体积比为7∶3,TNT浓度为20 mmol/L时,反射峰红移近24 nm,为非印迹胶体阵列红移量的1.4倍,为TNT结构类似物的23倍.MICA在实现对光子晶体传感器制备简化的同时,提供了对TNT进行快速裸眼检测的可能性.

  8. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  9. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  10. Active explosion barrier performance against methane and coal dust explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. J. L. du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of methane or coal dust explosions through the use of active explosion-suppression systems remains one of the most underutilised explosion controls in underground coal mines...

  11. 75 FR 32210 - United States v. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... on Interstate and Idaho Commerce 16. The activities of Defendants that are the subject of this.... VII. Blue Cross of Idaho Conspiracy 37. BCI is a not-for-profit mutual insurance company that offers a... encouraged the orthopedists in attendance to put an ad in the newspaper to alert their patients and to...

  12. Profile of Rural Idaho: A Look at Economic and Social Trends Affecting Rural Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Commerce, Boise.

    This document examines population trends and economic and social indicators in rural Idaho. The first few sections discuss the definition of "rural," rural challenges and strengths, and outside economic and political forces impacting Idaho's rural areas. Subsequent sections present data on population trends, migration patterns, race and…

  13. Evaluation of Sampling Recommendations From the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap for Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Mariana; Anderson, Katey; Tengelsen, Leslie; Carter, Kris; Hahn, Christine; Ball, Christopher

    2017-08-24

    The Right Size Roadmap was developed by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve influenza virologic surveillance efficiency. Guidelines were provided to state health departments regarding representativeness and statistical estimates of specimen numbers needed for seasonal influenza situational awareness, rare or novel influenza virus detection, and rare or novel influenza virus investigation. The aim of this study was to compare Roadmap sampling recommendations with Idaho's influenza virologic surveillance to determine implementation feasibility. We calculated the proportion of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) from Idaho's influenza-like illness surveillance among outpatients during October 2008 to May 2014, applied data to Roadmap-provided sample size calculators, and compared calculations with actual numbers of specimens tested for influenza by the Idaho Bureau of Laboratories (IBL). We assessed representativeness among patients' tested specimens to census estimates by age, sex, and health district residence. Among outpatients surveilled, Idaho's mean annual proportion of MA-ILI was 2.30% (20,834/905,818) during a 5-year period. Thus, according to Roadmap recommendations, Idaho needs to collect 128 specimens from MA-ILI patients/week for situational awareness, 1496 influenza-positive specimens/week for detection of a rare or novel influenza virus at 0.2% prevalence, and after detection, 478 specimens/week to confirm true prevalence is ≤2% of influenza-positive samples. The mean number of respiratory specimens Idaho tested for influenza/week, excluding the 2009-2010 influenza season, ranged from 6 to 24. Various influenza virus types and subtypes were collected and specimen submission sources were representative in terms of geographic distribution, patient age range and sex, and disease severity. Insufficient numbers of respiratory specimens are submitted to IBL for influenza

  14. Imaging Detonations of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    14. ABSTRACT The techniques and instrumentation presented in this report allow for mapping of temperature, pressure , chemical species, and...measurement in the explosive near- to far-field (0–500 charge diameters) of surface temperatures, peak air-shock pressures , some chemical species...15. SUBJECT TERMS imaging, explosions, temperature, pressure , chemical species 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU

  15. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  16. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  17. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  18. Magnetotelluric soundings on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Facility, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William D.

    1982-04-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method was used as one of several geophysical tools to study part of the Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facility. The purpose of the geophysical study on INEL was to investigate the facility for a possible site to drill a geothermal exploration well. A successful geothermal well would be used to provide hot water for a chemical processing plant. The MT method was employed to map any large-scale structures or conductivity anomalies that might prove interesting as geothermal exploration targets. In addition to the MT data, direct current resistivity soundings, gravity data, aeromagnetic data, and seismic refraction data were obtained in the course of the geophysical study. In the MT survey described in this paper, an additional goal was to provide a better understanding of the electrical units mapped in the regional study of the Snake River Plain (SNRP) by Stanley et al. (1977). It was thought that a widespread conductive layer found beneath surface basalts in the 1977 study could be categorized petrologically by a deep well and additional MT soundings done nearby. Also, INEL is located on the margin of the SNRP, and it was desired to have MT data in the area to study the electrical nature of the margin of the plain. The MT sounding interpretations did not indicate any conductivity anomalies or significant structures near the chemical processing plant which could be used to guide the location of the proposed geothermal well to be drilled to a depth of 3 km. The initial interpretation of the MT sounding data was done with one-dimensional models consisting of four or five layers, the minimum number required to fit the data. After the test well (INEL-1) was completed, the electric log was used to guide an improved one-dimensional ID interpretation of the MT sounding data. Profile models derived from the well log provided good agreement with velocity models derived from refraction seismic data. A resolution study using generalized inverse

  19. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices

  2. 75 FR 64691 - North Central Idaho Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Forest Service North Central Idaho Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Central Idaho RAC will meet in Potlatch, Idaho. The committee is.... (PST). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Potlatch Public Library, 1010 Onaway Road,...

  3. 国内外易燃易爆气体传感器的分类与比较%The classification and comparison of domestic and foreign gas sensors for flammable and explosive gas detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚云

    2014-01-01

    随着工业化进程的加快,为满足对易燃易爆气体监测的要求,简要介绍了气体传感器的重要性及其发展历程。根据其工作原理的不同将易燃易爆气体传感器分为六类,并阐述了各类气体传感器的工作原理、检测气体范围及优缺点分析。最后对各类传感器的性能指标进行了对比并对未来发展方向提出建议。%Due to the development of industrialization, there is an increasing demand for the detection of flammable and explosive gases.This paper briefly introduced the importance and history of gas sensors.Sensors targeting flam-mable and explosive gas were divided into six categories according to their working principles.The working princi-ple, manufacturing techniques, target gases, advantages and disadvantages of the sensors were demonstrated.Key performance factors were compared among each category and directions for future development were given in the end of the paper.

  4. Monte Carlo design of a system for the detection of explosive materials and analysis of the dose; Diseno Monte Carlo de un sistema para la deteccion de materiales explosivos y analisis de la dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, P. L.; Medina C, D.; Rodriguez I, J. L.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: pabloyae_2@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The problems associated with insecurity and terrorism have forced to designing systems for detecting nuclear materials, drugs and explosives that are installed on roads, ports and airports. Organic materials are composed of C, H, O and N; similarly the explosive materials are manufactured which can be distinguished by the concentration of these elements. Its elemental composition, particularly the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen, allow distinguish them from other organic substances. When these materials are irradiated with neutrons nuclear reactions (n, γ) are produced, where the emitted photons are ready gamma rays whose energy is characteristic of each element and its abundance allows estimating their concentration. The aim of this study was designed using Monte Carlo methods a system with neutron source, gamma rays detector and moderator able to distinguish the presence of Rdx and urea. In design were used as moderators: paraffin, light water, polyethylene and graphite; as detectors were used HPGe and the NaI(Tl). The design that showed the best performance was the moderator of light water and HPGe, with a source of {sup 241}AmBe. For this design, the values of ambient dose equivalent around the system were calculated. (Author)

  5. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  6. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  7. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ....gov . This Federal Register notice, as well as news releases and other relevant information, are also..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) regulates the import, manufacture, distribution, and storage of...

  8. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  9. Explosion suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  10. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  11. Explosive Welding with Nitroguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadwin, L D

    1964-03-13

    By using the explosive nitroguanidine, continuous welds can be made between similar and dissimilar metals. Since low detonation pressures are attainable, pressure transfer media are not required between the explosive and the metal surface. The need for either a space or an angle between the metals is eliminated, and very low atmospheric pressures are not required. Successful welds have been made between tantalum and 4140 steel, 3003H14 aluminum and 4140 steel, and 304 stainless steel and 3003H14 aluminum.

  12. Overview of Explosive Initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    important characteristics of an effective primary explosive is an extremely swift deflagration to detonation transition, meaning that once the... Taylor , G. W. C., Napier, S. E., "Preparation of Explosive Substances Containing Carboxymethyl Cellulose," U.S. Patent 3,291,664, 1966. 8 Perich, A...Rinkenbach, W. H., "Study of the Action of Lead Azide on Copper," U.S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, Technical Report No. 1152, 1942. 11 Taylor , G. W

  13. Handbook of HE (High Explosives) Explosive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-11

    uPcup SI.B iPip P 3 [ xpI os i or ,tf fects, Lx’i Osions In Air,6 19 6T~lT’ Explosions, Airblast - 19 ABSTRAC.T ’Continuje on "uri~ee it neczessary and...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY/EN ATTN: MAT 0323 ATTN- LIURARY/AFIT/LDEE NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER AIR FORCE LOGISTICS COMMAND ATTN: CODE 825

  14. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  15. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  16. Idaho's Forest Resources, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Witt; John D. Shaw; Michael T. Thompson; Sara A. Goeking; Jim Menlove; Michael C. Amacher; Todd A. Morgan; Charles Werstak

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Idaho's forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design,...

  17. Idaho Batholith Study Area Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer isostatic gravity grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  18. Idaho Batholith Study Area Density Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer terrace-density grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  19. Monazite in concentrations from Idaho placer operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-01-01

    During the summer of 1947 the Atomic Energy Commission informally requested the Geological Survey collect sampled of concentrates from Idaho placer operations that might be useful for experimental study of monazite recovery. Some fourteen active gold-dredging operations were examined and sampled by Fred M. Chase during August and September 1947.

  20. A Survey of Idaho's Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    In this memo, we synthesize information collected recently in two private school surveys, one conducted by the U.S. Department of Education and another by the Friedman Foundation and the Idaho Federation of Independent Schools (IDFIS). After a brief description of the data sources, we present the key survey findings in two sections.

  1. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3...

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  4. Fragmentation processes during explosion welding (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Tolmachev, T. P.

    2013-10-01

    The fragmentation during explosion welding is briefly reviewed. Fragmentation of partitioning type (FPT), which consists in partitioning into particles that either fly away or join each other, is detected. FPT is an analog of the fragmentation during an explosion that was studied by Mott. In both cases, the flight of particles (fragments) takes place, and the integrity of the material is retained in FPT. FPT is a powerful channel for the dissipation of supplied energy, since the surface of flying particles has a large total area.

  5. Explosive welding of pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    Arrangement of pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas is a complicated problem. In this paper it is suggested to use the explosive welding method to weld pipes together. This method is rather new. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its static analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. We suggest to perform explosive welding according to the following scheme: the ends of the 2 pipes are connected, the external surfaces are kept at a similar level. A cylindrical steel layer of diameter larger than the pipe diameter is set around the pipe joint and an explosive charge is placed on its external surface. The basic problem is the elimination of strains and reduction of pipe diameter in the area of the dynamic effect. The suggestion is to use water as filler: the volume of pipes in the area adjacent to the zone of explosive welding is totally filled with water. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gas dynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  6. Surface explosion cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video on cavities created by explosions of firecrackers at the water free surface. We use three types of firecrackers containing 1, 1.3 and 5 g of flash powder. The firecrackers are held with their center at the surface of water in a cubic meter pool. The movies are recorded from the side with a high-speed video camera. Without confinement the explosion produces an hemispherical cavity. Right after the explosion this cavity grows isotropically, the bottom then stops while the sides continue to expand. In the next phase the bottom of the cavity accelerates backwards to the surface. During this phase the convergence of the flow creates a central jet that rises above the free surface. In the last part of the video the explosion is confined in a vertical open tube made of glass and of centimetric diameter. The explosion creates a cylindrical cavity that develops towards the free end of the tube. Depending on the charge, the cavity can either stop inside the tube or at its exit, but nev...

  7. Explosion containment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  8. Explosive Residue Detection by Laser Surface Photo-Fragmentation-Fragment Detection Spectroscopy. 2. In Situ and Real-Time Monitoring of RDX. HMX, CL20, and TNT, by an Improved Ion Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    or resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) (7). The NO fragment is characteristic of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) functional group that is...highest bond dissociation energy for R–NO2 scission by at least 20 kcal/mol. In part, this is because the NO2 group in TNT is bonded to a carbon ...explosives, Optics Communications 2002, 204 (1-6), 327–331. 5. Arusi-Parpar, T.; Heflinger, D.; Lavi, R. Photodissociation followed by laser-induced

  9. Sidereal time analysis as a tool for detection of gravitational and neutrino signals from the core-collapse SN explosions in the inhomogeneous Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, Yu. V.; Paturel, G.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The core-collapse supernova explosion produces both neutrino and gravitational wave (tensor-transversal plus possible scalar-longitudinal) bursts. In the case of GW detectors, which have low angular resolution, the method of sidereal time analysis of output signals was applied for extraction of GW signals from high level noise. This method was suggested by Joseph Weber in 1970 for analysis of signals from his bar detector and later was developed for existing bar and interferometric GW detectors. The same sidereal time approach can be also used for low energy neutrino detectors which have many years of observational time (e.g. Super-Kamiokande, LVD, Baksan). This method is based on: 1) difference between sidereal and mean solar time (which help to delete noises related to day-night solar time), 2) directivity diagram (antenna pattern) of a detector (which chooses a particular sky region in a particular sidereal time), and 3) known position on the sky of spatial inhomogeneities of GW and neutrino sources in the Local Universe (distances less than 100 Mpc), such as the Galactic plane, the Galaxy center, closest galaxies, the Virgo galaxy cluster, the Super-galactic plane, the Great Attractor.

  10. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  11. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  12. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices.

  13. Modelling of DMNB Content for Marked Plastic Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R.K. Sinha; Himanshu Shekhar; A. Subhananda Rao; Haridwar Singh

    2007-01-01

    .... It is reportedto be compatible with known explosive formulations and has a good shelf life. Explosivecompositions with DMNB as marking agent can be detected in the temperature range –20 ºC to+ 50 ºC...

  14. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  15. Prompt gamma-ray spectra measurement of typical sample in explosive detection%爆炸物检测中典型样品的瞬发γ谱测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海萍; 郑普; 安力; 王新华; 阳剑; 何铁; 杨小飞; 朱传新

    2013-01-01

    In research of explosive detection by neutron probe,the gamma rays was produced by 14 MeV neutron bombardment on the sample nucleus with atom numbers bigger than 5.The gamma spectra of typical elements,such as C,N,O and simulated explosive,were measured by associated particle technique (APT) and time of flight (TOF).The large NaI(Tl) detector with the dimension of φ12.5 cm×20 cm was used.The measured gamma spectra were compared with those of European Union (EU).The results show that both of the experiments were at the same level.%在中子检测爆炸物的研究中,利用14 MeV中子与原子序数大于5的原子核相互作用可产生特征γ射线的特性,采用伴随粒子法结合D-T中子飞行时间技术,使用尺寸为φ12.5 cm×20 cm的大体积NaI(Tl)探测器,对爆炸物所含元素C,N,O以及一些模拟炸药样品进行了瞬发γ谱测量.获得了几种典型样品的特征γ谱,并对其进行了分析.实验结果与欧盟同期结果进行了比较,表明本实验研究达到了目前国际同类实验的水平,可以为中子检测爆炸物识别技术提供实验支持.

  16. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  17. Application of explosive welding to heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, G.

    1983-10-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: advantages of explosive welding; principle of explosive welding; explosive welding of tubes; metallurgy of explosive welds (micrographs; microhardness); tubular heat exchangers; plugging; sleeving; retubing; construction of new heat exchangers; thermal sleeves.

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  19. The Information Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, William

    Three facets of the media--events, myths, and sales pitches--constitute the most important lines of force taken by the information bombardment which all of us encounter and are influenced by every day. The focus of this book is on the changes created and hastened by this information explosion of the media bombardment: how we can live with them,…

  20. Conventional Weapons Underwater Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    te that the heat of detonation (the energy available per mass of explosive) is an increasing function of the aluminum content. As shown in Table 2...the heat of detonation of RDX is 6.15 MJ/kg; addition of 30 wt % Al increases this to 10.12 - a factor of 1.64. Fig. 12 indicates a bubble energy

  1. Explosives Safety Competency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    Munitions Systems Journeyman CDC—AFSC 2W051 Combat Ammunition Planning and Production—AFCOMAC Munitions Systems Craftsman Course—AFSC 2W071 Combat...Ammunition Planning and Production—AFCOMAC Munitions Systems Craftsman Course—AFSC 2W071 Navy Basics of Naval Explosives Hazard Control—AMMO-18 b

  2. Explosions during galaxy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As an idealized model of the e ects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of laments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N{body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale{free test{bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH=P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas lo- cated inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy{release for galaxies of di erent mass in the CDM model can re- late these results to scale{dependent questions of blow{out and blow{away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark{matter{dominated dwarf galaxies.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2017-09-14

    BackgroundThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  4. Geological and Seismological Investigations at Ririe Dam, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Geotechnical Laboratory U. S. Army E-ngineer Waterways Experiment Station P. 0. Box 6.31, Vicksburg, Miss. 391&0 ee September 1981 Final Report A r edFor ...I. PECGRITM ELAMEN. PROECT TSap A K U. ~ ~ ~ ~. S. Ary EngneerWaterays Eperient Satio GeotechniSCl LaboatoE AProved for pub icksbrelese disrbto...Idaho," Research Project No. 79, Idaho Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, Boise, Idaho. Howard, K . A. et al. 1978. "Preliminary Map

  5. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  6. New explosive seam welding concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  7. Acetone-Enhanced Negative Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Explosives%丙酮增强的真空紫外光电离负离子质谱快速检测爆炸物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦健; 花磊; 侯可勇; 蒋蕾; 程沙沙; 齐国臣; 李庆运; 田地; 李海洋

    2014-01-01

    实验基于10.6 eV的真空紫外灯设计了大气压下的丙酮增强负离子光电离源,结合自行研制的飞行时间质谱仪,用于痕量爆炸物的快速检测。在丙酮增强负离子光电离源中,丙酮分子吸收10.6 eV的光子,通过单光子电离释放出一个电子,光电子与大气中的O2、CO2等反应,最终生成了以CO-3为主的试剂离子。该电离源可在不经样品前处理的情况下,实现对常见爆炸物吉纳( DINA)、特屈儿( Tetryl)、2,4,6-三硝基甲苯( TNT)、黑索金( RDX)的高灵敏度检测,其中TNT的检出限达到2 pg。基于真空紫外灯的丙酮增强负离子光电离源结构简单,灵敏度高,具有较为广泛的应用前景。%In this article, an acetone-enhanced negative photoionization (AENP) source based on a 10. 6 eV vacuum ultraviolet ( VUV) lamp was developed and coupled to a home-made time-of-flight mass spectrometer for rapid detection of trace explosives. In the AENP source, acetone molecules absorbed 10. 6 eV photons and were ionized by single photon ionization to emit photoelectrons. The photoelectrons reacted with O2 , CO2 , etc. in the atmosphere to produce mainly CO-3 negative reactant ions. With this ionization source, common explosives, N-nitrobiz ( 2-hyolorolroxy ethyl )-amine dinitrate ( DINA ) , Tetryl, trinitrotoluene ( TNT ) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), could be detected sensitively, and the limit of detection of 2 pg ( TNT) with a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude was achieved. The simple structure, high sensitivity characteristics make the AENP source as a promising ionization source for mass spectrometry.

  8. Experimental investigation of explosive welding of cp-titanium/AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari Mousavi, S.A.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: akbarimusavi@ut.ac.ir; Farhadi Sartangi, P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: farhadi_pezhman@engmail.ut.ac.ir

    2009-03-15

    In explosive welding process, the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallurgical bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. This paper presents the analytical calculation for determination of weldability domain or welding window. The analytical calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. The welding conditions are tailored through parallel geometry route with different explosive loads. The study was also conducted to consider the effects of explosive loading on the bonding interface and the characterization of explosive welding experiments carried out under different conditions. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth interface to a wavy one occurs with increase in explosive load. Scanning electron microscopy studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials, but local melted zones were also encountered in the front slope of waves in the interface at high explosive loads. XRD studies detected no intermetallic phases for specimen welded at low explosive load.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  10. Development and validation of highly selective screening and confirmatory methods for the qualitative forensic analysis of organic explosive compounds with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with (photodiode array and) LTQ ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometric detections (HPLC-(PDA)-LTQOrbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoma; Koeberg, Mattijs; Kuijpers, Chris-Jan; Kok, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An LTQ-Orbitrap FTMS is a new (hybrid) mass spectrometric (MS) analyzer. It allows for the acquisition of full scan MS(n) (n-stage fragmentations, n=1-n) spectra with the linear ion trap detector (LTQ) at high speed and/or with the Fourier Transform-detector (Orbitrap) with ultra high mass resolution (>60,000 at m/zphoto diode array (PDA) detection. Two methods for the forensic screening and confirmation of all common trace explosives in post-blast residues have been developed on this instrument using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). In one run, the nitrogen-containing explosives are analyzed with the combination of "LC-(PDA)-APCI(-)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 1). In another run, peroxide explosives are analyzed with "LC-APCI(+)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 2). The performance of both methods has been validated according to procedures defined in the EU COMMISSION DECISION implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (DC 2002/657/EC) and other standards (NEN 17025 and NEN 7777). The methods are highly selective due to the simultaneous utilization of the Orbitrap FTMS and LTQ MS(2), both of which are highly selective detectors Tested explosive compounds can be detected in the molecular ion form by the Orbitrap analyzer with minimal mass interference in different matrices when using an extremely narrow mass tolerance detection window (≤2ppm). The identification of a detected compound follows an identification point system. Experimental results show that almost all explosive compounds meet the confirmation criteria (minimum 4 points) required for the positive identification by the DC 2002/657/EC.

  11. Separation followed by direct SERS detection of explosives on a novel black silicon multifunctional nanostructured surface prepared in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Hübner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing...

  12. Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Christoph

    The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

  13. Types of phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godchaux, M.M.; Bonnichsen, B.; Jenks, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The western Snake River Plain graben in southwestern Idaho includes a large hydrovolcanic field which was produced in late Miocene to Pleistocene time by the interaction of rising basaltic magmas with the waters and water-saturated deposits of an enormous freshwater lake, Lake Idaho. The phreatomagmatic volcanoes in this field may be grouped into three types: emergent, subaqueous and subaerial. Emergent volcanoes, which began erupting under water and built up above the lake level, are relatively large and symmetrical, are dominated by bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are excellent indicators of water depth at the time of the eruption. Subaqueous volcanoes, which never built up above the lake level, are relatively small and asymmetrical, are dominated by basal massive deposits, and are potentially useful in discriminating between deep- and very-deep-water settings. Subaerial volcanoes, which were formed when magmas intercepted buried aquifers and interacted explosively with water, are small tuff rings and maars with variable shapes, are composed of subequal (although variable) proportions of basal massive deposits, bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are useful in determining the stratigraphic successions underlying them. ?? 1992.

  14. Characteristic Research on Evaporated Explosive Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The evaporation source of evaporated explosive was designed and improved based on the inherent specialties of explosive. The compatibility of explosives and addition agent with evaporation vessels was analyzed. The influence of substrate temperature on explosive was analyzed, the control method of substrate temperature was suggested. The influences of evaporation rate on formation of explosive film and mixed explosive film were confirmed. Optimum evaporation rate for evaporation explosive and the better method for evaporating mixed explosive were presented. The necessary characteristics of the evaporated explosive film were obtained by the research of the differences between the evaporated explosive and other materials.

  15. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  16. Explosive welding underwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, T.; Allen, K.; Lowes, J.M.

    1980-06-11

    Explosive welding underwater is described. First and second underwater tubular members are assembled together so that the outer surface of the first tubular member and the inner surface of the second tubular member are spaced apart to form an annular cavity. The cavity is closed by seals accommodated in portions of the second tubular member, and is then cleaned and dried and filled with a gas at a pressure greater than the surrounding water pressure. The pressure in the cavity is reduced prior to detonating an explosive charge within the first tubular member to weld the members together. The second tubular member may include portions for receiving further seals so as to subdivide the cavity into a number of zones. The pressures in the zones then can be separately adjusted so as to be able to control the pressure difference a cross each seal. 9 claims.

  17. Explosion of Leidenfrost Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Florian; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stephane

    2012-11-01

    When a drop is released on a plate heated above a given temperature, a thin layer of vapour can isolate the droplet so that it levitates over the plate. This effect was first reported by Leidenfrost in 1756. However, this fascinating subject remains an active field of research in both fundamental and applied researches. In this work, we focus on what happens when surfactant is added to the drop. The aim is to study the influence of a decrease of the surface tension. Surprisingly, as the droplet evaporates, suddenly it explodes. The evolution of the droplet and the resulting explosion are followed using a high speed camera. We show that when a critical concentration of surfactant is reached inside the drop, a shell of surfactant is formed leading to the explosion. The authors would like to thank FNRS for financial support. This work is financially supported by ODILE project (Contract No. FRFC 2.4623.11).

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  19. Approach to explosive hazard detection using sensor fusion and multiple kernel learning with downward-looking GPR and EMI sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Anthony; Masarik, Matthew; Havens, Timothy C.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian; Becker, John

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of an anomaly detection algorithm for downward-looking ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductance (EMI) data. Threat detection with GPR is challenged by high responses to non-target/clutter objects, leading to a large number of false alarms (FAs), and since the responses of target and clutter signatures are so similar, classifier design is not trivial. We suggest a method based on a Run Packing (RP) algorithm to fuse GPR and EMI data into a composite confidence map to improve detection as measured by the area-under-ROC (NAUC) metric. We examine the value of a multiple kernel learning (MKL) support vector machine (SVM) classifier using image features such as histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), local binary patterns (LBP), and local statistics. Experimental results on government furnished data show that use of our proposed fusion and classification methods improves the NAUC when compared with the results from individual sensors and a single kernel SVM classifier.

  20. Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This ...

  1. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  2. The Quiet Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole

  3. Analysis of Explosives in Soil Using Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography: Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    results. Hibbs developed a detector based on nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) that was able to detect landmines filled with RDX explosive (Hibbs 2001...2000) and incorporated into the FIDO explosives detector by Cumming et al. (2001). The NQR sensors detect explosives through the NQR signal produced...grapher/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) or to an high pressure liquid chromato- graphy (HPLC) interface, where the fiber is extended again into the carrier

  4. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives.

  5. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  6. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  7. 76 FR 4934 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  8. 76 FR 50492 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially accepted the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  9. 76 FR 23333 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Filing of Plats of Surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  10. 77 FR 42759 - IDAHO: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management IDAHO: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  11. 78 FR 64530 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  12. 75 FR 66788 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Filing of Plats of Surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  13. 77 FR 3791 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  14. 77 FR 77089 - Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Idaho: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Filing of Plats of Surveys. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has officially filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Idaho State Office, Boise,...

  15. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  16. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  17. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  18. Detection mechanism of perovskite BFO (1 1 1) membrane for FOX-7 and TATB gases: molecular-scale insight into sensing ultratrace explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liang; Li, Hai-long; Song, Mian-Xin; Dong, Fa-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Hou, Wen-ping

    2017-03-01

    Perovskite bismuth ferrite-BFO (1 1 1) membranes, as potential-sensitive electrochemical sensors, are investigated for the detection of high-energy-density materials by molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the detection mechanism of the sensitive 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) gases, both a cation bridge and electrostatic models can be used to explain the STM signatures as 0.02–0.04 V (single) and 0.03~0.05 V (coverage) over a wide range (0–0.1 V) of bias voltages. For insensitive 1, 3, 5-triamino-2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) gases interacting with the surface of a BFO (1 1 1) membrane, the charge signature can be as high as 0.08 V (coverage: 0.06 V). Analysis indicates a significant difference from the detection mechanism observed for FOX-7 gases; that is, the molecularly intact bidentate bridge configuration with only –\\text{NO}2- bonds binds to both Fe and Bi atoms. These differences are attributed so that the surface O2‑ of BFO will capture a part of the surface electron of the –NO2 group, creating a 2p-hole defect (h+) which annihilates a spinning upward (↑) Fe3+, forming a spinning downward (↓) Fe2+. The –NO2 electron decreases 0.35 e (single FOX-7; coverage FOX-7: 0.24 e) and 0.56 e (single TATB; coverage TATB: 0.06 e). Such a system could open up new ideas in the design and application of BFO-based sensors.

  19. Lossless Detection Method for Electric Explosive Device Based on Rogowski Coils%基于RogoWski线圈的冲击片雷管检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛朝妹; 党瑞荣

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of measurement error occurred and detection data couldn't indicate the ignition process in the reliability testing of EED by using conventional method to test the fire current,a lossless detection method for EED based on Rogowaki coils was put forward in this paper.The method used Rogowski coils as the measuring elements of the current signal In the detection process, there was no direct electric quantity connection between the Rogowski coils and the measured conductor,the coils didn't consume the energy of the circuit itself,so lossless sampling of the measured current was achieved.In reliability testing of EED, the method solved the problem of data detection of the microsecond transient signal.The experimental results showed that the measurement results and the thcoretical calculation value had the same changing pattem, tbe testing oseillograms of firing current was accurate.%针对电火工品可靠性试验中采用常规方法检测发火电流时的测量数据存在误差,不能真实反映发火过程的问题,提出基于Rogowski线圈的电火工品无损耗检测方法.该方法以Rogowski线圈作为电流测量元件,在检测过程中,Rogowski线圈与被测导体无直接的电量连接,不消耗电路本身的能量,实现了对被测电流的无损耗取样,较好地解决了电火工品可靠性试验中微秒级瞬态信号的检测.试验表明:测量结果与理论计算值具有相同的变化规律,测试波形准确.

  20. Thiophene functionalized silicon-containing aggregation-induced emission enhancement materials: applications as fluorescent probes for the detection of nitroaromatic explosives in aqueous-based solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Bian, Jiangyan; Xu, Lichao; Wang, Hua; Feng, Shengyu

    2015-12-28

    Two novel aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) molecules, namely, 3,4-diphenyl-2,5-di(2-thienyl)phenyltrimethylsilane (DPTB-TMS) and bis[3,4-diphenyl- 2,5-di(2-thienyl)phenyl]methylphenylsilane (DPTB-TMS) were designed and synthesized. The optical properties of the two silanes were completely opposite to the traditional luminescent materials. Unlike the aggregation caused quenching, they all emit faint fluorescence in the dispersed state, while emission intensity increased sharply in aggregate states. Fluorescence spectra showed that the two compounds exhibited AIEE properties and that is due to the weak π-π stacking caused by the restriction of intramolecular rotations of dye segments, particularly the -SiMe3 and thienyl groups in the aggregate state. As fluorescent (FL) probes, the fluorescence quenching behavior was further investigated. Thanks to the richer-electron thiophene groups, both compounds showed good performance in detecting nitroaromatics, especially picric acid (PA). The two AIEE FL probes exhibited better quenching efficiency in aqueous-based than in organic-based solutions. For DPTB-MPS, the addition of 80 μM nitrobenzene, 60 μM m-nitrobenzene and 40 μM PA resulted in about 50% quenching in aqueous solutions. The quenching mechanism would be electron transfer from silanes to nitroaromatics. This work provides a basis for designing organic-silanes with "abnormal" but useful optical properties and FL probes with AIEE properties for the detection of nitroaromatics.

  1. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  2. SPLAT: Innovative Collaboration in Idaho's Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vecchione

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Libraries face shrinking budgets, increased use, and user demand for trendy resources. This makes it difficult for librarians to find the time to keep current with innovative library trends, such as technological tools and social media developments. The Special Projects Library Action Team (SPLAT offers a new model for enhancing library services. SPLAT is a group supported by the Idaho Commission for Libraries (ICFL, the state agency responsible for assisting libraries. The members of SPLAT are innovation representatives who search and experiment with social media trends and online tools, and share the best ways to integrate them into services at all types of libraries. SPLAT members have developed SPLAT 101, an online class geared towards teaching library staff new Web technologies. Members also present about trends at conferences, blog relevant content, and engage in peer-to-peer education--all meant to demystify and exploit emergent technologies. These efforts have yielded enhanced library services, encouraged changes to policies, and increased positive user experiences. In this article we summarize how SPLAT works, explain how SPLAT has helped Idaho's libraries experiment with evolving services, analyze the success of SPLAT as a model for other states, and discuss future steps.

  3. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  4. NQR Characteristics of an RDX Plastic Explosives Simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecek, J; Schwitter, B; Miljak, D; Stancl, M

    2012-12-01

    For reliable detection of explosives, a combination of methods integrated within a single measurement platform may increase detection performance. However, the efficient field testing of such measurement platforms requires the use of inexplosive simulants that are detectable by a wide range of methods. Physical parameters such as simulant density, elemental composition and crystalline structure must closely match those of the target explosive. The highly discriminating bulk detection characteristics of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) especially constrain simulant design. This paper describes the development of an inexplosive RDX simulant suited to a wide range of measurement methods, including NQR. Measurements are presented that confirm an RDX NQR response from the simulant. The potential use of the simulant for field testing a prototype handheld NQR-based RDX detector is analyzed. Only modest changes in prototype operation during field testing would be required to account for the use of simulant rather than real explosive.

  5. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... Street, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404; phone: (208) 522-2356. Mr. Louis Thiel, Chairman, New Sweden...

  6. New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals. Nourishing News. Volume 4, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Idaho Child Nutrition Programs (CNP) released the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals in January 2009 with the recommendation that all School Food Authorities fully implement the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals into their programs starting August 2009. Along with the release of the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School…

  7. 77 FR 56241 - Board Meeting; October 17, 2012; Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting; October 17, 2012; Idaho Falls, ID The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Idaho Falls, Idaho... Board meeting will be held at the Hilton Garden Inn, 700 Lindsay Boulevard, Idaho Falls, ID 83402;...

  8. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  9. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  10. Soil gas studies along the Trans-Challis fault system near Idaho City, Boise County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J.H.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    Soil gases were sampled along several traverses that cross the Trans-Challis fault system in central Idaho. Anomalous carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, hydrocarbon, and sulfur gas concentrations coincide with faults and known mineralized areas. Anomalies in areas not known to be mineralized may reflect undiscovered mineral deposits or concealed faults. Soil gases may be a useful exploration guide for mineral deposits in this terrane.

  11. Structural biopolymer preservation in Miocene leaf fossils from the Clarkia site, northern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, G A; Boon, J J; Eglinton, G

    1993-03-15

    The 17- to 20-million-year-old locality at Clarkia, northern Idaho, is renowned for yielding amplifiable DNA from a magnolia leaf fossil. In-source pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry now reveal that molecular preservation of biomacromolecules is highly selective; structural polysaccharides, cutin polyesters, and proteins were not preserved in detectable quantity in the leaf tissues, whereas both lignin and an aliphatic biopolymer were detected. This study points up the need for improved understanding of the precise modes and extent of preservation of biomacromolecules in fossil materials and sediments.

  12. Explosive Welding for Remote Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive seam welding produces up to 100-percent joint strength. Ribbon explosive activated by remote energy source produces metallurgically sound joint. Success of technique verified for joints between like metals and joints between two different metals. Applications include structural assembly in toxic atmospheres and in radioactive or otherwise hazardous environments.

  13. Active Water Explosion Suppression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    efficient in eliminating the heat of detonation , thereby eliminating the heat of combustion and the associated burning of explosive by-products in the...efficiency in eliminating the heat of detonation . In any case, the net effect of the water absorbing the detonation energy of the explosive is a major

  14. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  15. The System of Mail Explosive Detection Based on NQR%基于核四极共振技术的邮件爆炸物检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何高魁; 宛玉晴; 田华阳; 金余恒; 黄小健; 刘洋

    2012-01-01

    A system of mail explosive detection based on Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance(NQR) is introduced. Using direct data synthesis ( DDS) to customize stimulation pulse sequence, the phase, amplitude and frequency of stimulation pulse can be controlled accurately by the computer. An automatic tuning technique is used to enable the detector to be only sensitive to the interesting frequency point. The temperature -frequency regulation function is also integrated in the system to modify stimulating frequency according to the temperature of sample. The system adopts a variable weighting data processing algorithm to suppress interference and so as to increase its signal to noise ratio.%介绍了基于核四极矩共振(Nuclear Quadrapole Resonance,简称NQR)的爆炸物探测技术的原理和方法,并详细介绍了基于NQR技术的邮件爆炸物检测系统.该系统采用了直接数字合成技术定制激发脉冲序列,激发脉冲的相位、幅度和频率可实现程序精确控制.系统中采用了自动调谐技术保证探头只对感兴趣的频率点灵敏,集成了温度-频率关系曲线使得系统能够根据被测样品的温度自动修正激发频率.同时,在数据处理中引人加权算法抑制噪声干扰,提高了探测准确度.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 60 reportable events (23 from the 4th Qtr FY14 and 37 from the prior three reporting quarters) as well as 58 other issue reports (including not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL from July 2013 through October 2014. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC07 051D14517.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  20. WHITE CLOUD-BOULDER ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Frederick S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.

    1984-01-01

    There have been no minerals produced from, and there are no mines located within the White Cloud-Boulder Roadless Area, Idaho; however, based on mineral studies, the southern part of the roadless area has a probable resource potential for tungsten and the northwestern corner a probable resource potential for gold and silver. The conclusions are based on the presence of favorable geologic environments for calc-silicate skarns in the southern part of the roadless area and the presence of gold-bearing quartz-carbonate veins in the northern part. The northern part of the area in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain-Bowery Peak has a probable resource potential for arsenic, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, silver, tin, and zinc, on the basis of geologic and geophysical data that suggest the presence of a buried intrusive body which probably has associated ore deposits. No energy resources were identified in the study.