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Sample records for iceland basin excursion

  1. Stratigraphic Correlation of an Excursion at 22 kyr in the U.S. Great Basin - the Hilina Pali Excursion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    An unusually large secular variation of the geomagnetic field recorded in outcrops of pluvial Lake Russell sediment about 22 kyr old in the Mono Basin, CA, can be used for precise correlation to other lacustrine sections in the western U.S., and perhaps beyond. We present new AF and thermal demagnetization results for paired samples at 2-cm intervals between ash layers 7 and 8 of Lajoie (1968) in the bank of Wilson Creek that document an excursion having an inclination as low as 16 degrees and as high as 73 degrees, while the declination swings from 15 degrees west during the low inclination to 30 east when the inclination is high, and back to average northerly declination and expected inclination. The corresponding VGPs form a narrow clockwise-trending loop centered at about 50 N, 30 E. The Mono Lake Excursion (MLE; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) occurs 1.7 m lower in the same section. The best estimates for the ages of the two excursions are about 22 and 32 kyr, based on 14-C dates (Cassata et al., 2010). About 150 km to the north, sediments of about the same age exposed along the Truckee River that were deposited in pluvial Lake Lahontan record a similar geomagnetic signature. Moreover, both the MLE and this excursion are exhibited at the appropriate levels in a sediment core taken from Pyramid Lake, the remnant of Lake Lahontan (Benson et al., 2008). Thus, this excursion is a valuable marker for high-resolution correlation of Quaternary sediments in the western U.S., especially when paired with the MLE. It is tempting to try to identify this geomagnetic feature with others of about the same age further away. On the island of Hawaii, Coe et al. (1978) discovered a lava flow on the Hilina Pali with a calibrated 14-C age of 21 +/-1 kyr that has an inclination about 30 degrees shallower and a paleointensity 60 percent lower than today. Later Teanby et al. (2002) documented an excursion with inclinations as low as -35 degrees, recorded by around 40 successive flows with

  2. Mono Lake Excursion as a Chronologic Marker in the U.S. Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Knott, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    Nevada, Utah, and California east of the Sierra Nevada are in the Great Basin physiographic province of western North America. During periods of the Pleistocene, Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan covered valleys in Utah and Nevada, respectively, and other lakes such as Lake Russell in east-central California did likewise (Feth, 1964). Now dry except for its remnant, Mono Lake, Lake Russell provides an opportunity to study behavior of Earth's past magnetic field in lacustrine sediments that are exposed in natural outcrops. The sediments record at least 30,000 years of paleomagnetic secular variation (Liddicoat, 1976; Zimmerman et al., 2006) and have been of particular interest since the discovery of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) by Denham and Cox (1971) because the field behavior can be documented at numerous sites around Mono Lake (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979, Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and on Paoha Island in the lake. Moreover, there have been recent attempts to date the excursion (Kent et al., 2002, Benson et al., 2003) more accurately and use the age and relative field intensity in paleoclimate research (Zimmerman et al., 2006). It has been proposed that the excursion in the Mono Basin might be older than originally believed (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and instead be the Laschamp Excursion (LE), ~ 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004), on the basis of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the excursion in the Mono Basin. On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the excursion, ~ 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity at the Mono and Lahontan basins and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2003). The age of ~ 32,000 yrs B.P. is in accord with the age (32,000-34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the MLE at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an

  3. Possible Recording of the Hilina Pali Excursion in the Mono Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Inclination of about negative 40˚ in basalt from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (Teanby et al., 2002), that is assigned an age of about 18,000 radiocarbon years (uncorrected)(Coe et al., 1978, after Rubin and Berthold, 1961) and an excursion in northeastern China at Changbaishan Volcano of similar age from Ar40/Ar39 dates (Singer et al., 2011) that was interpreted to be the Blake Subchron (Zhu et al., 2000) using K/Ar (Liu, 1987) and Ar40/39 dates (Lin, 1999), might be recorded as shallow positive inclination in lacustrine siltstone in the bank of Wilson Creek in the Mono Basin, CA. The siltstone was deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell, of which Mono Lake is the remnant, and was exposed when Wilson Creek was incised as the shoreline of Mono Lake receded (Lajoie, 1968). Basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic ash layers exposed in the bank of the creek are stratigraphic markers that have been important for studies of the Mono Lake Excursion (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and Pleistocene climate in the U.S. Great Basin (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Those ash layers likewise are useful for locating paleomagnetic directions along strike that might be the negative inclination in Hawaii named the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002). The portion of the lacustine section exposed along Wilson Creek that is of interest records waveform Delta in Lund et al. (1988) in Subunit E of Lajoie (1993) that is bracketed by ash layers 12 and 13; in Lajoie (1968), those ash layers are numbered 8 and 7, respectively. About midway in Subunit E, which has a thickness of 1.1 m, the inclination is about 15˚ in four back-to-back horizons that span 8 cm. The subsamples, each 2 cm thick, were treated by either alternating field or thermal demagnetization. The Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) for the horizon with the shallowest inclination (14.9˚) is 53.8˚ N, 22.7˚ E (n = 6, Alpha-95 = 2.3˚), and the VGPs within waveform Delta when followed

  4. Middle-Upper Ordovician (Darriwilian-Early Katian) Positive Carbon Isotope Excursions in the Northern Tarim Basin, Northwest China:Implications for Stratigraphic Correlation and Paleoclimate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunge Liu; Guorong Li; Dawei Wang; Yongli Liu; Mingxia Luo; Xiaoming Shao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Three positive carbon isotope excursions are reported from Middle–Upper Ordovician in Tahe oil-gas field, northern Tarim Basin. Based on conodont biostratigraphy, the Middle Darriwilian Isotope Carbon Excursion (MDICE) and the Guttenberg Carbon Isotope Excursion (GICE) are identified from Darriwilian to Early Katian by the aid of whole-rock carbon isotope data from two well cores. Positive excursion within conodont Pygodus anserinus zone is developed in Early Sandbian, and the fluctuation range is no less than MDICE. Because the range of this excursion in the generalized global carbon isotope curve is short, previous studies paid little attention to it, and named Early Sandbian Isotope Carbon Excursion (ESICE) in this paper. Furthermore, these positive excursions are not directly related to sea level fluctuations and the MDICE and GICE identified in northern Tarim can be globally correlated to that in southern China, North America, South America, and Europe. The Saergan Fm. source rocks of Middle-Upper Ordovician in Kalpin Dawangou outcrop are in accord with the geologic time of MDICE and ESICE, and GICE have strong ties to the source rock of Lianglitag Fm. in basin. Abundant organic carbon burial is an important factor in genesis of positive isotope carbon excursions. Positive oxygen isotope excursion, conodont fauna turnover, decreased conodont total diversity, and the change of sedimentary facies indicated that dramatic changes of paleoceanographic environment of Early-Middle Ordovician in Tarim Basin started from the end of Darriwillian, and an obvious icehouse climate of Late Ordovician occurred in ESICE.

  5. Cenozoic vertical motions in the Moray Firth Basin associated with initiation of the Iceland Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, L. M.; Turner, J.; Jones, S. M.; White, N. J.

    2005-10-01

    It is likely that the Iceland mantle plume generated transient uplift across the North Atlantic region when it initiated in earliest Cenozoic time. However, transient uplift recorded in sedimentary basins fringing the region can be overprinted by the effects of permanent uplift. Identifying and quantifying transient uplift can only be achieved in areas which have a well-constrained stratigraphic record and across which the relative importance of permanent and transient uplift varies (e.g., the Moray Firth Basin, North Sea). By analyzing the subsidence of 50 boreholes from the Moray Firth Basin (MFB), residual vertical motions unrelated to rifting have been isolated. Transient uplift of 180-425 m occurred during Paleocene times. The western MFB has also been affected by permanent Cenozoic uplift, with denudation decreasing from 1.3 ± 0.1 km in the west of the basin to zero denudation east of 1°W. Dynamic support above the Iceland Plume led to transient uplift of the entire MFB in early Paleocene times, peaking in latest Paleocene times. In early Eocene times the effect of the plume waned, and subsidence occurred. Paleocene permanent uplift of the NW British Isles is generally accepted to have been due to magmatic underplating of the crust emplaced during the British Tertiary Igneous Province (61-58.5 Ma). The cause of Neogene uplift events is poorly understood, but it could also be associated with the Iceland Plume.

  6. Carbon isotope excursions in paleosol carbonate marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Abels

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically-light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon pool, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event, as well as to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare especially from the terrestrial realm. Here, we provide new CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, in paleosol carbonate, as well as two additional records of ETM2 and H2 in the Bighorn Basin. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope record to the deep-sea benthic foraminifera records from ODP Sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The stratigraphic thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives are in line with precession-forcing of the 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using the CALMAG bulk oxide mean annual precipitation proxy, we reconstruct similar or slightly wetter than background soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals, in contrast to drying observed during the PETM. Soil carbonate CIEs vary in magnitude proportionally with the marine CIEs for the four smaller early Eocene hyperthermals. This relationship breaks down for the PETM, with the soil carbonate CIE ~ 2–4‰ less than expected if all five linearly relate to marine CIEs. If the PETM CO2 forcing was similar but scaled to the younger hyperthermals, photosynthetic isotope fractionation or soil environmental factors are needed to explain this anomaly. We

  7. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  8. A Late Cambrian Carbon Isotope Excursion Recorded in Passive Margin Dolostones of the Central Appalachian Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, J. E.; Stewart, B. W.

    2016-12-01

    A Late Cambrian global positive carbon isotope excursion, known as the SPICE event [1,2] is linked to possible widespread ocean anoxia and enhanced carbon burial [3,4]. We report data from the central Appalachian Conasauga Group from the upper portion of the Middle Cambrian Maryville limestone, through the Late Cambrian Nolichucky shale and Maynardville limestone members. A geochemical, macro-, and micro-scale analyses of core material from southeastern Ohio was carried out to further constrain the timing of oceanic anoxia and trace element geochemistry relative to sediment fluxes occurring at the transition of the Middle to Late Cambrian. The section represents condensed, passive margin shale deposition and carbonate ramp development on the continental shelf of Laurentia. Carbonate sediments (primarily diagenetic dolomite) record a positive δ13C (relative to V-PDB) excursion starting in the upper Nolichucky shale member, reaching its peak (+4.0) in the overlying Maynardville limestone. At this location, there is an offset between the onlap Nolichucky shale deposition and start of the C isotope excursion; this was reported as well in a carbonate section further south of this location [2], on the other side of an extensional feature (Rome Trough) that formed a deep marine basin during Cambrian time. The condensed shale package and relatively low TOC content in our samples is likely due to the combination of a shallow, upslope basin location and isostatic influence on passive margin sedimentation. However, within the Rome Trough, the Nolichucky shale is rich in organic carbon and a recent target of hydrocarbon exploration. The data suggest a possible link between deposition of this shale and the global SPICE event. The robustness of the Late Cambrian δ13C excursion in diagenetically altered sediments and association with hydrocarbon bearing units indicates its utility as a stratigraphic indicator and as a target for exploration. Ongoing geochemical work will focus

  9. Marine Carbon-Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycles during the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) in the Jiangnan Basin, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Peng; Yongbo Peng; Xianguo Lang; Haoran Ma; Kangjun Huang; Fangbing Li; Bing Shen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Global occurrences of Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) during Late Cambrian recorded a significant perturbation in marine carbon cycle, and might have had profound impacts on the biological evolution. In previous studies, SPICE has been reported from the Jiangnan slope belt in South China. To evaluate the bathymetric extent of SPICE, we investigate the limestone samples from the upper Qingxi Formation in the Shaijiang Section in the Jiangnan Basin. Our results show the positive excursions for both carbonate carbon (δ13C) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) isotopes, as well as the concurrent positive shifts in sulfur isotopes of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS, δ34SCAS) and pyrite (δ34Spyrite), unequivocally indicating the presence of SPICE in the Jiangnan Basin. A 4‰increase inδ13Ccarb of the Qingxi limestone implies the increase of the relative flux of organic carbon burial by a factor of two. Concurrent positive excursions inδ34SCAS andδ34Spyrite have been attributed to the enhanced pyrite burial in oceans with extremely low concentration and spatially heterogeneous isotopic composition of seawater sulfate. Here, we propose that the seawater sulfur isotopic heterogeneity can be generated by volatile organic sulfur compound (VOSC, such as methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide) formation in sulfidic continental margins that were widespread during SPICE. Emission of 32S-enriched VOSC in atmosphere, followed by lateral transportation and aerobic oxidation in atmosphere, and precipitation in open oceans result in a net flux of 32S from continental margins to open oceans, elevatingδ34S of seawater sulfate in continental margins. A simple box model indicates that about 35%to 75%of seawater sulfate in continental margins needs to be transported to open oceans via VOSC formation.

  10. Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling

    2014-05-01

    A series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

  11. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Hemmo A.; Lauretano, Vittoria; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, James C.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-05-01

    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere-ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event and also to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare, especially from the terrestrial realm.Here, we provide new paleosol carbonate CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, as well as two additional records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope history to the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates the idea that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The ˜ 34 m thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives corroborate precession forcing of the ˜ 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using bulk-oxide mean-annual-precipitation reconstructions, we find soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals that are similar to or only slightly wetter than the background, in contrast with soil drying observed during the PETM using the same proxy, sediments, and plant fossils.The magnitude of the CIEs in soil carbonate for the four smaller, post-PETM events scale nearly linearly with the equivalent event magnitudes documented in marine records. In contrast, the magnitude of the PETM terrestrial CIE is at least 5 ‰ smaller than expected based on extrapolation of the scaling relationship established

  12. Organic-geochemical characterization of sedimentary organic matter deposited during the Valanginian carbon isotope excursion (Vocontian Basin, SE France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Mutterlose, Jörg; Gréselle, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial and marine sedimentary archives covering the Valanginian interval (136.8-133.9 Ma, Ogg et al., 2004) display a distinct positive delta13C-isotope excursion (CIE) of ~2.5 permil (Lini et al., 1992; Gröcke et al., 2005). The carbon isotope shift spans ~2.0 Ma and has been interpreted to reflect severe perturbations of the Early Cretaceous carbon cycle and paleoenvironmental conditions. According to different authors, the Valanginian CIE was accompanied by enhanced volcanic activity of the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous flood basalts, enhanced pCO2 (Lini et al., 1992; Weissert et al., 1998), widespread biocalcification crisis (Erba et al., 2004) and a distinct climatic cooling as evidenced by ice-rafted debris and glendonites from high-latitude sites. In addition, the positive CIE was assigned to be the result of an anoxic event, named the Weissert OAE (Erba et al., 2004). In this study, we investigate the composition and distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) deposited in a hemipelagic setting before, during, and after the Valanginian CIE. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed view on possible changes in OM deposition during a time of major paleoenvironmental and climatic stress. The chosen approach combines sedimentological and chemostratigraphical information (delta13Ccarb) with geochemical analysis of the bulk OM (incl. TOC, C/N, delta13Corg, Rock-Eval) and biomarker data. For this study, hemipelagic deposits located in the basinal part of the Vocontian Trough (SE France) covering the late Valanginian to early Hauterivian (Campylotoxus Zone to Radiatus Zone) (Gréselle 2007) have been sampled on a high resolution (sampling spacing of ~2/m). A total of three sections has been logged (La Charce, Vergol, Morenas), which consist of hemipelagic marl-limestone alternations and which allow for the construction of a composite succession. The delta13Ccarb values range between ~0.1 and 2.7 permil and show a characteristic stratigraphic trend

  13. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018; Lauretano, V.; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, J.C.; Lourens, L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103; Gingerich, P.D.; Bowen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can b

  14. Correlation of aptian-albian carbon isotope excursions in continental strata of the cretaceous Foreland Basin, Eastern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigson, Greg A.; Joeckel, R.M.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Gulbranson, E.L.; Rasbury, E.T.; Hunt, G.J.; Kirkland, J.I.; Madsen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nodular carbonates ("calcretes") in continental foreland-basin strata of the Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF) in eastern Utah yield ??13C and ??O records of changes in the exogenic carbon cycle related to oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and terrestrial paleoclimate. Chemostratigraphic profiles of both forebulge and foredeep sections show two prominent positive ??13C excursions, each with a peak value of -3% VPDB, and having background ??13C values of about -6% VPDB. These excursions correlate with the global early Aptian (Ap7) and late Aptian-early Albian (Apl2-All) carbon isotope excursions. Aptian-Albian positive ??13C excursions in the CMF also correspond to 3-4 per mil increases in carbonate ??18O. These phenomena record local aridification events. The chemostratigraphic profile on the thinner forebulge section of the CMF is calibrated, for the first time, by a radiogenic U-Pb date of 119.4 ?? 2.6 Ma on a carbonate bed, and by detrital zircon U-Pb dates on two bounding sandstone units (maximum depositional ages of 146 Ma and 112 Ma). P??trographie observations and diagenetic analyses of micritic to microsparitic carbonates from nodules indicate palustrine origins and demonstrate that they crystallized in shallow early meteoric phreatic environments. Meteoric calcite lines derived from CMF carbonates have ??18O values ranging between -8.1 to -7.5%o VPDB, supporting an estimate of zonal mean groundwater ??18O of -6% VSMOW for an Aptian-Albian paleolatitude of 34?? N. Furthermore, our two chemostratigraphic profiles exhibit a generally proportionate thinning of correlative strata from the foredeep on to the forebulge, suggesting that there were consistently lower rates of accumulation on the forebulge during the Aptian-Albian. Identification of the global Aptian-Albian ??13C excursions in purely continental strata, as demonstrated in this paper, opens a new avenue of research by identifying specific stratigraphie intervals that record the terrestrial

  15. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Droplaug; MacKenzie, Brian; Chosson-P, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    , north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e.g., mackerel) have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration...... behavior, and bioenergetics of ABFT. Here, we report the dietary composition of ABFT during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin south of the continental shelf of Iceland. A total of 36 prey species or higher taxa were observed in 421 stomach samples: 17 teleost fishes, 4 squid, 1 octopus, 12 crustaceans...

  16. Cruise tourism shore excursions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate...... the characteristics of cruise tourism, itinerary and shore excursion planning with a view to understanding the value generated from cruise tourism shore excursions. We argue that economic value is a blunt measure, and there are other types of value, positive and negative, that are also generated. This research...... reveals that a range of local conditions and structural characteristics create barriers and opportunities for generating different types of value. Using a case study of shore excursions in Copenhagen, the Baltic’s most important port, this paper explains the dynamics between cruise tourism and shore...

  17. Excursion recommendation system

    OpenAIRE

    Pompe, Grega

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis was to develop a system, which automatically suggests suitable excursion on base of users location and marks with minimal user load. There are websites with long lists of different excursions, which demand the user to at least briefly know what they want. Application was developed in programing language PHP in conjunction with MySQL database. Ranking system is based on general marks, which are result of positive and negative feedback from users, distance between user an...

  18. Post-sedimentary Transformation of Lateral Moraines-the Tributary Tongue Basins of the Kvíárj(o)kull(Iceland)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lasafam Iturrizaga

    2008-01-01

    The Kvíárj(o)kull.a southern outlet glacier of the Vatnaj(o)kull,is confined in the mountain foreland by lateral moraines measuring a height of up to 150 m.Each of the lateral moraines shows consjderable breaches with deviations of the main moraine ridges.The paper discusses the possible origins of these modifications of the lateral moraines as result of:1)ice overlappings during glacier advances and subsequent breaches of the lateraltongue triggered by the preglacial relief conditions and the prehistorical moraine landscape leading to affiux conditions,3)drainage of ice-marginal glacier lakes and 4.volcanic activities,such as lava flows and volcanic-induced j(o)kulhlaups. A historic-genetic model of the formation of the lateral moraines is presented considering the breaches in the lateral moraines as result from glacier bifurcations and therefore as former tributary tongue basins.Such breaches in the lateral moraines are also common landscape features at glaciers outside of Iceland and are from wider importance for the paleoreconstruction of former glacier stages.The knowledge of their development is essential for an adequate relative age classification of individual moraine ridges.In regard to the origin of the debris the resedimentation of prehistoric till deposits by younger glacier advances plays a role in the formation of the lateral moraines apart from englacial and supraglacial sediment transfer processes.

  19. Geomagnetic excursions date early hominid migration to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Global-scale geomagnetic reversals, which are periods when the direction of Earth's magnetic field flips, leave imprints in magnetic minerals present in sediments. But so do smaller-scale, even local, changes in Earth's magnetic field direction. Paleomagnetists believe that the smaller-scale events represent “failed reversals” and refer to them as “geomagnetic excursions.” Scientists use geomagnetic excursions in sedimentary basins as markers to tie together events of Earth's history across the globe.

  20. Paleomagnetic Evidence From Volcanic Units of Valsequillo Basin for the Laschamp Geomagnetic Excursion, and Implications for Early Human Occupation in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Martin Del Pozzo, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Soler, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in Valsequillo basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al., Quaternary Science Reviews doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev, 2005). The ash has been dated to 40 ka by means of optically stimulated luminescence analysis. This was held as new evidence that America was colonized earlier. We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis of 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities, and nineteen standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data yield evidence that both volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced at during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka. This interpretation indicates that Valsequillo probably remains one of the sites of early human occupation in the Americas, producing evidence of early arrival.

  1. Relative Paleointensity and Magnetic Excursions in the Last 3 Myrs During Transitions in North Atlantic Paleoceanography: Comparison of the Brunhes and Matuyama Chrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Crowhurst, S.; Hodell, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The IODP Site U1308 paleomagnetic record now extends back to the Kaena Subchron at 3 Ma at a mean sedimentation rate of 8.2 cm/kyr. Other North Atlantic sites recovered during IODP Exp. 303 (U1302/3, U1304, U1305, U1306) provide paleomagnetic records that cover part of the time interval at sedimentation rates in excess of 10 cm/kyr, allowing a reassessment and extension of the PISO-1500 relative paleointensity (RPI) stack. As for PISO, the new records do not provide evidence for decreased mean virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) in the Matuyama Chron relative to the Brunhes Chron. The Iceland Basin and Laschamp excursions in the Brunhes Chron, and several excursions in the Matuyama Chron (Punaruu, Bjorn, and Gardar), have now been recorded at multiple North Atlantic sites. Four excursions have been recorded in the 280-590 ka interval, by both u-channel and discrete samples, at multiple holes at Sites U1302/3, U1305, and U1306; although individual excursions are not recorded at all three sites even though the sites have similar mean sedimentation rates. Irregular recording of these magnetic excursions, and excursions in general, is attributed to a combination of filtering by the process of acquisition of detrital remanent magnetization (DRM), the millennial or even centennial duration of directional magnetic excursions, and non-uniform sedimentation rates in sediment drifts at these timescales. At Site U1308, local wavelet power spectra (LWPS) of RPI and of other magnetic parameters are compared with the LWPS of climate/lithologic parameters during intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Cross-wavelet power spectra (XWT) and squared wavelet coherence (WTC) indicate that Site U1308 RPI has coherent common power with magnetic susceptibility and other magnetic concentration parameters at periods of 400 kyr prior to 1.5 Ma. For a short time interval during the Middle Pleistocene climate transition (MPT) at 900 ka, Site U1308 RPI has common power with the

  2. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  3. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  4. Icelandic-type crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.; Du, Z.; Julian, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous seismic studies, in particular using receiver functions and explosion seismology, have provided a detailed picture of the structure and thickness of the crust beneath the Iceland transverse ridge. We review the results and propose a structural model that is consistent with all the observations. The upper crust is typically 7 ?? 1 km thick, heterogeneous and has high velocity gradients. The lower crust is typically 15-30 ?? 5 km thick and begins where the velocity gradient decreases radically. This generally occurs at the V p ??? 6.5 km s-1 level. A low-velocity zone ??? 10 000 km2 in area and up to ??? 15 km thick occupies the lower crust beneath central Iceland, and may represent a submerged, trapped oceanic microplate. The crust-mantle boundary is a transition zone ???5 ?? 3 km thick throughout which V p increases progressively from ???7.2 to ???8.0 km s-1. It may be gradational or a zone of alternating high- and low-velocity layers. There is no seismic evidence for melt or exceptionally high temperatures in or near this zone. Isostasy indicates that the density contrast between the lower crust and the mantle is only ???90 kg m-3 compared with ???300 kg m-3 for normal oceanic crust, indicating compositional anomalies that are as yet not understood. The seismological crust is ???30 km thick beneath the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faeroe ridges, and eastern Iceland, ???20 km beneath western Iceland, and ???40 km thick beneath central Iceland. This pattern is not what is predicted for an eastward-migrating plume. Low attenuation and normal V p/V s ratios in the lower crust beneath central and southwestern Iceland, and normal uppermost mantle velocities in general, suggest that the crust and uppermost mantle are subsolidus and cooler than at equivalent depths beneath the East Pacific Rise. Seismic data from Iceland have historically been interpreted both in terms of thin-hot and thick-cold crust models, both of which have been cited as supporting the plume

  5. FISHERIES POLICY OF ICELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries has recently been very exploited area in the Croatian media, either regarding the EU accession negotiations or regarding the interrelationships of the involved parties within Croatia. Iceland is one of the strongest fishery nations in the world that passed through some heavy struggles to protect its fishery grounds (so called “fishery or cod wars”. Therefore its experience in fisheries can be useful when creating Croatian fishery policy. So, the aim of this article is to present the Statement on Responsible Fisheries in Iceland signed by all the parties involved in the Icelandic fishery industry.

  6. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  7. Iceland, the Land of Fire and Ice, an ideal place to teach and study earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David C.; Pétursdóttir, Þórunn

    2016-04-01

    Iceland, the arctic Island on the mid Atlantic ridge, is in many ways a unique place. While the earth crust is usually over 10 km thick, the mid Atlantic ridge on which Iceland is situated is less than 1 km thick. Accordingly, the country is characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions, seismic activity and numerous geothermal sites. Due to its Nordic location all elevated mountain peaks are covered by glaciers, accounting for about 11% of the area of the island. Only in Iceland earth sciences processes are occurring continuously and can be observed almost in real time. The frequent collision of cold Arctic winds with humid Atlantic air masses lead frequently to extreme weather constellations. Consequently, the weather in Iceland is characterized by high precipitation rates and extreme hydrological phenomena, ranging from rainfall flood peaks, to diurnal snow and ice melt and the all famous Jökulhaups. The frequent volcanic eruptions lead to a continuous renewal of the lithosphere, generating locations of distinct morphologic formations. Finally, 40% of Iceland's vegetation and soil has been lost due to anthropogenic impact since the first settlement 1100 years ago. These extreme conditions reveal also advantages, e.g. in the energy sector. Today Iceland electrical energy production is almost entirely renewable, 70% coming from hydropower and 30% from geothermal power plants. In this presentation we will present an outline why Iceland is an ideal place to teach and study earth science processes. The presentation will conclude by presenting educative itineraries for field excursions in Iceland.

  8. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The fisheries sector is tremendously important for Iceland: the export of fish products accounts for a large part of the value of exported goods. Fisheries policy in Iceland is, consequently, of national importance to a degree that is not comparable to any of the EU member states...... volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e......, and social robustness. In order to make this evaluation, a thorough understanding of the past and present situation on Iceland has to be established. The chapter is based on two sources of information: desk studies and a field study trip....

  9. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  10. Ridge jump process in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Eastward ridge jumps bring the volcanic zones of Iceland back to the centre of the hotspot in response to the absolute westward drift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mantellic pulses triggers these ridge jumps. One of them is occurring in Southern Iceland, whereas the exact conditions of the last ridge jump in Northern Iceland remain controversial. The diachronous evolution of these two parts of Iceland may be related to the asymmetric plume-ridge interaction when comparing Northern and Southern I...

  11. Does the Shuram δ13C excursion record Ediacaran oxygenation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J. M.; Maloof, A. C.; Schoene, B.; Higgins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The most negative carbon isotope excursion in Earth history is found in carbonate rocks of the Ediacaran Period (635-542 Ma). Known colloquially as the the 'Shuram' excursion, workers have long noted its tantalizing, broad concordance with the rise of abundant macro-scale fossils in the rock record, variously interpreted as animals, giant protists, macro-algae and lichen, and known as the 'Ediacaran Biota.' Thus, the Shuram excursion has been interpreted by many in the context of a dramatically changing redox state of the Ediacaran oceans - e.g., a result of methane cycling in a low O2 atmosphere, the final destruction of a large pool of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the step-wise oxidation of the Ediacaran oceans. More recently, diagenetic interpretations of the Shuram excursion - e.g. sedimentary in-growth of very δ13C depleted authigenic carbonates, meteoric alteration of Ediacaran carbonates, late-stage burial diagenesis - have challenged the various Ediacaran redox models. A rigorous geologic context is required to discriminate between these explanatory models, and determine whether the Shuram excursion can be used to evaluate terminal Neoproterozoic oxygenation. Here, we present chemo-stratigraphic data (δ13C, δ18O, δ44/42Ca and redox sensitive trace element abundances) from 12 measured sections of the Ediacaran-aged Wonoka Formation (Fm.) of South Australia that require a syn-depositional age for the extraordinary range of δ13C values (-12 to +4‰) observed in the formation. In some locations, the Wonoka Fm. is ~700 meters (m) of mixed shelf limestones and siliclastics that record the full 16 ‰ δ13C excursion in a remarkably consistent fashion across 100s of square kilometers of basin area. Fabric-altering diagenesis, where present, occurs at the sub-meter vertical scale, only results in sub-permil offsets in δ13C and cannot be used to explain the full δ13C excursion. In other places, the Wonoka Fm. is host to deep (1 km

  12. The Language Situation in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda; Kristinsson, Ari Pall

    2010-01-01

    Purist language policies in Iceland have preserved and modernized Icelandic up until the present time. However, the impact of globalization and global English has led to the perception that the language is less secure than in the past and has prompted efforts by policy makers towards greater protection of Icelandic. This monograph presents the…

  13. Scalar excursions in large-eddy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheou, Georgios; Dimotakis, Paul E.

    2016-12-01

    The range of values of scalar fields in turbulent flows is bounded by their boundary values, for passive scalars, and by a combination of boundary values, reaction rates, phase changes, etc., for active scalars. The current investigation focuses on the local conservation of passive scalar concentration fields and the ability of the large-eddy simulation (LES) method to observe the boundedness of passive scalar concentrations. In practice, as a result of numerical artifacts, this fundamental constraint is often violated with scalars exhibiting unphysical excursions. The present study characterizes passive-scalar excursions in LES of a shear flow and examines methods for diagnosis and assesment of the problem. The analysis of scalar-excursion statistics provides support of the main hypothesis of the current study that unphysical scalar excursions in LES result from dispersive errors of the convection-term discretization where the subgrid-scale model (SGS) provides insufficient dissipation to produce a sufficiently smooth scalar field. In the LES runs three parameters are varied: the discretization of the convection terms, the SGS model, and grid resolution. Unphysical scalar excursions decrease as the order of accuracy of non-dissipative schemes is increased, but the improvement rate decreases with increasing order of accuracy. Two SGS models are examined, the stretched-vortex and a constant-coefficient Smagorinsky. Scalar excursions strongly depend on the SGS model. The excursions are significantly reduced when the characteristic SGS scale is set to double the grid spacing in runs with the stretched-vortex model. The maximum excursion and volume fraction of excursions outside boundary values show opposite trends with respect to resolution. The maximum unphysical excursions increase as resolution increases, whereas the volume fraction decreases. The reason for the increase in the maximum excursion is statistical and traceable to the number of grid points (sample size

  14. Deep structure of the Iceland plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.R.; Sacks, I.S.

    1979-11-10

    The topography of the sea floor between Iceland and Jan Mayen Island is flat and elevated in relation to most ocean basins. Marine geophysical observations in the area have shown that it was formed by sea floor spreading but have not revealed details of structures more than a few hundred meters beneath the sea floor. We have examined the dispersion of seismic surface waves across the Iceland Plateau and have modeled structures to depths of up to 100 km. We find that the thickness of the crustal component of the lithosphere is much greater than that of normal oceanic structures, perhaps exceeding 20 km. We suggest that the elevation of the region is due to isostatic compensation for this excess of low-density crustal material. The total lithospheric thickness is about 50 km throughout the region, indicating that the lithosphere thickens with age at a rate similar to that found in other young oceans.

  15. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....... institutions and relying heavily on civic society enterprise. After national independence in 1918 there are growing conflicts in the cultural field and during the Cold War such conflicts take the form of an alliance of nationlism and socialism against NATO-oriented anti-communism. However, there is consensus...

  16. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  17. An Icelandic wind atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  18. Additive functionals and excursions of Kuznetsov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène Boutabia

    2005-01-01

    semigroup of transition. In this paper, we give the excursion laws of (Xtt∈ℝ+ conditioned on the strict past and future without duality hypothesis. We study excursions of a general regenerative system and of a regenerative system consisting of the closure of the set of times the regular points of B are visited. In both cases, those conditioned excursion laws depend only on two points Xg− and Xd, where ]g,d[ is an excursion interval of the regenerative set M. We use the (FDt-predictable exit system to bring together the isolated points of M and its perfect part and replace the classical optional exit system. This has been a subject in literature before (e.g., Kaspi (1988 under the classical duality hypothesis. We define an “additive functional” for (Ytt∈ℝ with B, we generalize the laws cited before to (Ytt∈ℝ, and we express laws of pairs of excursions.

  19. Two Possible but Unconfirmed Palaeomagnetic Excursions in Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments in North America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J.; Coe, R.; Oviatt, J.

    2012-04-01

    The palaeomagnetic literature is replete with reports of investigations of continuous field behaviour (secular variation) using volcanic rocks and lacustrine and marine sediments, and some of the reports are about palaeomagnetic excursions. The Laschamp Excursion in volcanic rocks in the Massif Central of France (Bonhommet and Babkine, 1967) and Mono Lake Excursion in exposed lacustrine sediment in California (Denham and Cox, 1971) are two excursions that generally are accepted as having occurred in the late Pleistocene. At other localities and for different time intervals, confirmation of some excursions in sediment has not been successful at nearby sites where the deposits are believed to be the same age. An example is in the Basin of Mexico at Tlapacoya (19.4˚ N, 261.2˚ E) in lacustrine sediments about 14,500 years old (Liddicoat et al., 1979). Another excursion that has not been confirmed but might have occurred is recorded in Lake Bonneville sediments that are exposed in the bank of the Sevier River near Delta, Utah (39.4˚ N, 247.6˚ E). In Mexico and Utah, the excursions are in a single, fully-oriented hand sample that was prepared into consecutive, 2-cm-thick horizons, each consisting of six subsamples. The subsamples were demagnetized in an alternating field to at least 60 mT or when possible because of consolidation, thermally demagnetized to 600˚ C; for each Lake Bonneville horizon, the scatter of palaeomagnetic directions is 4˚ or less. Several possibilities for why the excursion at Tlapacoya could not be confirmed were presented (Liddicoat et al., 1979), leaving open the possibility that the excursion might have occurred in Mexico. The field behaviour in Utah where the sediments are older than those at Tlapacoya by several tens of thousands of years (Oviatt et al., 1994) is nearly identical to the behaviour recorded at Tlapacoya. At both localities, a path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles during the excursion is confined to a narrow meridional zone

  20. Two Possible but Unconfirmed Paleomagnetic Excursions in Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments in North America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The paleomagnetic literature is replete with reports of investigations of continuous field behavior (secular variation) using volcanic rocks and lacustrine and marine sediments from around the globe, and some of the reports are about paleomagnetic excursions. The Laschamp Excursion in volcanic rocks in the Massif Central of France (Bonhommet and Babkine, 1967) and Mono Lake Excursion in exposed lacustrine sediment in California (Denham and Cox, 1971) are two excursions that are recognized. At other localities and for different time intervals, confirmation of some excursions in sediment has not been successful at nearby sites where the deposits are believed to be the same age. An example is in the Basin of Mexico at Tlapacoya (19.4 N, 261.2 E)(Liddicoat et al., 1979). Another excursion that has not been confirmed but might have occurred is recorded in Pleistocene Lake Bonneville sediments that are exposed in the bank of the Sevier River near Delta, Utah (39.4 N, 247.6 E). In Mexico and Utah, the excursion is in a single, fully-oriented hand sample that was prepared into consecutive, 2-cm-thick horizons. Each horizon contains six samples that were demagnetized in an alternating field, and for each Lake Bonneville horizon the scatter of directions is 4 degrees or less. Several possibilities for why the excursion at Tlapacoya could not be confirmed were presented (Liddicoat et al., 1979), leaving open the possibility that the excursion might have occurred in Mexico about 14,500 years ago. The field behavior in Utah where the sediments are older than those at Tlapacoya by several tens of thousands of years (Oviatt et al., 1994) is nearly identical to the behavior recorded at Tlapacoya. At both localities, a path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles during the excursion is confined to a narrow meridional zone centered at about 200 E longitude and that descends to about 15 N latitude. The difficulty of confirming the anomalous field behavior at Tlapacoya and in Utah

  1. Autonomous excursions using tablets and smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter; Groothengel, Marin; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Karssenberg, Derek; Stouthamer, Esther

    2017-04-01

    Excursions and fieldworks are valuable components for geosciences education. However, field activities can be time consuming for teachers and pose a logistical challenge to fit in regular courses. Furthermore, the participation of students diminishes with group size in case of instructor-led outings. We are developing excursions that students can follow autonomously without a teacher present, using instructions, assignments and background information on tablets and smartphones. The goal of this approach is to increase the level of active participation, and to reduce logistical and time table issues. We developed a bike-excursion about the landscape and geology in the vicinity of our University. Such excursion was on the wish-list for several years, but posed a logistical challenge for the group of about 80 students in the available timeslot. In our approach, students had a time-window of two weeks in which they could finish the excursion in groups of 2. 8-Inch tablets with water- and shock-proof cases were available for this excursion. For the excursion we used three apps: 1) IZI-Travel for providing the route, spoken navigation instructions, spoken explanations at stops, location-related images, assignments as text, and multiple-choose questions. 2) PDF-Maps for providing geo-referenced maps. 3) ESRI Collector which the students used to digitize polygons on a map, and to collect geo-referenced photos with explanation. These data were answers to assignments and were later used in a tutorial on campus. The assignments where students had to collect data, and the small group size (pairs) increased the level of active participation. The use of a final tutorial on campus was important for the autonomous excursion, as it gave students the opportunity to discuss their observations and questions with their teacher. The developed teaching materials are available online to use and adapt for others. Parts could be useful for other universities and schools in the vicinity of

  2. Theoretical foundations of organizing student excursions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Once the cornerstone of sciences, student excursions have become adventurous social events, the value of which should be reconsidered. Since recommendations for organization of student excursions are mostly based on research findings and practitioners’ experiences, we have attempted to base them on the assumptions of contemporary theories of development, learning and motivation. Potential recommendations for organization of quality student excursions are derived from the constructivist theory of cognitive development, experiential learning theory and self-determination theory. The main recommendations refer to: establishing the link between excursions and the curriculum; a student-centred approach; students’ autonomy in planning and organizing excursions; promoting research activities in students; promoting joint activities of students and teachers, as well as joint activities of students, and authentic experiences in the out-of-school context. Recommendations are grouped into five categories: integrating excursions in the curriculum; motivating students; structure and authenticity of activities; encouraging students to think; social interaction during excursions. Research findings indicate that there is a gap between theory and practice of organizing students excursions. This situation is mostly explained by logistic and system shortcomings. We therefore suggest a more serious discussion of the place of excursions in the curriculum, financial support to their organization and reinforcing teachers to implement this form of teaching. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  3. Digital Marketing Practices in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Björgvin Jóhannsson 1979

    2014-01-01

    As consumers are moving towards the digital media at an increasing rate marketers must follow. Past research has indicated that Icelandic marketers are lagging behind regarding their digital marketing practices. The purpose of this thesis was to offer insight into the digital marketing practice in Iceland on the basses of best practice according to the available literature assess the trends and where digital marketing headed. With this information, Icelandic marketers should be able to be...

  4. The Asymmetric Exclusion Process and Brownian Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Enaud, C.; Lebowitz, J. L.

    2004-04-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) in one dimension in its maximal current phase. We show, by an exact calculation, that the non-Gaussian part of the fluctuations of density can be described in terms of the statistical properties of a Brownian excursion. Numerical simulations indicate that the description in terms of a Brownian excursion remains valid for more general one dimensional driven systems in their maximal current phase.

  5. Iceland: a postcolonial literary landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Liet, H.; Kroonen, G.; Langbroek, E.; Perridon, H.; Roeleveld, A.

    2011-01-01

    How does Iceland appear in postcolonial literary texts by writers from Denmark, the former colonial power? Three texts from modern Danish literature were chosen, with Iceland as their main theme and based on first hand knowledge of the country gathered through sojourns and travels by the authors: Re

  6. The Crash Course from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huginn Freyr Þorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The years between 2006 and 2008 are key in understanding the Icelandic economic crisis. One of the main questions one gets when discussing the lessons from Iceland is: Was the quick recovery due to how the country 'burned' the creditors? Myth has it that when things got tough for the banks, the Icelandic government denied to bail them out and the country therefore escaped the difficult long-term consequence felt by, for example, Ireland. But that is a serious distortion of what happened. The Icelandic banks were on Central Bank life support from 2006 to 2008. It was only when the CBI ran out of steam that an alternative approach in crisis management was put in place. For admirers of historical contingencies, this case is of interest. Iceland did not take a calculated decision to let the banks fail, but an attempted bail-out failed. This meant that that its tackling of a banking crisis took an unexpected turn as banks were put into administration; a move only considered in the face of failure. And despite the route taken by Iceland, the total cost of the economic crisis for the State has surpassed Ireland's and is one of the costliest any sovereign has faced in the ongoing crisis. This is interesting, given the ongoing discussion about the Icelandic 'miraculous' escape from an economic crisis and that the possibilities countries face during crisis management may be many more than those that are discussed.

  7. Review of the recording and age of the Mono Lake Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2009-04-01

    Among the brief departures from gradual, long-term behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field in the Brunhes Normal Chron that reached opposite polarity or have a Virtual Geomagnetic Pole deep in the southern hemisphere, the first to be reported is the Laschamp Excursion (LE) in volcanic rocks in the Massif Central in France (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). They originally believed it occurred between about 9,000 to 20,000 years before present, but it is now assigned an age of about 40,000 years B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). Denham and Cox (1971) unsuccessfully sought the LE in exposed lake sediments that seemed to span that interval in the Mono Basin in the western Great Basin of the U.S., but instead encountered anomalous field behaviour that is called the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). As a tribute to Norbert Bonhommet, who assisted us in our initial field work in the Mono Basin and shared a long-standing interest in the LE and MLE, we will review the palaeomagnetic behaviour and age of the MLE in the Mono Basin and elsewhere, for which there are nearly 20 reports of its occurrence globally, and evaluate the recent suggestion that the excursion at Mono Lake and the LE are the same.

  8. Moral panic in Icelandic society: Arrival of ecstasy to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jón Orri Jónasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of illegal drugs has often been shown to ignite fear and insecurity in society. When a new drug appears the media typically reports on this drug and the risk it poses. Soon after ecstasy appeared in Iceland in the 1990s its use created a major public uproar and insecurity in Icelandic society. In the article the theory of moral panic will be used to examine if the arrival of ecstasy to Iceland ignited a moral panic. Media reports on ecstasy, public reactions, interest groups and government institutions will be analysed. Discourse analysis is employed on newspaper reporting on ecstasy between 1985 and 1997 to detect signs of moral panic. The main conclusion is that evidence suggests that a moral panic existed in Iceland as described in well-known theories on the subject.

  9. Labour Market Performance in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Ingi Rúnar Eðvarðsson

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the unique performance of the Icelandic labour market. It demonstrates, by using international statistics, that the activity rates of both sexes are very high in Iceland, the unemployment rate is low, a high proportion of the the labour force work part time, and labour legislation is unrestricted. Contrary to the competitive labour market–, and flexible models of neo– classic economic theory, the author argues for a historical and institutional explan...

  10. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  11. Clericalization of the Russian Excursion Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Rodoman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the modern Russia almost every secular excursion is starting to resemble a religious pilgrimage, while reducing itself to a visit to Orthodox monasteries and temples. A lot of stories are told about saints and their actions, an unconcealed religious propaganda is carried on, and the history of the country is presented in a cleric-monarchical manner.

  12. Excursion-Set-Mediated Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David; Baskaran, Subbiah

    1995-01-01

    Excursion-set-mediated genetic algorithm (ESMGA) is embodiment of method of searching for and optimizing computerized mathematical models. Incorporates powerful search and optimization techniques based on concepts analogous to natural selection and laws of genetics. In comparison with other genetic algorithms, this one achieves stronger condition for implicit parallelism. Includes three stages of operations in each cycle, analogous to biological generation.

  13. Excursion-Set-Mediated Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David; Baskaran, Subbiah

    1995-01-01

    Excursion-set-mediated genetic algorithm (ESMGA) is embodiment of method of searching for and optimizing computerized mathematical models. Incorporates powerful search and optimization techniques based on concepts analogous to natural selection and laws of genetics. In comparison with other genetic algorithms, this one achieves stronger condition for implicit parallelism. Includes three stages of operations in each cycle, analogous to biological generation.

  14. Observations of seasonal subduction at the Iceland-Faroe Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaird, N. L.; Rhines, P. B.; Eriksen, C. C.

    2016-06-01

    The polar front in the North Atlantic is bound to the ridge between Iceland and the Faroe Islands, where about one-half of the northward transport of warm Atlantic Water into the Nordic Seas occurs, as well as about one sixth of the equatorward dense overflow. We find a low salinity water mass at the surface of the Iceland-Faroe Front (IFF), which in wintertime subducts along outcropping isopycnals and is found in much modified form on the Atlantic side of the Iceland-Faroe Ridge (IFR) crest. The features found on the Atlantic side of the crest at depth have temperature and salinity characteristics which are clearly traceable to the surface outcrop of the IFF. The presence of coherent low salinity layers on the Atlantic side of the IFR crest has not been previously reported. Warm waters above the IFR primarily feed the Faroe Current, and injection of a low salinity water mass may play an early role in the water mass transformation taking place in the Nordic Seas. The seasonality of the intrusive features suggests a link between winter convection, mixed layer instability and deep frontal subduction. These low salinity anomalies (as well as a low oxygen water mass from the Iceland Basin) can be used as tracers of the intermediate circulation over the IFR.

  15. 46 CFR 115.204 - Permit to carry excursion party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued an excursion permit will normally be required to meet the minimum stability, survival craft, life jacket, fire safety, and manning standards applicable to a vessel in the service for which the excursion...

  16. ORNITHOLOGICAL EXCURSIONS IN MURMANSK: GEOINFORMATION ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kharlamova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method to use efficiently GIS-technologies in arranging the field practice of students on ornithology has been proposed. The ornithological excursions were performed in surroundings of the City of Murmansk in the conditions of weakly urbanized landscape. Using the facilities of freely distributed cartographic «SAS-Planet» software a simple GIS was formed in its environment where to the data on bird nest location with their description, the information about the route nodal points, water body crossing, stay places and others were put down. The mentioned data were obtained as a result of preliminary field research with the aid of satellite navigator including accumulating and summing up the information for a number of previous similar investigations. As a result, a final route in the current year was developed using which during the field practice the ornithological excursions were arranged.

  17. Excursion set peaks: the role of shear

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, Emanuele; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K

    2016-01-01

    Recent analytical work on the modelling of dark halo abundances and clustering has demonstrated the advantages of combining the excursion set approach with peaks theory. We extend these ideas and introduce a model of excursion set peaks that incorporates the role of initial tidal effects or shear in determining the gravitational collapse of dark haloes. The model -- in which the critical density threshold for collapse depends on the tidal influences acting on protohaloes -- is well motivated from ellipsoidal collapse arguments and is also simple enough to be analytically tractable. We show that the predictions of this model are in very good agreement with measurements of the halo mass function and traditional scale dependent halo bias in N-body simulations across a wide range of masses and redshift. The presence of shear in the collapse threshold means that halo bias is naturally predicted to be nonlocal, and that protohalo densities at fixed mass are naturally predicted to have Lognormal-like distributions. ...

  18. Practices and Methods for Actualization of the Scientific Information in Art Excursions (Excursions and Cultural Heritage in the Contemporary World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with various practices and methods for actualization of the scientific information in art excursions. The modern society is characterized by commitment to information richness. The range of cultural and historical materials used as the basis for art excursions is really immense. However if to consider the number of excursions with…

  19. Iceland's Language Technology: Policy versus Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda M.; Kristinsson, Ari P.

    2009-01-01

    Iceland's language policies are purist and protectionist, aiming to maintain the grammatical system and basic vocabulary of Icelandic as it has been for a thousand years and to keep the language free of foreign (English) borrowings. In order to use Icelandic in the domain of information technology, there has been a major investment in language…

  20. Iceland:Hot Eyes on Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; Jingjing; Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      The President of Iceland was in China during May 16th to 22nd. Coming along with him was a large trade delegation of 200 people from 106 Icelandic companies. Great interest was shown to China, this big market with much potential.Let's hear how the Ambassador of Iceland to China see this.……

  1. Iceland:Hot Eyes on Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jingjing; Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ The President of Iceland was in China during May 16th to 22nd. Coming along with him was a large trade delegation of 200 people from 106 Icelandic companies. Great interest was shown to China, this big market with much potential.Let's hear how the Ambassador of Iceland to China see this.

  2. Educational Excursions in Technical Schools of Pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, using the data of pre-revolutionary technical schools, traces the genesis and trends of educational excursions development in the Russian Empire. Special attention is attached to the types, organizational forms and methods of excursion activities, educational policy, concerning its development. The article presents author’s classification of educational excursions, notes that educational excursions have become traditional and were operated systematically by the early XX century. Field excursions, which in fact displaced introductive training, prevailed in technical schools

  3. Synthetic and sedimentary records of geomagnetic excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlag, P.; Thouveny, N.; Rochette, P.

    The geomagnetic excursion recorded in the sediments of Lac St.Front (Massif Central, France) is characterized by shallow and negative inclinations followed by a younger steep inclination interval (Vlag et al., 1996). In the corresponding interval of the nearby Lac du Bouchet only steep inclinations are found. Sedimentary records of the Mono Lake excursion show similar inclination patterns; ‘complete’ records of this excursion show a succession of a shallow by a steep inclination interval, while ‘incomplete’ records only show only steep inclinations (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). Due to a non-instantaneous acquisition of the remanence, sedimentary records reflect only a smoothed geomagnetic signal. It will be shown that smoothing of a small low-intensity ‘reversed’ interval embedded in a non-antipodal normal field interval may result in records of a shallow inclination interval followed by a steep inclination interval, while further smoothing results in only steep inclinations. Realignment of magnetic grains by the stronger normal field can also produce such records and may explain why such an unusual large lock-in depth is required by the conventional smoothing model. Whatever the mechanism, the similarities between these synthetic records and the excursional records of Lac St. Front-Lac du Bouchet and Mono Lake suggest that the latter are more or less affected by vector addition of two non-antipodal directions.

  4. [Research in pharmacoepidemiology in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, Magnus; Haraldsdottir, Sigridur

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacoepidemiology is a rapidly growing discipline that is useful in studies on effects and adverse effects of drugs. During past years and decades databases have been built in Iceland that are becoming powerful tools for this kind of research. The databases are, however only useful for pharmacoepidemiological research if they include personal identification and can be merged. The personal identification should be without time limits because in many cases we are interested in what happened years or decades ago. The prescriptions database was started in 2002 and has dramatically changed the possibilities for pharmacoepidemiological studies in Iceland. The main aim of this review is to give an overview of the existing databases in Iceland and to encourage research in this important field.

  5. The Stress Pattern of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Heidbach, Oliver; Páll Hersir, Gylfi; Ágústsson, Kristján; Árnadóttir, Sigurveig; Zang, Arno

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is one of the few places on earth where an active spreading can be observed onshore, yet the contemporary crustal stress state has not been investigated intesively. We compiled the first comprehensive stress map of Iceland from different stress indicators and analysed data from 57 Icelandic geothermal boreholes. In total we interpreted appox. 37 km of acoustic image logs for stress indicators, i.e. borehole breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures. Furthermore we revised the 38 data records for Iceland from the World Stress Map 2008 and conducted an extensive literature research to compile all available focal mechanism solutions and geological stress indicators. The new stress compilation consists of 495 data records for the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) in and around Iceland with 318 data records of A-D qualities according to the World Stress Map ranking scheme. Most of the data records are derived from focal mechanism solutions (35%) and geological fault inversions (26%). Borehole related indicators (breakouts, drilling induced fractures, hydro-fractures) have a share of 20%. Minor contributions to the dataset are provided by the alignment of volcanic vents and fissures and overcoring measurements. The mean orientation of SHmax is 17° ± 39° for all A-D quality data. A closer look at subregions reveals four different provinces with fairly consistent SHmax orientation. They are in the Capital area and Southern Lowlands (mean SHmax = 38° ± 29°), the eastern Highlands and Eastfjords (mean SHmax = 8° ± 25°), the Tjörnes Fracture Zone and Akureyri (mean SHmax = 151° ± 21°), and the Westfjords (mean SHmax = 137° ± 17°). This distribution of SHmax orientations is in agreement with the prevailing tectonic structure. At the spreading ridges Reykjanes and Kolbeinsey in the South and North respectively an orientation of SHmax parallel to the plate boundary is observed. The same is observed in the Northern and Eastern

  6. Spring production of Calanus finmarchicus at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Richardson, K.; Heath, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    -Scotland Ridge, apparently from two separate overwintering centers. The population on the Faroe Shelf (FS) most likely came from the overwintering population in the Faroe Shetland Channel (FSC). Per capita egg production was highest on the FS (>30áeggsáfemale-1ád-1) and lowest in the Iceland Basin (10...

  7. Mono Lake Excursion in Cored Sediment from the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Iorio, Marina; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    A search for the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in cored marine and lacustrine sediment younger than 50,000 years resulted in the discovery of both excursions in the Greenland Sea (73.3˚ N, 351.0˚ E, Nowaczyk and Antanow, 1997), in the North Atlantic Ocean (62.7˚ N, 222.5˚ E, Channell, 2006), in Pyramid Lake in the Lahontan Basin, NV, USA (40.1˚ N, 240.2˚ E, Benson et al., 2008), and in the Black Sea (43.2˚ N, 36.5˚ E, Nowaczyk et al., 2012). The inclination, declination, and relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in the Black Sea sediment matches well the behaviour of the excursion in the Mono Basin, CA, in that a reduction in inclination during westerly declination is soon followed by steep positive inclination when declination is easterly, and relative field intensity increases after a low at the commencement of the excursion (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). A large clockwise loop of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at the Black Sea when followed from old to young patterns very well the VGP loop formed by the older portion of the MLE in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We also searched for the MLE in cored sediment from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (40.1˚ N, 14.7˚ E) where the age of the sediment is believed to be about 32,000 years when comparing the susceptibility in the core with the susceptibility in a nearby one that is dated by palaeomagnetic secular variation records, Carbon-14, and numerous tephra layers in the Tyrrhenian Sea sediment (Iorio et al., 2011). In the Tyrrhenian Sea core, called C1067, closely spaced samples demagnetized in an alternating field to100 mT record a shallowing of positive inclination to 48˚ that is followed by steep positive inclination of 82˚ when declination moves rapidly to the southeast. The old to young path of the VGPs in C1067 forms a narrow counter-clockwise loop that reaches 30.3˚ N, 30.8˚ E and that is centered at about 55˚ N, 15˚ E. Although descending to a latitude that is

  8. Virtual reality excursions with programs in C

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Christopher D

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual en

  9. Simulation of power excursions - Osiris reactor; Simulation des excursions de puissance - pile Osiris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascouet, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Following the experimental work accomplished in the U.S.A. on Borax 1 and SPERT 1 and the accident of SL 1, the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' started a research program about the safety of its own swimming Pool reactors, with regard to power excursions. The first research work led to the design of programmed explosive charges, adapted to the simulation of a power excursion. This report describes the application of these methods to the investigation of Osiris safety. (author) [French] A la suite des essais effectues aux U.S.A. sur BORAX 1 et SPERT 1 et de l'accident survenu a SL 1, le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a lance un programme d'etudes sur la surete de ses reacteurs piscines vis-a-vis des excursions de puissance. Les premieres etudes ont abouti A la mise au point de charges programmees capables de simuler une excursion de puissance. On trouvera dans le present rapport l'application de ces methodes a l'etude de la surete d'OSIRIS. (auteur)

  10. A New 62-sample Record of the Mono Lake Excursion Waveform from the Depocenter Sediments of Summer Lake, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, R. M.; McCuan, D. T.; Horton, R. A.; Verosub, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    A new core from Summer Lake, Oregon provides the primary datset for a composite, 62-sample record of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) waveform. The magnetograms and virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) are consistent with those associated with the MLE record from Mono Lake (e.g., Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). The added detail from this new record firmly establishes three distinct VGP clusters centered first on easternmost Asia/Siberia, then on Europe, and, finally, on North America. The jumps between clusters involve typically one sample, which represents only a few decades of time. The excursion is bracketed by tephra of known age (the Mount St. Helens Cy 46.0 ± 6 ka and the Wono 27.3 ± 0.3 14C kyr B.P.) and the age of the excursion is ~28 14C kyr B.P based on an average of five radiocarbon ages from below, within and above the excursion interval. A second waveform that exhibits shallowing inclinations and easterly declination swings upsection is truncated by a prominent unconformity. These PSV features and the associated RPI leading up to this unconformity correlate with those of the onset of the Laschamp Excursion (Lund et al., 2005). Both radiocarbon and PSV correlations support missing sediment from the Summer Lake record between 42.5 and 38 GISP2 ka. This sediment hiatus correlates to unconformities or lowstands in other Great Basin lakes suggesting a Heinrich 4-induced drought that affected much of western North America.

  11. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.

    2012-01-01

    background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed......The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic...... that any fast growing market may be exposed to. It concludes that the economic collapse was primarily home-brewed and a consequence of an unbound, risk-seeking banking sector and ineffective (or non-existent) actions of the Icelandic authorities....

  12. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  13. Deciphering Carbon Isotope Excursions in Separated Biogenic and Diagenetic Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, M.; Minoletti, F.; Hesselbo, S.; Jenkyns, H.; Rickaby, R.; Diester-Haass, L.; Delsate, D.

    2008-12-01

    The long-term evolution of the carbon-isotope ratio in the sedimentary archive is classically linked with changes in primary productivity and organic matter burial. There have been sudden and pronounced shifts, so-called Carbon Isotope Excursions (CIEs) in the long-term trends as evidenced by synchronous shifts from various basins. These geochemical perturbations may have various explanations such as changes of the efficiency of the carbon sink; sudden infusion of isotopically-light carbon into the Ocean-Atmosphere system; or advection of 12C-rich source from bottom water in a stratified water column. Beside the record of primary changes in seawater chemistry, a possible diagenetic overprint may also mime such CIEs in the sedimentary record. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate through three critical intervals (the Early Toarcian, the K-P boundary and the Mid-Miocene Montery Event) how the various micron-sized sedimentary particles specifically record these CIEs, which are respectively associated with major paleoceanographical events. New techniques for getting monotaxic calcareous nannofossil assemblages from the sediment (Minoletti et al., accepted) enable the isotopic measurement at various depths within the surface water and from bottom water by analyzing early diagenetic precipitations (rhombs and micarbs). The integration of these high-resolution isotopic signals in terms of amplitudes affords to recognize diagenetic artifacts in some sections displaying coeval decrease in the carbonate content. For both Early Toarcian and K-P events, corroborative records of CIE records in both primary calcite and bottom water carbonate indicate a global C-isotope perturbation of the water column. For the Monterey event, the evolution of calcareous nannoplankton and the foraminifera isotopic records are in overall agreement, but in detail, the coccolith-discoaster and foraminifer ratio in the sediment, related to environmental changes, is likely to produce isotopic

  14. Origin and population structure of the Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J T

    1993-04-01

    The Norse and Celtic contributions to the founding population of Iceland have been estimated previously on a pan-Icelandic basis using gene frequency data for the entire island. Accounts of the settlement of Iceland, however, suggest that different regions received different proportions of Norse and Celtic settlers, indicating the need to incorporate geographic variation into Icelandic admixture studies. A formal likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis of regional homogeneity in admixture proportions. Here, regional admixture estimates for Iceland are reported; they are in agreement with the settlement pattern inferred from historical accounts. The western, northern, and southern regions of Iceland exhibit a moderate Celtic component, consistent with historical indications that these regions were settled by Norse Vikings from the British Isles, accompanied by Celtic wives and slaves. Eastern Iceland, believed to have been settled chiefly by Vikings from Scandinavia, is characterized by a large Norse component of admixture. The northwestern peninsula is also found to be predominantly Norse. Regional genetic data are used to elucidate the contemporary population structure of Iceland. The observed structure correlates well with patterns of Icelandic geography, history, economy, marriage, urbanization, and internal migration. The northeastern region is strongly isolated, the urbanized areas of the north and southwest are representative of the overall population, and the remaining regions exhibit small-scale variation about the genetic central tendency. A high level of genetic homogeneity is indicated (RST = 0.0005), consistent with the high internal migration rate of the Icelanders. A regression of mean per-locus heterozygosity on distance from the gene frequency centroid reveals a greater than average external gene flow into the eastern region, whereas the northwestern peninsula has received less than average external gene flow. Iceland is compared with

  15. Cerium anomaly across the mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion (TICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Morales, D. C.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Mississippian (ca. 359-345 Ma) represents one of the most important greenhouse-icehouse climate transitions in Earth history. Closely associated with this critical transition is a prominent positive carbon isotope excursion (δ13C ≥ +5‰) that has been documented from numerous stratigraphic successions across the globe. This δ13C excursion, informally referred to as the TICE (mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion) event, has been interpreted as resulting from enhanced organic carbon burial, with anticipated outcomes including the lowering of atmospheric CO2 and global cooling, the growth of continental ice sheets and sea-level fall, and the increase of ocean oxygenation and ocean redox changes. The casual relationship between these events has been addressed from various perspectives but not yet clearly demonstrated. To document the potential redox change associated with the perturbation of the carbon cycle, we have analyzed rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements across the TICE in two sections across a shallow-to-deep water transect in the southern Great Basin (Utah and Nevada), USA. In both sections, the REE data show a significant positive cerium (Ce) anomaly (Ce/Ce* = Ce/(0.5La+0.5Pr)). Prior to the positive δ13C shift, most Ce/Ce* values are around 0.3 (between 0.2 and 0.4). Across the δ13C peak, Ce/Ce* values increase up to 0.87, followed by a decrease back to 0.2~0.3 after the δ13C excursion (Figure 1). The positive Ce anomaly is best interpreted as recording expansion of oxygen minimum zone and anoxia resulted from increased primary production. This is consistent with a significant increase of nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) across the δ13C peak. Integration of the carbon, nitrogen, and REE data demonstrates a responsive earth systems change linked to the perturbation of the Early Mississippian carbon cycle.

  16. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  17. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  18. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun

    2012-01-01

    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  19. The Excursion Set Mass Function of Superclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Seunghwan

    2012-01-01

    The mass function of superclusters is derived fully analytically with the help of the extended excursion set theory and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results from various publicly available N-body simulation database. We introduce a new multi-dimensional barrier model in which the formation of superclusters occurs when the initial shear eigenvalues that perform non-Markovian random walks enter a clustering zone surrounded by one re ecting and two absorbing barriers. The multi-dimensional barrier heights are determined from the first order Lagrangian perturbation theory and found to be independent of redshift and background cosmology. With the help of our analytic model for the supercluster mass function, the relative abundance of the rich superclusters is analytically evaluated at a given epoch and found to be sensitive to the growth rate of the cosmic web. Our result implies that the relative abundance of the rich superclusters at a given epoch may be useful as a cosmological test of ...

  20. Paleomagnetic Excursion Recorded in Exposed Lacustrine Sediments on Paoha Island in Mono Lake, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in the Wilson Creek Formation that was deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell in the Mono Basin, CA, has been known for nearly 50 years. The research began in the late 1960s during a search for the Laschamp Excursion (LE) believed then to have occurred between about 20,000 and 9,000 years ago (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). Although that investigation was unsuccessful in locating the LE in the eroded bank of Wilson Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, which is the remnant of Lake Russell, anomalous field behavior was documented that is the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We did a PSV investigation of a portion of the Wilson Creek Formation where it is exposed on Paoha Island in the center of Mono Lake. Using volcanic ash layers from the nearby Mono Craters as stratigraphc marker beds and the tephrochronology of Lajoie (1993), we located anomalous field behavior that is similar to the field behavior during the MLE with some exceptions. One is the onset of negative inclination 45 cm beneath a 7-cm rhyolitic ash bed. That position is four times lower in the formation than negative inclination beneath Ash 15 that is midway in the MLE at three localities in the basin - Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs (Liddicoat, 1992). Declination, inclination, and relative field intensity (RFI) where we sampled on Paoha Island are different enough from the paleomagnetic field behavior during the MLE that the possibility exists that a second excursion is recorded in the Wilson Creek Formation. We will present the paleomagnetic directions and RFI that are recorded on Paoha Island for that field behavior.

  1. Potential for water-table excursions induced by seismic events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Barr, George E.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    1991-12-01

    The possibility that 100-200 m changes in water-table elevation can be mechanically induced by earthquakes is a consideration in site studies of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. However, numerical simulations of tectonohydrologic coupling involving earthquakes typical of the Basin and Range province produce 2-3 m excursions of a water table that is 500 m below the land surface. Even displacements corresponding to extraordinary seismic events drive water-table excursions of less than 20 m. Flow resulting from earthquake-induced pore-pressure fields below the water table tends to be mainly horizontal; vertical flows that cause changes of the level of the water table are secondary. Strongly anisotropic permeability, intended to enhance vertical flow within fault zones, only doubles water-table rise in the models considered. These simulations of water-table rise compare well with observations following large earthquakes in the Basin and Range. Our models suggest that exceptional hydrologic and/or tectonic conditions would be required to produce substantially larger water-table rises.

  2. Paleointensities of the Auckland Excursion from Volcanic Rocks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, N.; Tsunakawa, H.; Shibuya, H.; Cassidy, J.; Smith, I. E.

    2001-12-01

    are similar to those of about 45ka excursion; 1.2*E22} ~2.3*E{22Am2 from France (Roperch et al., 1988; Chauvin et al., 1989) and 1.1*E22Am2 from Iceland (Marshall et al., 1988; Levi et al., 1990).

  3. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  4. Research on aging in Iceland: future potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Adalsteinn

    2004-02-01

    Iceland is a small but prototypic western society strategically located between mainland Europe and North America. Through private and public funding, Iceland is a model in the making for opportunities in research on aging. Its ethnically and socioeconomically homogenous population served by an advanced health care system has historically been exceptionally supportive and willing to participate in both trans-sectional and cohort studies. Interdisciplinary geriatric care is well established and Iceland was on of the first countries to adapt from the US, the resident assessment instrument (RAI), which makes comparison of long-term care between countries very feasible. Among a number of biotech companies recently established in Iceland is Deocode, a leading company in the field of linking genetic variation to diseases. A major population study on interactions between age, genes and environment (AGES) was launched by the Icelandic Heart Association in 2002 through support from the NIA and the Icelandic government. Ultimately, one may expect that a cutting edge aging research in Iceland will contribute to our understanding of how to maintain a better health, independence and active participation in later life.

  5. EXCURSIONS AND L(E')VY SYSTEM OF BOUNDARY PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE PING; YING JIANGANG

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the joint distribution of end points of excursion awayfrom a closed set straddling on a fixed time and use this result to compute the Levy systemand the Dirichlet form of the boundary process.

  6. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Fishing Excursions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing excursion information, including summary tables of: Fishing/culling efforts, including date, islets, latitude/longitude, fishing method, soak times, culled...

  7. Excursions in Stable Carbon Isotopes at the End-Triassic Mass Extinction: Eastern North America and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Et-Touhami, M.

    2012-04-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE) at 201.4 million years ago is one of the five largest ecological disasters of the last 600 million years. Its cause is thought to be related to flood basalt eruptions of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). In eastern North America, non-marine deposits recording this extinction occur below the oldest basalts (1), whereas in Morocco the extinction appears to be synchronous or possibly above the oldest basalt flow (2). In marine and paralic strata of Europe, the extinction is marked by a distinct negative carbon isotopic (δ13C) excursion (CIE) (3). This CIE is also apparent in organic carbon records from eastern North America (4,5). Here we present new δ13C data from organic carbon and terrestrial plant derived n-alkanes from the Central High Atlas and Argana basins [6] of Morocco). These data also suggest that the CIE is coincident with the ETE. In the Passaic Formation of the Newark basin, the negative excursion is associated with the palynofloral extinction level and a fern spore abundance anomaly (fern spike) (7). In the Silver Ridge core (B-2) from the Hartford basin (Connecticut), the negative excursion is also associated with an equisetalian spore spike. In the Fundy basin, at Partridge Island, Nova Scotia, the negative excursion occurs at the palynofloral extinction level, below the oldest basalts [here and (5)], and in Morocco it occurs just below the oldest basalts where Triassic pollen taxa are still present [here and 6)]. One interpretation is that the CIE is synchronous globally and reflects a major anomaly in the Earth's carbon cycle (e.g., 8). However, it is also possible that this pattern is a coincidence of artifactual enrichments of 12C in depositional and early diagenetic environments cut off from the exchangeable global reservoirs, such as in eastern North American lakes (4) and possibly in the canonical shallow marine sections from the UK. Distinguishing between these two classes of hypotheses is

  8. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling simulations performed with theWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.......6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0e5.5. In any season......, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 and 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 and 1500 W m_2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations...

  9. FAST TRACK PAPER: Older crust underlies Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2006-05-01

    The oldest rocks outcropping in northwest Iceland are ~16 Myr old and in east Iceland ~13 Myr. The full plate spreading rate in this region during the Cenozoic has been ~2 cm a-1, and thus these rocks are expected to be separated by ~290 km. They are, however, ~500 km apart. The conclusion is inescapable that an expanse of older crust ~210 km wide underlies Iceland, submerged beneath younger lavas. This conclusion is independent of any considerations regarding spreading ridge migrations, jumps, the simultaneous existence of multiple active ridges, three-dimensionality, or subsidence of the lava pile. Such complexities bear on the distribution and age of the older crust, but not on its existence or its width. If it is entirely oceanic its maximum age is most likely 26-37 Ma. It is at least 150 km in north-south extent, but may taper and extend beneath south Iceland. Part of it might be continental-a southerly extension of the Jan Mayen microcontinent. This older crust contributes significantly to crustal thickness beneath Iceland and the ~40 km local thickness measured seismically is thus probably an overestimate of present-day steady-state crustal production at Iceland.

  10. Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to prevent a flow excursion from occurring in one or more of these parallel channels. During full-power operation, limits prevented a boiling flow excursion from taking place. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increases beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of historical levels.

  11. Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations.

  12. Possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion in cored sediment from Clear Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Verosub, Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    We report the possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in cored sediment from Clear Lake, CA. The locality (39.0˚N, 237.3˚E) is about 120 km north of San Francisco, CA, and 320 km northwest of the Mono Basin, CA, where the MLE first was discovered in North America (Denham and Cox, 1971). The field behaviour at Clear Lake that might be the MLE is recorded in clay and peaty clay about 50 cm below the top of the lowermost 80-cm core slug of a 21.6-m core. The coring was done by the wire-line method (Sims and Rymer, 1975) and the samples (rectangular solids 21 mm on a side and 15 mm high) were measured in a cryogenic magnetometer after demagnetization in an alternating field to 35 milliTesla (Verosub, 1977). The continuously-spaced samples record negative inclination of nearly 20˚ and northerly declination when unnormalized relative field intensity was reduced by an order of magnitude from the mean value. Those palaeomagnetic directions are followed immediately by positive inclination to about 50˚ and easterly declination of about 60˚ when the field intensity is at a relative high. That pattern of behaviour is recorded at three localities (Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs) in the Mono Basin at the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at Clear Lake form a clockwise-trending loop that is centered at 65˚N, 20˚E in the hemisphere away from the locality. The VGP that is farthest from the North Geographic Pole is at 29.3˚N, 337.1˚E, which is close to the path formed by the VGPs in the older portion of the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). The age of the sediment recording the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions in Clear Lake is about 30,000 years B.P. (Verosub, 1977). That age was determined from six (uncalibrated) radiocarbon dates, three of which are from near the base of the core (Sims and Rymer, 1975) where there are the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions, and linear

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  14. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  15. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2016-01-01

    rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students......Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...

  16. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.

    2001-03-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may ressemble chemical alteration on Mars. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic samples are presented.

  17. Difficulties and solutions of learning Icelandic for foreigners

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Soffía Yujing, 1989-

    2012-01-01

    This thesis mainly focuses on difficulties in learning Icelandic, as well as analyzing and suggesting measures for improvements of these difficulties. Icelandic is a hard language to learn and many foreigners have encountered great difficulties in the learning process. The syntax of Icelandic is unique and complex, take the nouns for example, this part of speech can be divided into three genders, each with very complex transformations. Icelandic pronunciation of some letters is unusual, an...

  18. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  19. Possible Recording of the Hilina Pali Excursion in Cored Tyrrhenian Sea Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Marina; Liddicoat, Joseph; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto; de Anteriis, Giovanni; Insinga, Donatella; Angelino, Antimo

    2013-04-01

    First encountered in marine sediment cored from the Gulf of Mexico (19.5˚ N, 267.0˚ E)(Clark and Kennett, 1973), the Hilina Pali Excursion (HPE) is named for a locality in Hawaii (19.5˚ N, 205.0˚ E) where inclination of about negative 40˚ is documented in cored basalt (Teanby et al., 2002). Prior to naming the excursion, Coe et al. (1978) also found shallow inclination in basalt from Kilauea Volcano (19.2˚ N, 204.7˚ E) that is dated at about 18,000 yrs B.P. (uncorrected Carbon-14, Rubin and Berthold, 1961) - the age now assigned to the HPE - and was erupted when the field intensity was reduced to nearly half the present intensity. More recently, the HPE was located at Changbaishan Volcano in northeastern China (40.2˚ N, 128.0˚ E) where the age is established by Ar40/Ar39 dates (Singer et al., 2011). In exposed lake sediments in the Mono Basin, CA (38.0˚ N, 240.8˚ E), shallow positive inclination at about 18,000 yrs B.P. might also be the HPE. In the Mono Basin, normalized (NRM/ARM) intensity is reduced at that time (Zimmerman et al., 2006), and the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) during the reduced intensity form a clockwise trending loop when followed from old to young that descends to 53.8˚ N, 22.7˚ E (n = 6, Alpha-95 = 2.3˚) and is centered at about 50˚ N, 30˚ E (Coe and Liddicoat, 2012). There is a possible excursion of the palaeomagnetic field recorded in marine sediment at a locality in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 25 km south of Ischia (40.5˚ N, 13.7˚ E). The excursion is in sediment from two core segments that span about 22,000-18,000 yrs B.P. (de Alteriis et al., 2010) and occurs as reduced positive inclination (about 50˚) at about 20,000 yrs B.P. that increases to about 80˚ at about 18,000 yrs B.P. when declination changes from west to east. This pattern of field behaviour is similar to the behaviour of the possible HPE in the Mono Basin (Coe and Liddicoat, 2012) and in sediment cored from Lac du Bouchet, FR (44.9˚ N, 3.8˚ E) that is

  20. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Leads Delegation to Iceland and Denmark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Icelandic-Chinese Cultural So-ciety (ICCS) and the Friendship Association Denmark-China, the CPAFFC delegation headed by President Chen Haosu visited Iceland, Denmark and the Faroe Islands from November 18 to 29, 2003.On November 22, in collaboration with the ICCS and the Chinese Association of Iceland, the delegation held a kite show

  1. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of building information modelling (BIM) in the Nordic countries of Europe with particular focus on the Danish building industry with the aim of making use of its experience for the Icelandic building industry. Design....../methodology/aptroach – The research is based on two separate analyses. In the first part, the deployment of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Icelandic building industry is investigated and compared with the other Nordic countries. In the second part the experience in Denmark from implementing and working...... for making standards and guidelines related to BIM. Public building clients are also encouraged to consider initiating projects based on making simple building models of existing buildings in order to introduce the BIM technology to the industry. Icelandic companies are recommended to start implementing BIM...

  2. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines...... Registry to calculate prevalence of use by year and psychotropic drug group; incidence by year, psychotropic drug group, child's age and sex, and medical specialty of prescriber; the most commonly used psychotropic chemical substances, off-label and unlicensed use and concomitant psychotropic drug use....... RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 48.7 per 1000 Icelandic children in 2007. Stimulants and antidepressants increased in prevalence from 2003 to 2007 and were the two most prevalent psychotropic drug groups, respectively, 28.4 and 23.4 per 1000 children in 2007. A statistically...

  3. Joekulhlaups in Iceland: Characteristics and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, H.

    2000-08-01

    Glacier outburst floods, joekulhlaups, are frequent in Iceland. They can be traced to three types of sources: (1) to subglacial lakes at geothermal areas, (2) to melt water drained during volcanic eruptions, and (3) to marginal ice dammed lakes. Joekulhlaups are major events; they may profoundly affect landscape and they threaten human life and property. In Iceland, joekulhlaups have caused loss of lives, ruined farms and cultivated land, and devastated large vegetated areas. They threaten roads, bridges, and hydroelectric power plants on glacier-fed rivers. Their effects on landscape are seen in the erosion of large canyons and in the transport and deposition of sediments over sandur deltas. The present lecture gives an overview of joekulhlaups in Iceland, their sources, triggering, and drainage. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  4. The Oxidant Budget of Dissolved Organic Carbon Driven Isotope Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, T. F.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Negative carbon isotope values, falling below the mantle average of about -5 per mil, in carbonate phases of Ediacaran age sedimentary rocks are widely regarded as reflecting negative excursions in the carbon isotopic composition of seawater lasting millions of years. These isotopic signals form the basis of chemostratigraphic correlations between Ediacaran aged sections in different parts of the world, and have been used to track the oxidation of the biosphere. However, these isotopic values are difficult to accommodate within limits prescribed by the current understanding of the carbon cycle, and a hypothetical Precambrian ocean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool 100 to 1000 times the size of the modern provides a potential source of depleted carbon not considered in Phanerozoic carbon cycle budgets. We present box model results that show the remineralization of such a DOC pool to drive an isotope excursion of the magnitude observed in the geological record exhausts global budgets of free oxygen and sulfate in 800 k.y. These results are incompatible with the estimated duration of late Ediacaran isotope excursions of more than 10 m.y., as well as geochemical and biological indicators that oceanic sulfate and oxygen levels were maintained or even increased at the same time. Therefore the carbon isotope record is probably not a useful tool for monitoring oxygen levels in the atmosphere and ocean. Covariation between the carbon and oxygen isotope records is often observed during negative excursions and is indicative of local processes or diagenetic overprinting.

  5. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-03-01

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order.

  6. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would...... in March 1996 or from the regulatory intervention in January 1997. CONCLUSIONS: The main argument used for liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland was built on false assumptions regarding the effect on drug reimbursement costs to the state. It will be necessary to find more promising...

  7. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  8. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  9. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  10. Iceland as a Landscape Investigation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanini, Manuela Silvia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Icelanders continue an ancient dialogue. Nature is part of their soul and they take with them bits of their terrestrial landscape when they move to the elsewhere. When they move out in the sea they often name their ships or boats after natural spots (waterfalls, mountains, etc., Moving to the town, architects build monuments inspired by wild nature like Hallgrimskirkja (inspired by Hraundrangar and the columnar basalt or Perlan (inspired by the Geysir and the geothermal water. This is the way Icelanders compensate and take care of their perennial landscape nostalgia.

  11. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  12. Ultrasonographic assessment of flexor tendon mobilization: Effect of different protocols on tendon excursion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); J. Soeters (Johannes); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); P.C. Amadio (Peter ); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of

  13. Ultrasonographic assessment of flexor tendon mobilization: Effect of different protocols on tendon excursion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); J. Soeters (Johannes); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); P.C. Amadio (Peter ); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of

  14. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  15. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would lower...

  16. Iceland's renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverrisdottir, V.

    2000-07-01

    The base of Iceland's natural resource consists of the fish stocks in the sea surrounding the country, the land with its soil and vegetation, enormous quantity of hot and cold spring water and renewable energy resources - both geothermal and hydro. The clean environment of the country, on which food-processing and tourism are based, may also be regarded as one of our most important natural resources. At last but not least the utilization of these resources are based on the highly educated and civilized people living in the country. In terms of the population size, Iceland has considerable untapped reserves of renewable energy. Further harnessing of these reserves for economic and sustainable development is an important task for the future and will probably play a large role in maintaining a high standards of living in Iceland in the near future. In this address I would like to say a few words about Iceland's energy resources, how we have utilized them, the main environmental aspects of the future utilisation and the governmental energy policy. (orig.)

  17. Broiler Contamination and Human campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic briler chicken carcasses and human disease, 1617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to 289 isol...

  18. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  19. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  20. Professional Learning outside the Classroom: Expedition Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie; Bull, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A bunch of intrepid teachers spent a week in Iceland in a quest to learn more about the country's challenging landscape, by engaging in a unique and inspiring professional development opportunity to learn about innovative ways to teach science and mathematics outside of a classroom setting. A 2008 Ofsted report highlighted the benefits of learning…

  1. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  2. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  3. Multicultural Education in Iceland: Vision or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Elsa Sigriour; Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the development of educational policy and curricula in relation to the development of a multicultural society in Iceland are critically discussed. Neither policy nor national curriculum guides refer particularly to multicultural society, multicultural or intercultural education. Implementations of equity principles are not clear in…

  4. Reporting from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Geoscience-related topics are in many cases difficult to communicate to the public: Often they include dead soil which not easily tells lively stories. And it is hard to sell those topics to editors of public media. In addition the topics might also be politically supercharged if they are resource-related with a visible environmental impact. Therefore any researcher involved might be overcautious while talking to journalists. With a grant from the EGU Science Journalist Fellowship I travelled to Iceland in autumn 2016 to report about the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The project which started just weeks prior to my arrival aimed to drill the deepest borehole in a volcanically active region. During earlier trials the borehole collapsed or the drill string unintentionally hit magma. If successful the IDDP promises a much higher level of geothermal energy harvested. The IDDP was therefore ideally suited to be sold to public media outlets since Iceland's volcanic legacy easily tells a lively story. But the drilling's potential environmental impact makes it a political topic in Iceland - even though geothermal energy has a positive public perception. Therefore the IDDP included some pitfalls I observed several times before while reporting about geoscience research. Those could be circumvented if researchers and journalists knew better about their expectations before any interview takes place.

  5. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Iceland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  6. Martian hillside gullies and icelandic analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Sigurdsson, Freysteinn

    2003-04-01

    We report observations of Icelandic hillside gully systems that are near duplicates of gullies observed on high-latitude martian hillsides. The best Icelandic analogs involve basaltic talus slopes at the angle of repose, with gully formation by debris flows initiated by ground water saturation, and/or by drainage of water from upslope cliffs. We report not only the existence of Mars analog gullies, but also an erosional sequence of morphologic forms, found both on Mars and in Iceland. The observations support hypotheses calling for creation of martian gullies by aqueous processes. Issues remain whether the water in each case comes only from surficial sources, such as melting of ground ice or snow, or from underground sources such as aquifers that gain surface access in hillsides. Iceland has many examples of the former, but the latter mechanism is not ruled out. Our observations are consistent with the martian debris flow mechanism of F. Costard et al. (2001c, Science295, 110-113), except that classic debris flows begin at midslope more frequently than on Mars. From morphologic observations, we suggest that some martian hillside gully systems not only involve significant evolution by extended erosive activity, but gully formation may occur in episodes, and the time interval since the last episode is considerably less than the time interval needed to erase the gully through normal martian obliteration processes.

  7. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  8. TFIT Modeling of Wave Propagation for Flow Excursion

    OpenAIRE

    Grubbs, Brachston; Chetty, Krishna; Bertodano, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the nuclear power industry, the Two-Fluid Model (TFM) is mainly used in the simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The Two-Fluid Model is a wave mechanics formulation that may also be used to analytically perform stability analysis, which requires numerous assumptions and simplifications. This project aimed to advance the TFIT-TFM simulations in the modeling of the flow excursion instability. By using the TFIT computational code, simulation results can be obtained without the need ...

  9. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  10. Speckle tracking as a method to measure hemidiaphragm excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutman, Stephen A; Hamilton, James D; Swihart, Blake; Foerster, Bradley; Feldman, Eva L; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Diaphragm excursion measured via ultrasound may be an important imaging outcome measure of respiratory function. We developed a new method for measuring diaphragm movement and compared it to the more traditional M-mode method. Ultrasound images of the right and left hemidiaphragms were collected to compare speckle tracking and M-mode measurements of diaphragm excursion. Speckle tracking was performed using EchoInsight (Epsilon Imaging, Ann Arbor, Michigan). Six healthy subjects without a history of pulmonary diseases were included in this proof-of-concept study. Speckle tracking of the diaphragm is technically possible. Unlike M-mode, speckle tracking carries the advantage of reliable visualization and measurement of the left hemidiaphragm. Speckle tracking accounted for diaphragm movement simultaneously in the cephalocaudad and mediolateral directions, unlike M-mode, which is 1-dimensional. Diaphragm speckle tracking may represent a novel, more robust method for measuring diaphragm excursion, especially for the left hemidiaphragm. Muscle Nerve 55: 125-127, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Excursion Sets and Non-Gaussian Void Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Noreña, Jorge; Paranjape, Aseem

    2010-01-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity (NG) affects the large scale structure (LSS) of the universe by leaving an imprint on the distribution of matter at late times. Much attention has been focused on using the distribution of collapsed objects (i.e. dark matter halos and the galaxies and galaxy clusters that reside in them) to probe primordial NG. An equally interesting and complementary probe however is the abundance of extended underdense regions or voids in the LSS. The calculation of the abundance of voids using the excursion set formalism in the presence of primordial NG is subject to the same technical issues as the one for halos, which were discussed e.g. in arXiv:1005.1203. However, unlike the excursion set problem for halos which involved random walks in the presence of one barrier $\\delta_c$, the void excursion set problem involves two barriers $\\delta_v$ and $\\delta_c$. This leads to a new complication introduced by what is called the "void-in-cloud" effect discussed in the literature, which is unique to the...

  12. Ca and Mg isotope constraints on the origin of Earth's deepest δ13 C excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Jon M.; Higgins, John A.; Maloof, Adam C.; Schoene, Blair

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the extreme carbon isotope excursions found in carbonate rocks of the Ediacaran Period (635-541 Ma), where δ13 C of marine carbonates (δ13 Ccarb) reach their minimum (- 12 ‰) for Earth history, is one of the most vexing problems in Precambrian geology. Known colloquially as the 'Shuram' excursion, the event has been interpreted by many as a product of a profoundly different Ediacaran carbon cycle. More recently, diagenetic processes have been invoked, with the very negative δ13 C values of Ediacaran carbonates explained via meteoric alteration, late-stage burial diagenesis or growth of authigenic carbonates in the sediment column, thus challenging models which rely upon a dramatically changing redox state of the Ediacaran oceans. Here we present 257 δ 44 / 40 Ca and 131 δ26 Mg measurements, along with [Mg], [Mn] and [Sr] data, from carbonates of the Ediacaran-aged Wonoka Formation (Fm.) of South Australia to bring new isotope systems to bear on understanding the 'Shuram' excursion. Data from four measured sections spanning the basin reveal stratigraphically coherent trends, with variability of ∼1.5‰ in δ26 Mg and ∼1.2‰ in δ 44 / 40 Ca. This Ca isotope variability dwarfs the 0.2-0.3 ‰ change seen coeval with the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, the largest recorded in the rock record, and is on par with putative changes in the δ 44 / 40 Ca value of seawater seen over the Phanerozoic Eon. Changes in both isotopic systems are too large to explain with changes in the isotopic composition of Ca and Mg in global seawater given modern budgets and residence times, and thus must be products of alternative processes. Relationships between δ 44 / 40 Ca and [Sr] and δ26 Mg and [Mg] are consistent with mineralogical control (e.g., aragonite vs. calcite, limestone vs. dolostone) on calcium and magnesium isotope variability. The most pristine samples in the Wonoka dataset, preserving Sr concentrations (in the 1000s of ppm range) and δ 44 / 40

  13. Assessing the duration and possible causes of the earliest Toarcian carbon isotopic excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Bodin, Stéphane; Suan, Guillaume; Kabiri, Lahcen; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The early Toarcian stage (Early Jurassic) records two short-lived events of major faunal turnover and environmental perturbation. The first event (eT-E) occurs during the earliest Toarcian (early Polymorphum chronozone) and has been documented only in a few sites worldwide. The second event, better known as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) has been documented in numerous sites from Northern Siberia to Argentina. Both events are marked by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) recorded in carbonate and organic substrate. Therefore they are thought to be associated with major changes in carbon cycling. Similarities between the eT-E and the T-OAE thus lead to the conclusion that these events might have been triggered by similar mechanisms. If this is the case, the CIEs associated with both events should have a comparable duration. In order to valid or falsify this hypothesis, it is therefore crucial to constrain the duration of both events. The duration of the T-OAE CIE was assessed in several papers by cyclostratigraphic analyses thanks to favourable outcropping condition. It is however not the case for the eT-E CIE, this latter being often associated with sedimentary condensation or hiatal surfaces. We make use of the high palaeo-subsidence rates of the Lower Toarcian Moroccan shelf leading to extended sections in the High Atlas Basin. The Foum Tillicht section was sampled in increments of 20 cm across a stratigraphic interval of 50 m, covering the Polymorphum chronozone. Carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses were performed on micritic and organic matter. Ammonites and nannofossils biostratigraphy aided in calibrating geochemical analyses. Carbon isotopes data display a rhythmic pattern. Preliminary results indicate that the eT-E negative carbon isotope excursion lasted around 400 kyr.

  14. Mr. Arnthor Helgason, Friendship Ambassador Between the People of China and Iceland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Icelandic Chinese Cul- tural Society (ICCS), a CPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Li Jianping visited Iceland from April 21 to 24. The Icelandic friends were waiting long to welcome the

  15. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...... was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D...

  16. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-07-01

    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  17. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  18. Food 
Security
 in
 Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food security applies in both poor and rich societies and concerns the steady availability of food in the right quantity and quality, at the right price. Globally, policies to assure it remain confused and world food prices are rising. Despite large exports of fish, Iceland produces only around half of its inhabitants’ nutritional needs and relies significantly on imports, also for food production inputs like fodder and seeds. Icelandic supplies are affected by oligopoly in the retail market, and could be put at risk by events in other security dimensions ranging from natural disasters and infrastructure failures to terrorism, neighbouring conflicts and other people’s shortages. Icelandic farmers have used the terminology of ‘food security’ to press their claims for more home-grown production, and more recently also in their campaign against EU membership. The general public however shows little sign of security-awareness in this field. The government possesses suitable non-military security frameworks to address food-related risks and has initiated useful, general and specific, studies. Yet it has not developed a strategy or contingency plan for food security, even following the lessons of the 2008 economic crash and 2010-2011 eruptions. Suitable remedies would include larger emergency stocks and a range of measures to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience in crises. Above all, Iceland needs a balanced and open policy-making process to decide what its general future strategy should be as a food-producing and -importing nation. Food security could then be more precisely defined and pursued with the aim of minimizing threats and risks to that agreed vision.

  19. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  20. Party cohesion in the Icelandic Althingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutional theories of party cohesion may be divided into "nomination theories" and "structure of the executive theories". The former seek explanations of cohesion in the way nominations are conducted, predicting that de-centralized and inclusive nominations will reduce party cohesion. The latter attempt to explain cohesion by reference to the structure of the executive, and predict that parliamentary government will increase cohesion. Party cohesion in the Icelandic Althingi has, hitherto, not been extensively studied. In this article, large amounts of data are explored to test hypotheses derived from the two theoretical approaches. The analysis is based on roll-call data dating back to 1961 and electronic voting records from 1991 onwards. The main conclusion is that party cohesion is at a high level in Iceland, despite decentralized and inclusive nominations, and hypotheses derived from nomination theories therefore find no support in our data. Hypotheses derived from "structure of the executive theories" fare much better and the main reason for high party cohesion in Iceland seems to be parliamentary government. Various features of our data, however, encourage us not to ignore other contextual features affecting party cohesion, which neither of the two institutional theories can account for satisfactorily.

  1. Geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. Initial findings are: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older ones; (2) ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 recorded volcanic eruptions on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes are mappable; (4) areas covered with new or residual snow can be mapped, and dark appearance of newly fallen snow on band 7 appears to be related to melting; (5) sediment plumes from discharge of glacial rivers can be delineated; (6) the area encompassed by glacial ice can be mapped, including the new position of a surging glacier, Eyjabakkajokull, and related phenomena of nunataks and moraines; (7) changes in position of rivers, lake sizes, and new lakes can be mapped; (8) low sun angle imagery enhances the morphologic expression of constructional glacial and volcanic landforms; (9) MSS color composites permit regional mapping of distribution of vegetation; and (10) at least at 1:250, 000 map scale and smaller, ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  2. Iceland spar and its legacy in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kristjánsson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the late 17th century, Rasmus Bartholin and Christiaan Huygens investigated a curious optical property of crystals found at Helgustaðir in Eastern Iceland. This property which has been called double refraction, revealed in the 19th century a new aspect of light which turned out to be very useful as a probe of the internal structure of matter. Clear specimens of these crystals, an unusually pure variety of calcite, have since around 1780 been known as ''Iceland spar''. Few if any other localities yielding calcite crystals of comparable size and quality were discovered before 1900, and no alternatives for use in precision optical instrumentation were developed until the 1930s. Hundreds of tons of calcite were exported from Helgustaðir, mostly between 1850 and 1925. However, little information has been found on trading routes for the material of optical quality, so that some enigmas remain regarding its supply-demand situation. A study of the scientific literature in the period up to 1930 has revealed that results obtained with the aid of Iceland spar accelerated progress within the earth sciences (in mineralogy and petrology, physics, chemistry, and biology, even by decades. This has also influenced the development of technology and of medicine in various direct and indirect ways.

  3. Structure of the carbon isotope excursion in a high-resolution lacustrine Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum record from central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Wang, Xu; Hu, Jianfang; Yang, Shiling; Zhu, Min; Dong, Xinxin; Tang, Zihua; Peng, Ping'an; Ding, Zhongli

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been recognized for the first time in the micritic carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) contained within the lacustrine sediments from the Nanyang Basin, central China. The remarkably large excursion (∼ - 6 ‰) in the δ13CTOC and δ13CBC values is possibly attributable to increased humidity and elevated pCO2 concentration. The ∼ - 4 ‰ CIE recorded in the δ13Ccalcite, reflecting the average isotope change of the watershed system, is consistent with that observed in planktonic foraminifera. This correspondence suggests that the true magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion in the ocean-atmosphere system is likely close to - 4 ‰. The ∼10 m excursion onset in our multi-proxy δ13C records demonstrates that the large input of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system was not geologically instantaneous. Despite difference and somewhat smoothness in detailed pattern of the CIE due to localized controls on different substrates, inorganic and organic δ13C data generally depict a gradual excursion onset at least over timescales of thousands of years. In addition, continental temperature reconstruction, based on the distribution of membrane lipids of bacteria, suggests a warming of ∼4 °C prior to the PETM and ∼7 °C increase in temperature during the PETM. The temperature data are overall similar in pattern and trend to the δ13C change across the PETM. These observations, combined with pre-CIE warming, are in line with the idea that 13C-depleted carbon release operated as a positive feedback to temperature, suggesting supply from one or more large organic carbon reservoirs on Earth's surface.

  4. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    isotope fractionation as large as ~ 37‰ appears to characterize the production of bulk organic matter in the deeper part of the Pretoria Basin at that time. This enhanced fractionation relative to that observed in shallow-water environments likely reflects heterotrophic (secondary) and chemotrophic productivity at and below a pronounced redoxcline, consistent with the euxinic conditions inferred from independent evidence for the deeper part of the Pretoria Basin. Greater variability in organic carbon vs. carbonate carbon isotopic values on the shallow-marine carbonate platform suggests that the carbon cycling was dominated by a large dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir during the Lomagundi excursion. Our study suggests that in contrast to the Late Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic, when carbon isotope fractionation between carbonate and organic carbon in the open ocean was mostly controlled by primary producers, in the Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified ocean heterotrophic and chemotrophic productivity overprinted a signal of primary productivity below the redoxcline. This strong imprint of heterotrophic and chemotrophic productivity on organic carbon isotope records complicates the reconstruction of spatial patterns and secular trends in the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Paleoproterozoic seawater.

  5. Right inverses of Levy processes: the excursion measure in the general case

    CERN Document Server

    Savov, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    This article is about right inverses of Levy processes as first introduced by Evans in the symmetric case and later studied systematically by the present authors and their co-authors. Here we add to the existing fluctuation theory an explicit description of the excursion measure away from the (minimal) right inverse. This description unifies known formulas in the case of a positive Gaussian coefficient and in the bounded variation case. While these known formulas relate to excursions away from a point starting negative continuously, and excursions started by a jump, the present description is in terms of excursions away from the supremum continued up to a return time. In the unbounded variation case with zero Gaussian coefficient previously excluded, excursions start negative continuously, but the excursion measures away from the right inverse and away from a point are mutually singular. We also provide a new construction and a new formula for the Laplace exponent of the minimal right inverse.

  6. Phosphogenesis associated with the Shuram Excursion: Petrographic and geochemical observations from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huan; Xiao, Shuhai; Zhou, Chuanming; Peng, Yongbo; Kaufman, Alan J.; Plummer, Rebecca E.

    2016-07-01

    The Ediacaran Period witnessed one of the largest phosphogenic events in Earth's history. Coincidently, some phosphorite deposits in South China are associated with the largest-known carbon isotope negative excursion (i.e., Shuram Excursion), suggesting an intimate coupling of the biogeochemical carbon and phosphorous cycles. However, the geomicrobiological linkage between these anomalies remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phosphorite samples from the uppermost Doushantuo Formation in South China. Carbon isotope compositions of authigenic calcite cements and nodules in the phosphorites are as low as -34‰ (VPDB). Petrographic and geochemical investigations indicate that the 13C-depleted carbonates likely formed as the result of microbial sulfate and iron reduction that released phosphorous from iron oxyhydroxide, concentrating phosphorous in pore waters, and thereby promoting phosphate mineralization. The timing of this event appears to coincide with enhanced sulfate delivery to seawater through continental weathering. The basin-scale distribution of Doushantuo phosphorites suggests a redox control on the availability of iron oxyhydroxide and the recycling of pore water phosphorous. Both inner and outer shelf regions were likely characterized by an oxic water column, and were the main loci for phosphogenesis; on the contrary, intra-shelf and slope regions, which are lean in phosphorite, were subjected to euxinic or ferruginous water column conditions. The intimate coupling between Ediacaran phosphogenesis and the Shuram Excursion suggests strong links among seawater redox conditions, C-S-P-Fe cycling, and fossil phosphatization. Increased microbial sulfate reduction driven by enhanced sulfate reservoir in the Ediacaran ocean may have played an essential role on these biogeochemical events.

  7. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  8. Spinodal Instabilities and Super-Planckian Excursions in Natural Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Andreas; Richard, Benoit J

    2014-01-01

    Models such as Natural Inflation that use Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (PNGB's) as the inflaton are attractive for many reasons. However, they typically require trans-Planckian field excursions $\\Delta \\Phi>M_{\\rm Pl}$, due to the need for an axion decay constant $f>M_{\\rm Pl}$ to have both a sufficient number of e-folds {\\em and} values of $n_s,\\ r$ consistent with data. Such excursions would in general require the addition of all other higher dimension operators consistent with symmetries, thus disrupting the required flatness of the potential and rendering the theory non-predictive. We show that in the case of Natural Inflation, the existence of spinodal instabilities (modes with tachyonic masses) can modify the inflaton equations of motion to the point that versions of the model with $f

  9. Magnetosheath excursion and the relevant transport process at the magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Cai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-amplitude excursion of the magnetosheath (MS in quiet solar wind conditions on 17 March 2004 was recorded simultaneously by the Cluster and TC-1 spacecraft. During this period, the IMF Bz was entirely northward. The coherence between the bow shock motion and magnetopause (MP motion is revealed and the excursion velocities of the bow shock motion are analyzed. In addition, the relevant plasma transport phenomenon in the form of flux fluctuations below the ion gyrofrequency at the MP is exposed and is interpreted as manifestation of the drift instability. Correlated observations on charge accumulation and electrostatic potential perturbation are recorded by electron measurements in high energy regime, and also the eventual cross-field vortex motion in the nonlinear stage and the consequential mass exchange are exhibited. The present investigation gives some new insight into the MS plasma transport mechanism across the subsolar MP region in quiet solar wind conditions during a period of northward IMF.

  10. The Acquisition of Reflexives and Pronouns by Icelandic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurjonsdottir, Sigridur; And Others

    An experimental study of the interpretation of lexical anaphors and pronouns by Icelandic-speaking children is reported. The standard binding theory of English is reviewed, and problems in the application of the theory to Icelandic, which has long-distance antecedents, are discussed. A parameterized binding theory constructed to account for the…

  11. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  12. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic poll

  13. The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsdottir, Bjorg

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…

  14. Upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness under Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Drury, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Deglaciation during the Holocene on Iceland caused uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Relatively low estimates for the upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness result in rapid uplift responses to the deglaciation cycles on Iceland. The relatively high temperatures of the upper mant

  15. Icelandic for Adult Foreigners: Effects of Imposing an Icelandic Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Pamela; Skaptadóttir, Unnur Dís

    2017-01-01

    Legislation linking language course attendance and passage of a language test for residence visas and citizenship, respectively, was enacted in Iceland in the early 2000s. Curricular guidelines and the language test were developed as a result. Research in other countries suggests such structures cause teachers to create "de facto"…

  16. Levator excursion as a predictor of both eyelid lag and lagophthalmos in thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Gary J; Duong, Jimmy K; Kazim, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between levator excursion and both eyelid lag and lagophthalmos in thyroid eye disease. We retrospectively reviewed 104 eyelids of 52 thyroid eye disease patients over a 9-month interval by measuring levator function (mm), eyelid lag (0-4+) and lagophthalmos (mm). Lower levator excursion is associated with higher eyelid lag scores (p lagophthalmos (p lagophthalmos increases on average by 0.23 mm. Diminished levator excursion is associated with increasing levels of eyelid lag and lagophthalmos. Levator excursion is an important clinical measurement in thyroid eye disease patients and may replace eyelid lag grading and lagophthalmos as a more accurate indicator of eyelid retraction in thyroid eye disease.

  17. Work and Family Balance Among Icelandic Employees with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Audur Arna; Hreinsson, Sturla; Sigurjonsson, Olaf

    the standpoint of Icelandic working fathers and mothers, who had taken parental leave in previous 6 years. Total of 1300 participants, 53% male, mean age 35 years (4.9 SD), 98% were married/cohabiting, and 79% worked full time. Multiple hierarchical regression showed that Icelandic fathers experience more...... conflict and less enrichment than Icelandic mothers (controlled for age, number of children, and number of weekly work hours. Cohen’s d from.52 to.72). T-test for independent samples showed that Icelandic fathers experienced significantly more time and behavior related conflicts than Icelandic mothers......Work-family balance is one of the major organizational challenges of the 21st century. Extensive research has been conducted that assesses wf-balance from the conflict standpoint, but in recent years, benefits, resulting from simultaneous participation in the work and family role, have gained...

  18. The psychometric testing of the Nursing Teamwork Survey in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally.

  19. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  20. Os-He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites: Evidence for a Deep Origin of the Iceland Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Graham, David W.; Waight, Tod; Gautason, Bjarni

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on the origin of the Iceland hotspot suggests that it may result from upwelling upper mantle material rather than a deep plume. To constrain the depths of origins of Iceland mantle sources, Os and He isotope systematics were obtained on a suite picrites that span the compositional range observed within the neovolcanic zones.

  1. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  2. Eating Disorders in College Students in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaug Thorsteinsdottir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of eating disorders in Iceland is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders in a large sample of college students in Iceland. Methods: A sample of 3.052 students from around the country aged 15-20 years was used to determine prevalence of eating disorders. The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS and Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP were employed. Results: On the ESP, 51.3% of females and 22.9% of males report discontent with their eating patterns and 63% of the females and 30.9% of the males report that they are emotionally affected by their weight. The ESP returned 10.5% prevalence when cut off level of 3 responses in the direction of an eating disorder was used, and 20.3% when cut off level of 2 was applied. A total of 9.8% of participants received diagnosis with EDDS, 15.2 % of females and 1.9% of males. For anorexia nervosa 1.1% of females received a diagnosis but no male. For bulimia nervosa 5.6% of females and 0.8% of males received a diagnosis and for binge eating disorder 0.6% of females and 0.2% of males. Prevalence of all subthreshold diagnoses combined was 5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of eating disorders is high in college students in Iceland, bulimia nervosa being the most common diagnosis for both males and females.

  3. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Skrabalova, Lenka; Sigurdardottir, Gudmunda; Branis, Martin; Hladil, Jindrich; Chadimova, Leona; Skala, Roman; Navratil, Tomas; Menar, Sibylle von Lowis of; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric Dust Measurements (ADMI 2013) of one of the most active dust sources in Iceland (Mælifellsandur) were conducted during season with high precipitation on August 8th-18th, 2013. We measured mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10), particle size distributions in size range 0.3-10μm and number concentrations during rather small dust event. Dust samples of the event were analyzed (morpho-textural observations, optical and scanning-electron microscopy). Two TSI 8520 DustTrak Aerosol Monitors (light-scattering laser photometers that measure aerosol mass concentrations in range 0.001 to 100 mg/m3) and one TSI Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) 3330 (optical scattering from single particle up to 16 different channels - 0.3 to 10 μm - measuring particle size distribution) were used. We measured a dust event which occurred during wet and low wind/windless conditions as result of surface heating in August 2013. Maximum particle number concentration (PM~0.3-10 µm) reached 149954 particles cm-3 min-1 while mass concentration (PM1.5-5 µm in diameter. Close-to-ultrafine particle size distributions showed a significant increase in number with the severity of the dust event. Number concentrations were well correlated with mass concentrations. The mineralogy and geochemical compositions showed that glaciogenic dust contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles and 80 % of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals. Wet dust particles were mobilized within < 4 hours. Here we introduced a comprehensive study on physical properties of the Icelandic dust aerosol and the first scientific study of particle size distributions in an Icelandic dust event including findings on initiation of dust suspension.

  4. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  5. Statistics of Dark Matter Halos from the Excursion Set Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lapi, A; Danese, L

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the excursion set approach in integral formulation to derive novel, accurate analytic approximations of the unconditional and conditional first crossing distributions, for random walks with uncorrelated steps and general shapes of the moving barrier; we find the corresponding approximations of the unconditional and conditional halo mass functions for Cold Dark Matter power spectra to represent very well the outcomes of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In addition, we apply these results to derive and confront with simulations other quantities of interest in halo statistics, including the rates of halo formation and creation, the average halo growth history, and the halo bias. Finally, we discuss how our approach and main results change when considering random walks with correlated instead of uncorrelated steps, and Warm instead of Cold Dark Matter power spectra.

  6. Large field excursions from a few site relaxion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, N.; de Lima, L.; Machado, C. S.; Matheus, R. D.

    2016-07-01

    Relaxion models are an interesting new avenue to explain the radiative stability of the Standard Model scalar sector. They require very large field excursions, which are difficult to generate in a consistent UV completion and to reconcile with the compact field space of the relaxion. We propose an N -site model which naturally generates the large decay constant needed to address these issues. Our model offers distinct advantages with respect to previous proposals: the construction involves non-Abelian fields, allowing for controlled high-energy behavior and more model building possibilities, both in particle physics and inflationary models, and also admits a continuum limit when the number of sites is large, which may be interpreted as a warped extra dimension.

  7. Analysis of HCDA Power Excursions in KALIMER-150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, S. D.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    A number of calculations have been performed to analyze the hypothetical super-prompt-critical power excursion of KALIMER-150 for various reactivity insertion rates, ranging from 10$/s up to 100$/s, using the VENUS-II code modified for the analysis of a metal fueled core. Parametric studies were also carried out in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the calculations to the initial power level and temperature distributions, which are among the major initial conditions of uncertainties expected to influence the analysis results Some of the major changes made in this study to apply the VENUS-II code to the CDA analysis of the KALIMER-150 include the reactivity feedback models and the equations of state of pressure-energy density relationship for the metallic fuel. The equations of state were derived for the saturated-vapor as well as the single phase liquid of the metallic uranium fuel.

  8. Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs) provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.

  9. Proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem a mathematical excursion

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkis, Arie

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an excursion through the developmental area of research mathematics. It presents some 40 papers, published between the 1870s and the 1970s, on proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem and the related Bernstein division theorem. While the emphasis is placed on providing accurate proofs, similar to the originals, the discussion is broadened to include aspects that pertain to the methodology of the development of mathematics and to the philosophy of mathematics. Works of prominent mathematicians and logicians are reviewed, including Cantor, Dedekind, Schröder, Bernstein, Borel, Zermelo, Poincaré, Russell, Peano, the Königs, Hausdorff, Sierpinski, Tarski, Banach, Brouwer and several others mainly of the Polish and the Dutch schools. In its attempt to present a diachronic narrative of one mathematical topic, the book resembles Lakatos’ celebrated book Proofs and Refutations. Indeed, some of the observations made by Lakatos are corroborated herein. The analogy between the two books is clearly an...

  10. Phanerozoic and Neoproterozoic Negative Carbon Isotope Excursions, Diagenesis and Terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, K.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Comprehensive data sets of Phanerozoic and late Precambrian carbon isotope data derived from carbonate rocks show a similar positive relation when cross-plotted with oxygen isotope values. The range and slope between the time periods is identical and the processes responsible for the relation have been well documented in Quaternary sediments. These processes include the stabilization of isotope values to ambient meteoric water values during shallow burial and flushing of carbonate sediments. Both data sets show strongly depleted carbon (-9 per mil PDB) and oxygen isotope values that retain seemingly systematic stratigraphic patterns with the Quaternary and Phanerozoic examples that demonstrably record meteroric water values. Similar values and patterns in the Precambrian are interpreted as primary marine in origin with significant implications for an ocean carbon mass balance not possible in the Phanerozoic carbon cycle. A similar compilation of carbonates older than one billion years do not show a relation between carbon and oxygen isotopes, lacking the negative carbon values evident in the younger record. We hypothesize that this difference records the onset of significant organic carbon on the land surface and the alteration of meteoric waters toward Phanerozoic values. We demonstrate the meteoric affinities of Neoproterozoic carbonates containing prominent negative isotope excursions recorded in the Shuram and Wonoka Formations of Oman and South Australia commonly attributed to whole ocean isotope variation. The conspicuous absence of negative carbon isotope values with normal marine oxygenisotope values in the Phanerozoic and Neoproterozic identifies a consistent relation between these time intervals and suggests that, as well accepted in the Phanerozoic, negative carbon isotope excursions less than -3 per mil are not a record of marine processes, but rather the later terrestrial biotic influence on meteoric water values.

  11. Translator’s inferential excursions, with imagination in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Tokarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a literary work, signals that trigger reader’s inferential excursions allow the reader’s imagination to identify with and control the represented world. They constitute an important element of sense-generating mechanism. Thanks to imagination, the translator imitates the inferential mechanism of the original on various level’s of the text’s structure, activating the imagination of the reader. The translator’s imagination is bi- or multivalent in having the linguistic-semiotic, literary, and cultural quality. Although it manifests itself in language, it goes beyond the boundaries of language. Imagination is a form of consciousness which has no object of its own, and a medium connecting a specific non-imaginary knowledge with representations. It constitutes a mind faculty shaped on the basis of sensory and mental perception. It is derived from individual principles of perception and cognition data processing. It usually requires a stymulus to activate the capabilities of the imagining subject. As a mind faculty, imagination is based on the mental capability common to all people, which is the ability to create chains of associations.Translator’s respect for inferential excursions in the original text is necessary for retaining the original meaning, regardless of whether they occur on the phonetic-phonological level (as in Ionesco’s The Chairs, or on the level of image-semantic and syntactic relations (as in translation of Apollinaire’s Zone, or on the level of syntax (as in translation of Mrożek’s short stories into Slovenian, or on the level of cultural communication (as in Slovenian translation of Gombrowicz’s Trans-Atlantic.

  12. A Central Limit Theorem for the Volumes of High Excursions of Stationary Associated Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Demichev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove that under certain conditions the excursion sets volumes of stationary positively associated random fields converge after rescaling to the normal distribution as the excursion level and the size of the observation window grow. In addition, we provide a number of examples.

  13. Enamel erosion and mechanical tooth wear in medieval Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2016-01-01

    The Icelandic Sagas are an important source of information on the way of life and diet habits in Iceland and possibly other Nordic countries 1000 years ago. Archaeological human skull material worldwide has revealed extensive tooth wear, with the main cause believed to be coarse diet. From a graveyard near volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in Icelanders 1000 years ago. Forty-nine skulls were available for research. Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation. An attempt was made to determine the main causes of tooth wear in the light of likely diet and beverage consumption according to a computer search on food and drink customs described in the Icelandic Sagas. Tooth wear was extensive in all groups, increasing with age. The highest score was on first molars, with no difference between sexes. It had all the similarities seen in wear from coarse diet. In some instances it had similar characteristics to those seen in erosion in modern Icelanders consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and used for preservation of food in Iceland until recently. Since acidic whey has considerably high dental erosive potential, it is postulated that consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear of ancient Icelanders.

  14. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    stages to establish a clear derivational pattern that is productively used in the language to form new words. Having access to continuous written material in Icelandic from ca. 1200 to 2011 gives us the possibility to track this process through time and follow each step in the development.......This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood...

  15. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  16. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Gabriella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11. Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype, whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype. It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber

  17. Geochemistry and mineralogy of mafic Icelandic hyaloclastites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; Eyer, C.; Bindeman, I. N.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Hyaloclastite in the crust may be a cryptic contaminant contributing to some volatile-rich Icelandic basalts and in some places reach 2.5 km1. Hyaloclastites are highly fragmented composites of lithics, glass, and crystals in a palagonite matrix that form as a result of magma-ice or magma-water interactions. These rocks have high water content and porosity and a high initial glass content, which makes them susceptible to rapid alteration by ambient or hydrothermal waters and potentially fast digestion by magmas. Due to low density and ductility, they have the potential to stall ascending mantle-derived magmas to form sills, and in the process may contribute exotic volatile or fluid-mobile components. We have characterized the geochemistry and mineralogy of 18 hyaloclastite samples from the Reykjanes Peninsula (RP), Vestmannajyar, and the southern coast of Iceland. Major and trace elements were obtained using ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively, and mineralogy was determined by XRD. Loss on ignition is highly variable (0.44 - 15.7 wt.%) and positively correlated with alkali loss reflected in the Chemical Index of Alteration [34.8 - 51.3; CIA = Al2O3/(Al2O3+CaO+Na2O+K2O)]. Primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots for RP hyaloclastites are broadly similar to those for unaltered RP Holocene basalts. Two samples have trace element profiles resembling those of picrites in the region. The samples from the south coast and Vestmannaeyjar have OIB-like enrichments similar to local Holocene basalts. Five well-sorted hyaloclastite samples have broad humps in their XRD patterns from 20-50° 2q. These samples contain only primary magmatic mineral phases (plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene), if any, while other hyaloclastites contain both primary phases and secondary alteration phases including halite, calcite, clays, chlorite, and zeolites. Preliminary O and H isotope investigation demonstrates large ranges in both parameters. Future work will include oxygen isotope analyses

  18. Referential Subject and Object Gaps in Modern Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Pouplier

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nature of subject and object gaps in coordinate structures in Modern Icelandic. Modern Icelandic is considered to be a semi-pro-drop language, since it generally licenses only generic null subjects; object gaps only occur in the form of topic drop. Nevertheless it has been argued that MI licenses referential subject pro as well as referential object pro in certain (tightly restricted contexts. This assumption is based on the existence of coordinating constructions that exhibit referential subject and object gaps at the same time. While this paper follows previous proposals in assuming subject pro to be licit in coordinate structures, object argument gaps are assumed to be object-topic drop, which is independetly needed in the grammar of Icelandic. Under the analysis presented here, the previously reported null subject condition on null objects falls out from Icelandic word order facts.

  19. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinius, Hrafn

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  20. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  1. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  2. Mite allergy and mite exposure in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David

    2011-01-01

    In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area.

  3. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  4. The circulation of Icelandic waters – a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow, temperature and salinity fields of the North Atlantic including the Arctic Ocean covering the time period 1992 to 2006 are simulated with the numerical ocean model CODE. The model reveals several new insights and previously unknown structures which help us to clarify open questions on the regional oceanography of Icelandic waters. These relate to the structure and geographical distribution of the coastal current, the primary forcing of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC, the path of the Atlantic Water south-east of Iceland and the structure of the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ. The model's adaptively refined computational mesh has a maximum resolution of 1 km horizontal and 2.5 m vertical in Icelandic waters. CTD profiles from this region and the river discharge of 46 Icelandic watersheds, computed by the hydrological model WaSiM, are assimilated into the simulation. The model realistically reproduces the established elements of the circulation around Iceland. However, analysis of the simulated mean flow field also provides further insights. It suggests a distinct freshwater-induced coastal current that only exists along the south-west and west coasts which is accompanied by a counter-directed undercurrent. The simulated transport of Atlantic Water over the Icelandic shelf takes place in a symmetrical system of two currents, with the established NIIC over the north-western and northern shelf, and a current over the southern and south-eastern shelf herein called the South Icelandic Current (SIC. Both currents are driven by topographically induced distortions of the Arctic Front's barotropic pressure field. The SIC is simulated to be an upstream precursor of the Faroe Current (FC. The recently discovered North Icelandic Jet (NIJ also features in the model predictions and is found to be forced by the baroclinic pressure field of the Arctic Front, to originate east of the Kolbeinsey Ridge and to have a volume transport

  5. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  6. Icelandic Journalists & the Question of Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The question whether journalism constitutes a profession or not has been widely discussed in the literature in recent decades without a definite conclusion. Indeed some suggest that much of the contradictory views on professionalism and the professionalization of journalism may be traced to the unclear meaning of the very term “professionalism” or “professionalization” (Nolan 2008. Thus it is possible to put simultaneously forth plausible arguments suggesting de-professionalization of journalism on the one hand, and further professionalization of journalism on the other, based on different interpretations of the term “professionalism”. The terms “professional” and “professionalism” can refer to different social phenomena in different contexts. Thus an ongoing professionalization of journalism can be taking place in one sense at the same time as de-professionalization in a different sense, and of course, these different trends can also be taking place simultaneously in different parts of the media environment (Nolan, 2008; Hallin&Mancini, 2004; Witschge&Nygren, 2009; Schudson, 2001. In determining an approach to the concept of a profession it is helpful to establish some general criteria, against which journalistic practice may be measured. In finding these criteria, guidelines are given by the discussion of traditional professions - doctors, lawyers – and on that basis some characteristics can been said to signify a profession. To what extent is the work of Icelandic journalists characterised by professionalism, and to what extent do they, as an occupational group, exhibit the features normally associated with professions? The following analysis suggests that Icelandic journalists fulfil many of the key conditions associated with professions and their development in recent decades has been one of increased professionalism.

  7. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine.......The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  8. Planned Home Births in Iceland: Premise, Outcome, and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind Hálfdánsdóttir 1973

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitalization of childbirth in Iceland in the 20th century reduced home birth rates to less than 0.1% in 1990. Icelandic home birth rates have risen rapidly in the new millennium and were 2.2% in 2014. Recent studies in other Western countries have consistently shown lower rates of interventions and maternal morbidity in planned home births than in planned hospital births, while neonatal outcomes are dissimilar in different countries. These study results have been met with scept...

  9. Learning from Bjartur About Today's Icelandic Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economies are complex systems resulting from human action but not from human design. The economic success of Iceland in recent decades was the result of the development of good institutions combined with a positive global economic climate. The recent economic downturn, not just in Iceland but around the world, should be a reminder that good institutions matter and should serve as an exhortation to continue building good institutions rather than dismissing them in favor of institutions that generate poverty.

  10. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  11. Perception of ethics in the Icelandic Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This Master’s thesis deals with perception of ethics in the Icelandic aviation sector. It offers a qualitative study to answer the following central research questions: what is the perception of the ethical environment in the aviation sector of Iceland by its top-managers? To introduce the study, a literature review presents an overview of the concepts of ethics, corruption and bribery as well as culture and corporate social responsibility. A special focus is proposed on the different school ...

  12. HDU Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) Prototype Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Kennedy, Kriss; Tri, Terry; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project team constructed an analog prototype lunar surface laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a skunk-works approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the system integration strategies and lessons learned, that allowed the PEM to be brought from paper design to working field prototype using a multi-center team. The system integration process included establishment of design standards, negotiation of interfaces between subsystems, and scheduling fit checks and installation activities. A major tool used in integration was a coordinated effort to accurately model all the subsystems using CAD, so that conflicts were identified before physical components came together. Some of the major conclusions showed that up-front modularity that emerged as an artifact of construction, such as the eight 45 degree "pie slices" making up the module whose steel rib edges defined structural mounting and loading points, dictated much of the configurational interfaces between the major subsystems and workstations. Therefore, 'one of the lessons learned included the need to use modularity as a tool for organization in advance, and to work harder to prevent non-critical aspects of the platform from dictating the modularity that may eventually inform the fight system.

  13. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Factor Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options, resulting in scores. SCORE factors extend this capability by providing estimates of complexity relative to a base system (i.e., all design options are normalized to one weapon system). First, a clearly defined set of scope elements for a warhead option is established. The complexity of each scope element is estimated by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), including a level of uncertainty, relative to a specific reference system. When determining factors, complexity estimates for a scope element can be directly tied to the base system or chained together via comparable scope elements in a string of reference systems that ends with the base system. The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA-12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC). Historically, it has provided the data elicitation, integration, and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  14. Lichenological excursion In North Africa. I. Silicicolous lichens in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the first floristic results of a lichenologic excursion through some representative localities of Morocco. From the 110 silicicolous species recognized, 42 are, after our information, new to Morocco. Synonymy of 2 taxa is established: Pertusaria ludovicae R. G. Werner = P. ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. and Pertusaria rupícola (Fr. Harm. var. bispora R. G. Werner = Pertusaria gallica B. de Lesd. These two last species are lectotypified.

    Este trabajo contiene los primeros resultados florísticos de la excursión realizada a algunos puntos representativos de Marruecos. Se citan 110 táxones de líquenes de rocas ácidas, de los cuales 42 son, según nuestros datos, nuevas citas para Marruecos. Se sinonimizan dos táxones: Pertusaria ludovicae R. G. Werner = P. ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. y Pertusaria rupícola (Fr. Harm. var. bispora R. G. Werner = Pertusaria gallica B. de Lesd. Para cada uno de ellos se designa un lectótipo.

  15. [Infection risks associated with importation of fresh food in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Karl G; Georgsson, Franklín

    2015-06-01

    Access to safe food is a privilege for people living in Iceland. Rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance, related to factory farming and antimicrobial use in agriculture, is a major threat to public health. Increasing food trade between countries and continents facilitates global spread of pathogens and resistance. Icelandic agriculture has benefitted from its isolation and small size. After interventions to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at poultry farms, the incidence of human campylobacteriolsis is 17-43/100.000, of which about half is domestically acquired and Salmonella infections 10-15/100.000 mainly acquired abroad. Since Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has not been detected in domestic cattle, the low incidence of infections is not surprising (0-0.6/100.000/year). A recent outbreak due to a multiresistant EHEC strain was traced to imported lettuce. Antimicrobial use in Icelandic agriculture is among the lowest in Europe and domestic infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter are rarely caused by resistant strains. Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae have not been found in Iceland. Low use of antimicrobials in Icelandic agriculture and actions to limit the spread of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been successful. The public should be informed of the importance of the origin of food and that Icelandic food products are among the safest.

  16. Estimating Cs-137 fallout inventories in Iceland from precipitation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland); Howard, B.J.; Wright, S.M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Merlewood, Cumbria, (United Kingdom); Palsdottir, I. [Iceland Meteorological Office, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2002-12-01

    Iceland was identified in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) as one of the Arctic areas which received the most global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, due to relatively high precipitation rates compared with much of the Arctic and sub arctic. Cs-137 in the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem almost entirely originates from the nuclear weapons tests carried out in the atmosphere until the early sixties. Fallout was greatest in mid nineteen sixties. Additional fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was relatively small. The study gave preliminary information on the spatial variation in {sup 137} Cs deposition in Iceland, especially in areas used for agriculture. The objectives of the study were (1) to measure the spatial variation of radiocaesium inventories in soils in Iceland and (2) to compare the results with different approaches to predicting {sup 137} Cs contents in soil. This quantification is a necessary first step in an evaluation of vulnerability to radiocaesium deposition in Iceland. It is anticipated that Icelandic soils could be highly vulnerable to radiocaesium due to their volcanic nature and consequent lack of illitic minerals, as has been suggested by initial chemical studies on the properties of soils in the Nordic countries. (ln)

  17. Basic Paleomagnetism: Some old and new Lessons From Icelandic Lava Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, L.

    2008-05-01

    have generated a body of characteristic remanence directions and intensities from several thousand lava flows with excellent directional stability and within-flow agreement. Simple processing of these data can yield valuable insights into various properties of the paleo- geomagnetic field. Examples of such aspects include the frequency distribution of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) in latitude and longitude, and the relative average local field strength as a function of VGP latitude which can thus be estimated without difficult paleointensity studies. Yet another aspect of the field revealed in the large uniform data set from Icelandic lavas, is a long-term decrease in the amplitude of the secular variation and in excursions since 15 million years ago. The potential of Icelandic volcanics for worthwhile paleo- and rock-magnetic studies is inexhaustible, but few foreign groups have published results from here in the last 2-3 decades; see the author's website for a bibliography. Many areas of the country remain to be stratigraphically mapped, and the coverage of radiometric age determinations is still rather inadequate e.g. for accurate dating of polarity-zone boundaries. Finally, it may be noted that paleomagnetic work in Iceland has aided in the interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the island and its surroundings, which are more complex than anomalies over the mid-ocean ridges in general.

  18. WorldFengur - the studbook of origin for the Icelandic horse

    OpenAIRE

    Lorange, Jón Baldur

    2011-01-01

    WorldFengur is the database that contains and functions as the studbook of origin of the Icelandic horse. Only pure-bred Icelandic horses, whose ancestry can be traced back to Iceland entirely, may be registered into WorldFengur. The WorldFengur project is a joint effort by the FAIC (Farmers Association of Iceland) and FEIF (International Federation of Icelandic Horse Associations) to construct an official and central database on horses of Icelandic origin located all over the world. It is us...

  19. Iceland ,Small Country Witnessing Diversified Cooperation with China Interview with Ambassador of Iceland H. E. Mr. Gunnar Snorri Gunnarsson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Located in the North Europe, Iceland is a very beautiful country. Although very small with an area of 103,000 sq. km and a population of 308,000,and quite different in most respects such as geographical location, size, history, climate and political structures, it has developed very good relations with China. For instance, Iceland was the first European country to recognize China as a market economy.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of subtidal and intertidal crabs excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. C. F.; Boaventura, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mobile predators such as fish and crabs are known to migrate from the subtidal zone to forage in the intertidal zone at high-tide. The extent and variation of these habitat linking movements along the vertical shore gradient have not been examined before for several species simultaneously, hence not accounting for species interactions. Here, the foraging excursions of Carcinus maenas (L.), Necora puber (Linnaeus, 1767) and Cancer pagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) were assessed in a one-year mark-recapture study on two replicated rocky shores in southwest U.K. A comparison between the abundance of individuals present on the shore at high-tide with those present in refuges exposed at low-tide indicated considerable intertidal migration by all species, showing strong linkage between subtidal and intertidal habitats. Estimates of population size based on recapture of marked individuals indicated that an average of ~ 4000 individuals combined for the three crab species, can be present on the shore during one tidal cycle. There was also a high fidelity of individuals and species to particular shore levels. Underlying mechanisms for these spatial patterns such as prey availability and agonistic interactions are discussed. Survival rates were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model from multi-recapture analysis and found to be considerably high with a minimum of 30% for all species. Growth rates were found to vary intraspecifically with size and between seasons. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations in predation pressure by crabs on rocky shores is dependent on knowing who, when and how many of these commercially important crab species depend on intertidal foraging. Previous studies have shown that the diet of these species is strongly based on intertidal prey including key species such as limpets; hence intertidal crab migration could be associated with considerable impacts on intertidal assemblages.

  1. A global deglacial negative carbon isotope excursion in speleothem calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breecker, D.

    2015-12-01

    δ13C values of speleothem calcite decreased globally during the last deglaciation defining a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) despite relatively constant δ13C values of carbon in the ocean-atmosphere system. The magnitude of the CIE varied with latitude, increasing poleward from ~2‰ in the tropics to as much as 7‰ at high latitudes. This recent CIE provides an interesting comparison with CIEs observed in deep time. A substantial portion of this CIE can be explained by the increase in atmospheric pCO2 that accompanied deglaciation. The dependence of C3 plant δ13C values on atmospheric pCO2 predicts a 2‰ δ13C decrease driven by the deglacial pCO2 increase. I propose that this signal was transferred to caves and thus explains nearly 100% of the CIE magnitude observed in the tropics and no less than 30% at the highest latitudes in the compilation. An atmospheric pCO2 control on speleothem δ13C values, if real, will need to be corrected for using ice core data before δ13C records can be interpreted in a paleoclimate context. The decrease in the magnitude of the equilibrium calcite-CO2 carbon isotope fractionation factor explains a maximum of 1‰ of the CIE at the highest northern latitude in the compilation, which experienced the largest deglacial warming. Much of the residual extratropical CIE was likely driven by increasing belowground respiration rates, which were presumably pronounced at high latitudes as glacial retreat exposed fresh surfaces and/or vegetation density increased. The largest increases in belowground respiration would have therefore occurred at the highest latitudes, explaining the meridional trend. This work supports the notion that increases in atmospheric pCO2 and belowground respiration rates can result in large CIEs recorded in terrestrial carbonates, which, as previously suggested, may explain the magnitude of the PETM CIE as recorded by paleosol carbonates.

  2. Ulnar nerve excursion and strain at the elbow and wrist associated with upper extremity motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T W; Glowczewskie, F; Cowin, D; Wheeler, D L

    2001-07-01

    Significant excursion of the ulnar nerve is required for unimpeded upper extremity motion. This study evaluated the excursion necessary to accommodate common motions of daily living and associated strain on the ulnar nerve. The 2 most common sites of nerve entrapment, the cubital tunnel and the entrance of Guyon's canal, were studied. Five fresh-frozen, thawed transthoracic cadaver specimens (10 arms) were dissected and the nerve was exposed at the elbow and wrist only enough to be marked with a microsuture. Excursion was measured with a laser mounted on a Vernier caliper fixed to the bone and aligned in the direction of nerve motion. A Microstrain (Burlington, VT) DVRT strain device was applied to the nerve at both the elbow and wrist. Nerve excursion associated with motion of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers (measured by goniometer) was measured at the wrist and elbow. An average of 4.9 mm ulnar nerve excursion was required at the elbow to accommodate shoulder motion from 30 degrees to 110 degrees of abduction, and 5.1 mm was needed for elbow motion from 10 degrees to 90 degrees. When the wrist was moved from 60 degrees of extension to 65 degrees of flexion, 13.6 mm excursion of the ulnar nerve was required at the wrist. When all the motions of the wrist, fingers, elbow, and shoulder were combined, 21.9 mm of ulnar nerve excursion was required at the elbow and 23.2 mm at the wrist. Ulnar nerve strain of 15% or greater was experienced at the elbow with elbow flexion and at the wrist with wrist extension and radial deviation. Any factor that limits excursion at these sites could result in repetitive traction of the nerve and possibly play a role in the pathophysiology of cubital tunnel syndrome or ulnar neuropathy at Guyon's canal.

  3. Head excursion of restrained human volunteers and hybrid III dummies in steady state rollover tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle's restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion.

  4. Late Ordovician (Turinian-Chatfieldian) carbon isotope excursions and their stratigraphic and paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigson, Greg A.; Witzke, B.J.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Carpenter, S.J.; Schneider, C.L.; Hasiuk, F.

    2004-01-01

    Five positive carbon isotope excursions are reported from Platteville-Decorah strata in the Upper Mississippi Valley. All occur in subtidal carbonate strata, and are recognized in the Mifflin, Grand Detour, Quimbys Mill, Spechts Ferry, and Guttenberg intervals. The positive carbon isotope excursions are developed in a Platteville-Decorah succession in which background ??13C values increase upward from about -2??? at the base to about 0??? Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB) at the top. A regional north-south ??13C gradient, with lighter values to the north and heavier values to the south is also noted. Peak excursion ??13C values of up to +2.75 are reported from the Quimbys Mill excursion, and up to +2.6 from the Guttenberg excursion, although there are considerable local changes in the magnitudes of these events. The Quimbys Mill, Spechts Ferry, and Guttenberg carbon isotope excursions occur in units that are bounded by submarine disconformities, and completely starve out in deeper, more offshore areas. Closely spaced chemostratigraphic profiles of these sculpted, pyrite-impregnated hardground surfaces show that they are associated with very abrupt centimeter-scale negative ??13C shifts of up to several per mil, possibly resulting from the local diagenetic effects of incursions of euxinic bottom waters during marine flooding events. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural factors behind the different business cultures of Iceland and Norway, a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Rostrup, Hanne Ragnhild Hjemlestad, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Even though Iceland and Norway are both Nordic countries originating from the same culture, the countries’ business cultures have developed different characteristics over the years. In light of the increasing emigration from Iceland to Norway following the financial crisis in 2008, this study will establish the difference between Norwegian and Icelandic business cultures so that Icelanders can prepare themselves for the different national culture and business culture in Norway. Moreover th...

  6. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Rennie; Sigurbjörg Jóhannesdóttir; Stefania Kristinsdottir

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher enegagement with online and open delivery methods of higher education. The Net-University Project was an EU Leonardo-funded initiative to compare approaches to open and distance education in Iceland, Sweden, a...

  7. The circulation of Icelandic waters – a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow, temperature and salinity fields of the North Atlantic, including the Arctic Ocean, covering the time period 1992 to 2006 are simulated with the numerical ocean model CODE. The simulation reveals several new insights and previously unknown structures which help us to clarify open questions on the regional oceanography of Icelandic waters. These relate to the structure and geographical distribution of the coastal current, the primary forcing of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC and the path of the Atlantic Water south-east of Iceland. The model's adaptively refined computational mesh has a maximum resolution of 1 km horizontal and 2.5 m vertical in Icelandic waters. CTD profiles from this region and the river discharge of 46 Icelandic watersheds, computed by the hydrological model WaSiM, are assimilated into the simulation. The model realistically reproduces the established elements of the circulation around Iceland. However, analysis of the simulated mean flow field also provides further insights. It suggests a distinct freshwater-induced coastal current that only exists along the south-west and west coasts, which is accompanied by a counter-directed undercurrent. The simulated transport of Atlantic Water over the Icelandic shelf takes place in a symmetrical system of two currents, with the established NIIC over the north-western and northern shelf, and a hitherto unnamed current over the southern and south-eastern shelf, which is simulated to be an upstream precursor of the Faroe Current (FC. Both currents are driven by barotropic pressure gradients induced by a sea level slope across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. The recently discovered North Icelandic Jet (NIJ also features in the model predictions and is found to be forced by the baroclinic pressure field of the Arctic Front, to originate east of the Kolbeinsey Ridge and to have a volume transport of around 1.5 Sv within northern Denmark Strait. The

  8. Degassing and differentiation in subglacial volcanoes, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Calk, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Within the neovolcanic zones of Iceland many volcanoes grew upward through icecaps that have subsequently melted. These steep-walled and flat-topped basaltic subglacial volcanoes, called tuyas, are composed of a lower sequence of subaqueously erupted, pillowed lavas overlain by breccias and hyaloclastites produced by phreatomagmatic explosions in shallow water, capped by a subaerially erupted lava plateau. Glass and whole-rock analyses of samples collected from six tuyas indicate systematic variations in major elements showing that the individual volcanoes are monogenetic, and that commonly the tholeiitic magmas differentiated and became more evolved through the course of the eruption that built the tuya. At Herdubreid, the most extensively studies tuya, the upward change in composition indicates that more than 50 wt.% of the first erupted lavas need crystallize over a range of 60??C to produce the last erupted lavas. The S content of glass commonly decreases upward in the tuyas from an average of about 0.08 wt.% at the base to crystallization that generates the more evolved, lower-temperature melts during the growth of the tuyas, apparently results from cooling and degassing of magma contained in shallow magma chambers and feeders beneath the volcanoes. Cooling may result from percolation of meltwater down cracks, vaporization, and cycling in a hydrothermal circulation. Degassing occurs when progressively lower pressure eruption (as the volcanic vent grows above the ice/water surface) lowers the volatile vapour pressure of subsurface melt, thus elevating the temperature of the liquidus and hastening liquid-crystal differentiation. ?? 1991.

  9. Distribution of dust during two dust storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Ólafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 ?g?m?3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 ?g?m?3). The mean PM1 concentrations were 97-241 ?g?m?3 with a maximum of 261 ?g?m?3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  10. Cs-137 fallout in Iceland, model predictions and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland); Arnalds, O.; Karlsdottir, I.A. [Agricultural Research Inst. (Iceland); Palsdottir, P. [Icelandic Meteorological Office (Iceland)

    2002-04-01

    Basically all the fallout Cs-137 in Iceland came from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the late fifties and early sixties, the addition from the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was relatively very small. Measurements of fallout from nuclear weapons tests started in Iceland over 40 years ago and samples of soil, vegetation and agricultural products have been collected from various places and measured during this period. Considerable variability has been seen in the results, even between places close to each other. This is understandable due to the mountainous terrain, changing strong winds and high levels of precipitation. This variability has been especially noticeable in the case of soil samples. The important role of uncultivated rangelands in Icelandic agriculture (e.g. for sheep farming) makes it necessary to estimate deposition for many remote areas. It has thus proven difficult to get a good overview of the distribution of the deposition and its subsequent transfer into agricultural products. Over a year ago an attempt was made to assess the distribution of Cs-137 fallout in Iceland. The approach is based on a model predicting deposition using precipitation data, in a similar manner as that used previously within the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). 1999). One station close to Reykjavik has a time series of Cs-137 deposition data and precipitation data from 1960 onwards. The AMAP deposition model was calibrated for Iceland by using deposition and precipitation data from this station. (au)

  11. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  12. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  13. Ultrasonographic assessment of flexor tendon mobilization: effect of different protocols on tendon excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, Jan-Wiebe H; Soeters, Johannes N M; Schreuders, Ton A R; Amadio, Peter C; Hovius, Steven E R; Stam, Henk J; Selles, Ruud W

    2012-03-07

    Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of the injured finger. We hypothesized that the positions of adjacent fingers influence the long finger flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursion, measured both absolutely and relative to the surrounding tissue of the tendon. Long finger flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursions and surrounding tissue movement were measured in zone V in eleven healthy subjects during three different rehabilitation protocols and two experimental models: (1) an active four-finger mobilization protocol, (2) a passive four-finger mobilization protocol, (3) a modified Kleinert mobilization protocol, (4) an experimental modified Kleinert flexion mobilization model, and (5) an experimental modified Kleinert extension mobilization model. Tendon excursions were measured with use of a frame-to-frame analysis of high-resolution ultrasound images. The median absolute long finger flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursions were 23.4, 17.8, 10.0, 13.9, and 7.6 mm for the active four-finger mobilization protocol, the passive four-finger mobilization protocol, the modified Kleinert mobilization protocol, the experimental modified Kleinert flexion mobilization model, and the experimental modified Kleinert extension mobilization model, respectively, and these differences were all significant (p ≤ 0.041). The corresponding relative flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursions were 11.2, 8.5, 7.2, 10.4, and 5.6 mm. Active four-finger mobilization protocol excursions were significantly (p = 0.013) greater than passive four-finger mobilization protocol excursions but were not significantly greater than experimental modified Kleinert flexion mobilization model excursions (p =0.213). The present study demonstrated large and

  14. Magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum: The role of plant community change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francesca A.; Wing, Scott L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon-isotope measurements ( δ13C) of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ larger than that observed in marine carbonate δ13C records. Reconciling these records requires either that marine carbonates fail to record the full magnitude of the CIE or that the CIE in plants has been amplified relative to the marine. Amplification of the CIE has been proposed to result from an increase in available moisture that allowed terrestrial plants to increase 13C-discrimination during the PETM. Leaf physiognomy, paleopedology and hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax lipids from the Bighorn Basin, however, all suggest that rather than a simple increase in available moisture, climate alternated between wet and dry during the PETM. Here we consider two other explanations and test them quantitatively with the carbon isotopic record of plant lipids. The "marine modification" hypothesis is that the marine carbonate record was modified by chemical changes at the PETM and that plant lipids record the true magnitude of the CIE. Using atmospheric CO 2δ13C values estimated from the lipid record, and equilibrium fractionation between CO 2 and carbonate, we estimate the expected CIE for planktonic foraminifera to be 6‰. Instead, the largest excursion observed is about 4‰. No mechanism for altering marine carbonate by 2‰ has been identified and we thus reject this explanation. The "plant community change" hypothesis is that major changes in floral composition during the PETM amplified the CIE observed in n-alkanes by 1-2‰ relative to marine carbonate. This effect could have been caused by a rapid transition from a mixed angiosperm/conifer flora to a purely angiosperm flora. The plant community change hypothesis is consistent with both the magnitude and pattern of CIE amplification among the different n-alkanes, and with data from fossil plants

  15. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water......-isotopes, water chemistry and hydrogeology is essential to delineate flow direction and trace the origin of thermal and non-thermal groundwaters....

  16. Distribution patterns in the native vascular flora of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Pawel; Pasierbiński, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa Maria; Kristinsson, Hörður

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to reveal biogeographical patterns in the native vascular flora of Iceland and to define ecological factors responsible for these patterns. We analysed dataset of more than 500,000 records containing information on the occurrence of vascular plants. Analysis of ecological factors included climatic (derived from WORLDCLIM data), topographic (calculated from digital elevation model) and geological (bedrock characteristics) variables. Spherical k-means clustering and principal component analysis were used to detect biogeographical patterns and to study the factors responsible for them. We defined 10 biotic elements exhibiting different biogeographical patterns. We showed that climatic (temperature-related) and topographic variables were the most important factors contributing to the spatial patterns within the Icelandic vascular flora and that these patterns are almost completely independent of edaphic factors (bedrock type). Our study is the first one to analyse the biogeographical differentiation of the native vascular flora of Iceland.

  17. [Effects of articulating paper on mandibular paths in lateral and protrusive excursions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Kawaguchi, T; Katto, K; Kano, N; Takeuchi, K; Tanaka, K; Usami, H; Naka, Y; Asakura, Y

    1989-12-01

    Mandibular movements in 7 normal dentulous subjects during lateral and protrusive excursions were studied to investigate the effects of the clinical use of articulating paper on mandibular paths. Mandibular movements with or without the intraoral articulating paper (thickness: 35 microns) were detected as the lower incisal point displacement and were recorded three-dimensionally with the Selspot system. The date displayed on the X-Y chart recorder on the selected plane were analyzed quantitatively. 1. The paths of the mandible differed between the outward (from the intercuspal position) and the return (backward to the intercuspal position) movements. In lateral excursions the return path tended to be antero-inferior to the outward path, whereas in protrusive excursions the former tended to be dextro-inferior to the latter. 2. In lateral excursions the return path tended to be less stable than the outward path. In protrusive excursions no significant difference was found between the two paths. 3. In lateral excursions, 21-34% of the movements performed using the articulating paper deviated from the normal paths made without using the paper, and in the case of protrusive excursions, deviation was found in 21-50%. At or near the intercuspal position, the return path showed a greater deviation than the outward path. Near the edge-to-edge position, however, the relationship between these two path was reversed. 4. It is suggested that, when the articulating paper is used, the directions of the movement should be taken into account and sufficient care should be paid in occlusal adjustment because the range of functional movement may be overestimated.

  18. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  19. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  20. Growth and reproduction in the Icelandic grey seal

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Growth and reproduction in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791) from Iceland were examined. The oldest Icelandic grey seals obtained were a 36 year old female and a 23 year old male. The longest animals were a 255 cm 13 year old male, and a 230 cm 20 year old female. The heaviest grey seal was an 11 year old male weighing 310 kg. The heaviest female was a 20 year old female that weighed 240 kg. Females reached an asymptotic standard length and weight of 200 (95% CI 196 - 204) cm an...

  1. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  2. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  3. Sustainable energy resources and economics in Iceland and Greenland

    CERN Document Server

    Kristjánsdóttir, Helga

    2015-01-01

    This book provides fascinating examples of the ways renewable and sustainable energy can support economic growth, which will be illuminating for academic researchers and students, as well as those interested in green investment opportunities. The distinctive glacial, volcanic and oceanic environments of Iceland and Greenland supply abundant renewable energy resources in the form of hydropower and geothermal energy. As one of the few nations in the world with 100% renewable electricity production, Iceland is a compelling case study of a sustainable energy driven economy. Consideration of Green

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Anna Ingibjorg; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Hardardottir, Hjordis; Jonsdottir, Karen Drofn; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics calls for constant re-evaluation of multidrug regimens that have been used to eradicate the infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori in an Icelandic cohort. Patients referred for gastroscopy were recruited prospectively. Those found to have a positive rapid urease test were included in the study. Susceptibility testing was conducted by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline. Results were obtained after three days of incubation in microaerophilic conditions at 37 °C, except for the metronidazole were the first 24 hours were anaerobic. Of the 613 patients who underwent gastroscopy, 138 (23%) had a positive rapid urease test. H. pylori was successfully cultured from 105 (76%) of the urease test positive patients and the isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Five patients had prior H. pylori eradication. Antibiotic resistance for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline was 0%, 9%, 4%, 1% and 0%, respectively. If those who had previously undergone eradication treatment were excluded, the resistance was 0%, 6%, 3%, 1% and 0%, respectively. Clarithromycin resistance was higher amongst women than men, 13% vs. 5%, however, not significantly. Clarithromycin resistance was 60% amongst those who had previously received eradication treatment compared to 6% of those who had not (p pylori isolates can be considered relatively low. Therefore, in the current cohort, standard triple-drug clarithromycin-containing regimen should remain the first-line treatment against H. pylori.

  5. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  6. Sediment Distribution on Skeidararsandur, Southeast Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, B.; Russell, A. J.; Finnegan, D. C.; Smith, L. C.; Knudsen, O.

    2001-12-01

    The zone of outwash accumulation is perhaps the most distinctive feature of the proglacial environment. Its gross morphology is determined by the topography of the proglacial zone, the volume of the sediment input, and the processes responsible for sediment distribution. The largest unconfined, active outwash plain on Earth, Skeidararsandur, extends seawards across the coastal plain of southeastern Iceland. Investigations of the proximal surface of Skeidararsandur using a variety of data sources, including Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, Synthetic Aperture Radar data, Airborne Topographic Mapper laser altimeter data and high-resolution aerial photography, have provided a synoptic perspective of the proglacial drainage system. Over the past 50 yr Skeidararjokull has become decoupled from the sandur and the original, highly diffuse, multipoint distubutary system, inactive remnants of which are preserved on the sandur's proximal surface, has been transformed into an integrated drainage network, with only three primary outlets. These entrenched channels constrain jokulhlaups and ablation dominated flows alike, and permit most meltwater to bypass the proximal surface. The shift from a diffuse to a channelized (point source) distributary system has had a significant impact on the magnitude and style of sedimentation throughout the proximal zone, and also on the size of sediment supplied to the sandur. Stratigraphic evidence suggests both jokulhlaups and glacier surges have a significant influence on the development of the fluvial succession in the proximal zone, but a diffuse, multipoint distributary system is required to sustain active accretion across the sandur as a whole. The contemporary meltwater distributary system on Skeidararsandur, which is a product of glacier retreat, may thus represent one end of the spectrum of channel configurations that facilitate sediment distribution on sandar.

  7. Multi-proxy identification of the Laschamp geomagnetic field excursion in Lake Pupuke, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Muscheler, Raimund; Snowball, Ian; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Augustinus, Paul; Atkin, Daniel; Stephens, Tom

    2011-11-01

    We present palaeomagnetic and cosmogenic radionuclide records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion in Lake Pupuke, a maar lake in Auckland, New Zealand. Laschamp was identified by a combination of relative palaeointensity, 10Be and 14C data from the lake sediments and represents the first such record from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite the high organic carbon content, which causes relatively weak natural remanent magnetisations, the geomagnetic intensity minimum associated with the Laschamp excursion is identifiable as a relative palaeointensity minimum that is synchronous with (i) a peak in 10Be concentration and (ii) an anomaly in Δ 14C. The Lake Pupuke time scale, provided by 14C data calibrated with INTCAL09, places the 10Be maximum at the same time as a 10Be maximum in Greenland ice cores when secured to the GICC05 time scale. The central age of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion in Lake Pupuke as defined by the 10Be prediction peak is c. 41 kyr, which confirms its global application as a palaeomagnetic isochron. Anomalous palaeomagnetic directional data at c. 32 kyr in the Lake Pupuke sediments may represent the Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion, but tephra layers caused by frequent eruptions in the Auckland volcanic field during this excursion probably disrupted the palaeointensity signal. The study highlights the value of combining traditional palaeomagnetic methods with measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides in the quest for accurate and precise geochronologies during MIS3, a time of rapid global climate change.

  8. Boron Isotopic Composition Variation During Early-Bajocian δ13Cmin Positive Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, G.; Gaillardet, J.; Bartolini, A.; Donnadieu, Y.; Beaumont, V.

    2008-12-01

    Early Bajocian is a period of sea level rise and platform drowning during the mid-Jurassic greenhouse world. This period is geochemically characterized by a positive excursion of inorganic δ13C signal as recorded in Western Thetys sections. This signal, concomitant with an increased biosiliceous sedimentation, is meant to reflect both a eutrophication event and a carbonate production crisis (Bartolini et al. 1996 ; Bartolini and Cecca 1999). High atmospheric CO2 level is assumed for this period, linked with the birth of the Pacific Plate and a faster sea-floor spreading (Bartolini and Larson 2001). Opening of the Liguro- Piemontese ocean may have led to rearrangement of oceanic current circulation patterns. These global conditions, potentially leading to oceanic eutrophication and carbonate saturation state modification, have been suggested as a trigger for Early-Bajocian events. Atmospheric CO2, carbon cycle and seawater pH are connected through the seawater carbonate system and boron isotopes in carbonates are a paleopH proxy. Geochemical analyses including δ11B were performed on bajocian carbonates from Terminilletto section, Italy, one of the rare carbonate section spanning this period. A new extraction process combined with a new direct injection method for MC-ICP-MS (d-DIHEN) helped to improve analyses reproducibilty (Louvat et al. in prep). The results show clearly a variation of the isotopic signal. This variation can be explained by a rise of seawater pH, occuring just before the carbonate production crisis and connected to the eutrophication. Modelisation will thus be performed to reproduce pH variation and reconstitute carbon cycle perturbation at this time. Bartolini A., Baumgartner P. O., and Hunziker J. (1996) Middle and Late Jurassic carbon stable-isotope stratigraphy and radiolarite sedimentation of the Umbria- Marche Basin (Central Italy). Eclogae geol. Helv. 89(2), 811-844. Bartolini A. and Cecca F. (1999) 20 My hiatus in the Jurassic of Umbria

  9. Low-Level and Successive Large-Level Excursions of a Stationary Gaussian Process

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Van Minh

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates two properties of level crossings of a stationary Gaussian process $X(t)$ with autocorrelation function $R_X(\\tau)$. We show firstly that if $R_X(\\tau)$ admits finite second and fourth derivatives at the origin, the length of up-excursions above a low level $-\\gamma$ is asymptotically exponential as $-\\gamma \\to -\\infty$. Secondly, assume that $R_X(\\tau)$ admits a finite second derivative at the origin and some defined properties, we derive the mean number of crossings as well as the length of successive excursions above two adjacent large levels. The asymptotic results are showed to be effective even for practical values of crossing levels. An application of the developed results is proposed to derive the probability of successive excursions above adjacent levels during a time window.

  10. Shapes and Sizes of Voids in the LCDM Universe: Excursion Set Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shandarin, S; Heitmann, K; Habib, S; Shandarin, Sergei; Feldman, Hume A.; Heitmann, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    We study the global distribution and morphology of dark matter voids in a LCDM universe using density fields generated by N-body simulations. Voids are defined as isolated regions of the low-density excursion set specified via density thresholds, the density thresholds being quantified by the corresponding filling factors, i.e., the fraction of the total volume in the excursion set. Our work encompasses a systematic investigation of the void volume function, the volume fraction in voids, and the fitting of voids to corresponding ellipsoids and spheres. We emphasize the relevance of the percolation threshold to the void volume statistics of the density field both in the high redshift, Gaussian random field regime, as well as in the present epoch. By using measures such as the Inverse Porosity, we characterize the quality of ellipsoidal fits to voids, finding that such fits are a poor representation of the larger voids that dominate the volume of the void excursion set.

  11. Analyzing flow anisotropies with excursion sets in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Ranjita K; Srivastava, Ajit M

    2011-01-01

    We show that flow anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be analyzed using a certain technique of shape analysis of excursion sets recently proposed by us for CMBR fluctuations to investigate anisotropic expansion history of the universe. The technique analyzes shapes (sizes) of patches above (below) certain threshold value for transverse energy/particle number (the excursion sets) as a function of the azimuthal angle and rapidity. Modeling flow by imparting extra anisotropic momentum to the momentum distribution of particles from HIJING, we compare the resulting distributions for excursion sets at two different azimuthal angles. Angles with maximum difference in the two distributions identify the event plane, and the magnitude of difference in the two distributions relates to the magnitude of momentum anisotropy, i.e. elliptic flow.

  12. No apparent lock-in depth of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion: Evidence from the Malan loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rixiang; LIU Qingsong; PAN Yongxin; DENG Chenglong; ZHANG Rui; WANG Xianfeng

    2006-01-01

    The first-order chronological framework of the long-term Chinese loess/paleosol sequences was based mainly on magnetostratigraphy. However, there remain arguments on the lock-in ages of the major geomagnetic reversals. This study systematically compared the stratigraphic locations of the Laschamp excursion and Henrich events (H4 at~39 ka and H5 at~48 ka) recorded by the Luochuan loess profile in the central Chinese Loess Plateau. Results show that the Lascchamp excursion is bracketed well by these two cold events, and the corresponding estimated age is between about 41.7-43.7 ka, which is close to the widely accepted age of ~40-41 ka for the excursion.Therefore, our new results do not suggest apparent lock-in effects in the last glacial Malan loess.

  13. Reflexivation and Logophoricity: Evidence from the Acquisition of Icelandic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurjonsdottir, Sigriour; Hyams, Nina

    1992-01-01

    Studied interpretation of local anaphor "sjalfan sig," the long-distance anaphor "sig," and pronouns in 55 Icelandic-speaking children and 10 adult controls. Results support an approach to binding that distinguishes the syntactic use of sig from its logophoric use and treats sig as a pronominal both in its internal structure…

  14. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  15. The Case of Iceland in PISA: Girls' Educational Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Almar M.; Olafsson, Ragnar F.

    2009-01-01

    Among 41 participating countries in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003, the gender difference in favour of females was greatest in Iceland in the three subjects tested: mathematics, science and reading. The aims of this article are to put these findings in national and international context, and report on a number of…

  16. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  17. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  18. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  19. Pressure Algometry in Icelandic Horses : Interexaminer and Intraexaminer Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Eveline S.; Blom, Guy; van Loon, Johannes P A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834610; Back, Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023707

    2016-01-01

    Reliability of pressure algometry as an outcome measure in equine research and therapy needs to be studied. The aim of the present study was to establish interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability of pressure algometry in Icelandic horses and to determine reference mechanical nociceptive threshold

  20. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  1. Cartography and Culture in Medieval Iceland (Theses in Progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This abstract summarises my research, undertaken as a doctoral thesis at the University of York, into the surviving corpus of world maps from medieval Iceland. It briefly describes the maps, which collectively provide examples of the major European cartographic genres, and their manuscript contexts....

  2. Volcanic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, E.; Turner, G. M.; Conway, C. E.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Calvert, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present palaeodirectional records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from lavas on Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Fourteen lava flows on the northwestern and southern flanks of Mt Ruapehu, with 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau ages that range from 46.3 ± 2.0 to 39.9 ± 1.4 ka, were studied. The youngest and older flows carry a normal polarity magnetization; however, six flows, dated between 46.3 ± 2.0 and 42.7 ± 1.8 ka, record excursional directions. Three of these flows record southerly palaeomagnetic declinations and negative inclinations that agree well with a published Laschamp record from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Together, the AVF and Mt Ruapehu lavas currently represent the only volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion outside the Chaîne des Puys region, France. Thus, they make an important contribution to the global set of Laschamp excursion records. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) groups for the New Zealand and French records early in the excursion are compatible with a dipole-dominated field that rotated to an equatorial orientation while simultaneously decaying in strength. In contrast, younger excursional flows from France and New Zealand yield separate VGP groups, which suggest either that the field had a nondipolar morphology in this later phase, or that the VGP groups were not synchronous. 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Mt Ruapehu record are on average slightly older than published northern hemisphere ages and from the relative palaeointensity minimum in the GLOPIS sedimentary stack. Although few individual ages differ significantly at the 2σ level, the spread suggests an overall excursion duration that is longer than the currently accepted 1500 years. This age spread may result from excess Ar in magmas at the time of the eruption biasing the results to slightly older ages, or from non-synchronous excursional field behaviour at near-antipodal locations, or, possibly, a precursory phase prior to the main excursion.

  3. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  4. Vertical profile and aerosol size distribution measurements in Iceland (LOAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Vignelles, Damien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Cold climate and high latitudes regions contain important dust sources where dust is frequently emitted, foremost from glacially-derived sediments of riverbeds or ice-proximal areas (Arnalds, 2010; Bullard, 2013). Iceland is probably the most active dust source in the arctic/sub-arctic region (Dagsson-Waldhauserova, 2013). The frequency of days with suspended dust exceeds 34 dust days annually. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin; it is very dark in colour and contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles. Such properties allow even large particles to be easily transported long distances. Thus, there is a need to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of these dusts. Two launch campaigns of the Light Optical Aerosols Counter (LOAC) were conducted in Iceland with meteorological balloons. LOAC use a new optical design that allows to retrieve the size concentrations in 19 size classes between 0.2 and 100 microm, and to provide an estimate of the main nature of aerosols. Vertical stratification and aerosol composition of the subarctic atmosphere was studied in detail. The July 2011 launch represented clean non-dusty season with low winds while the November 2013 launch was conducted during the high winds after dusty period. For the winter flight (performed from Reykjavik), the nature of aerosols strongly changed with altitude. In particular, a thin layer of volcanic dust was observed at an altitude of 1 km. Further LOAC measurements are needed to understand the implication of Icelandic dust to the Arctic warming and climate change. A new campaign of LAOC launches is planned for May 2014. Reference: Arnalds, O., 2010. Dust sources and deposition of aeolian materials in Iceland. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 23, 3-21. Bullard, J.E., 2013. Contemporary glacigenic inputs to the dust cycle. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 71-89. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Arnalds O., Olafsson H. 2013. Long-term frequency and characteristics of dust storm events in

  5. Correlation between 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; DOU Jing-tao; WANG Xian-ling; YANG Guo-qing; L(U) Zhao-hui; ZHENG Hua; MA Fang-ling; LU Ju-ming; MU Yi-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate and comprehensive assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes is important for optimizing glycemic management and for formulating personalized diabetic treatment schemes.This study aimed to analyze the correlation between 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) and glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients.Methods Seventy-one outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly recruited from Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital.Using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS),these patients' blood glucose levels were monitored for three consecutive days to obtain mean blood glucose (MBG) data.Intraday glycemic excursions were evaluated using the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE),the largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE),standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and the M-value.Interday glycemic excursion was assessed by absolute mean of daily difference (MODD).Postprandial glycemic fluctuations were evaluated using postprandial glucose excursions (PPGE) and postprandial incremental area under the curve (iAUC).Fasting venous blood samples were collected to measure serum 1,5-AG,whole-blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum glycated albumin (GA).Clinical markers of glycemia and parameters of glycemic excursions from CGMS were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate stepwise regression.Results Pearson correlation analysis revealed that 1,5-AG was significantly correlated with MAGE,SDBG,M-value,LAGE,PPGE and iAUC (r values were -0.509,-0.430,-0.530,-0.462,-0.416 and -0.435,respectively,P <0.01),especially in moderately and well-controlled patients,based on defined HbA1c levels.Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between 1,5-AG and the above parameters,but not HbA1c and GA.Finally,HbA1c and GA were positively correlated with MBG and fasting blood glucose (FBG).Conclusions 1,5-AG was much better than HbA1c and GA as a marker of

  6. Identification and dating of the Mono Lake excursion in lava flows from the Canary islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Hervé; Laj, Carlo; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Kissel, Catherine; Nomade, Sebastien; Perez-Torrado, Francisco; Wandres, Camille

    2010-05-01

    The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion was defined from the study of lacustrine sections from Western North America [Denham, 1974; Liddicoat et al., 1979]. The proposed age for this excursion reported in the literature changed in time since the first observation and a debate was even very recently opened about the reliability of the dating at the original section at Wilson Creek. In ice cores, a peak in the production of cosmogenic isotopes is clearly observed about 7 ka after the peak associated to the Laschamp excursion. This younger peak, attributed to the Mono Lake occurs between the millennial climatic cycles 7 and 6 (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles), around 34 kyr in the most recent Greenland ice age model. In addition, in other places, this excursion is described by an intensity low with only very rarely an associated directional shift, questioning the global character of this excursion. We present a coupled paleomagnetic and dating investigation conducted on four different lavas from the island of Tenerife (Spain) on the basis of preliminary K/Ar dating. From a paleomagnetic point of view, one of these sites is characterized by a direction largely deviated from the one calculated on the basis of an axial geocentric dipole field. The paleointensity values, determined using Thellier and Thellier method and the PICRIT03 set of criteria, is very low, about 8 µT. Two other sites are slightly deviated from the GAD value, in particular with lower inclinations. Paleointensity determinations from these lavas do not yet have a statistical significance and need to be completed but the first results indicate a value around 20 µT. Finally, the last site has a direction consistent with the GAD values and no reliable paleointensity determinations could be obtained so far. The preliminary K/Ar dating are now completed by Ar/Ar dating and their combination yield an average age of about 32 ka ± 2 ka for the four outcrops, not statistically distinguishable one from another. This

  7. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution.

  8. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  9. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...

  10. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Ghio, Stefano; St John Sutton, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) as a predictor of left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling and clinical benefit of cardiac synchronization therapy (CRT) and to evaluate the effect of CRT on TAPSE in patients with mildly symptomatic systol...

  11. The end-Triassic negative δ13C excursion : A lithologic test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachan, Aviv; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction is associated with a large negative carbon isotope excursion, which has been interpreted as reflecting the rapid injection of 13C depleted CO2 or methane associated with the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. However, in a number of sections in ce

  12. Mitigation of grid frequency excursions at hourly transitions by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Jerom E.S. de; Frunt, Jasper; Kling, Wil L. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    It has been noticed that grid frequency deviations at hourly transitions of the Continental Europe synchronous area of the ENTO-E (former UCTE) continue to increase. If the system faces a negative grid frequency excursion and meanwhile a large generation outage would occur, system's frequency stability and reliability could be jeopardized. In order to unburden conventional speed control capacity, this paper proposes a concept to support the grid frequency at hourly transitions by utilizing the kinetic energy stored in wind turbines. On request, kinetic energy will be stored in or released from wind turbines in order to respectively absorb or supply energy to the system. The performance of 8 GW of aggregated offshore wind power in the North Sea is analyzed for the Netherlands. The research shows that if the Netherlands had to provide their share of speed control to limit negative grid frequency excursions to a minimum of 49.95 Hz, 8 GW of offshore wind power could fulfill this for a quarter of the time. For positive grid frequency excursions at hourly transitions the Netherlands could use 60% of the time 8 GW of wind power to limit grid frequency excursions to a maximum of 50.05 Hz. (orig.)

  13. Carbon isotope excursions and the oxidant budget of the Ediacaran atmosphere and ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas F.; Kennedy, Martin J.

    2008-11-01

    A possible global drop in marine carbon isotope values to aslow as -12 Peedee belemnite (PDB), recorded in the EdiacaranShuram Formation of Oman, has been attributed to the non-steady-stateoxidation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) resultingfrom the rise in atmospheric oxygen to near modern values atthe end of the Precambrian. Geologic constraints indicate thatthe excursion lasted between 25 and 50 m.y., requiring a DOCpool thousands of times to 10,000 times the modern inventoryto conform with carbon isotope mass balance calculations fora -12 excursion. At the consequent rates of DOC oxidation,oceanic sulfate and oxygen in the atmosphere and oceans areexhausted on a time scale of 800 k.y. Oxidant depletion isincompatible with independent geochemical and biological indicatorsthat show oceanic sulfate and oxygen levels were maintainedor increased during the Shuram excursion. Furthermore, a DOC-drivenexcursion does not explain strong covariation between the carbonand oxygen isotope record. These indicators show that negativeisotope excursions recorded in the Shuram and other Ediacaransections are unlikely to represent a global ocean signal.

  14. Multicultural Group Work on Field Excursions to Promote Student Teachers' Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Nina; Aksit, Fisun; Aksit, Selahattin; Schrüfer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the intercultural challenges of Geography Education, this study seeks to determine factors fostering intercultural competence of student teachers. Based on a one-week multicultural field excursion of eight German and eight Turkish students in Kayseri (Turkey) on Education for Sustainable Development, we used qualitative interviews…

  15. Geomagnetic excursions recorded in loess: case studies from the Danubian loess province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambach, U.; Rolf, C.; Zeeden, C.; Markovic, S.; Jovanovic, M.; Nowaczyk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are prominent short-lived features (normally < 5 kyr) of the Earth’s magnetic field and lie temporally between Microchrons (Laj & Channell 2007) and short time intervals of anomalously high secular variation. Because of their short duration and the time required for remanence

  16. Multicultural Group Work on Field Excursions to Promote Student Teachers' Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Nina; Aksit, Fisun; Aksit, Selahattin; Schrüfer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the intercultural challenges of Geography Education, this study seeks to determine factors fostering intercultural competence of student teachers. Based on a one-week multicultural field excursion of eight German and eight Turkish students in Kayseri (Turkey) on Education for Sustainable Development, we used qualitative interviews…

  17. The Carnian (Late Triassic) carbon isotope excursion: new insights from the terrestrial realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charlotte; Kürschner, Wolfram; Peterse, Francien; Baranyi, Viktoria; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2016-04-01

    The geological record contains evidence for numerous pronounced perturbations in the global carbon cycle, some of which are associated with eruptions from large igneous provinces (LIP), and consequently, ocean acidification and mass extinction. In the Carnian (Late Triassic), evidence from sedimentology and fossil pollen points to a significant change in climate, resulting in biotic turnover: during a period termed the 'Carnian Pluvial Event' (CPE). Additionally, during the Carnian, large volumes of flood basalts were erupted from the Wrangellia LIP (western North America). Evidence from the marine realm suggests a fundamental relationship between the CPE, a global 'wet' period, and the injection of light carbon into the atmosphere from the LIP. Here we provide the first evidence from the terrestrial realm of a significant negative δ13C excursion through the CPE recorded in the sedimentary archive of the Wiscombe Park Borehole, Devon (UK). Both total organic matter and plant leaf waxes reflect a gradual carbon isotope excursion of ~-5‰ during this time interval. Our data provides evidence for the global nature of this isotope excursion, supporting the hypothesis that the excursion was likely the result of an injection of light carbon into the atmosphere from the Wrangellia LIP.

  18. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    Through funding from the European FP7 programme, the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), as well as the local Icelandic government and RANNÍS research fund, the establishment of the Icelandic volcano observatory (VO) as a cross-disciplinary, international volcanological data node and data service is starting to materialize. At the core of this entity is the close collaboration between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a natural hazard monitoring and research institution, and researchers at the Earth Science Institute of the University of Iceland, ensuring long-term sustainable access to research quality data and products. Existing Icelandic Earth science monitoring and research infrastructures are being prepared for integration with the European EPOS infrastructure. Because the VO is located at a Met Office, this infrastructure also includes meteorological infrastructures relevant to volcanology. Furthermore, the FP7 supersite project, FUTUREVOLC cuts across disciplines to bring together European researchers from Earth science, atmospheric science, remote sensing and space science focussed on combined processing of the different data sources and results to generate a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. Integration with atmospheric and space science is to meet the need for better estimates of the volcanic eruption source term and dispersion, which depend not only on the magma flow rate and composition, but also on atmosphere-plume interaction and dispersion. This should lead to better estimates of distribution of ash in the atmosphere. FUTUREVOLC will significantly expand the existing Icelandic EPOS infrastructure to an even more multidisciplinary volcanological infrastructure. A central and sustainable part of the project is the establishment of a research-quality data centre at the VO. This data centre will be able to serve as a volcanological data node within EPOS, making multidisciplinary data accessible to

  19. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J

    1997-10-01

    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  20. Modulation of chest wall intermuscular coherence: effects of lung volume excursion and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Corey R; Greidanus, Krista R; Boliek, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    Chest wall muscle recruitment varies as a function of the breathing task performed. However, the cortical control of the chest wall muscles during different breathing tasks is not known. We studied chest wall intermuscular coherence during various task-related lung volume excursions in 10 healthy adults (34 ± 15 yr; 2 men, 8 women) and determined if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could modulate chest wall intermuscular coherence during these tasks. Simultaneous assessment of regional intercostal and oblique electromyographic activity was measured while participants performed standardized tidal breathing, speech, maximum phonation, and vital capacity tasks. Lung volume and chest wall kinematics were determined using variable inductance plethysmography. We found that chest wall area of intermuscular coherence was greater during tidal and speech breathing compared with phonation and vital capacity (all P < 0.05) and between tidal breathing compared with speech breathing (P < 0.05). Anodal tDCS increased chest wall area of intermuscular coherence from 0.04 ± 0.09 prestimulation to 0.18 ± 0.19 poststimulation for vital capacity (P < 0.05). Sham tDCS and cathodal tDCS had no effect on coherence during lung volume excursions. Chest wall kinematics were not affected by tDCS. Our findings indicate that lung volume excursions about the midrange of vital capacity elicit a greater area of chest wall intermuscular coherence compared with lung volume excursions spanning the entire range of vital capacity in healthy adults. Our findings also demonstrate that brief tDCS may modulate the cortical control of the chest wall muscles in a stimulation- and lung volume excursion task-dependent manner but does not affect chest wall kinematics in healthy adults.

  1. Into the deep: the functionality of mesopelagic excursions by an oceanic apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Lucy A; Tolentino, Emily R; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Brooks, Edward J; Abercrombie, Debra L; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Williams, Sean; Brooks, Annabelle; Chapman, Demian D; Jordan, Lance K B

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of ecological processes in marine animals requires information regarding dynamic vertical habitat use. While many pelagic predators primarily associate with epipelagic waters, some species routinely dive beyond the deep scattering layer. Actuation for exploiting these aphotic habitats remains largely unknown. Recent telemetry data from oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Atlantic show a strong association with warm waters (>20°C) less than 200 m. Yet, individuals regularly exhibit excursions into the meso- and bathypelagic zone. In order to examine deep-diving behavior in oceanic whitetip sharks, we physically recovered 16 pop-up satellite archival tags and analyzed the high-resolution depth and temperature data. Diving behavior was evaluated in the context of plausible functional behavior hypotheses including interactive behaviors, energy conservation, thermoregulation, navigation, and foraging. Mesopelagic excursions (n = 610) occurred throughout the entire migratory circuit in all individuals, with no indication of site specificity. Six depth-versus-time descent and ascent profiles were identified. Descent profile shapes showed little association with examined environmental variables. Contrastingly, ascent profile shapes were related to environmental factors and appear to represent unique behavioral responses to abiotic conditions present at the dive apex. However, environmental conditions may not be the sole factors influencing ascents, as ascent mode may be linked to intentional behaviors. While dive functionality remains unconfirmed, our study suggests that mesopelagic excursions relate to active foraging behavior or navigation. Dive timing, prey constituents, and dive shape support foraging as the most viable hypothesis for mesopelagic excursions, indicating that the oceanic whitetip shark may regularly survey extreme environments (deep depths, low temperatures) as a foraging strategy. At the apex of these deep

  2. Restoring Eroded Lands in Southern Iceland: Efficacy of Domestic, Organic Fertilizers in Sandy Gravel Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Julia Miriam, 1989-

    2016-01-01

    Since settlement Iceland has faced severe soil degradation due to a combination of natural stressors – glacial flooding, volcanic eruption, and heavy wind – and anthropogenic stressors – grazing livestock, wood harvesting, and land use change. Declining soil stability under these conditions resulted in extensive soil erosion: 40% of Iceland now has considerable, severe, or extremely severe erosion. Fertilizers have been utilized for land reclamation in Iceland for many years, but they have mo...

  3. Social Media Used by Government Institutions in Iceland: Application, Role and Aims

    OpenAIRE

    Már Einarsson; Jóhanna Gunnlaugsdóttir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the use and role of social media hosted by government institutions in Iceland. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative research methods. A survey was sent electronically to all government institutions in Iceland and semi-structured interviews were conducted with specialists working for institutions. No research has been conducted on this subject in Iceland before. It was therefore considered timely that a research was conducted o...

  4. Promoting Bank Stability through Compensation Reform: Lessons from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Cullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the program of compensation reform at financial institutions – despite recent wide-ranging changes – remains incomplete. A considerable body of theoretical and empirical research has been developed which, for the most part, suggests that compensation incentives embedded in compensation contracts at banks encouraged risk-taking behaviour which contributed to the Global Financial Crisis. Extensive reforms to compensation rules at financial institutions have been implemented across the globe, including increased use of deferral, mandatory capping of bonuses and the introduction of claw-back powers. Relying on observations on the failures of Icelandic and UK banks, and legal and economic analyses of compensation reforms in each jurisdiction, this paper argues that some elements of the Icelandic and UK reform programs ought to be transposed to the EU level. Arguably, these recommendations will help improve the resilience of the European banking system and contribute to greater financial stability.

  5. Progress Report on the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred A. Elders

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP is a project of “Deep Vision”, a consortium of the government and the three leading energy companies in Iceland. It aims to improve the economics of geothermal energy production by exploring for supercritical hydrothermal fluids as a possible energy source. This will require drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km in order to reach temperatures of 400°C–600°C. From the outset, Deep Vision, recognizing that a broad scale of studies would be necessary in order to explore the little understood supercritical environment, welcomed the inclusion of basic scientific studies in the IDDP and invited participation from the international scientific community, to the mutual advantage of both industrial and scientific participants (Fridleifsson and Albertsson, 2000.

  6. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  7. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  8. Icelandic Public Pensions: Why time is running out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Icelandic public sector pension system enjoying a third party guarantee. Defined benefit funds fundamentally differ from defined contribution pension funds without a third party guarantee as is the case with the Icelandic general labour market pension funds. We probe the special nature of the public sector pension funds and make a comparison to the defined contribution pension funds of the general labour market. We explore the financial and economic effects of the third party guarantee of the funds, their investment performance and other relevant factors. We seek an answer to the question why time is running out for the country’s largest pension fund that currently faces the prospect of becoming empty by the year 2022.

  9. The most unusual dust event cases from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Meinander, Outi; Gritsevich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth where dust is originating from volcanic, but also glaciogenic sediments. Total Icelandic desert areas cover over 44,000 km2 suggesting Iceland being the largest Arctic as well as European desert. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling over 1000 km at times. The mean frequency of days with dust suspension was to 135 dust days annually in 1949-2011. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31 - 40.1 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2, which places Iceland among the most active dust sources on Earth. Volcanic dust is distributed over local glaciers (about 4.5 million t annually) and surrounding oceans (6 - 14 million t annually). Mean dust emissions were calculated for minor, medium and major dust events as 0.1, 0.3 and 1 million tons per event, respectively. Three unusual dust events were observed and measured: The first, an extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajokull 2010 volcanic ash, the second, a Snow-Dust Storm in 2013, and the third, a suspended dust during moist and low wind conditions. Frequent volcanic eruptions in Iceland (new eruption each 3-4 years on average) represent important inputs to dust variability. Freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions as we observed after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption. In September 2010, an extreme storm was recorded with the maximum wind speed of 38.7 ms-1. The maximum saltation was 6825 pulses per minute while the aeolian transport over one m wide transect and 150 cm height reached 11,800 kg m-1. The largest previously measured amount in Iceland in one storm was about 4,200 kg m-1. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Dust events in South Iceland often take place in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. The Snow-Dust Storm occurred in March 6-7th 2013 when snow was nearly black with several mm thick dark layer of dust deposited on snow

  10. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlation with staff job satisfaction using a new Dutch instrument (SLS measuring participants’ attitudes to their next superior. A single item job satisfaction question was included. Results showed considerable practice of servant leadership or 4,19 (scale: 1-6 and the strongest servant leadership characteristic was stewardship, followed by forgiveness and empowerment. 82,6% of participants reported job satisfaction with significant positive correlation with servant leadership. The relatively high degree of servant leadership supports previous study of the uiniversity’s working environment but not recent American studies indicating universities’ a low degree of servant leadership. The degree of servant leadership in the University of Iceland was lower compared to grammar schools (6,46 and general hospital wards (4,33 but identical to hospital emergency care units (4,19. Significant positive correlation of servant leadership with job satisfaction, confirms similar relationships in US universities and in various institutions in Iceland. Results indicate the importance of servant leadership for employees’ job satisfaction, not least empowerment and courage, and this has the potential to support peer management, employee independence and social responsibility of the University of Iceland.

  11. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-09

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

  12. The Icelandic volcanic aeolian environment: Processes and impacts - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2016-03-01

    Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth or 22,000 km2. The sand has been mostly produced by glacio-fluvial processes, leaving behind fine-grained unstable sediments which are later re-distributed by repeated aeolian events. Volcanic eruptions add to this pool of unstable sediments, often from subglacial eruptions. Icelandic desert surfaces are divided into sand fields, sandy lavas and sandy lag gravel, each with separate aeolian surface characteristics such as threshold velocities. Storms are frequent due to Iceland's location on the North Atlantic Storm track. Dry winds occur on the leeward sides of mountains and glaciers, in spite of the high moisture content of the Atlantic cyclones. Surface winds often move hundreds to more than 1000 kg m-1 per annum, and more than 10,000 kg m-1 have been measured in a single storm. Desertification occurs when aeolian processes push sand fronts and have thus destroyed many previously fully vegetated ecosystems since the time of the settlement of Iceland in the late ninth century. There are about 135 dust events per annum, ranging from minor storms to >300,000 t of dust emitted in single storms. Dust production is on the order of 30-40 million tons annually, some traveling over 1000 km and deposited on land and sea. Dust deposited on deserts tends to be re-suspended during subsequent storms. High PM10 concentrations occur during major dust storms. They are more frequent in the wake of volcanic eruptions, such as after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption. Airborne dust affects human health, with negative effects enhanced by the tubular morphology of the grains, and the basaltic composition with its high metal content. Dust deposition on snow and glaciers intensifies melting. Moreover, the dust production probably also influences atmospheric conditions and parameters that affect climate change.

  13. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson 1976; Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir 1960

    2014-01-01

    Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlat...

  14. Studies on four hereditary blood disorders in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensson, O.

    1978-01-01

    An Icelandic family with fifty elliptocytic individuals is reviewed. Pedigree studies indicate strongly that affected members of the family are descendants of a common ancestor. The hereditary pattern is typical of a dominant autosomal gene with full penetrance. Thirty members with typical hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and over 70 apparently unaffected members belonging to 12 families have been studied. Pedigree studies on one of the families indicate that the HS gene or genes have been transmitted through six generations over the past 200 years. Much reduced penetrance of the HS gene or the presence of the so-called mild form is upheld as the main explanation for the unevenness in the genetic ratio. An Icelandic family containing fourteen members with Pelger anomaly is reviewed. It is possible that this family is the only one with this type of mutation in Icelanders. Genealogical information indicates that the Pelger anomaly gene has been present in this family over 200 years. Three families with Von Willebrand's disease (VW) are reviewed. Severe symptoms of bleeding predominate in the males, two of whom have died from hemorrhage. There is a reduced expressivity of the mutant gene, amounting to nonpenetrance, mainly in the female members of the families. It is thought probable that the mutant gene present in the three families has originated from a common ancestor in a district which is common to the three families. (KRM)

  15. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2008-05-01

    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  16. The involvement of family in child protection cases in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Haugen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of families in child protection cases in Iceland, as well as to shed light on the attitudes of child protection workers on the importance of including families while working on child protection cases. The study is part of an international comparative analysis called: Social Work with Families: Social Workers’ Constructions of Family in Professional Practice. This article only addresses the Icelandic segment of the research. In the study, qualitative methods were used and three focus groups were conducted, in which the same three-step vignette about a child protection case was presented. The findings highlighted how difficult child protection workers found it to define the family. The main element is that family are those individuals closest to the child and connected to them through emotional ties, as Icelandic child protection workers seem to strive to involve family in child protection cases. However, there are signs which show that when working with more complicated cases the definition of a family becomes narrower, and involvement is restricted mostly to parents and grandparents. The findings also show that attitudes toward fathers differ from those toward mothers. The mother is expected to support and create security for the child, while the father is judged mostly on his violent behaviour and is not automatically regarded as providing support or actively taking responsibility for his child.

  17. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  18. Measurement of tibial nerve excursion during ankle joint dorsiflexion in a weight-bearing position with ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of peripheral nerves to stretch and slide is thought to be of paramount importance to maintain ideal neural function. Excursion in peripheral nerves such as the tibial can be measured by analysis of ultrasound images. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of longitudinal tibial nerve excursion as the ankle moved from plantar flexion to dorsiflexion in a standardised weight-bearing position. The reliability of ultrasound imaging to measure tibial nerve excursion was also quantified. Methods The tibial nerve was imaged over two separate sessions in sixteen asymptomatic participants in a weight-bearing position. Longitudinal nerve excursion was calculated from a three-second video loop captured by ultrasound imaging using frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to assess the intra-rater reliability. Standard error of the measurement (SEM and smallest real difference (SRD were calculated to assess measurement error. Results Mean nerve excursion was 2.99 mm SEM ± 0.22 mm. The SRD was 0.84 mm for session 1 and 0.66 mm for session 2. Intra-rater reliability was excellent with an ICC = 0.93. Conclusions Assessment of real-time ultrasound images of the tibial nerve via frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis is a reliable non-invasive technique to assess longitudinal nerve excursion. The relationship between foot posture and nerve excursion can be further investigated.

  19. An Icelander and The East Is Red The story of Arnthor Helgason, Chairman of Icelandic Chinese Cultural Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Chi

    2014-01-01

    <正>The winter breeze blew through Beijing at the start of November,while inside the tranquil compound of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC),Arnthor Helgasion smiled at the camera,a gleam of warmth shone on his face."The East Is Red is my wedding song,and I hope it would be also played in my funeral,"he said.Helgason,Chairman of the Icelandic Chines

  20. Integrating volcanic gas monitoring with other geophysical networks in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Melissa A.

    2017-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office/Icelandic Volcano Observatory is rapidly developing and improving the use of gas measurements as a tool for pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring within Iceland. Observations of deformation, seismicity, hydrological properties, and gas emissions, united within an integrated approach, can provide improved understanding of subsurface magma movements. This is critical to evaluate signals prior to and during volcanic eruptions, issue timely eruption warnings, forecast eruption behavior, and assess volcanic hazards. Gas measurements in Iceland need to be processed to account for the high degree of gas composition alteration due to interaction with external water and rocks. Deeply-sourced magmatic gases undergo reactions and modifications as they move to the surface that exercise a strong control on the composition of surface emissions. These modifications are particularly strong at ice-capped volcanoes where most surface gases are dissolved in glacial meltwater. Models are used to project backwards from surface gas measurements to what the magmatic gas composition was prior to upward migration. After the pristine magma gas composition has been determined, it is used together with fluid compositions measured in mineral hosted melt inclusions to calculate magmatic properties to understand magma storage and migration and to discern if there have been changes in the volcanic system. The properties derived from surface gas measurements can be used as input to models interpreting deformation and seismic observations, and can be used as an additional, independent observation when interpreting hydrological and seismic changes. An integrated approach aids with determining whether observed hydro/geological changes can be due to the presence of shallow magma. Constraints on parameters such as magma gas content, viscosity and compressibility can be provided by the approach described above, which can be utilized syn-eruptively to help explain

  1. Statistics of Dark Matter Halos in the Excursion Set Peak Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lapi, A

    2014-01-01

    We derive approximated, yet very accurate analytical expressions for the abundance and clustering properties of dark matter halos in the excursion set peak framework; the latter relies on the standard excursion set approach, but also includes the effects of a realistic filtering of the density field, a mass-dependent threshold for collapse, and the prescription from peak theory that halos tend to form around density maxima. We find that our approximations work excellently for diverse power spectra, collapse thresholds and density filters. Moreover, when adopting a cold dark matter power spectra, a tophat filtering and a mass-dependent collapse threshold (supplemented with conceivable scatter), our approximated halo mass function and halo bias represent very well the outcomes of cosmological $N-$body simulations.

  2. Excursions and participation from companies in a weekly 5 ECTS course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2011-01-01

    to civil engineering students (both at bachelor and master level) as an advanced and elective course. A maximum number of students in the course is set to 25 for practical reasons. Excursions to relevant sites with structures suffering from decay or where repair actions take place was one important...... on the connected topic than vice versa, probably because the ability to relate the theory to the real life made the topic seem more relevant to them. At the excursions the students took samples which they analysed in the laboratory at the university to enhance the active learning. As these samples are from real...... sites, they also reflect the huge variability at such sites and sometimes the results did not support the theory. The frustration of not knowing all upfront places the student in a situation well known to working engineers and formed background for relevant discussions. Experts from companies took part...

  3. Correlation of Excursion Sets for Non-Gaussian CMB Temperature Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, R B; Martínez-González, E; Silk, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a method, based on the correlation function of excursion sets above a given threshold, to test the Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations in the sky. In particular, this method can be applied to discriminate between standard inflationary scenarios and those producing non-Gaussianity such as topological defects. We have obtained the normalized correlation of excursion sets, including different levels of noise, for 2-point probability density functions constructed from the Gaussian, \\chi_n^2 and Laplace 1-point probability density functions in two different ways. Considering subdegree angular scales, we find that this method can distinguish between different distributions even if the corresponding marginal probability density functions and/or the radiation power spectra are the same.

  4. Dark matter halo assembly bias: environmental dependence in the non-Markovian excursion set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Riotto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the standard excursion set model for the growth of structure, the statistical properties of haloes are governed by the halo mass and are independent of the larger scale environment in which the haloes reside. Numerical simulations, however, have found the spatial distributions of haloes to depend not only on their mass but also on the details of their assembly history and environment. Here we present a theoretical framework for incorporating this "assembly bias" into the excursion set model. Our derivations are based on modifications of the path integral approach of Maggiore & Riotto (2010) that models halo formation as a non-Markovian random walk process. The perturbed density field is assumed to evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale and exhibits correlated walks in the presence of a density barrier. We write down conditional probabilities for multiple barrier crossings, and derive from them analytic expressions for descendant and progenitor halo mass functions and halo merger rates as a func...

  5. Revealing the Microscopic Real-Space Excursion of a Laser-Driven Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko G. Kurz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-order harmonic spectroscopy allows one to extract information on fundamental quantum processes, such as the exit time in the tunneling of an electron through a barrier with attosecond time resolution and molecular structure with angstrom spatial resolution. Here, we study the spatial motion of the electron during high-order harmonic generation in an in situ pump-probe measurement using high-density liquid water droplets as a target. We show that molecules adjacent to the emitting electron-ion pair can disrupt the electron’s trajectory when positioned within the range of the maximum electronic excursion distance. This allows us to use the parent ion and the neighboring molecules as boundaries for the electronic motion to measure the maximum electronic excursion distance during the high-order harmonic generation process. Our analysis of the process is relevant for optimizing high-harmonic yields in dense media.

  6. Gambling and football: Epidemiological research on gambling participation and problem gambling among adult football players in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    There is not much known about the gambling behaviour of Icelandic football players. Aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of total gambling participation and problem gambling among Icelandic football players, to examine if Icelandic football players have been involved in behaviour that could possibly be related to game fixing and to examine players attitudes towards banning coaches and players to gamble on games the Icelandic championship. Participants were 725, of which 75...

  7. A Philatelic Excursion with Jeff Hunter in Probability and Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. H. Styan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an excursion with Jeff Hunter, visiting some of his research topics. Specifically, we will present some facts about certain people whose work seems to have influenced Jeff in his scientific career; we illustrate our presentation with postage stamps that have been issued in honour of these people. Our main guide is Hunter’s two-volume book entitled Mathematical Techniques of Applied Probability (Academic Press, 1983.

  8. An investigation of the dynamic relationship between navicular drop and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nicole L; Miller, Charlotte; Schmitt, Daniel; D'Août, Kristiaan

    2013-06-01

    The modern human foot is a complex biomechanical structure that must act both as a shock absorber and as a propulsive strut during the stance phase of gait. Understanding the ways in which foot segments interact can illuminate the mechanics of foot function in healthy and pathological humans. It has been proposed that increased values of medial longitudinal arch deformation can limit metatarsophalangeal joint excursion via tension in the plantar aponeurosis. However, this model has not been tested directly in a dynamic setting. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that during the stance phase, subtalar pronation (stretching of the plantar aponeurosis and subsequent lowering of the medial longitudinal arch) will negatively affect the amount of first metatarsophalangeal joint excursion occurring at push-off. Vertical descent of the navicular (a proxy for subtalar pronation) and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion were measured during steady locomotion over a flat substrate on a novel sample consisting of asymptomatic adult males and females, many of whom are habitually unshod. Least-squares regression analyses indicated that, contrary to the hypothesis, navicular drop did not explain a significant amount of variation in first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion. These results suggest that, in an asymptomatic subject, the plantar aponeurosis and the associated foot bones can function effectively within the normal range of subtalar pronation that takes place during walking gait. From a clinical standpoint, this study highlights the need for investigating the in vivo kinematic relationship between subtalar pronation and metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion in symptomatic populations, and also the need to explore other factors that may affect the kinematics of asymptomatic feet.

  9. Boron and diagenesis: Questioning the fidelity of Snowball δ11B excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G. L.; Stewart, J.; Gutjahr, M.; Pearce, F.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Large negative carbon (δ13C) and boron (δ11B) isotope excursions (both >6‰) within the widely distributed Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" cap carbonates are interpreted as evidence for considerable perturbation of the carbon cycle and the associated reduction, then recovery of global ocean pH. Yet, before conclusive interpretations may be drawn, isotopic data must first be shown to be primary in origin and non-diagenetic. Recent studies of Quaternary carbonate platform sediments from a number of locations worldwide reveal δ13C excursions of similar magnitude and distribution to the "Snowball Earth" excursions. However, these recent analogues were formed following eustatic sea level fall and exposure of recent carbonates to meteoric diagenesis (Swart and Kennedy, 2012). Here we present δ11B and B/Ca data from Pleistocene-aged carbonate platform sediments recovered by the Clino Core from the Bahamas to examine the effects of diagenesis on the boron system. We find that within the interval of meteoric diagenesis the δ11B of bulk carbonate is substantially reduced by approximately 6‰ in conjunction with a drop in B/Ca of 90%. These isotopic and elemental down-core patterns are strikingly similar to those reported for δ11B and B/Ca in the cap carbonates of the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth events (Kasemann et al., 2005; Kasemann et al., 2010). Our results may therefore question the primary nature of "Snowball Earth" isotope excursions. We recommend more rigorous assessment of the diagenetic history of these ancient carbonates to ensure palaeoclimatological interpretations are robust.

  10. Analysis on blood glucose excursions in well-controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Wuquan; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Fuhua; Ai Zhihua; Chen Bing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To probe glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was kept ≤6.0%.Methods: Totally 36 cases with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with HbA1c≤6.0% and 30 cases with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) from December 2005 to December 2007 in our department were subjected prospectively. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) was employed to record their continuous blood glucose level for 3 d. The blood glucose profiles including the mean blood glucose (MBG), standard differentiation (SD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and absolute means of daily differences (MODD) were analyzed. Results: T2DM group had obviously postprandial hyperglycemia, in about 2 h after meal, especially after breakfast. Fifty-two hypoglycemic episodes occurred during the monitoring period in T2DM groups, of which 73.1% (38 episodes) were absence of symptomatic hypoglycemia with the lowest value of blood glucose only 2.0 mmol/L. And 20 episodes took place during the day hours, while 32 episodes observed during the night hours. Compared with NGT groups, SD, MAGE and MODD were all significantly higher in T2DM groups. MBG was significantly correlated with HbA1c in T2DM groups, but SD, MAGE, NGE and MODD were all independent of HbA1c. MAGE was independent of MODD. Conclusion: The amplitude of glycemic excursions is higher in normol-controlled T2DM groups than the NGT groups.Thus ideally glycemic control is not only to make HbA1c reach standard, but also to lessen glycemic excursions and reduce hypoglycemia episodes.

  11. Ocean sunfish rewarm at the surface after deep excursions to forage for siphonophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Goto, Yusuke; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-05-01

    Ocean sunfish (Mola mola) were believed to be inactive jellyfish feeders because they are often observed lying motionless at the sea surface. Recent tracking studies revealed that they are actually deep divers, but there has been no evidence of foraging in deep water. Furthermore, the surfacing behaviour of ocean sunfish was thought to be related to behavioural thermoregulation, but there was no record of sunfish body temperature. Evidence of ocean sunfish feeding in deep water was obtained using a combination of an animal-borne accelerometer and camera with a light source. Siphonophores were the most abundant prey items captured by ocean sunfish and were typically located at a depth of 50-200 m where the water temperature was Ocean sunfish were diurnally active, made frequently deep excursions and foraged mainly at 100-200 m depths during the day. Ocean sunfish body temperatures were measured under natural conditions. The body temperatures decreased during deep excursions and recovered during subsequent surfacing periods. Heat-budget models indicated that the whole-body heat-transfer coefficient between sunfish and the surrounding water during warming was 3-7 times greater than that during cooling. These results suggest that the main function of surfacing is the recovery of body temperature, and the fish might be able to increase heat gain from the warm surface water by physiological regulation. The thermal environment of ocean sunfish foraging depths was lower than their thermal preference (c. 16-17 °C). The behavioural and physiological thermoregulation enables the fish to increase foraging time in deep, cold water. Feeding rate during deep excursions was not related to duration or depth of the deep excursions. Cycles of deep foraging and surface warming were explained by a foraging strategy, to maximize foraging time with maintaining body temperature by vertical temperature environment. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British

  12. Palaeomagnetic record from RH lacustrine core in Zoig■ Basin of Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发虎; 王苏民; 李吉均; 施雅凤; 李世杰; 曹继秀; 张宇田; 王云飞; K.Kelts

    1995-01-01

    RH core,located in the Zoigê Basin of Eastern Tibetan Plateau,is a quite good lacustrinecore.It is 120.40m long.Nine geomagnetic excursions or events were recorded in the core during Brunhesnormal epoch based on measurement results of the remnant magnetization of small interval core samples(10cminterval)under series AF demagnetization,and organic carbon-14 and AMS dates.The excursions recorded bythe core can be correlated with those found in other regions in the world.They are the most detailed recordin lacustrine deposit in China.B/M boundary in the core is at the depth of 108.0m.It can be calculatedfrom the depositional rate of 0.13mm/a that the bottom age of the core is 825 ka B.P.The excursion ages inBrunhes and their correlation with those found in other regions are discussed.

  13. Conditional Probabilities in the Excursion Set Theory. Generic Barriers and non-Gaussian Initial Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, provides a method for computing the dark matter halo mass function. The computation of the mass function is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a moving barrier. The excursion set theory is also a powerful formalism to study other properties of dark matter halos such as halo bias, accretion rate, formation time, merging rate and the formation history of halos. This is achieved by computing conditional probabilities with non-trivial initial conditions, and the conditional two-barrier first-crossing rate. In this paper we use the recently-developed path integral formulation of the excursion set theory to calculate analytically these conditional probabilities in the presence of a generic moving barrier, including the one describing the ellipsoidal collapse, and for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions. The non-Markovianity of the random walks induced by non-Gaussi...

  14. The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion featured in nitrate record from EPICA-Dome C ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Poluianov, S.; Severi, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I. G.; Udisti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the first direct comparison of cosmogenic 10Be and chemical species in the period of 38–45.5 kyr BP spanning the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from the EPICA-Dome C ice core. A principal component analysis (PCA) allowed to group different components as a function of the main sources, transport and deposition processes affecting the atmospheric aerosol at Dome C. Moreover, a wavelet analysis highlighted the high coherence and in-phase relationship between 10Be and nitrate at this time. The evident preferential association of 10Be with nitrate rather than with other chemical species was ascribed to the presence of a distinct source, here labelled as “cosmogenic”. Both the PCA and wavelet analyses ruled out a significant role of calcium in driving the 10Be and nitrate relationship, which is particularly relevant for a plateau site such as Dome C, especially in the glacial period during which the Laschamp excursion took place. The evidence that the nitrate record from the EDC ice core is able to capture the Laschamp event hints toward the possibility of using this marker for studying galactic cosmic ray flux variations and thus also major geomagnetic field excursions at pluri-centennial-millennial time scales, thus opening up new perspectives in paleoclimatic studies. PMID:26819064

  15. Decreased diaphragm excursion in stroke patients with dysphagia as assessed by M-mode sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun-Young; Kim, Seong-Rim; Kim, Young Woo; Jo, Kwang Wook; Lee, Eu Jeen; Kim, Young Moon; Im, Sun

    2015-01-01

    To record diaphragm excursion via M-mode ultrasonography in stroke patients with dysphagia and determine whether they present reduced diaphragm excursion during voluntary cough compared with stroke patients without dysphagia and healthy subjects. Prospective cross-sectional study. University rehabilitation hospital. Acute stroke patients with dysphagia (n=23), acute stroke patients without dysphagia (n=24), and healthy control participants (n=27) (N=74). Not applicable. Diaphragm motions during quiet breathing, deep breathing, and voluntary coughing were recorded via ultrasonography using M-mode tracing (mm). Maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (cmH2O) and peak cough flow (L/min) during voluntary coughing were measured. The mean diaphragm movement (mm) of the hemiplegic side for all groups during quiet breathing, deep breathing, and voluntary coughing was 14.8±4.3, 17.6±4.8, and 20.9±3.7 (Pdysphagia explained up to 60% (Pdysphagia have decreased diaphragm excursion and compromised respiratory function during voluntary coughing. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of right ventricular function as measured by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Køber Lars V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE has independent prognostic value in heart failure patients but may be influenced by left ventricular (LV ejection fraction. The present study assessed the association of TAPSE and clinical factors, global and regional LV function in 634 patients admitted for symptomatic heart failure. Methods & Results TAPSE were correlated with global and regional measures of longitudinal LV function, segmental wall motion scores and measures of diastolic LV function as measured from transthoracic echocardiography. LV ejection fraction, wall motion index scores, atrio-ventricular annular plane systolic excursion of the mitral annulus were significantly related to TAPSE. Septal and posterior mitral annular plane systolic excursion (β = 0.56, p 2 = 0.28, p interaction = NS. Conclusion TAPSE is reduced with left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure patients, in particular with reduced septal longitudinal motion. TAPSE is decreased in patients with heart failure of ischemic etiology. However, the absolute reduction in TAPSE is small and seems to be of minor importance in the clinical utilization of TAPSE whether applied as a measure of right ventricular systolic function or as a prognostic factor.

  17. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-01-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  18. Teamwork in Establishing a Professional Learning Community in a New Icelandic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanbjörnsdóttir, Birna María; Macdonald, Allyson; Frímannsson, Gudmundur Heidar

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the action research reported here is on how leaders and teachers used teamwork in developing a professional learning community in a new compulsory school in Iceland. Collaboration is a critical issue in schools as it can improve practice that supports student achievement. Results from the TALIS 2008 study show that Icelandic teachers…

  19. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's…

  20. Low-Ti basalts from the Faroe Islands constrain the early Iceland depleted plume component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    -Toft, J, Kingsley, R., Schilling, J.G., 2000: Depleted Iceland mantle plume geochemical signature: Artifact of multicomponent mixing? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems vol.1. Thirlwall, M.F., Gee, M.A.M., Taylor, R.N., Murton, B.J., 2004: Mantle components in Iceland and adjecent ridges investigated...

  1. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  2. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  3. U.S. and Icelandic College Student Attitudes toward Relationships/Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David

    2014-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…

  4. Educational Leadership and Market Values: A Study of School Principals in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárusdóttir, Steinunn Helga

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a larger case study about the impact of values on educational leaders in Iceland. The environment of Icelandic schools has changed considerably in recent years. These changes have affected schools and changed the nature and scope of principals' work. Scholars have argued that these changes are primarily…

  5. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-01-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  6. Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

  7. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability…

  8. Mapping Offshore Winds Around Iceland Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar and Mesoscale Model Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Nawri, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The offshore wind climate in Iceland is examined based on satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR), coastal meteorological station measurements, and results from two atmospheric model data sets, HARMONIE and NORA10. The offshore winds in Iceland are highly influenced by the rugged coastline. Lee...

  9. Reconstruction of the mean specific balance of Vatnajokull (Iceland) with a seasonal sensitivity characteristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter de Wildt, Martijn Sybren de; Klok, E.J.; Oerlemans, J.

    We present a Seasonal Sensitivity Characteristic (SSC) of Vatnajökull (Iceland), which consists of the sensitivity of the mean specific mass balance to monthly perturbations in temperature and precipitation. The climate in Iceland is predominantly maritime (high precipitation) although often the

  10. Stress area of the mandibular alveolar mucosa under complete denture with linear occlusion at lateral excursion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ya-lin; LOU Hang-di; RONG Qi-guo; DONG Jian; XU Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background The rocking and instability of a loaded complete denture (CD) during lateral excursion reduce the bearing area under the denture base, causing localized high stress concentrations. This can lead to mucosal tenderness, ulceration, and alveolar bone resorption, and the linear occlusion design was to decrease the lateral force exerted on the denture and to ensure denture stability. But it is not known how the bearing areas of linear occlusal CDs (LOCDs) and anatomic occlusal CDs (AOCDs) differ. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the distributions of the high and low vertical stress-bearing areas in the mandibular alveolar mucosa under LOCDs and AOCDs at lateral excursion.Methods Computerized tomography (CT) and finite element analysis were used to establish three-dimensional models of an edentulous maxilla and mandible with severe residual ridge resorption. These models were composed of maxillary and mandibular bone structure, mucosa, and the LOCD or AOCD. Lateral excursion movements of the mandible were simulated and the vertical stress-bearing areas in the mucosa under both mandibular CDs were analyzed using ANSYS 7.0.Results On the working side, the high stress-bearing (-0.07 to -0.1 Mpa) area under the LOCD during lateral excursion was smaller than that under the AOCD, while the medium stress-bearing (-0.03 to -0.07 Mpa) area under the LOCD was 1.33-fold that under the AOCD. The medium stress-bearing area on the non-working side under the LOCD was 2.4-fold that under the AOCD. Therefore, the overall medium vertical stress-bearing area under the LOCD was 20% larger than that under the AOCD.Conclusions During lateral excursion, the medium vertical stress-bearing area under a mandibular LOCD was larger and the high vertical stress-bearing area was smaller than that under an AOCD. Thus, the vertical stress under the LOCD was distributed more evenly and over a wider area than that under the AOCD, thereby improving denture stability.

  11. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  12. Local times and excursion theory for Brownian motion a tale of Wiener and Itô measures

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Ju-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This monograph discusses the existence and regularity properties of local times associated to a continuous semimartingale, as well as excursion theory for Brownian paths. Realizations of Brownian excursion processes may be translated in terms of the realizations of a Wiener process under certain conditions. With this aim in mind, the monograph presents applications to topics which are not usually treated with the same tools, e.g.: arc sine law, laws of functionals of Brownian motion, and the Feynman-Kac formula.

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Icelandic Dust Storms on High-Latitude Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browse, Jo; Dorsi, Kelly; Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Murray, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Using a combination of observations, meteorological climatologies and modelling we have developed an Icelandic dust storm emission inventory. Here we present results from a global modelling study quantifying the contribution of Icelandic dust to high-latitude: ice nucleating particles (INP), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and PM2.5. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust cannot explain the formation and persistence of summertime mixed-phase Arctic marine clouds, as summertime marine clouds are too warm for Icelandic dust to serve as INP. However, in colder regions (such as Greenland) Icelandic dust may sporadically contribute to INP. The contribution of Icelandic dust to high-latitude CCN was shown to be complex. Indeed, our results indicate a decrease in high-latitude CCN in the aftermath of Icelandic dust storms. This decrease is due to the short-term increase of the Arctic atmospheric condensation sink and the resulting suppression of nucleation processes (a significant source of Arctic summertime CCN). Finally, Icelandic dust storms are shown to significantly contribute to high-latitude summertime PM2.5 (and PM10) both during (˜100 {μ}gm-3) and in the aftermath (˜10 {μ}gm-3) of dust events. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust storms (neglected in most global climate models) may in the short term increase aerosol optical depth (strongly correlated to PM2.5) at high latitudes. Additionally, Icelandic dust storms are likely to contribute to poor air quality as well as reduced visibility in the Arctic boundary layer. Thus, we argue for the adoption of high-latitude dust emissions in climate and NWP models.

  14. Mapping of magnetic chrons: paleomagnetic polarity map of East Iceland, 0-13 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Through data on palaeomagnetism, stratigraphy and radiometric age dating an immense database on magnetic chrons has been established for the lava succession in Iceland (e.g. Kristjánsson, 2008). Correlation of magnetic chrons with the geomagnetic time scale provides a reasonable age estimate for vast stratigraphic sequences. The basalt lava succession in Iceland has a thickness of tens of kilometers. The magnetostratigraphic data offer, through the help of paleomagnetism and radiometric dating, a detailed timing of events in the evolution of the Iceland mantle plume region. Yet a magnetic polarity map for Iceland has been lacking but during the last 50 years, comprehensive stratigraphic mapping has paved the way for a magnetic polarity map in various parts of Iceland. Here, such a map is presented for a segment of East Iceland, i.e. for lavas ranging in age from 0 to 13 M yr. The map is a compilation based on various studies into the cliff section and stratigraphic work performed by numerous research initiatives, both in relation to hydroelectric research as well as academic projects. References: Kristjánsson, L., 2008. Paleomagnetic research on Icelandic lava flows. Jökull, 58, 101-116. Helgason, J., Duncan, R.A., Franzson, H., Guðmundsson, Á., and M. Riishuus., 2015. Magnetic polarity map of Akrafjall and Skarðsheiði and new 40Ar-39Ar age dating from West Iceland., Presentation at the spring conference of the Icelandic Geological Society, held on March 13th 2015 at the University of Iceland.

  15. Chemical quality and regulatory compliance of drinking water in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Jonsson, Gunnar St; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    Assuring sufficient quality of drinking water is of great importance for public wellbeing and prosperity. Nations have developed regulatory system with the aim of providing drinking water of sufficient quality and to minimize the risk of contamination of the water supply in the first place. In this study the chemical quality of Icelandic drinking water was evaluated by systematically analyzing results from audit monitoring where 53 parameters were assessed for 345 samples from 79 aquifers, serving 74 water supply systems. Compliance to the Icelandic Drinking Water Regulation (IDWR) was evaluated with regard to parametric values, minimum requirement of sampling, and limit of detection. Water quality compliance was divided according to health-related chemicals and indicators, and analyzed according to size. Samples from few individual locations were benchmarked against natural background levels (NBLs) in order to identify potential pollution sources. The results show that drinking compliance was 99.97% in health-related chemicals and 99.44% in indicator parameters indicating that Icelandic groundwater abstracted for drinking water supply is generally of high quality with no expected health risks. In 10 water supply systems, of the 74 tested, there was an indication of anthropogenic chemical pollution, either at the source or in the network, and in another 6 water supplies there was a need to improve the water intake to prevent surface water intrusion. Benchmarking against the NBLs proved to be useful in tracing potential pollution sources, providing a useful tool for identifying pollution at an early stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  17. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G.

    2015-01-01

    Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland's glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a 3 year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S), we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo-, and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae) support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers. PMID:25941518

  18. 231Pa systematics in postglacial volcanic rocks from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Kokfelt, Thomas; Hoernle, Kaj; Lundstrom, Craig; Hauff, Folkmar

    2016-07-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of combined 238U-230Th and 235U-231Pa systematics to constrain upwelling rates and the role of recycled mafic lithologies in mantle plume-derived basalts. Accordingly, we present measurements of the 231Pa concentrations from 26 mafic volcanic rocks from Iceland, including off-axis basalts from the Snaefellsnes Peninsula, to complement previously published 238U-230Th-226Ra data. 231Pa concentrations vary from 27 to 624 fg/g and (231Pa/235U) ratios from 1.12 to 2.11 with the exception of one anomalous sample from the Southeast Rift which has a 231Pa deficit with (231Pa/235U) = 0.86. An important new result is that basalts from the Southeast Rift and the Snaefellsnes Peninsula define a trend at relatively low (231Pa/235U) for a given (230Th/238U) ratio. Many of the remaining samples fall in or around the global field for ocean island basalts but those from the Mid-Iceland Belt and the Southwest Rift/Reykjanes Peninsula extend to higher (231Pa/235U) ratios at a given (230Th/238U), similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts. In principle, these lavas could result from melting of peridotite at lower pressures. However, there is no reason to suspect that the Mid-Iceland Belt and the Southwest Rift lavas reflect shallower melting than elsewhere in Iceland. In our preferred model, these lavas reflect melting of garnet peridotite whereas those from the Southeast Rift and the Snaefellsnes Peninsula contain a significant contribution (up to 20%) of melt from garnet pyroxenite. This is consistent with incompatible trace element and radiogenic isotope evidence for recycled oceanic crust in these lavas. There is increasing agreement that the displacement of ocean island basalts to lower (231Pa/235U) ratios at a given (230Th/238U), compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflects the role of recycled mafic lithologies such as garnet pyroxenite as well as higher average pressures of melting. It now seems likely that this interpretation may

  19. Life cycle assessment of Icelandic Atlantic salmon Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the environmental impacts of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in sea cages in Tálknafjörður, North West of Iceland. Methodologically the study was based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and the functional unit was 1 metric tonne of the whole Atlantic salmon produced in sea cage system and delivered to a processing plant in Patreksfjörður. The life cycle model included the feed production (including feed raw materials production), hatchery, sea-cage farm, faming equipmen...

  20. [Surgical removing of an ectopic tooth in an Iceland mare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicht, S; Del Chicca, F; Fürst, A

    2011-12-01

    Ectopic teeth occur because of failure of the first branchial cleft to close during development and are found mostly in young horses. Such dentigerous cysts are often located at the base of the ear, forming a notable swelling with a fistula, as it was the case with the two year old Iceland mare «Runa». In order to confirm the diagnosis, x-ray images were taken, which is also necessary to locate the ectopic tooth correctly. While operating, the whole cystic membrane should be removed and it is important to prevent adjacent nerves and blood vessels from damage. Prognosis for complete healing after removing an ectopic tooth is excellent.

  1. Populism in Iceland: Has the Progressive Party turned populist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiríkur Bergmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Though nationalism has always been strong in Iceland, populist political parties did not emerge as a viable force until after the financial crisis of 2008. On wave of the crisis a completely renewed leadership took over the country’s old agrarian party, the Progressive Party (PP, which was rapidly transformed in a more populist direction. Still the PP is perhaps more firmly nationalist than populist. However, when analyzing communicational changes of the new postcrisis leadership it is unavoidable to categorize the party amongst at least the softer version of European populist parties, perhaps closest to the Norwegian Progress Party.

  2. Lost in Iceland? Fracture Zone Complications Along the Mid-Atlantic Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsdóttir, B.; Einarsson, P.; Detrick, R. S.; Mayer, L.; Calder, B.; Driscoll, N.; Richter, B.

    2003-12-01

    The mid-Atlantic plate boundary breaks up into a series of segments across Iceland. Two transform zones, the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) separate the on land rift zones from the Reykjanes Ridge (RR), and the Kolbeinsey Ridge (KR), offshore N-Iceland. Both are markedly different from fracture zones elsewhere along the plate boundary. The 80 km E-W and 10--15 km N-S SISZ is made up of more than 20 N-S aligned, right-lateral, strike-slip faults whereas the TFZ consists of a broad zone of deformation, roughly 150 km E-W and 75 km N-S. The over-all left-lateral transform motion within the SISZ is accommodated by bookshelf faulting whereas the right-lateral transform motion within the TFZ is incorporated within two WNW-trending seismic zones, spaced ˜40 km apart, the Grímsey Seismic Zone (GSZ) and the Húsavík-Flatey fault (HFF). Recently collected EM300 and RESON8101 multibeam bathymetric data along with CHIRP subbottom data has unveiled some tectonic details within the TFZ. The GSZ runs along the offshore extension of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone (NVRZ) and is made up of four left-stepping, en-echelon, NS-striking rift segments akin to those on land. Large GSZ earthquakes seem to be associated with lateral strike-slip faulting along ESE-striking fault planes. Fissure swarms transecting the offshore volcanic systems have also been subjected to right-lateral transformation along the spreading direction. As the Reykjanes Peninsula, the on land extension of the RR, the GSZ bears the characteristics of an oblique rift zone. The plate boundary segments connecting to the RR and KR are thus symmetrical with respect to the plate separation vector (105° ) and orientation of individual volcanic systems. The HFF has an overall strike of N65° W and can be traced continuously along its 75--80 km length, between the Theistareykir volcanic system within the NVRZ, across the central TFZ-graben, the Skjálfandi bay, and into the largest

  3. A new high-resolution Holocene tephra stratigraphy in eastern Iceland: Improving the Icelandic and North Atlantic tephrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth; Larsen, Gudrún; Björck, Svante; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Striberger, Johan

    2016-10-01

    A new and improved Holocene tephra stratigraphy and tephrochronological framework for eastern and northern Iceland is presented. Investigations of a sediment sequence from Lake Lögurinn have revealed a comprehensive tephra record spanning the last 10.200 years. A total of 157 tephra layers have been identified, whereof 149 tephra layers have been correlated to its source volcanic system using geochemistry, stratigraphy and age. Fifteen layers have chemical composition of two affinities that possibly represent two very closely spaced eruptions. Thus, these 157 tephra layers are believed to represent 172 explosive eruptions. Nineteen tephra marker layers have been identified in the Lake Lögurinn record (G1922, A1875, V1477, V1410, H1636, K1625, Ö1362, G1354, K1262, V874, Hrafnkatla, Sn-1, Grákolla, HY, H3, H4, HÖ, LL1755 and Reitsvík-8 tephra markers). New potential tephra markers are the silicic Askja L (∼9400 cal BP), the low titanium basalt layers, LL 1774 (∼10.150 cal BP) and LL 1755 (∼9990 cal BP), assigned to Veidivötn-Bárdarbunga and the tephra layers, LL 1527.8 (∼7850 cal BP), LL 911.2 (∼2370 cal BP), LL 908.4 (∼2350 cal BP), LL 781.9 (∼1930 cal BP), LL 644.4 (∼1480 cal BP), not yet correlated to a source volcanic system. A silicic tephra marker layer, Reitsvík 8, correlated to the Fosen tephra in Norway has been identified in Lake Lögurinn. The Lake Lögurinn tephra record has been connected and integrated with the Icelandic terrestrial tephrochronology and stratigraphy through 102 tephra layers, the marine tephra stratigraphy through 39 layers and overseas through 9 tephra layers. This record is the first high-resolution tephra stratigraphical and chronological framework for the Holocene in eastern Iceland as well as the most detailed and continuous record, and has considerable potential to serve as a key section or a stratotype for the Holocene in eastern Iceland and the North Atlantic.

  4. Structural development of the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC): An update of its role during the rift transition from the Ægir Ridge to the Kolbeinsey Ridge, and effects on the formation of the Greenland-Iceland-Faroe ridge complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blischke, Anett; Gaina, Carmen; Hopper, John R.; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndis; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Erlendsson, Ögmundur

    2016-04-01

    This study presents results of an ongoing PhD research project and proposes a revision of the Jan Mayen microcontinent's Cenozoic evolution with a special emphasis on the structural relationship to the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex. Recently acquired and publicly available geophysical and borehole data collected offshore Iceland since the early 1970s, facilitate a thorough review of Tertiary rift systems and their association with the Jan Mayen microcontinent, updating recent kinematic modelling that details the timing of the North Atlantic opening along the Jan Mayen transfer systems, and the Iceland-Faroe-Greenland transfer system bordering the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex, which covers a large area of thick crust that stretches across the North Atlantic Ocean between the central East Greenland and the North-West European margins. The established regional reflection seismic dataset interpretations and plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the microcontinent may represent the southern extension of the East Greenland Jameson Land basin, suggesting a similar structural trend as the Faroe-Shetland basin. The Cenozoic structural evolution of the Jan Mayen microcontinent and surrounding oceanic crust includes six main phases that correlate to several major unconformities and related structures. Important events include the pre-break-up unconformity, the break-up to drift phase, a drifting phase and establishment of the Ægir Ridge seafloor spreading during the early Eocene, oblique seafloor spreading direction east of JMMC during mid-Eocene caused the formation of transform systems and uplift along the southern flank Jan Mayen microcontinent forming the Iceland Plateau Rift (Brandsdóttir et al. 2015), accompanied by igneous activity along the northeastern margin of the Blosseville Kyst (Larsen et al. 2014), ridge relocation via a southeast to northwest en-echelon ridge system transition from the southern extent of the microcontinent during the

  5. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina

    2017-08-29

    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pservice television has the potential to improve the way food and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  6. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair

    2014-09-21

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  7. The Icelandic media coverage of the constitutional assembly election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On November 27, 2010, the people of Iceland elected 25 individuals to the country’s constitutional assembly. As there were 522 candidates for the 25 seats in the assembly, the media were faced with a new dilemma, i.e. how to ensure impartiality and objectivity in their coverage of the candidates and the subject matter. The present study compares the media coverage of the constitutional assembly election to two other national elections; the general election in the spring of 2009 and the municipal election in the spring of 2010. All news stories in the 13 major print, broadcast and online news outlets in Iceland were coded two weeks prior to each election. The results indicate that the national media almost ignored the constitutional assembly election in comparison to the other elections. There were 632 news stories on the general election, 590 stories on the municipal election but only 165 stories on the constitutional assembly election. The lack of coverage of the candidates for the constitutional assembly seems to reveal that the traditional media, i.e. the print and broadcast media, and the online media did not know how to best serve and inform the public in the democratic process.

  8. Magma plumbing for the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Mattsson, Tobias; Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari; Krumbholz, Michael; Harris, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm but was accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Bárðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysical monitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Bárðarbunga to the Holuhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connection between Bárðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-melt-equilibrium calculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraun samples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system. Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption, wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of ˜17 km and ˜5 km, respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbing system facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-δ18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunction with the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial vertical magma ascent within the Bárðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregated magma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

  9. Calcium isotope constraints on the marine carbon cycle and CaCO3 deposition during the late Silurian (Ludfordian) positive δ13C excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Juraj; Frýda, Jiří; Holmden, Chris

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates calcium isotope variations (δ 44 / 40 Ca) in late Silurian marine carbonates deposited in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic), which records one of the largest positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of the entire Phanerozoic, the mid-Ludfordian CIE, which is associated with major climatic changes (abrupt cooling) and global sea-level fluctuations. Our results show that during the onset of the CIE, when δ13 C increases rapidly from ∼0‰ to ∼8.5‰, δ 44 / 40Ca remains constant at about 0.3 ± 0.1 ‰ (relative to NIST 915a), while 87Sr/86Sr in well-preserved carbonates are consistent with a typical Ludfordian seawater composition (ranging from ∼0.70865 to ∼0.70875). Such decoupling between δ13 C and δ 44 / 40Ca trends during the onset of the CIE is consistent with the expected order-of-magnitude difference in the residence times of Ca (∼106yr) and C (∼105yr) in the open ocean, suggesting that the mid-Ludfordian CIE was caused by processes where the biogeochemical pathways of C and Ca in seawater were mechanistically decoupled. These processes may include: (i) near shore methanogenesis and photosynthesis, (ii) changes in oceanic circulation and stratification, and/or (iii) increased production and burial of organic C in the global ocean. The latter, however, is unlikely due to the lack of geological evidence for enhanced organic C burial, and also because of unrealistic parameterization of the ocean C cycle needed to generate the observed CIE over the relatively short time interval. In contrast, higher up in the section where δ13 C shifts back to pre-excursion baseline values, there is a correlated shift to higher δ 44 / 40Ca values. Such coupling of the records of Ca and C isotope changes in this part of the study section is inconsistent with the abovementioned differences in oceanic Ca and C residence times, indicating that the record of δ 44 / 40Ca changes does not faithfully reflect the evolution of the oceanic Ca

  10. Crustal Structure of the Iceland Region from Spectrally Correlated Free-air and Terrain Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, T. E.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Roman, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic refraction studies have provided critical, but spatially restricted constraints on the structure of the Icelandic crust. To obtain a more comprehensive regional view of this tectonically complicated area, we spectrally correlated free-air gravity anomalies against computed gravity effects of the terrain for a crustal thickness model that also conforms to regional seismic and thermal constraints. Our regional crustal thickness estimates suggest thickened crust extends up to 500 km on either side of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge with the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge crust being less extended and on average 3-5 km thinner than the crust of the Greenland-Iceland Ridge. Crustal thickness estimates for Iceland range from 25-35 km in conformity with seismic predictions of a cooler, thicker crust. However, the deepening of our gravity-inferred Moho relative to seismic estimates at the thermal plume and rift zones of Iceland suggests partial melting. The amount of partial melting may range from about 8% beneath the rift zones to perhaps 20% above the plume core where mantle temperatures may be 200-400 C above normal. Beneath Iceland, areally limited regions of partial melting may also be compositionally and mechanically layered and intruded. The mantle plume appears to be centered at (64.6 deg N, 17.4 deg W) near the Vatnajokull Glacier and the central Icelandic neovolcanic zones.

  11. Epaxial muscle fiber architecture favors enhanced excursion and power in the leaper Galago senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Emranul; Wall, Christine E; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-10-01

    Galago senegalensis is a habitual arboreal leaper that engages in rapid spinal extension during push-off. Large muscle excursions and high contraction velocities are important components of leaping, and experimental studies indicate that during leaping by G. senegalensis, peak power is facilitated by elastic storage of energy. To date, however, little is known about the functional relationship between epaxial muscle fiber architecture and locomotion in leaping primates. Here, fiber architecture of select epaxial muscles is compared between G. senegalensis (n = 4) and the slow arboreal quadruped, Nycticebus coucang (n = 4). The hypothesis is tested that G. senegalensis exhibits architectural features of the epaxial muscles that facilitate rapid and powerful spinal extension during the take-off phase of leaping. As predicted, G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have relatively longer, less pinnate fibers and higher ratios of tendon length-to-fiber length, indicating the capacity for generating relatively larger muscle excursions, higher whole-muscle contraction velocities, and a greater capacity for elastic energy storage. Thus, the relatively longer fibers and higher tendon length-to-fiber length ratios can be functionally linked to leaping performance in G. senegalensis. It is further predicted that G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have relatively smaller physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) as a consequence of an architectural trade-off between fiber length (excursion) and PCSA (force). Contrary to this prediction, there are no species differences in relative PCSAs, but the smaller-bodied G. senegalensis trends towards relatively larger epaxial muscle mass. These findings suggest that relative increase in muscle mass in G. senegalensis is largely attributable to longer fibers. The relative increase in erector spinae muscle mass may facilitate sagittal flexibility during leaping. The similarity between species in relative PCSAs provides empirical support for

  12. Development of the System to Support Tourists’ Excursion Behavior using Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen ZHOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an information system (AR recommended GIS to support tourists’ excursion behavior by making the accumulating, sharing, and recommending of information concerning urban tourist spots possible. The conclusion of this study can be summarized into three points as shown below. (1 In order to support tourists’ excursion behaviors by integrating SNS, Twitter, Web-GIS, recommendation system, and Smart Eyeglass, in addition to making the accumulating, sharing, and recommending of information regarding urban tourist spots possible, the AR recommended GIS was designed and developed. (2 91% were between the age of 20-40 among the 91 users, and the ultimate number of submitted information was 161. In addition, concerning the operation using Smart Eyeglass, which was conducted with tourists in the Minato Mirai area, the total number of users were 34, age of users were spread out, and all users had no experience in using Smart Eyeglasses. (3 From the results of the Web questionnaire survey, the system is compatible for the collection method of tourist spot information for users, and is mainly used to collect tourist spot information using the viewing and recommendation functions. From the results of the access analysis using the log data form during the operation, the utilization method of the system with PCs and mobile information terminals were very similar. Additionally, as the system using AR Smart Eyeglass was rated extremely highly, it was evident that it is possible to support tourists’ excursion behavior using PCs, mobile information terminals, and AR Smart Eyeglasses are possible.

  13. Excursion guide for the 6th IMCG field symposium in Norway 1994

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    This guide contains a description of the variations found among the mires in central Norway. The main emphasis is on the hydromorphology, flora and vegetation, but the bird fauna and conservational aspects are also included. The regionality of the vegetation is stressed (5 zones/belts and 5 sections have been mapped). Nine main mire localities that will be visited during the excursion are also described. Rørmyra (locality l), Kaldvassmyra (2) and Toppmyr/Røkmyr (9) are southern boreal mires w...

  14. Power semiconductors empirical diagrams expressing life as a function of temperature excursion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somos, I.L. (Somos Electra, Lansdowne, PA (United States)); Piccone, D.E.; Willinger, L.J.; Tobin, W.H. (General Electric Co., Malvern, PA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Solid state switches are being actively pursued to replace thyratons, ignitrons and triggered spark gaps in various pulse power applications. These include electric gun development for tanks such as the EM gun (electromagnetic) and the ETC gun (electrothermal) and electromechanical launcher for aircraft. High power thyristors and rectifier diodes have been applied in stringent power cycling applications in the past with predictable life assurance. The validity of a simple mathematical concept expression life in terms of numbers of power cycles versus temperature excursion is explained and supported by examples of empirical tests data.

  15. Excursion sets of infinitely divisible random fields with convolution equivalent Lévy measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in R d , d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set a...... at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure...

  16. Benchmarking of flowtran with Mark-22 mockup flow excursion test data from Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Juo-Fu

    1990-06-01

    Version 16.2 of the FLOWTRAN code with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working criterion (St=0.00455) for the onset of significant void (OSV) was benchmarked against power and flow excursion data derived from tests at the Babcock & Wilcox Alliance Research Center test facility. This document presents analyses which show that FLOWTRAN accurately predicts the mockup test assembly thermal-hydraulic behavior during the steady state and LOCA transient conditions, and that FLOWTRAN with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working limits criterion (St=0.00455) conservatively predicts the OFI power.

  17. Benchmarking of flowtran with Mark-22 mockup flow excursion test data from Babcock Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Juo-Fu.

    1990-06-01

    Version 16.2 of the FLOWTRAN code with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working criterion (St=0.00455) for the onset of significant void (OSV) was benchmarked against power and flow excursion data derived from tests at the Babcock Wilcox Alliance Research Center test facility. This document presents analyses which show that FLOWTRAN accurately predicts the mockup test assembly thermal-hydraulic behavior during the steady state and LOCA transient conditions, and that FLOWTRAN with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working limits criterion (St=0.00455) conservatively predicts the OFI power.

  18. Tectonic types of deepwater basins and structural segmentation of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2012-03-01

    Typification of tectonic structures is one of the important lines of tectonic research. Recently, I have published several articles, which are concerned with deepwater oceanic basins. This paper is focused on tectonic typification of deepwater basins of the North Atlantic. They are attributed to three types: perispreading, central thalassogenic, and pericontinental. The first type comprises the Irminger, Iceland, Greenland, and Lofoten basins. The first two basins are associated with the Reykjanes Ridge and the two others, with the Mohns Ridge. The central thalassogenic type is exemplified in the Norwegian Basin, while the pericontinental type in the Rockall Trough. Two systems of basins are distinguished by morphostructural and historical-geological features: the northern system of the Oligocene-Quaternary structures and the southern system of the Paleocene-Quaternary structures. The Greenland-Faroe tectonovolcanic zone serves as their tectonic interface. In the tectonic typology of their deepwater basins, the North Atlantic is closer to the Indian than to other oceans. The present-day configuration of the northern basins is determined by neotectonics. The tectonic movements in the northern system of basins at this stage were more contrasting than in the southern system. This explains the greater depth of the former basins. The spatial position of the deepwater basins belonging to different types determines the tectonic segmentation of the oceanic bottom. The southern, central, and northern latitudinal segments correspond to different geodynamic states of the Earth's interior.

  19. Depleted basaltic lavas from the proto-Iceland plume, Central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Baker, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    ridges considered to be derived from upper mantle sources polluted by the Iceland plume. However, small positive Pb peaks when normalised to MORB, and lower Nb distinguish the CEG low-Ti basalts from depleted Icelandic compositions. The lower ¿Nb (... in crustally uncontaminated parental melts implies a closer affinity to compositions from the oceanic ridges surrounding Iceland (especially Reykjanes), yet they are subtly distinct on the basis of available trace element data. We suggest that this depleted component was an integral part of the plume...

  20. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi......, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds....

  1. “The provocation is titillating.” Sven Wernström in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Holownia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the reception and impact of Sven Wernström's views and works in Iceland. In particular, it retraces the controversy which surrounded the 1978 translation of his book Kamrat Jesus (1971 and recounts the heated debate over the book which took place both in the press and in the Icelandic parliament. Wernström's prose and critical voice is also considered within the context of the so-called social realist movement in Icelandic literature for children and young adults.

  2. Effects of diaphragm stretching on posterior chain muscle kinematics and rib cage and abdominal excursion: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. González-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Few studies have explored the effects of stretching techniques on diaphragm and spine kinematics. Objective To determine whether the application of diaphragm stretching resulted in changes in posterior chain muscle kinematics and ribcage and abdominal excursion in healthy subjects. Method Eighty healthy adults were included in this randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, which received a diaphragmatic stretching technique, or the placebo group, which received a sham-ultrasound procedure. The duration of the technique, the position of participants, and the therapist who applied the technique were the same for both treatments. Participant assessment (cervical range of movement, lumbar flexibility, flexibility of the posterior chain, and rib cage and abdominal excursion was performed at baseline and immediately after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Results The mean between-group difference [95% CI] for the ribcage excursion after technique at xiphoid level was 2.48 [0.97 to 3.99], which shows significant differences in this outcome. The remaining between-group analysis showed significant differences in cervical extension, right and left flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level (p<0.05 in favor of the experimental group. Conclusion Diaphragm stretching generates a significant improvement in cervical extension, right and left cervical flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level compared to a placebo technique in healthy adults.

  3. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  4. Mary Poppins and the Soviet Pilgrimage: P.L.Travers's Moscow Excursion (1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McNair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like the journey it chronicles, Moscow Excursion, P.L.Travers’s account of her 1932 visit to Russia, was in part inspired by the genre it effectively parodies: the ‘Soviet pilgrimage’ ‘truth about Russia’ narrative characteristic of the Stalin decades and exemplified (in the Australian context by Katharine Susannah Prichard’s The Real Russia, also published in 1934. The paper examines the ways in which Travers’s book is written against this genre to produce an avowedly ‘un-political’ record whose narrator rejects the restrictions of organized travel, and whose idiosyncratic and critical observations on Soviet reality contrast with the admiration of her more orthodox fellow-travellers for the usual showcase institutions on the official itinerary. At the same time, it is argued that in its blend of self-deprecating irony, whimsy and disillusioned idealism Moscow Excursion suggests parallels with Travers’s personal quest for ‘the truth’ and even with Mary Poppins, published only two months later.

  5. Lower Triassic Inorganic Carbon Isotope Excursion in Chaohu, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports a Lower Triassic inorganic carbon isotope profile from the North Ping-dingshan Section in Chaohu, Anhui Province, China, which was situated in a deep part of the LowerYangtze carbonate ramp. The δ(13C) excursion shows two periods from the Permian-Triassic boundaryto the lower Spathian substage, corresponding to the ecosystem undergoing evolution and recovery afterthe end-Permian mass extinction and related events. The first period starts at the δ (13 C) depletioncaused by the mass extinction and evolves with a gradual δ(13C) increase resulting from the developmentof some disaster taxa during the Induan. The strong Smithian δ(13 C) depletion in the second periodmight be formed by the collapse of the disaster ecosystem and the biotic recovery occurred with the explo-sive increase of bioproductivity in the Spathian. Thus the δ(13C) excursion in the Lower Triassic expres-ses patterns of biotic evolution and recovery during the erratic ecosystem that followed the great end-Permian mass extinction.

  6. Possible record of the Laschamp Excursion in lacustrine sediments in the Searles Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J.; Coe, R.; Knott, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pleistocene history of Searles Lake, California, is known in detail from field work and cores recovered during industrial exploration of Searles Valley, in which the lake formed (Smith et al., 1979; Liddicoat et al., 1980). Exposed siltstone assigned the age about 34,000 to 46,000 calendar years B.P. (eight AMS 14-Carbon dates on gastropods and mollusks from fine- to medium-grain sand units that bracket the siltstone) records reverse palaeomagnetic polarity following thermal demagnetization to 600˚ C at two localities 3 km apart. For 12 samples (six pairs from six horizons, three pairs from each locality), the mean palaeomagnetic directions are Incl = - 37.5˚, Decl = 180.2˚, alpha 95 = 19.5˚ and the mean Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) is 73.6˚ S, 231.8˚ E, Alpha 95 = 20.6˚. The reverse polarity is not part of the Mono Lake Excursion (Denham and Cox, 1971) that never has a VGP in the Southern Hemisphere (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). Other samples from the two Searles Valley localities do not reach a definite reverse direction but contain a component of magnetization that approaches reverse polarity above 400˚ C. The reverse polarity in Searles Lake sediments offers an opportunity to model the geomagnetic field for two excursions (Laschamp and Mono Lake) in western North America at localities separated by about 300 km.

  7. Investigations of Very High Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs. Earlier modeling indicates that the power output of a geothermal well producing from a supercritical reservoir could potentially be an order of magnitude greater than that from a conventional hot geothermal reservoir, at the same volumetric flow rate. However, even in areas with an unusually high geothermal gradient, for normal hydrostatic pressure gradients reaching supercritical temperatures and pressures will require drilling to depths >4 km. In 2009 the IDDP attempted to drill the first deep supercritical well, IDDP-01, in the caldera of the Krafla volcano, in NE Iceland. However drilling had to be terminated at only 2.1 km depth when ~900°C rhyolite magma flowed into the well. Our studies indicate that this magma formed by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basalts within the Krafla caldera. Although this well was too shallow to reach supercritical pressures, it is highly productive, and is estimated to be capable of generating up to 36 MWe from the high-pressure, superheated steam produced from the upper contact zone of the intrusion. With a well-head temperature of ~440°C, it is at present apparently the hottest producing geothermal well in the world. A pilot plant is investigating the optimal utilization of this magmatically heated resource. A special issue of the journal Geothermics with 16 papers reporting on the IDDP-01 is in preparation. However, in order to continue the search for supercritical geothermal resources, planning is underway to drill a 4.5 km deep well at Reykjanes in SW Iceland in 2013-14. Although drilling deeper towards the heat source of this already developed high-temperature geothermal field will be more expensive, if a supercritical resource is found, this cost increase should be offset by the considerable increase in the power output and lifetime of the Reykjanes geothermal

  8. Lava Eruption and Emplacement: Using Clues from Hawaii and Iceland to Probe the Lunar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, D. H.; Hamilton, C. W.; Bleacher, J. E.; Whelley, P. L.; Young, K. E.; Scheidt, S. P.; Richardson, J. A.; Sutton, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the 2014/15 Holuhraun, Iceland and December 1974 Kilauea, Hawaii eruptions to improve understanding of relationships between eruption dynamics and final lava flow morphology. Insights are used to deduce the origin of Rima Bode on the Moon.

  9. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas: Current Status and Benefits of Use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  10. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    widely studied, the antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins has been rarely explored. The aim of this study was to determine the structure dependant antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus. The antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins...

  11. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  12. The Picture—Small and Big: Iceland and the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written for the 2014 Winter Symposium of the Nordic Summer University’s (NSU research group number three, dealing with the concept of crisis. In it, I provide two pictures of Iceland’s notorious 2008 economic crisis and unexpected 2009-2013 recovery: one small, another big. The small one is a concise three-step account of what sort of policies preceded the economic crisis, what this crisis consisted primarily in, and what sort of policies followed it. The big one is a twofold reflection on how the Icelandic experience fits within larger global trends, which means considering the country’s experience from an economic-historical perspective and from an axiological one.

  13. Antecedent-based approach to binding in Icelandic and Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E. Strahan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the standard approach to long-distance reflexives within the Lexical-Functional Grammar framework. This approach defines the binding relation between a reflexive and its non-local antecedent by prescribing the type of syntactic elements which must and must not occur along the path from the reflexive to its antecedent. However, evidence from the Insular Scandinavian languages suggests that the binding relation should be expressed as positive and negative constraints on the path from the antecedent to the reflexive. In other words, I suggest that long-distance reflexives in Icelandic and Faroese are governed by outside-in functional uncertainty, not inside-out functional uncertainty, as is standardly assumed.

  14. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... of fearfulness. Known handlers may ‘mask’ behavioural responses of horses in fear tests and thus handling by a known handler during testing may not be appropriate for objective evaluation of fearfulness in a practical situation....... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...

  15. Two differentiation trends in the Thingmuli volcano, Eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreteur, G.; Tegner, C.; Haase, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Since Carmichael’s study (1964), the Thingmúli central volcano (Tertiary Eastern Iceland) has been considered a complete and classic tholeiitic differentiation series from basalt to rhyolite. More recently the role of melting hydrated basaltic crust is often emphasized in the formation of rhyolite in Iceland. A new sample set collected on the Thingmúli central volcano demonstrates the existence of two distinct geochemical trends. For a MgO of 1.3%, a Fe-rich trend (HFe) contains about 13.4% FeO (total iron), while a Fe-poor trend (LFe) contains about 5.2% FeO. A few samples fall below the LFe trend, but they do not show a complete differentiation trend and are interpreted as an epiphenomenon of mixing between primitive basalt and rhyolite. The LFe trend displays a remarkably stable Mg# around 35 from the most evolved basalt (51 wt% SiO2) through to rhyolite with 72 wt% SiO2 before decreasing to almost zero through the rhyolitic field (up to 78 wt% SiO2). In contrast, Mg# of the HFe trend shows a progressive decrease from evolved basalt to rhyolite (52-77 wt% SiO2). Modeling using the MELTS algorithm indicates that the major element composition of the LFe trend can be explained by fractional crystallisation in system open to oxygen. The LFe trend, however, can also be explained by simple mixing between basaltic and rhyolitic magmas. The LFe-rhyolites show negative anomalies in Nb and Ta associated with positive anomalies in Pb. This favors mixing with melts originating by melting of hydrated crust as the dominant process resulting in the LFe trend. In contrast, the intermediate rocks of the HFe trend cannot be formed by any mixing process involving suitable basaltic and rhyolitic components. Instead, MELTS modeling assuming fractional crystallisation in a system closed to oxygen nicely reproduce the HFe trend. We therefore conclude that the Thingmúli volcano was fed by liquids originating from two magma chamber systems: one similar to Skaergaard producing Fe

  16. Closing crack earthquakes within the Krafla caldera, North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildon, Zoë K.; Pugh, David J.; Tarasewicz, Jon; White, Robert S.; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís

    2016-11-01

    Moment tensor analysis with a Bayesian approach was used to analyse a non-double-couple (non-DC) earthquake (Mw ˜ 1) with a high isotropic (implosive) component within the Krafla caldera, Iceland. We deduce that the earthquake was generated by a closing crack at depth. The event is well located, with high signal-to-noise ratio and shows dilatational P-wave first arrivals at all stations where the first arrival can be picked with confidence. Coverage of the focal sphere is comprehensive and the source mechanism stable across the full range of uncertainties. The non-DC event lies within a cluster of microseismic activity including many DC events. Hence, we conclude that it is a true non-DC closing crack earthquake as a result of geothermal utilization and observed magma chamber deflation in the region at present.

  17. Households' position in the financial crisis in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Vignisdottir, Karen Aslaug

    We utilise a unique nationwide household-level database to analyse how households’ financial position evolved in the run-up to and aftermath of the financial crisis in Iceland. The main focus of our analysis is to assess how the share of indebted households in financial distress evolved and how...... it was affected by debt restructuring measures and court decisions. We also analyse the share of indebted homeowners in negative housing equity and those in the highly vulnerable situation of being in distress and negative housing equity simultaneously. The analysis suggests that the share of indebted households...... breathing space, but the share in distress is estimated to have peaked at 27½ per cent in autumn 2009, before declining to 20 per cent at year-end 2010 due to policy and legal interventions. Financial distress is found to be inversely related to income and age, as well as being higher among families...

  18. Alcoholics Anonymous and the Minnesota Model of treatment in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Daniel; Warren, Matthew; Tyrfingsson, Thornorarinn; Hansdóttir, Ingunn; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; McMahon, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide an initial characterization of the current status of patients admitted to an alcoholism treatment program in Iceland. Consistent with the Minnesota Model, 12-step facilitation has been a central component of the program since its inception. Of the 94 patients assessed in this study, 67% were male and 40% had attended over 90 AA meetings prior to admission. The mean number of drinking days during the month prior to admission was 15.51 days and the mean length of hospital stay was 12.32 days. At time of hospital discharge, 39% were referred to residential treatment. Significant predictors of referral to residential treatment included having attended less than 90 AA meetings prior to admission and length of stay.

  19. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  20. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......, while also insisting that former students should already have strong ethical standards when entering the workplace. Third, managers call for business schools not only to contribute more to influencing students’ ethical standards, but also to reshape the knowledge and capabilities of practicing managers......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked...

  1. Wegener's thinking about the mechanism: Greenland and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Wegener's early Arctic expeditions to Greenland (1906-08 and 1912-13 with a stop in Iceland) suggest a significant affect on his thinking about the mechanism of continental drift till his death in 1930. Beside his specialized work in meteorology and the Arctic, he had a broad general interest in science especially of the earth system as a whole. The drift idea occurred to him in 1910 on the basis of new data on geomorphology (Atlantic seafloor), supported by geophysics, geology and palaeontology. In his 1912 initial public talk and ensuing paper he mentioned something akin to seafloor spreading and refuted the continental relict hypothesis from break-up for the mid-Atlantic ridge. But 1912 he bypassed the tension fractures in Iceland and in Greenland (1912-13) he experienced the rheology of ice, brittle and viscous, when thinking about the drift of SIAL continents through the SIMA mantle (as documented in his diaries). When in 1915 rewriting his 1012 paper as the book "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" he had given up the early idea for that of floating continental rafts. It is tempting to speculate why. Rheology of rocks was clearly described. But some misconceptions distracted him from the correct relationships: (1) Data of the time suggested that sialic rock is more solid than mafic rock which would soften at lower temperature (contrary to present knowledge) and (2) convection in the atmosphere, well known to him, seemed to be no model for convection in the mantle, although rafting continents implied mantle flow. Did the rheologies appear too different to him? Not before the mid twenties (as documented in the 4th edition of his book, 1929) did Wegener admit that mantle convection might be the answer. A great spirit was misled but clearly saw that the phenomenon of drift, based on observations, is not refuted by the lack of an explanation.

  2. A Saga for Dinner: Landscape and Nationality in Icelandic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Hennig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s attempted industrialisation through an expansion of hydropower andaluminium smelters can lead to a significant reshaping of the country’slandscapes. There has been considerable resistance against such plans since the1970s, culminating in the debate about the Kárahnjúkar project between 2001and 2006. The book Draumalandið. Sjálfshjálparbók handa hræddri þjóð[Dreamland. A Self-Help Manual for a Frightened Nation] by the writer AndriSnær Magnason has been particularly influential. It combines ecologicalconsciousness with an appreciation of Iceland‘s literary tradition and history.Thus it displays a view of landscape which connects nature preservation closelyto cultural achievements and to national sovereignty. This perception oflandscape originates from the assumption that Iceland experienced a golden agefrom the beginning of colonisation in the Viking age until the subordinationunder the Norwegian and later Danish kings in the 13th century, which led to anall-embracing degeneration. Nationalist poets such as Jónas Hallgrímsson inthe 19th century based their demands for independence on Iceland‘s medievalsaga literature and the country‘s landscapes. These seemed to provide evidencefor a high culture in unity with nature during the time of the Commonwealth.Although the historical reliability of the sagas is doubtful, they are still used asan important argument in Draumalandið. Now the narratives as such are put inthe foreground, as they can give value and meaning to the landscapes and placesthey describe. Thus a turn from a realistic to a more constructivist perception oflandscape can be observed in contemporary Icelandic environmental literature.

  3. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eLutz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland’s glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a three year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S, we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo- and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers.

  4. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  5. Culling Rate of Icelandic Horses due to Bone Spavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árnason Th

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survival analysis was used to compare the culling rate of Icelandic horses due to the presence of radiographic and clinical signs of bone spavin. A follow-up study of 508 horses from a survey five years earlier was performed. In the original survey 46% of the horses had radiographic signs of bone spavin (RS and/or lameness after flexion test of the tarsus. The horse owners were interviewed by telephone. The owners were asked if the horses were still used for riding and if not, they were regarded as culled. The owners were then asked when and why the horses were culled. During the 5 years, 98 horses had been culled, 151 had been withdrawn (sold or selected for breeding and 259 were still used for riding. Hind limb lameness (HLL was the most common reason for culling (n = 42. The rate of culling was low up to the age of 11 years, when it rose to 0.05 for horses with RS. The risk ratio for culling was twice as high for horses with RS compared with horses without RS and 5.5 times higher for culling because of HLL. The risk of culling (prognostic value was highest for the combination of RS with lameness after flexion test, next highest for RS and lowest for lameness after flexion test as the only finding. It was concluded that bone spavin affects the duration of use of Icelandic horses and is the most common cause of culling due to disease of riding horses in the age range of 7–17 years.

  6. How to deal with the collapse of a banking system the Icelandic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solnes, Valgerdur

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, a crisis materialized in the global financial markets, creating the imminent risk of collapse in Icelandic's largest financial institutions and the banking system as a whole. The perilous situation originated in similar conditions that formed overseas in the US and around...... can respond to a collapse of a banking system. The Icelandic way is potentially instructive when facing parallel situations in other states, and will at a mininum provide guidance in the form of experience....

  7. Guðrún Johnsen: Bringing Down the Banking System: Lessons from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Conrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the myths that have been spun not only on the causes of the crisis, but maybe more importantly on the democratic awakening in Icelandic society in the aftermath, it is evident that a much broader audience – especially outside Iceland – should have a keen interest in understanding the political and societal climate that facilitated the emergence of the phenomenon that has also been termed "Viking Capitalism".

  8. Acquisition and transfer of knowledge within the organic sector in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Dýrmundsson, Ó.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic agriculture is developing at a slower rate in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries, partly due to lack of research and development work. While the supply of organics does not meet demand, and the market is growing, this sector within Icelandic agriculture is largely driven by consumers, ideologists and enthusiasts. They are, for example, trying to solve problems and promote progress by accumulating and disseminating knowledge from various sources. Much more support is needed fro...

  9. Smoking during pregnancy: Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Erlingsdottir, Asthildur; Sigurdsson, Emil L.; Jonsson, Jon Steinar; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To study the prevalence and possible predictors for smoking during pregnancy in Iceland. Design. A cross-sectional study. Setting. Twenty-six primary health care centres in Iceland 2009–2010. Subjects. Women attending antenatal care in the 11th–16th week of pregnancy were invited to participate by convenient consecutive manner, stratified according to residency. A total of 1111 women provided data in this first phase of the cohort study. Main outcome measures. Smoking habi...

  10. Glucose excursions and glycaemic control during Ramadan fasting in diabetic patients: insights from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessan, N; Hannoun, Z; Hasan, H; Barakat, M T

    2015-02-01

    Ramadan fasting represents a major shift in meal timing and content for practicing Muslims. This study used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to assess changes in markers of glycaemic excursions during Ramadan fasting to investigate the short-term safety of this practice in different groups of patients with diabetes. A total of 63 subjects (56 with diabetes, seven healthy volunteers; 39 male, 24 female) had CGM performed during, before and after Ramadan fasting. Mean CGM curves were constructed for each group for these periods that were then used to calculate indicators of glucose control and excursions. Post hoc data analyses included comparisons of different medication categories (metformin/no medication, gliptin, sulphonylurea and insulin). Medication changes during Ramadan followed American Diabetes Association guidelines. Among patients with diabetes, there was a significant difference in mean CGM curve during Ramadan, with a slow fall during fasting hours followed by a rapid rise in glucose level after the sunset meal (iftar). The magnitude of this excursion was greatest in the insulin-treated group, followed by the sulphonylurea-treated group. Markers of control deteriorated in a small number (n=3) of patients. Overall, whether fasting or non-fasting, subjects showed no statistically significant changes in mean interstitial glucose (IG), mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE), high and low blood glucose indices (HBGI/LBGI), and number of glucose excursions and rate of hypoglycaemia. The main change in glycaemic control with Ramadan fasting in patients with diabetes is in the pattern of excursions. Ramadan fasting caused neither overall deterioration nor improvement in the majority of patients with good baseline glucose control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Aircraft-based observations and high-resolution simulations of an Icelandic dust storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Blechschmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first aircraft-based observations of an Icelandic dust storm are presented. The measurements were carried out over the ocean near Iceland's south coast in February 2007. This dust event occurred in conjunction with an easterly barrier jet of more than 30 m s−1. The aircraft measurements show high particle mass mixing ratios in an area of low wind speeds in the wake of Iceland near the coast, decreasing abruptly towards the jet. Simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem indicate that the measured high mass mixing ratios and observed low visibility inside the wake are due to dust transported from Icelandic sand fields towards the ocean. This is confirmed by meteorological station data. Glacial outwash terrains located near the Mýrdalsjökull glacier are among simulated dust sources. Sea salt aerosols produced by the impact of strong winds on the ocean surface started to dominate as the aircraft flew away from Iceland into the jet. The present results support recent studies which suggest that Icelandic deserts should be considered as important dust sources in global and regional climate models.

  12. Weathering The Storm – Icelandic Municipalities’ Handling of an Unprecedented Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Skjöld MAGNÚSSON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within a few days in October 2008, following serious turmoil on financial markets worldwide, some 85% of the Icelandic banking sector collapsed, together with the Icelandic currency, the króna. Almost all the rest followed early in 2009. The Icelandic stock market took a nosedive. The Republic of Iceland had entered the worst economic crisis of its history. Icelandic municipalities, which had taken on an increasing burden of running the welfare state, were hard hit financially, without the ability of the state to help out. In fact, some of the post-crisis actions of the state, under IMF direction, were difficult for the municipalities. It did not make things easier that the crisis had been precluded by an unprecedented period of growth, encouraging the municipalities to borrow in international markets and invest in infrastructure that turned out to be superfluous in the post-crisis period. This paper will look at the reactions of the Icelandic municipalities to the crisis, the political implications of it, where they are now and if there are lessons that can be learned from the difficult years in the last decade.

  13. Carbon sequestration and plant nutrients in soil in different land types in Thingvellir Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdóttir, María; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Mankasingh, Utra

    2015-04-01

    Special properties of volcanic soils (andisol) that is most common in Iceland can sequestrate considerably more carbon (C) that other types of soils. A mellow developed andisol with natural ecosystem such as birch forest or grass- and heathland is presumably to be fertile and sequestrate a lot of carbon. Coniferous tree species have been imported to Iceland for large scale utilisation in Icelandic forestry and is therefore an imported species/ecosystem. Abroad it has been noticed that coniferous trees acidify soil and change the properties of the soil so other species cannot thrive in it. The Icelandic Forest service is aiming tenfold the coverage of forests in Iceland before the year 2100 but about 50% of tree species that the institution uses is coniferous species. It is therefore important to research the soil due to the plant types that are planted in the soil. The aim of this project is to compare soil properties, soil nutrients and soil sequestration in heathland, birch forest and coniferous forest in Thingvellir national park in Iceland. Heathland and birch forest represent the natural ecosystem but coniferous forest imported ecosystem. Carbon (C) in soil will be measured, proportion of carbon and nitrogen (C:N), respiration from soil (CO2) and live green biomass and organic matter in the soil. The speed of decomposition of organic matter will be estimated. Important nutrients, pH and cation exchange capacity will be measured among other physical properties as bulk density, grain size and water holding capacity of the soil.

  14. Molecular evidence of the survival of subterranean amphipods (Arthropoda) during Ice Age underneath glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornobis, Etienne; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2010-06-01

    A Two endemic groundwater arthropod crustacean species, Crangonyx islandicus and Crymostygius thingvallensis, were recently discovered on the mid-Atlantic volcanic island of Iceland. The extent of morphological differences from closest relatives, endemism, along with the geographic isolation of Iceland and its complete coverage by glaciers 21,000 years ago, suggests that these two species have survived glaciation periods in sub-glacial refugia. Here we provide strong support for this hypothesis by an analysis of mitochondrial genetic variation within Crangonyx islandicus. Our results show that the species is divided into several distinct monophyletic groups that are found along the volcanic zone in Iceland, which have been separated by 0.5 to around 5 million years. The genetic divergence between groups reflects geographic distances between sampling sites, indicating that divergence occurred after the colonization of Iceland. The genetic patterns, as well as the dependency of genetic variation on distances from the tectonic plate boundary and altitude, points to recent expansion from several refugia within Iceland. This presents the first genetic evidence of multicellular organisms as complex as crustacean amphipods which have survived glaciations beneath an ice sheet. This survival may be explained by geothermal heat linked to volcanic activities, which may have maintained favourable habitats in fissures along the tectonic plate boundary in Iceland during glaciations.

  15. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men.

  16. WorldFengur - the studbook of origin for the Icelandic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorange, Jón Baldur

    2011-01-01

    WorldFengur is the database that contains and functions as the studbook of origin of the Icelandic horse. Only pure-bred Icelandic horses, whose ancestry can be traced back to Iceland entirely, may be registered into WorldFengur. The WorldFengur project is a joint effort by the FAIC (Farmers Association of Iceland) and FEIF (International Federation of Icelandic Horse Associations) to construct an official and central database on horses of Icelandic origin located all over the world. It is used in this capacity in 19 countries so far; the number of data stored in the WorldFengur database has increased continuously. The database itself has developed tremendously since it was established in 2001; it includes information on horses' pedigrees and offspring, as well as results of breeding assessments and sports competitions, owners, breeders, breeding prediction values (BLUP), colours, microchip numbers, health records, DNA profiles for checking ancestries and much more. The key words in its development are common solutions to common challenges internationally. The requirements to fulfill both national and international regulations, such as the latest EU directive on the identification of equidae - no 504/2008/EU -, have increased in recent years and the WorldFengur project continuously endeavours to stay in line with these developments.

  17. The Vikings are coming! A modern Icelandic self-image in the light of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Nielsen Gremaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the connection between the economic crisis in Iceland in 2008 and the role of Viking imagery in the collective self-image of Iceland. This connection is informed by Iceland’s status as a Danish dependency for centuries – a condition that deeply affected the development of Icelandic self-perception and its cultural life. In recent years, the Viking has appeared as an image of central cultural significance in Iceland’s international relations with both Denmark and Great Britain in recent years. This article explores the connection between the sensational rise and fall of the so-called útrásarvíkingar (ex-pansion Vikings, or Icelandic businessmen, and the effect of Iceland being a former dependency of Denmark on the general function of the Viking image in Iceland’s collective identity. Thus, a postcolonial approach sheds light on how imagological representations of Vikings have affected modern Icelandic identity conceptualizations.

  18. Preferences, power and policy outcomes in public policy in Iceland: The Icelandic Housing Fund fiasco 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the interplay of politics, bureaucracies and markets in Iceland. It aims to explain theoretically how politics and bureaucracies operate when a coalition government makes and implements decisions in a policy environment in which decisions and their effects intersect public bureaucracies’ and markets’ boundaries. The decision to raise the limits of Housing Fund mortgages in 2003 is a case examined by agenda-setting theories in public policy. The research is based on the data from parliamentary Special Investigation reports on the collapse of the Icelandic banks and the Housing Fund as well as the author’s interviews home and abroad. The research shows that, when made, the decision ignited competition between the Housing Fund and the recently privatized banks and that between the banks themselves. The Independence Party’s attempts to delay implementation of the decision involved system change backed by an instrument designed to stem a run on the Fund. The impact of this instrument (a tax on pre-payments was incompatible with the Progressive Party’s political interests. In a hasty attempt to implement its election promises, the Progressive Party ignored the fact that the Fund was operating within a transformed financial system. The conclusions indicate that those who think long-term in politics make policies by changing system dynamics, those who think short-term change programmes. System dynamics, however, change the balance of power and influence between actors, leaving legacies which curb the government’s attempt at change, unless consolidated and sustained political authority and will are established to see changes through.

  19. Permitting Pornography. A Critical Review of the History of Pornography Censorship in Iceland in a European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ásta Guðrún Helgadóttir 1990

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation will discuss Iceland's approach toward pornography censorship in a European perspective. The Icelandic laws banning pornography production and distribution date back to an article from 1869 and no substantial revisions have been made since then, only further additions to the article. The laws have generally been considered to be deadletter laws, but have received a new life in the 21st century as the main antagonist in the quest for Internet censorship. Iceland became syn...

  20. On the equivalence between the effective cosmology and excursion set treatments of environment

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Matthew C

    2009-01-01

    In studies of the environmental dependence of structure formation, the large scale environment is often thought of as providing an effective background cosmology: e.g. the formation of structure in voids is expected to be just like that in a less dense universe with appropriately modified Hubble and cosmological constants. However, in the excursion set description of structure formation which is commonly used to model this effect, no explicit mention is made of the effective cosmology. Rather, this approach uses the spherical evolution model to compute an effective linear theory growth factor, which is then used to predict the growth and evolution of nonlinear structures. We show that these approaches are, in fact, equivalent: a consequence of Birkhoff's theorem. We speculate that this equivalence will not survive in models where the gravitational force law is modified from an inverse square, potentially making the environmental dependence of clustering a good test of such models.

  1. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  2. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  3. Predictors of right ventricular function as measured by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Akkan, Dilek

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) has independent prognostic value in heart failure patients but may be influenced by left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. The present study assessed the association of TAPSE and clinical factors, global and regional LV function...... in 634 patients admitted for symptomatic heart failure. METHODS & RESULTS: TAPSE were correlated with global and regional measures of longitudinal LV function, segmental wall motion scores and measures of diastolic LV function as measured from transthoracic echocardiography.LV ejection fraction, wall...... failure (beta = 1.3, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of TAPSE, R(2) = 0.28, p failure etiology or any of the other clinical factors analyzed, P(interaction) = NS. CONCLUSION: TAPSE is reduced with left ventricular dysfunction...

  4. Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

  5. Benchmarking of FLOWTRAN with Mark-22 mockup flow excursion test data from Babcock Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1991-11-01

    Version 16.2 of the FLOWTRAN code with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working criterion (St=0.00455) for the onset of significant void (OSV) was benchmarked against power and flow excursion data derived from tests at the Babcock Wilcox Alliance Research Center test facility. The analyses show that FLOWTRAN accurately predicts the mockup test assembly thermal-hydraulic behavior during the steady state and LOCA transient conditions, and that FLOWTRAN with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working limits criterion (St=0.00455) conservatively predicts the OFI power. Results for LOCA simulations which include a power decay transient for a safety rod SCRAM are shown below. For all of these tests, the calculated test assembly initial power or operating power limit was at least 15% below the initial power level for which the test assembly went into flow instability. These calculations were made using the SRS LOCA FI limits methodology ada ted to the test assembly.

  6. Benchmarking of FLOWTRAN with Mark-22 mockup flow excursion test data from Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1991-11-01

    Version 16.2 of the FLOWTRAN code with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working criterion (St=0.00455) for the onset of significant void (OSV) was benchmarked against power and flow excursion data derived from tests at the Babcock & Wilcox Alliance Research Center test facility. The analyses show that FLOWTRAN accurately predicts the mockup test assembly thermal-hydraulic behavior during the steady state and LOCA transient conditions, and that FLOWTRAN with a Savannah River Site (SRS) working limits criterion (St=0.00455) conservatively predicts the OFI power. Results for LOCA simulations which include a power decay transient for a safety rod SCRAM are shown below. For all of these tests, the calculated test assembly initial power or operating power limit was at least 15% below the initial power level for which the test assembly went into flow instability. These calculations were made using the SRS LOCA FI limits methodology ada ted to the test assembly.

  7. Speleothems Recording Geomagnetic Excursions: a Case Study from Cobre Cave in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavon-Carrasco, F.; Osete, M. L.; Martin-chivelet, J.; Egli, R.; Rossi, C.; Muñoz-García, B.; Heller, F.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite speleothems, such as stalagmites and flowstones, have an enormous potential in palaeomagnetism, since they may grow continuously through thousands of years, the lock-in of remanent magnetisation is nearly instantaneous and ages of speleothems can be determined using high precision U-series radiometric dating techniques. However, the typically very low concentration of ferromagnetic minerals resulting in very weak natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) has limited their usage. In addition, secondary processes that could affect magnetization are poorly understood. Here we show results from a stalagmite from northern Spain (Cobre Cave) that recorded the Blake geomagnetic excursion. Two types of samples exhibiting different magnetic properties are observed. Isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) experiments indicate major contributions from low coercivity minerals in all samples. In white samples only ferrimagnetic minerals are detected whereas in light-brown samples variable amounts of high coercivity minerals can also be observed. The low coercivity IRM is thermally demagnetized at 550°C indicating the presence of magnetite. Maximum unblocking temperatures over 550°C of the high coercivity component suggest the additional presence of haematite in light-brown samples. Upon demagnetisation, all samples exhibited a directionally stable low-coercivity/low-unblocking temperature component that is considered as the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) carried by fine magnetite. The ChRM exhibited normal and reversed directions recording the Blake Geomagnetic Excursion which could be radiometrically dated between 116.5 ± 0.7 kyr BP and 112.0 ± 1.9 kyr BP. The second component carried by haematite has directions being always close to the present day field direction and is considered as a secondary component. Reliability of relative paleo-intensity (RPI) determinations is discussed.

  8. The significance of an Early Jurassic (Toarcian) carbon-isotope excursion in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, Andrew H.; Gröcke, Darren R.; Smith, Paul L.

    2011-07-01

    During the Early Toarcian there was a significant disruption in the short-term active carbon reservoir as revealed by carbon-isotope records, which show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a large 5-7‰ negative excursion (δ 13C org). Carbon-isotope excursion co-occurs with the deposition of organic-rich shales in many areas. This perturbation in carbon isotopes is thought to be indicative of severe climate change and marine anoxia. The two leading hypotheses as to the cause of this event invoke either global or regional controls. Here we present carbon-isotope data from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada showing a significant perturbation within a temporally constrained Early Toarcian succession that was deposited in the northeastern paleo-Pacific Ocean. These data reinforce the concept that the short-term active carbon reservoir was affected globally, and assist with the correlation of ammonite zonal schemes between western North America and Europe. The δ 13C org data show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a sharp and pronounced negative excursion of 7‰ (8.5‰ in δ 13C wood) in the Early Toarcian Kanense Zone. This negative excursion also coincides with increasing total organic carbon (TOC) from ~ 0.4% to ~ 1.2%. These data suggest that the Early Toarcian carbon-isotope perturbation was indeed global and imprinted itself on all active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric).

  9. The relationship between mean amplitude of glycemic excursions and cognitive impairment in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mean amplitude of glycemic excursions(MAGE) and cognitive impairment in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Totally 80 patients(aged >60 years) with type 2 diabetes were selected. According to the Montreal

  10. Eyelid reanimation with gold weight implant and tendon sling suspension: evaluation of excursion and velocity using the FACIAL CLIMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the efficacy of static techniques, namely gold weight implant and tendon sling, in the reanimation of the paralytic eyelid. Upper eyelid rehabilitation in terms of excursion and blinking velocity is performed using the automatic motion capture system, FACIAL CLIMA. Seventy-four patients underwent a total of 101 procedures including 58 upper eyelid gold weight implants and 43 lower eyelid tendon suspension with 27 patients undergoing both procedures. The presence of lagophtalmos, eye dryness, corneal ulcer, epiphora and lower lid ptosis/ectropion was assessed preoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare preoperative versus postoperative measurements of upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity determined with FACIAL CLIMA. Significance was set at p CLIMA revealed significant improvement of eyelid excursion and velocity of blinking (p CLIMA system is a reliable method to quantify upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity and to detect the exact position of the lower eyelid. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  12. Atmospheric sulfur loading by the ongoing Nornahraun eruption, North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Hartley, Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing Nornahraun fissure eruption has maintained a 1-4 km-high, gas-charged and sulfur-rich eruption plume since the onset of eruption on 31 August 2014 and had discharged ~1 km3 of lava at the end of 2014. During this time (i.e. September through December 2014), the SO2 emissions have produced significant volcanic pollution across Iceland with several short-lived events where the SO2 concentrations have exceeded toxic levels [1]. Although measurements of SO2 concentrations and fluxes is relatively straightforward at specific sites or localities within Iceland, it has been challenging to obtain good ground- or satellite-based time series measurements of the SO2 flux released by the magma upon venting. These difficulties arise because: (i) the eruption site is remote and nested in the centre of the Icelandic highland, thus these measurements are hampered by access and by weather conditions, (ii) the plume is confined to the lower troposphere where the conversion rate of SO2 to H2SO4 aerosols is very rapid, or hours (?) to days [2] and (iii) the plume is commonly obscured by clouds due of its low rise heights. The empirical sulphur emission method of Thordarson et al (2003) is an alternative way to obtain estimates on the total as well as temporal atmospheric SO2-loading by the Nornahraun eruption. We use the TiO2/FeO value of 0.156, obtained via microprobe analyses of groundmass glass in tephra grains, to calculate initial (1420 ppm) and degassed (435 ppm) S values for the Nornahraun magma. These values compare well with measured groundmass values (425 ppm = degassed S content) and melt inclusion values (~1400 ppm = initial S content of the magma). The difference in the above listed values represents the amount of S released into the atmosphere at the vents and indicates a 5.3 kg SO2-loading by each cubic meter of erupted magma. This implies a total atmospheric SO2-mass-loading of 5 million tons (= 5 terragrams) by the Nornahraun event during the first 4

  13. A 200 years record of multidecadal oceanographic changes from offshore North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Jansen, Eystein

    2016-04-01

    A 200 years record of multidecadal oceanographic changes from offshore North Iceland During the cruise GS15-198 of the RV G.O. Sars in summer 2015, new sediments cores have been collected from the North Iceland shelf at 66°N, an area known for its high sedimentation rates. Here, offshore North Iceland an offshoot of the East Greenland Current, the surface flowing East Icelandic Current (EIC) transports a mixture of cooled Atlantic Water and cold/fresh Polar Water eastwards and at intermediate depths (100-350 m water depth), flows the relatively warm (4-7°C) North Irminger Icelandic Current (NIIC). Beneath this Atlantic Water layer, less saline and cooled (area offshore North Iceland is suitably located to investigate multidecadal changes in the southward fluxes of freshwater from the EGC, via the EIC and in the relative contribution/water mass characteristics (i.e. temperature and salinity) of the NIIC and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. Oceanographic variability recorded offshore North Iceland is closely linked to broader scale climatic and oceanographic shifts/variations in the North Atlantic region. Samples for foraminiferal analyses were wet sieved at 63 μm and counted at 1-2 cm intervals, which equals a resolution of ~ 2 years. The foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by a divers fauna and a total of 76 foraminiferal species were identified, 6 planktic, 19 agglutinated and 51 calcareous species. The absolute abundance of foraminifera averages 400 specimens per 1g of wet sediment. Our high-resolution palaeoceanographic reconstructions reveal distinct multidecadal oceanographic variability that relate to climatic changes during the last 200 years, i.e. transition from the Little Ice Age into the modern warm phase.

  14. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland's highlands and mountain areas.

  15. Temporal and spatial variability of Icelandic dust emissions and atmospheric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Groot Zwaaftink

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic dust sources are known to be highly active, yet there exist few model simulations of Icelandic dust that could be used to assess its impacts on the environment. We here present estimates of dust emission and transport in Iceland over 27 years (1990–2016 based on FLEXDUST and FLEXPART simulations and meteorological re-analysis data. Simulations for the year 2012 based on high-resolution operational meteorological analyses are used for model evaluation based on PM2. 5 and PM10 observations in Iceland. For stations in Reykjavik, we find that the spring period is well predicted by the model, while dust events in late fall and early winter are overpredicted. Six years of dust concentrations observed at Stórhöfði (Heimaey show that the model predicts concentrations of the same order of magnitude as observations and timing of modelled and observed dust peaks agrees well. Average annual dust emission is 4.3 ± 0.8 Tg during the 27 years of simulation. Fifty percent of all dust from Iceland is on average emitted in just 25 days of the year, demonstrating the importance of a few strong events for annual total dust emissions. Annual dust emission as well as transport patterns correlate only weakly to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Deposition amounts in remote regions (Svalbard and Greenland vary from year to year. Only limited dust amounts reach the upper Greenland Ice Sheet, but considerable dust amounts are deposited on Icelandic glaciers and can impact melt rates there. Approximately 34 % of the annual dust emission is deposited in Iceland itself. Most dust (58 %, however, is deposited in the ocean and may strongly influence marine ecosystems.

  16. Temporal and spatial variability of Icelandic dust emissions and atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot Zwaaftink, Christine D.; Arnalds, Ólafur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Eckhardt, Sabine; Prospero, Joseph M.; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Icelandic dust sources are known to be highly active, yet there exist few model simulations of Icelandic dust that could be used to assess its impacts on the environment. We here present estimates of dust emission and transport in Iceland over 27 years (1990-2016) based on FLEXDUST and FLEXPART simulations and meteorological re-analysis data. Simulations for the year 2012 based on high-resolution operational meteorological analyses are used for model evaluation based on PM2. 5 and PM10 observations in Iceland. For stations in Reykjavik, we find that the spring period is well predicted by the model, while dust events in late fall and early winter are overpredicted. Six years of dust concentrations observed at Stórhöfði (Heimaey) show that the model predicts concentrations of the same order of magnitude as observations and timing of modelled and observed dust peaks agrees well. Average annual dust emission is 4.3 ± 0.8 Tg during the 27 years of simulation. Fifty percent of all dust from Iceland is on average emitted in just 25 days of the year, demonstrating the importance of a few strong events for annual total dust emissions. Annual dust emission as well as transport patterns correlate only weakly to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Deposition amounts in remote regions (Svalbard and Greenland) vary from year to year. Only limited dust amounts reach the upper Greenland Ice Sheet, but considerable dust amounts are deposited on Icelandic glaciers and can impact melt rates there. Approximately 34 % of the annual dust emission is deposited in Iceland itself. Most dust (58 %), however, is deposited in the ocean and may strongly influence marine ecosystems.

  17. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972. The number of observed species almost doubled between years with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and unlikely to have dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative

  18. Interpreting inverse magnetic fabric in dikes from Eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Urbani, Stefano; Porreca, Massimiliano; Acocella, Valerio; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Since the 70's magnetic fabric analysis has been used to infer magma emplacement in dikes. However, the interpretation of magmatic flow orientation in dikes is often complicated by the occurrence of anomalous (i.e. inverse) magnetic fabric. This latter may either reflect the presence of single-domain (SD) grains or result from peculiar orientation mechanisms of magnetic minerals in magmas of different viscosities. Tertiary dike swarms of extinct volcanic systems in Eastern Iceland represent the ideal case study to clarify the origin of anomalous magnetic fabric. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary study on dikes belonging to the Alftafjordur volcanic system (Eastern Iceland), including a: (1) structural field study in order to identify kinematic and thermal indicators of dikes; (2) anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis, to investigate the magnetic fabric and reconstruct the flow direction of 25 dikes; (3) first order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams and thermomagnetic properties of selected dikes to define the magnetic mineralogy; (4) petrofabric and image analyses at different microscopic scales to investigate the origin of the magnetic fabric and compare the AMS results with mineral texture. Our results show that half of the dikes show a well defined inverse magnetic fabrics (k max orthogonal to the dike margins) and anomalous high anisotropy degrees. Only 7 dikes have a normal magnetic fabric and other 6 dikes have an intermediate magnetic fabric. No clear prevalence of SD grains, which could explain the inverse magnetic fabric, was observed. On the contrary, petrofabric and thermomagnetic analysis reveal the presence of low Ti-content coarse magnetite and high Ti-content elongated magnetite grains as the main contributors to most of the observed magnetic fabrics. In particular, the orientation of the elongated high Ti-content magnetite grains, though usually scattered, is partly comparable with that of the maximum and

  19. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-08-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents

  20. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments

  1. Paleomagnetic Excursions Recorded in the Yanchi Playa in Middle Hexi Corridor,NW China Since the Last Interglacial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Taibao; YU Yongtao; LI Jijun; AN Congrong; LIU Jinfeng; ZHANG Junyan

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic determinations on lithological profiles of two paralleled long drilling cores covering the past 130 kyr B.P., GT40 and GT60,from the Yanchi Playa in the arid Northwestern China,indicate that a series of pronounced paleomagnetic excursions have been documented. By correlating our results with published regional and worldwide reports,4 excursion events out of 10 apparent reversal signals (labeled from GT-1 to GT-10) were identified asexcursion events coeval with the Mono Lake Event (28.4 kyr~25.8 kyr), Laschamp Event (43.3 kyr~40.5kyr), Gaotai Event (8a.8 kyr~72.4 kyr) and the Blake Event (127.4 kyr~113.3 kyr), respectively. GT-9correlates with the above-mentioned Gaotai Event,GT-7 and GT-6 correspond to two stages of theLaschamp Event and GT-5 to the Mono Lake Event. It is noteworthy that the so-called Gaotai Event has not been reported as a pronounced paleomagnetic excursion in the Northwestern China. Every magnetic excursion event corresponds to paleointensity minima,anteceding those established abrupt paleoclimatic change events, such as the Younger Drays and the Heinrich Events(H1-H6). Here, we tentatively propose that these geomagnetic excursions/reversals can be viewed as precursors to climate abruptness.During the transitional stages when the earth's magnetic field shifted between a temporal normal and a negative period, the earth's magnetic paleointensity fell correspondingly to a pair of minima. Although more precise chronology and more convincing rock magnetic parameter determinations are essentially required for further interpretation of their intricate coupling mechanism, these results may have revealed, to some extent, that the earth's incessantly changing magnetic field exerts an strong influence on the onset of saw-tooth shaped abrupt climate oscillations through certain feedback chains in arid Central Asia or even North Hemispheric high latitude regions.

  2. The effect of a balance training programme on centre of pressure excursion in one-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Bobbert, Maarten; Inklaar, Melanie; van Kalken, Marike; van der Beek, Allard; Bouter, Lex; van Mechelen, Willem

    2005-12-01

    Balance training is widely used in the rehabilitation after an ankle sprain and is thought to have a decreasing effect on postural sway. The present study investigated whether a 5.5-week balance training programme leads to a decreased postural sway showing in a reduced range of centre of pressure excursion. Thirty university students participated in this study. Twenty-two untrained subjects were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n=11) or a control group (n=11). The remaining eight subjects were participants in an organized volleyball competition and were assigned to an additional volleyball group (n=8). All subjects of the intervention group and the volleyball group received a 5.5-week balance training programme, while subjects of the control group received no training. Centre of pressure of the ground reaction force was measured as a proxy measure of postural sway, using a force platform. Measurements took place before and after the 5.5-week training programme for standing on one leg (both for right and for left leg) of single leg stance, both for the eyes-open and eyes-closed situation. From these measurements centre of pressure excursion in the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral direction was calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to check for differences in centre of pressure excursion between any of the groups over the training period. No differences in changes of centre of pressure excursion were found between any of the groups over the 5.5-week training period. Balance training does not lead to a reduction in centre of pressure excursion in a general population consisting of non-injured and previously injured subjects.

  3. The Public Role of Universities – Sponsorship in Icelandic Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurður Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Society is the chief stakeholder in universities. Their main roles are teaching and research, and academic freedom in teaching and research is key to their function. In recent decades, academic freedom has been threatened by the economic system and industry, and in the aftermath of the economic collapse of 2008 universities were said to have been too servile towards industry and government. This study focuses on the public role of universities by considering the attitudes of academic staff and university specialists towards academic freedom and the sponsorship of teaching and research. A survey among this group in Icelandic universities looked at attitudes towards different ways of financing teaching and research. The survey found that just under one third of respondents had worked on privately sponsored research in the last three years. The majority of respondents was opposed to financing university research through grants from companies and just under half was opposed to financing through competitive funds. Respondents in social sciences, education, humanities and arts turned out to be much more likely than other respondents to be concerned about threats from private sponsoring on the objectivity of research. Respondents from private universities or self-financed institutions turn out to be more likely to have worked on privately sponsored research than respondents who work at public universities or state-run research institutes. The former also turn out to be much more supportive of financing research through competitive funds and significantly more open towards private sponsorship.

  4. REFERENCE CLASS FORECASTING IN ICELANDIC TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordur Vikingur FRIDGEIRSSON

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that the majority of infrastructure projects have cost overruns. The root causes are traced to political, technical and psychological reasons at the initial stage of the project. The consequence is either unintentional overoptimistic forecasting of perceived results or calculated interpretation of facts in favour of personal and political interests. These phenomena are called planning fallacies and strategic misrepresentation, respectively. A step-wise procedure to avoid planning fallacies and strategic misrepresentation is called the outside view. The outside view bypasses human biases by using past experience and empirical data from past projects. It has evolved into a professional practice through a method called reference class forecasting which has been shown to provide improved cost forecasting accuracy in the initial stage of a project. The study reported in this paper examined reference class forecasting as a means of improving cost forecasting in the planning stage of the project lifecycle. Data from the Icelandic Road Administration (ICERA were assembled in a cost forecasting model to determine if it might be possible to improve forecasting accuracy. The results proved inconclusive; however, a comparison with findings from similar projects in the UK showed that although cost overruns followed a similar curve, the chance of occurrence is significantly lower at the planning stage after the decision to proceed has been taken.

  5. Gender Bias in the Media: The Case of Iceland

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    Valgerður Jóhannsdóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The news media are the most influential sources of information, ideas and opinion for most people around the world. Who appears in the news and who is left out, what is covered and what is not and how people and events are portrayed matter. Research has consistently shown that women are underrepresented in the news and that gender stereotypes are reinforced in and through the media. The 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action recognised the relationship between women and media as a major area of concern in achieving gender equality in contemporary societies. This article presents Nordic findings from the 2015 Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP, which is the largest and longest-running study on gender in the world’s media. The findings show that women account for only 1 in 5 of the people interviewed or reported on by Icelandic news media and that women’s overall presence in the news has declined compared to the last GMMP study in 2010. The proportion of women as news subjects is also considerably lower than in other Nordic countries. We argue that the number of women who are journalists, managers in the media industry and decision makers in society has increased, but this shift has not automatically changed the representation of women in the news, either in numbers or in their portrayal. This discrepancy indicates that the relationship between gender and the news media is complicated and needs to be approached from different perspectives.

  6. Travel time seismic tomography on Reykjanes, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Ágústsson, Kristjan; Blanck, Hanna; Metz, Malte; Franke, Steven; Pàll Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David; Flovenz, Ólafur; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur

    2017-04-01

    We present updated tomographic results obtained using seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We focus on the 3D velocity images using local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity model by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and velocity lateral anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. In a second step, we performed inversion of the Vp/Vs ratio. Results indicate a low Vp/Vs ratio anomaly at depth suggesting the absence of large magmatic body under Reykjanes, unlike results obtained at other geothermal field, sucha as Krafla and Hengill. We discuss implications of those results in the light of recent IDDP drilling in Reykjanes.

  7. Rate of Iceland Sea acidification from time series measurements

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    J. Olafsson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Iceland Sea is one part of the Nordic Seas. Cold Arctic Water prevails there and the deep water is an important source of North Atlantic Deep Water. We have evaluated time series observations of measured pCO2 and total CO2 concentration from discrete seawater samples during 1985–2008 for changes in response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The surface pH in winter decreases 0.0024 yr−1, which is 50% faster than those at two subtropical time series stations, BATS and ESTOC. In the deep water regime (>1500 m, the rate of pH decline is ¼ of that observed in surface waters. The surface calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω are about 1.5 for aragonite and 2.5 for calcite, and are about ½ those for subtropical waters. During the period 1985–2008, the degree of saturation (Ω decreased at a rate of 0.0072 yr−1 for aragonite and 0.012 yr−1 for calcite. The aragonite saturation horizon is currently at 1750 m and rising at 4 m yr−1. Based on local hypsography, each year causes 800 km2 of sea floor, previously bathed in saturated waters, to be exposed to undersaturation conditions.

  8. The Parasite Fauna of the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nanna D; Skirnisson, Karl; Nielsen, Ólafur K

    2015-10-01

    We examined 46 Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) carcasses from Iceland for parasites, including 29 first-year birds and 17 second-year birds and older. Endoparasites observed were the trematodes Cryptocotyle lingua (prevalence 8%), Cryptocotyle concavum (4%), and Strigea sp. (8%); the cestode Mesocestoides sp. (27%); and the nematodes Eucoleus contortus (76%) and Serratospiculum guttatum (7%). Ectoparasites included the astigmatan mite Dubininia accipitrina (47%), a mesostigmatan rhynonyssid mite (4%), the tick Ixodes caledonicus (20%), the mallophagans Degeeriella rufa (90%) and Nosopon lucidum (7%), the flea Ceratophyllus vagabundus (7%), and the louse fly Ornithomya chloropus (7%). Cryptocotyle lingua, C. concavum, S. guttatum, D. accipitrina, I. caledonicus, and N. lucidum are new host records. Of the five most common parasites (prevalence ≥ 20%) only Mesocestoides sp. showed a significant age relationship, being more prevalent in adult falcons (P = 0.021). Eucoleus contortus was also more prevalent in adults with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.058). Frounce, caused by E. contortus (possibly also by Trichomonas gallinae, which was not searched for in the survey) was highly prevalent (43%), but did not show a relationship with host age (P = 0.210). Birds with frounce were in poorer body condition than healthy birds (P = 0.015).

  9. Eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Pedersen, Rikke; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Thorbjarnardóttir, Bergthóra; Jakobsdóttir, Steinunn; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    The April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Figure 1), located on Iceland's southern coast, created unprecedented disruptions to European air traffic during 15-20 April, costing the aviation industry an estimated $250 million per day (see the related news item in this issue). This cost brings into focus how volcanoes can affect communities thousands of miles away. Eyjafjallajökull rises to 1666 meters above sea level and hosts agricultural land on its southern slopes, with farms located as close as 7 kilometers from the summit caldera. In the past 1500 years, Eyjafjallajökull has produced four comparatively small eruptions. The eruption previous to 2010 began in December 1821 and lasted for over a year, with intermittent explosive activity spreading a thin layer of tephra (ash and larger ejected clasts) over the surrounding region. In contrast, the explosive 2010 eruption, sourced within the ice-capped summit of the volcano, so far is larger and characterized by magma of a slightly different composition. This may suggest that deep within the volcano, the 1821 magma source is mixing with new melt, or that residual melt from past intrusive events is being pushed out by new magma.

  10. Acoustically invisible feeding blue whales in Northern Icelandic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Rasmussen, Marianne Helene; Iversen, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Fixed passive acoustic monitoring can be used for long-term recording of vocalizing cetaceans. Both presence monitoring and animal density estimation requires the call rates and sound source levels of vocalizations produced by single animals. In this study, blue whale calls were recorded using acoustic bio-logging systems in Skjálfandi Bay off Húsavík, Northeast Iceland, in June 2012. An accelerometer was attached to individual whales to monitor diving behavior. During 21 h recording two individuals, 8 h 45 min and 13 h 2 min, respectively, 105 and 104 lunge feeding events and four calls were recorded. All recorded calls were down-sweep calls ranging from 105 to 48 Hz. The sound duration was 1-2 s. The source level was estimated to be between 158 and 169 dB re 1μPa rms, assuming spherical sound propagation from the possible sound source location to the tag. The observed sound production rates and source levels of individual blue whales during feeding were extremely small compared with those observed previously in breeding grounds. The feeding whales were nearly acoustically invisible. The function of calls during feeding remains unknown.

  11. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  12. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurður Kristinsson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents’ wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  13. The impact of divergence time on the nature of population structure: an example from Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic population has been sampled in many disease association studies, providing a strong motivation to understand the structure of this population and its ramifications for disease gene mapping. Previous work using 40 microsatellites showed that the Icelandic population is relatively homogeneous, but exhibits subtle population structure that can bias disease association statistics. Here, we show that regional geographic ancestries of individuals from Iceland can be distinguished using 292,289 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We further show that subpopulation differences are due to genetic drift since the settlement of Iceland 1100 years ago, and not to varying contributions from different ancestral populations. A consequence of the recent origin of Icelandic population structure is that allele frequency differences follow a null distribution devoid of outliers, so that the risk of false positive associations due to stratification is minimal. Our results highlight an important distinction between population differences attributable to recent drift and those arising from more ancient divergence, which has implications both for association studies and for efforts to detect natural selection using population differentiation.

  14. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  15. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Rennie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher enegagement with online and open delivery methods of higher education. The Net-University Project was an EU Leonardo-funded initiative to compare approaches to open and distance education in Iceland, Sweden, and Scotland, with additional lessons from Atlantic Canada. In particular, it sought to focus on the transfer of innovation in continuing university education, with particular emphasis on the development and delivery of online higher education courses throughout rural Iceland (i.e., outside of Reykjavik. The partners concentrated on how knowledge and experience about distributed and distance learning models could be transferred between the partner countries and how such models can be integrated into the education system to better support higher education and lifelong learning. There was a particular interest in the practical use of open educational resources (OER for course design and in the sharing of these course modules among university partners. Some good practice and lessons from OER use in course creation are listed.

  16. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results from analysis of MSS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boedvarsson, A.; Fridriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. A preliminary evaluation of available MSS imagery of Iceland has yielded several significant results - some of which may have direct importance to the Icelandic economy. Initial findings can be summarized as follows: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older flows at Askja and Hekla; (2) MSS imagery from ERTS-1 and VHRR visible and infrared imagery from NOAA-2 recorded the vocanic eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes, particularly changes in the position of bars and beaches along the south coast are mappable; and (4) areas covered with new and residual snow can be mapped, and the appearance of newly fallen snow on ERTS-1, MSS band 7 appears dark where it is melting. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of special maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  17. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses.

  18. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Geology)

    1984-11-21

    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna

    2017-01-01

    of the Icelandic ice caps, their location close to other rapidly changing ice covered areas and the low viscosity of the mantle below Iceland make this especially challenging. The mass balance of the ice caps is well constrained by field mass balance measurements, making this area ideal for such investigations. We...

  20. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and The Influence of Special Interest Groups: Taxation in Iceland from 1930 to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.

  1. Jakobssonite, CaAlF5, a new mineral from fumaroles at the Eldfell and Hekla volcanoes, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, A.; Mitolo, D.;

    2012-01-01

    The new mineral jakobssonite, ideally CaAlF5, was first found in crusts collected in 1988 from a fumarole on the Eldfell volcano, Heimaey Island, Iceland. It was subsequently found in similar crusts collected in 1991 from a fumarole on the Hekla volcano, Iceland. It is associated with leonardsenite...

  2. Depositional sequence stratigraphy and architecture of the cretaceous ferron sandstone: Implications for coal and coalbed methane resources - A field excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J.R.; Van Den, Bergh; Barker, C.E.; Tabet, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This Field Excursion will visit outcrops of the fluvial-deltaic Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, known as the Last Chance delta or Upper Ferron Sandstone. This field guide and the field stops will outline the architecture and depositional sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Ferron Sandstone clastic wedge and explore the stratigraphic positions and compositions of major coal zones. The implications of the architecture and stratigraphy of the Ferron fluvial-deltaic complex for coal and coalbed methane resources will be discussed. Early works suggested that the southwesterly derived deltaic deposits of the the upper Ferron Sandstone clastic wedge were a Type-2 third-order depositional sequence, informally called the Ferron Sequence. These works suggested that the Ferron Sequence is separated by a type-2 sequence boundary from the underlying 3rd-order Hyatti Sequence, which has its sediment source from the northwest. Within the 3rd-order depositional sequence, the deltaic events of the Ferron clastic wedge, recognized as parasequence sets, appear to be stacked into progradational, aggradational, and retrogradational patterns reflecting a generally decreasing sediment supply during an overall slow sea-level rise. The architecture of both near-marine facies and non-marine fluvial facies exhibit well defined trends in response to this decrease in available sediment. Recent studies have concluded that, unless coincident with a depositional sequence boundary, regionally extensive coal zones occur at the tops of the parasequence sets within the Ferron clastic wedge. These coal zones consist of coal seams and their laterally equivalent fissile carbonaceous shales, mudstones, and siltstones, paleosols, and flood plain mudstones. Although the compositions of coal zones vary along depositional dip, the presence of these laterally extensive stratigraphic horizons, above parasequence sets, provides a means of correlating and defining the tops

  3. Temporal variation of chemical and mechanical weathering in NE Iceland: Evaluation of a steady-state model of erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksdottir, E. S.; Louvat, P.; Gislason, S. R.; Óskarsson, N.; Hardardóttir, J.

    2008-07-01

    This study critically assesses the temporal sensitivity of the steady-state model of erosion that has been applied to chemical and mechanical weathering studies of volcanic islands and the continents, using only one sample from each catchment. The model assumes a geochemical mass balance between the initially unweathered rock of a drainage basin and the dissolved and solid loads of the river. Chemical composition of 178 samples of suspended and dissolved inorganic river constituents, collected in 1998-2002, were studied from five basaltic river catchments in NE Iceland. The Hydrological Service in Iceland has monitored the discharge and the total suspended inorganic matter concentration (SIM) of the glacial rivers for ~ four decades, making it possible to compare modelled and measured SIM fluxes. Concentration of SIM and grain size increased with discharge. As proportion of clay size particles in the SIM samples increased, concentrations of insoluble elements increased and of soluble decreased. The highest proportion of altered basaltic glass was in the clay size particles. The concentration ratio of insoluble elements in the SIM was used along with data on chemical composition of unweathered rocks (high-Mg basalts, tholeiites, rhyolites) to calculate the pristine composition of the original catchment rocks. The calculated rhyolite proportions compare nicely with area-weighted average proportions, from geological maps of these catchments. The calculated composition of the unweathered bedrock was used in the steady-state model, together with the chemical composition of the suspended and dissolved constituents of the river. Seasonal changes in dissolved constituent concentrations resulted in too low modelled concentrations of SIM mod at high discharge (and too high SIM mod at low discharge). Samples collected at annual average river dissolved load yielded SIM mod concentrations close to the measured ones. According to the model, the studied rivers had specific

  4. Rapid directional changes associated with a 6.5 kyr-long Blake geomagnetic excursion at the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Mark; McNiocaill, Conall; Thomas, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are recognized as intrinsic features of the Earth's magnetic field. High-resolution records of field behaviour, captured in marine sedimentary cores, present an opportunity to determine the temporal and geometric character of the field during geomagnetic excursions and prov......Geomagnetic excursions are recognized as intrinsic features of the Earth's magnetic field. High-resolution records of field behaviour, captured in marine sedimentary cores, present an opportunity to determine the temporal and geometric character of the field during geomagnetic excursions...... and provide constraints on the mechanisms producing field variability. We present here the highest resolution record yet published of the Blake geomagnetic excursion (similar to 125 ka) measured in three cores from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge. The Blake excursion has...... a controversial structure and timing but these cores have a sufficiently high sedimentation rate (similar to 10 cm ka(-1)) to allow detailed reconstruction of the field behaviour at this site during the excursion. Palaeomagnetic measurements of the cores reveal rapid transitions (

  5. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  6. Elucidating the magmatic history of the Austurhorn silicic intrusive complex (southeast Iceland) using zircon elemental and isotopic geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, A. J.; Miller, C. F.; Carley, T. L.; Economos, R. C.; Schmitt, A. K.; Coble, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Austurhorn intrusive complex (AIC) in southeast Iceland comprises large bodies of granophyre and gabbro, and a mafic-silicic composite zone (MSCZ) that exemplifies magmatic interactions common in Icelandic silicic systems. Despite being one of Iceland's best-studied intrusions, few studies have included detailed analyses of zircon, a mineral widely recognized as a valuable tracer of the history and evolution of its parental magma(s). In this study, we employ high spatial resolution zircon elemental and isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology as tools for elucidating the complex construction and magmatic evolution of Austurhorn's MSCZ. The trace element compositions of AIC zircon crystals form a broad but coherent array that partly overlaps with the geochemical signature for zircons from Icelandic silicic volcanic rocks. Typical of Icelandic zircons, Hf concentrations are relatively low (mush-like material and a prolonged lifetime for the complex.

  7. Network analysis of the \\'{I}slendinga s\\"{o}gur - the Sagas of Icelanders

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Carron, P

    2013-01-01

    The \\'{I}slendinga s\\"{o}gur - or Sagas of Icelanders - constitute a collection of medieval literature set in Iceland around the late 9th to early 11th centuries, the so-called Saga Age. They purport to describe events during the period around the settlement of Iceland and the generations immediately following and constitute an important element of world literature thanks to their unique narrative style. Although their historicity is a matter of scholarly debate, the narratives contain interwoven and overlapping plots involving thousands of characters and interactions between them. Here we perform a network analysis of the \\'{I}slendinga s\\"{o}gur in an attempt to gather quantitative information on interrelationships between characters and to compare saga society to other social networks.

  8. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2003-07-01

    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  9. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broström Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  10. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) Systems Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Merbitz, Jerad; Kennedy, Kriss; Tri, Terry; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project team constructed an analog prototype lunar surface laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the system integration strategies and lessons learned, that allowed the PEM to be brought from paper design to working field prototype using a multi-center team. The system integration process was based on a rapid prototyping approach. Tailored design review and test and integration processes facilitated that approach. The use of collaboration tools including electronic tools as well as documentation enabled a geographically distributed team take a paper concept to an operational prototype in approximately one year. One of the major tools used in the integration strategy was a coordinated effort to accurately model all the subsystems using computer aided design (CAD), so conflicts were identified before physical components came together. A deliberate effort was made following the deployment of the HDU PEM for field operations to collect lessons learned to facilitate process improvement and inform the design of future flight or analog versions of habitat systems. Significant items within those lessons learned were limitations with the CAD integration approach and the impact of shell design on flexibility of placing systems within the HDU shell.

  11. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  12. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Version 3.0 Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options. The results of this model allow those considering these options to understand the complexity tradeoffs between proposed warhead options. The core idea of SCORE is to divide a warhead option into a well- defined set of scope elements and then estimate the complexity of each scope element against a well understood reference system. The uncertainty associated with estimates can also be captured. A weighted summation of the relative complexity of each scope element is used to determine the total complexity of the proposed warhead option or portions of the warhead option (i.e., a National Work Breakdown Structure code). The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA- 12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC), that has provided the data elicitation, integration and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  13. Accidental nuclear excursion recuplex operation 234-5 facility: Final medical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuqua, P. A.

    1962-04-07

    The April 7, 1962 criticality accident involving human exposures was the first to have occurred in any production facility at Hanford. The accidental nuclear excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees received over-exposure to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed and in each case the over-exposure was recognized promptly. Following an initial period of medical observation and testing, the men were released to work. They continued to be followed clinically. Clinical studies performed were hematological procedures including leukocyte chromosome aberrations, morphologically aberrant blood cells, bone marrow evaluations, blood chemistry determinations, amino acid excretion studies, seminal fluid, urinary gonadotropins and estrogen excretion studies, testicular biopsies and crystalline lens examinations. These studies, along with a brief description of the accident and of the dosimetry, are summarized in this report by those participating in the studies. In view of the dose ranges received in these cases, both the negative and positive findings are considered to be of unusual interest due to the lack of knowledge of effects following human exposures at these levels.

  14. An Excursion-Set Model for the Structure of GMCs and the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2012-01-01

    The ISM is governed by supersonic turbulence on a range of scales. We use this to develop a rigorous excursion-set model for the formation and time evolution of dense gas structures (GMCs, massive clumps, and cores). Supersonic turbulence drives the density distribution to a lognormal with dispersion increasing with Mach number; we generalize this to include scales >h (the disk scale height), and use it to construct the statistical properties of the density field smoothed on a scale R. We then compare conditions for self-gravitating collapse including thermal, turbulent, and rotational support. We show this becomes a well-defined barrier crossing problem. As such, an exact 'bound object mass function' can be derived, from scales of the sonic length to above the disk Jeans mass. This agrees remarkably well with observed GMC mass functions in the MW and other galaxies; the only inputs are the mass and size of the galaxies (to normalize the model). This explains the mass function cutoff and its power-law slope (...

  15. Condyle Excursion Angle, Articular Eminence Inclination, and Temporomandibular Joint Morphologic Relations With Disc Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Katharina Alves; Sousa Melo, Saulo Leonardo; Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; Campos, Paulo Sérgio F; Bento, Patrícia Meira; Melo, Daniela Pita de

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations of the condyle excursion angle (CEA) and the morphology and morphometry of the articular eminence to disc displacement (DD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of symptomatic patients. MRIs of 199 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative morphologic analyses were performed with tools available in PACS 11.0 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY). The articular eminence inclination (AEI), eminence height (EH), CEA, and articular eminence morphologic shape were evaluated. Statistical analyses were used to evaluate any possible association of the variables with DD in the closed- and open-mouth positions, age, and gender. The significance level was set at .05. Elderly women (>60 yr) presented higher prevalence values (43.26%). There was no statistical correlation between DD and gender (P = .4290). Higher mean values of the AEI and EH were associated with box-shaped eminences. The EH, AEI, and CEA were not related to the presence or absence of DD and the different types of DD. The AEI (P = .002) and CEA (P < .001) values were higher for TMJs with disc reduction in the open-mouth position. Disc position in the closed- and open-mouth positions is not influenced by articular eminence morphology; however, the AEI and CEA have an influence on disc reduction. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Dynamics of Rapid Redshifted and Blueshifted Excursions in the Solar Halpha line

    CERN Document Server

    Kuridze, D; Mathioudakis, M; Erdélyi, R; Zaqarashvili, T V; Shelyag, S; Keys, P H; Keenan, F P

    2015-01-01

    We analyse high temporal and spatial resolution time-series of spectral scans of the Halpha line obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument mounted on the Swedish Solar Telescope. The data reveal highly dynamic, dark, short-lived structures known as Rapid Redshifted and Blueshifted Excursions (RREs, RBEs) that are on-disk absorption features observed in the red and blue wings of spectral lines formed in the chromosphere. We study the dynamics of RREs and RBEs by tracking their evolution in space and time, measuring the speed of the apparent motion, line-of-sight Doppler velocity, and transverse velocity of individual structures. A statistical study of their measured properties shows that RREs and RBEs have similar occurrence rates, lifetimes, lengths, and widths. They also display non-periodic, non-linear transverse motions perpendicular to their axes at speeds of 4 - 31 km/s. Furthermore, both types of structures either appear as high speed jets and blobs that are directed outwardl...

  17. Improved Right Ventricular Performance with Increased Tricuspid Annular Excursion in Athlete’s Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu eGupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marathon runners (MTH and patients with mitral regurgitation (MR exhibit left ventricular (LV overload, and LV geometric changes in these groups have been reported. In this study, right ventricular (RV adaptation to chronic volume overload was evaluated in MTH and MR and normal controls together with interventricular septal remodeling and tricuspid annulus (TA motion. Methods: A total of 60 age-matched subjects (including 19 MTH, 17 isolated chronic compensated MR patients and 24 normal subjects underwent conventional cine and tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Myocardial strain and curvature were computed on the interventricular septum and RV free wall. A dual-propagation technique was applied to construct RV volume-time curves for a single cardiac cycle. Similarly, the tricuspid annulus was tracked throughout the cardiac cycle to create displacement over time curve.Results: Septal curvature was significantly lower in MTH and MR compared to controls. No significant differences in RV free wall strain or RV ejection fraction were noted amongst the 3 groups. However, longitudinal TA excursion was significantly higher in MTH compared to controls (p=0.0061. The peak late diastolic TA velocity in MR was significantly faster than MTH (p=0.0031 and controls (p=0.020. Conclusions: Increased TA kinetics allows for improved RV performance in MTH. Septal remodeling was observed in both MR and MTH, therefore a direct relationship of septal remodeling to TA kinetics in athlete’s heart could not be elucidated in this study.

  18. Star Excursion Balance Test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Eoghan; Fullam, Karl; Green, Brian S; Caulfield, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate performance on selected reach directions of the Start Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in an elite underage rugby union population, and determine if differences exist between the forward and back position units. This information may have implications for the application of this test in player injury prevention and management. Descriptive study. Gymnasium at an elite junior rugby union screening camp. 102 healthy male elite rugby union players (age = 17.9 ± 1.1 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 90.5 ± 11.3 kg). Participants were assessed on the Anterior (A), Posterior-medial (PM), and Posterior-lateral (PL) reach directions of the SEBT. Normative data for SEBT performance in the A, PM and PL reach directions were established for an elite junior rugby union population. No significant differences in dynamic postural stability were observed between the forward and back position units. This study provides normative SEBT data on an elite junior rugby union population, which enables clinicians to compare player dynamic postural stability and has implications for use in the prevention and management of player injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion pada Bayi Kurang Bulan dan Cukup Bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endah Rahayuningsih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A preterm infant is a baby born with gestational age less than 37 weeks. Preterm babies tend to have problems compared to normal ones. Premature gestational age might result in immaturity of all organ systems of the body including cardiovascular organs. The aim of this study was to find out the right ventricle function by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE and left ventricle by ejection fraction and shortening fraction using echocardiography on preterm babies. The subject of this study were term and preterm babies who fulfilled the inclusion criteria: appropiate gestational age babies 3–30 days old. This was an analytic descriptive study with cross-sectional method held in Department of Child Health Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during July–October 2010, and statistical analysis using t–test Spearman rank correlation test. The result of the study showed that the right ventricle function examined by TAPSE method was different on preterm compared to term babies (p=0.006. No significant difference was found in the ejection fraction between preterm and term babies (p=0.22 and so did the shortening fraction (p=0.20. It was concluded that there is a difference in the right ventricle function by TAPSE method between preterm (lower and term babies.

  20. Fixed field alternating gradient accelerator with small orbit shift and tune excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Sheehy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new design principle of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is proposed. It is based on optics that produce approximate scaling properties. A large field index k is chosen to squeeze the orbit shift as much as possible by setting the betatron oscillation frequency in the second stability region of Hill’s equation. Then, the lattice magnets and their alignment are simplified. To simplify the magnets, we expand the field profile of r^{k} into multipoles and keep only a few lower order terms. A rectangular-shaped magnet is assumed with lines of constant field parallel to the magnet axis. The lattice employs a triplet of rectangular magnets for focusing, which are parallel to one another to simplify alignment. These simplifications along with fringe fields introduce finite chromaticity and the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is no longer a scaling one. However, the tune excursion of the whole ring can be within half an integer and we avoid the crossing of strong resonances.

  1. Constrained simulations and excursion sets: understanding the risks and benefits of `genetically modified' haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciani, Cristiano

    2016-12-01

    Constrained realizations of Gaussian random fields are used in cosmology to design special initial conditions for numerical simulations. We review this approach and its application to density peaks providing several worked-out examples. We then critically discuss the recent proposal to use constrained realizations to modify the linear density field within and around the Lagrangian patches that form dark-matter haloes. The ambitious concept is to forge `genetically modified' haloes with some desired properties after the non-linear evolution. We demonstrate that the original implementation of this method is not exact but approximate because it tacitly assumes that protohaloes sample a set of random points with a fixed mean overdensity. We show that carrying out a full genetic modification is a formidable and daunting task requiring a mathematical understanding of what determines the biased locations of protohaloes in the linear density field. We discuss approximate solutions based on educated guesses regarding the nature of protohaloes. We illustrate how the excursion-set method can be adapted to predict the non-linear evolution of the modified patches and thus fine tune the constraints that are necessary to obtain pre-selected halo properties. This technique allows us to explore the freedom around the original algorithm for genetic modification. We find that the quantity which is most sensitive to changes is the halo mass-accretion rate at the mass scale on which the constraints are set. Finally, we discuss constraints based on the protohalo angular momenta.

  2. Matrix Formalism of Excursion Set Theory: A new approach to statistics of dark matter halo counting

    CERN Document Server

    Nikakhtar, Farnik

    2016-01-01

    Excursion Set Theory (EST) is an analytical framework to study the large scale structure of the Universe. EST introduces a procedure to calculate the number density of structures by relating the non-linear structures to cosmological linear perturbation theory. In this work, we introduce a novel approach to re-formulate the EST in Matrix Formalism. It is proposed that the matrix representation of EST will facilitate the the calculations in framework of the large scale structure observables. The method is to discretize the two dimensional plane of variance and density contrast of EST, where the trajectories for each point in the Universe lived there. The probability of having a density contrast in a chosen variance is represented by a probability ket. Naturally the concept of the transition matrix pops up to define the trajectories in EST. We show that in the case of Markovianity of the process, the probability ket, at a specific variance can be constructed by knowing the transition matrix and the initial proba...

  3. New Radiometric Age Constraints for the Matuyama-Bruhnes Reversal and Santa Rosa Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbas, A.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Kent, D. V.; Coe, R. S.; Konrad, K.; Clark, P. U.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of the timing of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) position and the absolute paleointensities for geomagnetic events is vital for understanding the Earth's geodynamo. Here we present new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations using an ARGUS-VI multi-collector mass spectrometer for lava flows on Floreana Island, Galapagos, and Tahiti Nui, Society Islands. New Galapagos ages (n=6) place the GA-79 lava flow on Floreana Island, which records an excursional VGP from an equatorial region (Cox and Dalrymple, 1966), within the Santa Rosa excursion. This flow contains extremely low paleointesity values of 1.1 x 1022 Am2 (n=11; Wang and Kent, 2013). We also present 52 new ages on 18 lava flows from the Punaruu valley, Tahiti, which record the Matuyama-Bruhnes reversal. The new ages confirm that the lavas record this reversal, but the ages differ from the original stratigraphy presented in Mochizuki et al. (2011). Our new ages using the Kuiper et al. (2008) fish canyon sanidine ages for Punaruu valley lava flows are concordant with previous astronomically tuned ages (Channell et al. 2002, 2009) and represent the highest precision radiometric ages for the most recent reversal. Here we show that paleointensity lows associated with excursional events can be comparable to or less than those associated with reversals. In addition, such field strength reductions can occur in time intervals as short as 3 thousand years.

  4. Large 14C excursion in 5480 BC indicates an abnormal sun in the mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Fusa; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Wacker, Lukas; Salzer, Matthew; Baisan, Christopher H.; Lange, Todd; Cruz, Richard; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nakamura, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Radiocarbon content in tree rings can be an excellent proxy of the past incoming cosmic ray intensities to Earth. Although such past cosmic ray variations have been studied by measurements of 14C contents in tree rings with ≥10-y time resolution for the Holocene, there are few annual 14C data. There is a little understanding about annual 14C variations in the past, with the exception of a few periods including the AD 774‑775 14C excursion where annual measurements have been performed. Here, we report the result of 14C measurements using the bristlecone pine tree rings for the period from 5490 BC to 5411 BC with 1- to 2-y resolution, and a finding of an extraordinarily large 14C increase (20‰) from 5481 BC to 5471 BC (the 5480 BC event). The 14C increase rate of this event is much larger than that of the normal grand solar minima. We propose the possible causes of this event are an unknown phase of grand solar minimum, or a combination of successive solar proton events and a normal grand solar minimum.

  5. Chromospheric Rapid Blueshifted Excursions Observed with IBIS and Their Association with Photospheric Magnetic Field Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Na; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin P; Lamb, Derek A; Deforest, Craig E; Denker, Carsten; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Rui; Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    Chromospheric rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) are suggested to be the disk counterparts of type II spicules at the limb and believed to contribute to the coronal heating process. Previous identification of RBEs was mainly based on feature detection using Dopplergrams. In this paper, we study RBEs on 2011 October 21 in a very quiet region at the disk center, which were observed with the high-cadence imaging spectroscopy of the Ca II 8542 A line from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS). By using an automatic spectral analysis algorithm, a total of 98 RBEs are identified during a 11 minute period. Most of these RBEs have either a round or elongated shape, with an average area of 1.2 arcsec^2. The detailed temporal evolution of spectra from IBIS makes possible a quantitative determination of the velocity (~16 km/s) and acceleration (~400 m/s^2) of Ca II 8542 RBEs, and reveal an additional deceleration (~-160 m/s^2) phase that usually follows the initial acceleration. In addition, we also inv...

  6. On the Markovian assumption in the excursion set approach: The approximation of Markov Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Musso, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The excursion set approach uses the statistics of the density field, smoothed on a wide range of scales, to gain insight into a number of interesting processes in nonlinear structure formation, such as cluster assembly, merging and clustering. The approach treats the curve defined by the overdensity fluctuation field when changing the smoothing scale as a random walk. Most implementations of the approach then assume that, at least to a first approximation, the walks have uncorrelated steps, so that the walk heights are a Markov process. This assumption is known to be inaccurate: smoothing filters that are most easily related to the physics of structure formation generically yield walks whose steps are correlated with one another. We develop models in which it is the steps, rather than the walk heights, that are a Markov process. In such models, which we call Markov Velocity processes, each step correlates only with the previous one. We show that TopHat smoothing of a power law power spectrum with index n = -2...

  7. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  8. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in mussel sampled around the Icelandic coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturludottir, Erla; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Jorundsdottir, Hronn O; Magnusdottir, Elin V; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2013-06-01

    Contaminants have been determined in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at 11 locations around the Icelandic coastline from 1990 to 2010. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there has been a change in concentration of contaminants around the Icelandic coastline for the last two decades and if the concentrations and changes, if present, were consistent between locations. Concentrations of the persistent organic pollutants, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-153) and trans-nonachlor, have decreased at most of the sampling locations in Iceland in recent years. However, an increasing trend was found at a few locations that could be explained by anthropogenic activity. The concentration levels of the persistent organics were much lower than found at the Norwegian, USA and Chinese coasts, especially levels of p,p'-DDE. The concentration of copper and selenium had a consistent pattern of change and concentration between locations over the period which showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and zinc showed more variation in concentration between locations, the concentration of arsenic, mercury and zinc was fairly stable over the period, whereas there were fluctuations in cadmium concentrations. The concentrations of cadmium and zinc were observed to be somewhat higher than found in mussels from Norway, USA and China but values of mercury and lead were much lower in the mussel sampled in Iceland. The higher concentrations of cadmium and zinc can be explained by the volcanic activity in Iceland but no major anthropogenic sources of trace elements are known in Iceland.

  9. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensified agricultural practices have driven biodiversity loss throughout the world, and although many actions aimed at halting and reversing these declines have been developed, their effectiveness depends greatly on the willingness of stakeholders to take part in conservation management. Knowledge of the willingness and capacity of landowners to engage with conservation can therefore be key to designing successful management strategies in agricultural land. In Iceland, agriculture is currently at a relatively low intensity but is very likely to expand in the near future. At the same time, Iceland supports internationally important breeding populations of many ground-nesting birds that could be seriously impacted by further expansion of agricultural activities. To understand the views of Icelandic farmers toward bird conservation, given the current potential for agricultural expansion, 62 farms across Iceland were visited and farmers were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire survey in which respondents indicated of a series of future actions. Most farmers intend to increase the area of cultivated land in the near future, and despite considering having rich birdlife on their land to be very important, most also report they are unlikely to specifically consider bird conservation in their management, even if financial compensation were available. However, as no agri-environment schemes are currently in place in Iceland, this concept is highly unfamiliar to Icelandic farmers. Nearly all respondents were unwilling, and thought it would be impossible, to delay harvest, but many were willing to consider sparing important patches of land and/or maintaining existing pools within fields (a key habitat feature for breeding waders. Farmers' views on the importance of having rich birdlife on their land and their willingness to participate in bird conservation provide a potential platform for the codesign of conservation management with landowners

  10. Voluminous Icelandic Basaltic Eruptions Appear To Cause Abrupt Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning on June 21, 1783, Laki volcano in southern Iceland erupted 14.7 km3 basalt, ejecting 24 Mt SO_{2} into the stratosphere where it was blown eastward and northward and 98 Mt into the troposphere where the jet stream transported it southeastward to Europe. The "dry fog" observed in Europe with an estimated mean concentration of 60 ppbv SO2, raised daytime temperatures as much as 3.3^{o}C, causing the warmest July in England from 1659 when measurements began until 1983. SO2, tropospheric O_{3}, NO2, and fine ash absorb ultraviolet energy from the sun that causes the bonds between and within their atoms to oscillate at 47 times higher frequency than the bonds in CO_{2} absorbing infrared radiation. Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of these oscillations, i.e. the frequency squared. Thus these gases are raised to much higher temperatures than greenhouse gases. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says that radiation from these molecules is a constant times temperature raised to the fourth power. As a result, SO2 and ash radiate far more energy back to earth than CO_{2}, causing warming. Another way to look at the energy involved shows that 15 ppbv SO2 in the 0.3-0.42 μm wavelength band absorbs as much solar energy per unit volume as 388,000 ppbv CO_{2} absorbs infrared energy in the 12.7-17.5 μm band. Basaltic volcanoes such as Laki emit 10 to 100 times more SO2 than more evolved magmas and are less explosive, leaving most of the SO_{2} in the troposphere. All 14 Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) sudden warmings between 46 and 11 ka are contemporaneous with the highest levels of sulfate in the GISP2 drill hole near Summit Greenland. These DO events typically warmed the northern hemisphere out of the ice age within decades, but as volcanism waned, ocean temperatures cooled the world back into an ice age within centuries. The world finally exited the ice age when voluminous volcanism continued from 11.6 to 9.6 ka. Basaltic table mountains or tuyas in Iceland document

  11. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  12. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab;

    2014-01-01

    . The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also...... obtained for specific age groups. RESULTS: The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years...

  13. A letter on ABCB4 from Iceland: On the highway to liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, F; Hochrath, K

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale whole-genome sequencing of the Icelandic population identified an association between several mutations of ABCB4 encoding the hepatobiliary phosphatiylcholine floppase with liver diseases and function in the general population. Whereas rare mutations of this transporter were known to cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, the genome-wide association studies in Iceland find the common ABCB4 variant c.711A>T to be a general risk factor for elevated aminotransferases and higher impact variants to be potential determinants of early-onset gallstone disease, cholestasis of pregnancy, liver cirrhosis, and hepatobiliary cancer.

  14. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools...

  15. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huse-Olsen Lisel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months, tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months, and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of

  16. Immune response against equine gammaherpesvirus in Icelandic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Roelse, Mieke; Olafsdóttir, Gudbjörg; Thorsteinsdóttir, Lilja; Torfason, Einar G; Torsteinsdóttir, Sigurbjörg

    2009-06-12

    Horses are hosts to two types of gammaherpesviruses, equine herpes virus (EHV) 2 and 5. While EHV-2 is ubiquitous in adult horses, EHV-5 has been less frequently described. Due to strong serological cross-reactivity, EHV-2 and -5 cannot be discriminated in broad spectrum antibody tests and are thus commonly referred to as gamma-EHV. Total IgG and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV were determined in serum from 41 healthy Icelandic horses, thereof 20 adults, 10 foals aged 10 months, and 11 foals aged 1-4 months. Additionally, in 10 of the adult horses, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 expression were measured by real-time PCR in white blood cells upon in vitro stimulation with EHV-2. With the exception of one orphan foal, all tested individuals were seropositive for gamma-EHV. All but one adult had high titer of EHV-specific IgG4/7 (IgGb) in combination with much lower titer of IgG1 (IgGa) and IgG3/5 (IgG(T)), indicating a stabilized response. IgG titer and subclasses in the foals showed considerably more variation, possibly dependant on maternal antibodies and/or recent infection. In all the 10 horses tested for cytokine expression, IFN-gamma production exceeds production of IL-4. These results indicate that equine gammaherpesvirus infection is characterized by an induction of IgG1, IgG4/7 and IgG3/5 with prevailing IgG4/7 and cytokine profile dominated by IFN-gamma. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytokine and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV in horses.

  17. Dimmuborgir: a rootless shield complex in northern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alasdair; Sturkell, Erik; Jakobsson, Martin; Einarsson, Draupnir; Tollefsen, Elin; Orr, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The origin of Dimmuborgir, a shield-like volcanic structure within the Younger Laxá lava flow field near Lake Mývatn, in northern Iceland, has long been questioned. New airborne laser mapping (light detection and ranging (LiDAR)), combined with ground-penetrating radar results and a detailed field study, suggests that Dimmuborgir is a complex of at least two overlapping rootless shields fed by lava erupting from the nearby Lúdentarborgir crater row. This model builds upon previous explanations for the formation of Dimmuborgir and is consistent with observations of rootless shield development at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii. The larger rootless shields at Dimmuborgir, 1–1.5 km in diameter, elliptical in plan view, ∼30 m in height, and each with a 500-m-wide summit depression, were capable of storing as much as 2–3 × 106 m3 of lava. They were fed by lava which descended 30–60 m in lava tubes along a distance of 3 km from the crater row. The height difference generated pressure sufficient to build rootless shields at Dimmuborgir in a timescale of weeks. The main summit depressions, inferred to be drained lava ponds, could have emptied via a 30-m-wide × 5-m-deep channel, with estimated effusion rates of 0.7–7 m3 s−1 and minimum flow durations of 5–50 days. We argue that the pillars for which Dimmuborgir is famed are remnants of lava pond rims, at various stages of disintegration that formed during pond drainage.

  18. The Gothenburg geomagnetic excursion as a chronological marker for the Allerød interstadial in the Central Russian Upland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kova, E. G.; Raspopov, O. M.; Dergachev, V. A.; Iosifidi, A. G.; Sinitsyna, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    Palaeomagnetic investigations of deposits at the Baranova Gora archaeological site located near Volgo Lake (56.9°N, 33.2°E) in the Central Russian Upland have been carried out. The palaeomagnetic studies have revealed the development of the Gothenburg geomagnetic excursion dated at 13000-12350 BP. Revealing the Gothenburg excursion allowed us to use the findings of the palaeomagnetic investigations as a chronological benchmark, in addition to the results of palynological and archaeological (comparative analysis of archaeological artifacts) methods of dating the cultural layers of this archaeological monument, as well as to refine the time frame of the climatic Allerød interstadial in the Central Russian Upland. The data obtained in our study indicate that the Allerød interstadial in the Central Russian Upland began several hundred years before 12000 BP, the date commonly believed to be the beginning of the Allerød interstadial.

  19. The museum “La casa encantada” of Briones in the teaching of history: proposed primary education school excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Molina Puche

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated, in order that the school excursions develop all his didactic potential (this is, in order that they serve to stimulate the “guided discovery” learning, have to be framed in didactic itineraries and with it, to be considered as an integral part of the didactic programming of the course. The curricular integration of the school excursions is one of the principal problems which the teacher meets at the moment of putting in practical this important didactic resource. With this work we claim, beside showing many possibilities that there has the museum of “The Enchanted House” of Briones (section ethnology of the Museum of La Rioja for the learning of the history in Primary Education, to indicate how they can integrate in the curriculum the visits to the museum in each of three cycles that shape this educational level.

  20. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    carbon isotope excursions are identified and defined in the Paris Basin including the well-documented Sinemurian–Pliensbachian boundary event. One positive excursion is further defined in the Pliensbachian interval. Our calibration of high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy to ammonite...... organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... sigillatus as well as the last occurrence of Parhabdolithus robustus, have been identified. However, we show that a large number of standard biostratigraphic markers show inconsistent occurrences at the base and top of their range, possibly accounting for some of the significant discrepancies observed...

  1. Multiple High-Frequency Carbon Isotope Excursions Across the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary: Implications for Correlations and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. F.; Macdonald, F. A.; Schrag, D. P.; Laakso, T.

    2014-12-01

    The GSSP Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Newfoundland is defined by the first appearance datum (FAD) of Treptichnus pedum, which is considered to be roughly coincident with the FAD of small shelly fossils (SSFs) and a large negative carbon isotope excursion. An association between the FAD of T. pedum and a negative carbon isotope excursion has previously been documented in Northwest Canada (Narbonne et al., 1994) and Death Valley (Corsetti and Hagadorn, 2000), and since then has been used as an chronostratigraphic marker of the boundary, particularly in siliciclastic poor sections that do not preserve T. pedum. Here we present new high-resolution carbon isotope (δ13C ) chemostratigraphy from multiple sections in western Mongolia and the western United States that span the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. High-resolution sampling (0.2-1 m) reveals that instead of one large negative excursion, there are multiple, high-frequency negative excursions with an overall negative trend during the latest Ediacaran. These data help to more precisely calibrate changes in the carbon cycle across the boundary as well as to highlight the potential problem of identifying the boundary with just a few negative δ13C values. We then use a simple carbon isotope box model to explore relationships between phosphorous delivery to the ocean, oxygenation, alkalinity, and turnovers in carbonate secreting organisms. Corsetti, F.A., and Hagadorn, J.W., 2000, Precambrian-Cambrian transition: Death Valley, United States: Geology, v. 28, no. 4, p. 299-302. Narbonne, G.M., Kaufman, A.J., and Knoll, A.H., 1994, Integrated chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Windermere Supergroup, northwestern Canada: Implications for Neoproterozoic correlations and the early evolution of animals: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, no. 10, p. 1281-1292.

  2. French Geographers under International Gaze : regional excursions for the XIIIth International Geographical Congress, 1931 Les géographes français vus de l’étranger : excursions organisées à l’occasion du XIIIe Congrès International de Géographie en 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Clout

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Excursions accompanying international conferences provide important opportunities to transmit geographical knowledge. Fieldtrips associated with the International Geographical Congress in Paris are examined with respect to theme, leadership, and message. Leadership was entrusted to proven geographers holding doctorates, and to geologists working close to physical geography. Despite eight excursions being planned, opportunities were not offered to visit large sections of France. This pattern of activity reflected areas where regional monographs had been completed, and where annual inter-university excursions for French geographers had been run. Patronage by De Martonne (Sorbonne or by Blanchard (Grenoble was another important explanatory factor for who led excursions and where they took place.Les excursions offertes à l’occasion des congrès internationaux donnent des possibilités importantes pour la transmission des savoirs géographiques. Dans cet article on essaie d’analyser le contenu, la direction et les communications des excursions associées avec le Congrès International de Géographie à Paris. Malgré la préparation de huit excursions, de larges sections de l’Hexagone restaient fermées aux congressistes. Cette situation s’explique par la localisation et des études monographiques achevées, et des excursions interuniversitaires. Le patronage des grands maîtres (De Martonne à la Sorbonne, Blanchard à Grenoble fournit un autre élément d’explication.

  3. Excursion of the Sciatic Nerve During Nerve Mobilization Exercises: An In Vivo Cross-sectional Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Michel W; Andersen, Line S; Johansen, Runar; Giskegjerde, Per K; Høivik, Mona; Vestre, Siv; Nee, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Controlled laboratory cross-sectional study using single-group, within-subject comparisons. To determine whether different types of neurodynamic techniques result in differences in longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion. Large differences in nerve biomechanics have been demonstrated for different neurodynamic techniques for the upper limb (median nerve), but recent findings for the sciatic nerve have only revealed small differences in nerve excursion that may not be clinically meaningful. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to quantify longitudinal sciatic nerve movement in the thigh of 15 asymptomatic participants during 6 different mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerve involving the hip and knee. Healthy volunteers were selected to demonstrate normal nerve biomechanics and to eliminate potentially confounding variables associated with dysfunction. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to analyze the data. The techniques resulted in markedly different amounts of nerve movement (Pmovements. Consistent with current theories and findings for the median nerve, different neurodynamic exercises for the lower limb resulted in markedly different sciatic nerve excursions. Considering the continuity of the nervous system, the movement and position of adjacent joints have a large impact on nerve biomechanics.

  4. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2017-05-25

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings ( p sresponsibility. Our results support the hypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth.

  5. Relationships between glucose excursion and the activation of oxidative stress in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fenping; Lu, Weina; Jia, Chengfang; Li, Hong; Wang, Zhou; Jia, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    The effect of glucose excursions on oxidative stress is an important topic in diabetes research. We investigated this relationship by analyzing markers of oxidative stress and glycemic data from a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in 30 individuals with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 27 subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), and 27 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We compared the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), mean postprandial glucose excursion (MPPGE), and mean postprandial incremental area under the curve (IAUC) with plasma levels of oxidative stress markers 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-OH-dG, and protein carbonyl content in the study subjects. Patients with T2DM or IGR had significantly higher glucose excursions and plasma levels of oxidative stress markers compared to normal controls (P oxidative stress.

  6. CHROMOSPHERIC RAPID BLUESHIFTED EXCURSIONS OBSERVED WITH IBIS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Na; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin P. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States); Lamb, Derek A.; Deforest, Craig E. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302-5142 (United States); Denker, Carsten [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Liu, Rui, E-mail: na.deng@njit.edu [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Chromospheric rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) are suggested to be the disk counterparts of type II spicules at the limb and believed to contribute to the coronal heating process. Previous identification of RBEs was mainly based on feature detection using Dopplergrams. In this paper, we study RBEs on 2011 October 21 in a very quiet region at the disk center, which were observed with the high-cadence imaging spectroscopy of the Ca II 8542 Å line from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS). By using an automatic spectral analysis algorithm, a total of 98 RBEs are identified during an 11 minute period. Most of these RBEs have either a round or elongated shape, with an average area of 1.2 arcsec{sup 2}. The detailed temporal evolution of spectra from IBIS makes possible a quantitative determination of the velocity (∼16 km s{sup –1}) and acceleration (∼400 m s{sup –2}) of Ca II 8542 RBEs, and reveals an additional deceleration (∼–160 m s{sup –2}) phase that usually follows the initial acceleration. In addition, we also investigate the association of RBEs with the concomitant photospheric magnetic field evolution, using coordinated high-resolution and high-sensitivity magnetograms made by Hinode. Clear examples are found where RBEs appear to be associated with the preceding magnetic flux emergence and/or the subsequent flux cancellation. However, further analysis with the aid of the Southwest Automatic Magnetic Identification Suite does not yield a significant statistical association between these RBEs and magnetic field evolution. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of understanding the driving mechanism of RBEs.

  7. Environmental forcing of terrestrial carbon isotope excursion amplification across five Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Abels, H.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the isotope composition of exogenic carbon pools accompany many major episodes of global change in the geologic record. The global expression of this change in substrates that reflect multiple carbon pools provides important evidence that many events reflect persistent, global redistribution of carbon between reduced and oxidized stocks. As the diversity of records documenting any event grows, however, discrepancies in the expression of carbon isotope change among substrates are almost always revealed. These differences in magnitude, pace, and pattern of change can complicate interpretations of global carbon redistribution, but under ideal circumstances can also provide additional information on changes in specific environmental and biogeochemical systems that accompanied the global events. Here we evaluate possible environmental influences on new terrestrial records of the negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with multiple hyperthermals of the Early Eocene, which show a common pattern of amplified carbon isotope change in terrestrial paleosol carbonate records relative to that recorded in marine substrates. Scaling relationships between climate and carbon-cycle proxies suggest that that the climatic (temperature) impact of each event scaled proportionally with the magnitude of its marine CIE, likely implying that all events involved release of reduced carbon with a similar isotopic composition. Amplification of the terrestrial CIEs, however, does not scale with event magnitude, being proportionally less for the first, largest event (the PETM). We conduct a sensitivity test of a coupled plant-soil carbon isotope model to identify conditions that could account for the observed CIE scaling. At least two possibilities consistent with independent lines of evidence emerge: first, varying effects of pCO2 change on photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination under changing background pCO2, and second, contrasting changes in regional

  8. Secondary Structure Predictions for Long RNA Sequences Based on Inversion Excursions and MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehdego, Daniel T; Zhang, Boyu; Kodimala, Vikram K R; Johnson, Kyle L; Taufer, Michela; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2013-05-01

    Secondary structures of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation. Experimental observations and computing limitations suggest that we can approach the secondary structure prediction problem for long RNA sequences by segmenting them into shorter chunks, predicting the secondary structures of each chunk individually using existing prediction programs, and then assembling the results to give the structure of the original sequence. The selection of cutting points is a crucial component of the segmenting step. Noting that stem-loops and pseudoknots always contain an inversion, i.e., a stretch of nucleotides followed closely by its inverse complementary sequence, we developed two cutting methods for segmenting long RNA sequences based on inversion excursions: the centered and optimized method. Each step of searching for inversions, chunking, and predictions can be performed in parallel. In this paper we use a MapReduce framework, i.e., Hadoop, to extensively explore meaningful inversion stem lengths and gap sizes for the segmentation and identify correlations between chunking methods and prediction accuracy. We show that for a set of long RNA sequences in the RFAM database, whose secondary structures are known to contain pseudoknots, our approach predicts secondary structures more accurately than methods that do not segment the sequence, when the latter predictions are possible computationally. We also show that, as sequences exceed certain lengths, some programs cannot computationally predict pseudoknots while our chunking methods can. Overall, our predicted structures still retain the accuracy level of the original prediction programs when compared with known experimental secondary structure.

  9. A Model for the Decrease in Amplitude of Carbon Isotope Excursions Throughout the Phanerozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachan, A.; Lau, K. V.; Saltzman, M.; Thomas, E.; Kump, L. R.; Payne, J.

    2016-12-01

    The geological cycling of carbon ties the ocean-­atmosphere carbon pool to Earth's biosphere and sedimentary reservoirs. Perturbations to this coupled system are recorded in the carbon-isotopic (δ13C) composition of marine carbonates. Large amplitude δ13C variations with durations of 0.5 - 10 m.y. are typically treated as individual events and interpreted accordingly. However, a recent compilation of Phanerozoic data reveals a decline in the variance of the δ13C record over time, suggesting a common underlying control. Here we propose that the redox structure of the continental shelves was a key determinant of the sensitivity of the geologic carbon cycle: when oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) were large, shallow, and prone to expansion, recurrent physical forcings (such as sea level and tectonics) would have had the capacity to drive large changes in the areal extent of OMZs, resulting in a strong leverage on δ13C values. Using a simple model of the geologic carbon cycle, we demonstrate that interactions between the carbon and phosphate cycles can result in amplification of recurrent forcings with periods in the 0.5 - 10 m.y. range. Thus, rather than requiring that physical forcings have their largest amplitude of variation on those time scales, enhanced sensitivity of the carbon cycle can account for the characteristic duration of δ13C excursions. Biologically mediated aspects of geologic carbon cycling, including the depth of bioturbation and evolution of pelagic calcifiers, likely drove a decline in the depth and extent of ocean anoxia over the Phanerozoic resulting in the stabilization of the geologic carbon cycle.

  10. Effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on Postprandial Glucose Excursion and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia has been reported to elicit endothelial dysfunction and provoke future cardiovascular complications. A reduction of postprandial blood glucose levels by the glucosidase inhibitor Fuscoporia obliqua was associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular complications, but the effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on endothelial function have never been elucidated. This study is aimed to assess the efficacy of Fuscoporia obliqua on postprandial metabolic parameters and endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. Postprandial peak glucose (14.47±1.27 vs. 8.50±0.53 mmol/liter), plasma glucose excursion (PPGE), and change in the area under the curve (AUC) glucose after a single loading of test meal (total 450 kcal; protein 15.3%; fat 32.3%; carbohydrate 51.4%) were significantly higher in the diet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (n=14) than the age- and sex-matched controls (n=12). The peak forearm blood flow response and total reactive hyperemic flow (flow debt repayment) during reactive hyperemia, indices of resistance artery endothelial function on strain-gauge plethysmography, were unchanged before and after meal loading in the controls. But those of the diabetics were significantly decreased 120 and 240 min after the test meal. A prior administration of Fuscoporia obliqua decreased postprandial peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose. The peak forearm blood flow and flow debt repayment were inversely well correlated with peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose, but not with AUC insulin or the other lipid parameters. Even a single loading of the test meal was shown to impair the endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients, and the postprandial endothelial dysfunction was improved by a prior use of Fuscoporia obliqua. Fuscoporia obliqua might reduce macrovascular complication by avoiding endothelial injury in postprandial hyperglycemic status.

  11. Long-term Paleomagnetic Secular Variation and Excursions from the western Equatorial Pacific Ocean (MIS2-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steve; Schwartz, Martha; Stott, Lowell

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYNew paleomagnetic results are presented for the Pleistocene (MIS2-4) portion of deep-sea core MD98-2181 (MD81; Devao Gulf, Philippine Islands). MD81 is the highest resolution (˜50 cm/ky) PSV record for ˜12-70 ka ever recovered from Equatorial latitudes (±15°). Magnetic studies indicate that MD81 has a stable natural remanence (NRM) with directional uncertainties (MAD angles) typically less than 3°. We have also recovered a relative paleointensity estimate from these sediments based on normalization to SIRMs. We have correlated our relative paleointensity record with high-resolution relative paleointensity records from the North Atlantic Ocean (Lund et al., 2001a, b). The MD81 ages are always within ± 500 years of the North Atlantic records over the entire core. We also correlate our PSV record with another published PSV record from Indonesia (MD34; Blanchet et al., 2006). We are able to correlate 25 inclination features, 25 declination features, and 24 relative paleointensity features between MD81 and MD34. We identify three intervals of `anomalous' directions in the cores (based on > 2σ deviation from mean directions). One of these intervals contains true excursional directions and is dated to ˜40.5 ka. We associate this interval with the Laschamp Excursion (e.g., Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969; Lund et al, 2005). We also note two other intervals that have anomalous directions, but no true excursional directions. These intervals occur around ˜34.5 ka and ˜61.5 ka and we associate them with the Mono Lake Excursion (˜33.5-34.5 ka) in western USA (e.g., Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea Excursion (˜61 ± 2 ka) in the North Atlantic Ocean (e.g., Nowaczyk et al., 1994). We view our `anomalous' PSV in the three intervals to be truly anomalous even though most directions are not truly excursional. We think that it is time to reconsider the definition of what is `anomalous' PSV or excursions. To do that we need good-quality PSV

  12. First study on the zooplankton of the Kerid (Kerið Crater Lake, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Evtimova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the qualitative composition of zooplankton of the Kerid Crater Lake. We found 10 taxa from which five rotifers and two lower crustaceans. Three of the recorded species are new to the freshwater fauna of Iceland: the rotifer species Keratella cf. americana Carlin, 1943 and Colurella sulcata (Stenroos, 1898, and the crustacean harpacticoid Bryocamptus (Bryocamptus minutus (Claus, 1863.

  13. Iceland rising: Solid Earth response to ice retreat inferred from satellite radar interferometry and visocelastic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auriac, A.; Spaans, K.H.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A.; Schmidt, P.; Lund, B.

    2013-01-01

    A broad uplift occurs in Iceland in response to the retreat of ice caps, which began circa 1890. Until now, this deformation signal has been measured primarily using GPS at points some distance away from the ice caps. Here, for the first time we use satellite radar interferometry (interferometric sy

  14. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  15. Inclusion, Exclusion and the Queering of Spaces in Two Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The concept of space is gaining increased attention in studies of sexuality and gender, not least those focusing on heterosexism and heteronormativity. Such studies have demonstrated that space is sexualised, gendered and actively produced. In this article, we present the findings from an ethnographic study of two Icelandic upper secondary…

  16. Cellular processing of the amyloidogenic cystatin C variant of hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Icelandic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Merz, G S; Schwenk, V

    1999-01-01

    of an amyloidogenic mutation on the intracellular processing of its protein product. The protein, a mutant of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, is the amyloid precursor protein in Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis--Icelandic type (HCHWA-I). The amyloid fibers are composed of mutant cystatin C...

  17. Allocation of Fishing Harvest Rights in Iceland and Norway - the Development since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi Grétarsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most western countries, marine fisheries in Iceland and Norway is still of some national significance. For more than two decades now, the two countries have managed their fisheries with complicated quota systems. The main rules of these two systems are explained in the article. However, the main purpose of the article is to describe how harvest rights in the two countries have been allocated since 1990. In both countries the principle of grandfathering the harvest rights has prevailed, i.e., the initial allocation has protected the professional interest of those that have already participated in the fisheries. Despite this, rules on the matter have not been engraved in stone since they have been dynamic and contingent on various amendments by the legislature and government. Basic rules on allocation have been stipulated in acts in Iceland, while in Norway they have mostly been based on regulations. Since harvest rights are transferable in Iceland, this, in principle, should make the harvest rights better protected than in Norway. However, when the matter is scrutinized, it becomes clear that the Icelandic parliament has in fact reallocated harvest rights on a recurrent basis. In Norway, rules on allocation of harvest rights have been relatively stable. This can be partly explained by the fact that the most important stakeholders in the Norwegian fisheries have in practice had important say on how the harvest rights have been allocated.

  18. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  19. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  20. Meaningful Education for Returning-to-School Students in a Comprehensive Upper Secondary School in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir; Bjarnadóttir, Valgerður S.

    2016-01-01

    Dropout from upper secondary education in Iceland is higher than in the neighboring countries, but varied options to re-enter school have also been on offer. This article focuses on how students, who had returned to a selected upper secondary school after having quit in one or more other schools, benefited from an innovative pedagogical approach…

  1. Manifestations of Heterosexism in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools and the Responses of LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2013-01-01

    How does institutionalized heterosexism manifest itself in Icelandic upper secondary schools and how do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students respond to these manifestations? In addressing these questions, interviews were conducted with six current and former LGBT upper secondary school students, using queer theory and thematic…

  2. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  3. The association between lifting an administrative restriction on antidepressant dispensing and treatment patterns in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thengilsdottir, G; Gardarsdottir, H; Almarsdottir, A B;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated. METHODS: New users of antidepressants between March...

  4. Short length scale mantle heterogeneity beneath Iceland probed by glacial modulation of melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Maclennan, John; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Mervine, Evelyn M.; Blusztajn, Jurek; Grönvold, Karl

    2013-10-01

    Glacial modulation of melting beneath Iceland provides a unique opportunity to better understand both the nature and length scale of mantle heterogeneity. At the end of the last glacial period, ∼13 000 yr BP, eruption rates were ∼20-100 times greater than in glacial or late postglacial times and geophysical modeling posits that rapid melting of the large ice sheet covering Iceland caused a transient increase in mantle decompression melting rates. Here we present the first time-series of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for a full glacial cycle from a spatially confined region of basaltic volcanism in northern Iceland. Basalts and picrites erupted during the early postglacial burst of volcanic activity are systematically offset to more depleted isotopic compositions than those of lavas erupted during glacial or recent (Iceland is heterogeneous on small (glacial unloading indicates that the isotopic composition of mantle heterogeneities can be linked to their melting behavior. The present geochemical data can be accounted for by a melting model in which a lithologically heterogeneous mantle source contains an enriched component more fusible than its companion depleted component.

  5. Manifestations of Heterosexism in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools and the Responses of LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2013-01-01

    How does institutionalized heterosexism manifest itself in Icelandic upper secondary schools and how do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students respond to these manifestations? In addressing these questions, interviews were conducted with six current and former LGBT upper secondary school students, using queer theory and thematic…

  6. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  7. Kernel based pattern analysis methods using eigen-decompositions for reading Icelandic sagas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    We want to test the applicability of kernel based eigen-decomposition methods, compared to the traditional eigen-decomposition methods. We have implemented and tested three kernel based methods methods, namely PCA, MAF and MNF, all using a Gaussian kernel. We tested the methods on a multispectral...... image of a page in the book 'hauksbok', which contains Icelandic sagas....

  8. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kehau; Wright, Patrick R; Tabandera, Nicole K; Kelman, Dovi; Backofen, Rolf; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Wright, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidant activity of symbiotic organisms known as lichens is an intriguing field of research because of its strong contribution to their ability to withstand extremes of physical and biological stress (e.g. desiccation, temperature, UV radiation and microbial infection). We present a comparative study on the antioxidant activities of 76 Icelandic and 41 Hawaiian lichen samples assessed employing the DPPH- and FRAP-based antioxidant assays. Utilizing this unprecedented sample size, we show that while highest individual sample activity is present in the Icelandic dataset, the overall antioxidant activity is higher for lichens found in Hawaii. Furthermore, we report that lichens from the genus Peltigera that have been described as strong antioxidant producers in studies on Chinese, Russian and Turkish lichens also show high antioxidant activities in both Icelandic and Hawaiian lichen samples. Finally, we show that opportunistic sampling of lichens in both Iceland and Hawaii will yield high numbers of lichen species that exclusively include green algae as photobiont. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An Icelandic Heritage: The Frame for One Teacher's Service (1946-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research manuscript details a biographical study, which documents the life story of one female teacher, Sylvia May Peiluck, of Gimli, Manitoba, an educator of 45 years. Her Icelandic heritage and her commitment to teach the children of Manitoba created a strong bond, a nexus. What educational changes did she witness during her…

  10. Aggression and dominance in matched groups of subadult Icelandic horses (Equus caballus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Stevens, J.M.G.; Vandemoortele, H.; Sigurjónsdóttir, H.; Vries, Han de

    2006-01-01

    We studied sex differences in the nature of aggression and dominance behaviour in two newly formed groups of 1-year-old Icelandic horses. One herd contained nine geldings, the other nine mares. The groups were matched with regard to dominancedetermining traits such as age, weaning age, composition o

  11. Do patients initiate therapy? Primary non-adherence to statins and antidepressants in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thengilsdõttir, G.; Pottegård, A.; Linnet, K.; Halldõrsson, M.; Almarsdõttir, A. B.; Gardarsdõttir, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary non-adherence occurs when a drug has been prescribed but the patient fails to have it dispensed at the pharmacy. Aims To assess primary non-adherence to statins and antidepressants in Iceland, the association of demographic factors with primary non-adherence, and the time from whe

  12. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of the Pliocene-Pleistocene lavas in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, Ian; Wensink, H.

    1966-01-01

    Potassium-argon dates are reported on five basalt samples from the Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence of lavas in the Jökuldalur area, northeastern Iceland. These dates confirm the correlations previously made with the geological time scale by means of paleomagnetic stratigraphy. The R1 and N2 polarity e

  13. Modern Educational Sagas: Legitimation of Ideas and Practices in Icelandic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Geirsdottir, Gudrun; Finnbogason, Gunnar E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes changes in governance discourse and practices in Icelandic primary and secondary education in the late 1990s. Budget reform, curriculum changes, and school-based self-evaluation aimed at a greater financial and pedagogical accountability of school professionals, especially principals, has changed the role of principals and teachers in…

  14. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  15. Cardiac myxoma in Iceland: a case series with an estimation of population incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurjonsson, Hannes; Andersen, Karl; Gardarsdottir, Marianna; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Klemenzson, Gudmundur; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Danielsen, Ragnar; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-09-01

    Cardiac myxoma (CM) is the most common primary benign tumor of the heart, but the true age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) has remained unknown. We therefore used nationwide registries in Iceland to study CM and establish its incidence rate. This was a retrospective study involving all patients diagnosed with CM in Iceland between 1986 and 2010. Cases were identified through three different registries, and hospital charts and histology results reviewed. An ASR was estimated based on a world standard population (w). Nine cases of CM (six women) were identified with a mean age of 62.8 years (range: 37-85), giving an ASR of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05-0.22) per 100,000. The mean tumor size was 4.4 cm (range: 1.5-8.0) with all the tumors located in the left atrium. Dyspnea (n = 6) and ischemic stroke (n = 2) were the most common symptoms. All patients underwent complete resection of the tumor and there were no postoperative deaths or CM-related deaths at follow-up (mean 85 months). The ASR of CM in Iceland was 0.11 per 100,000. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the incidence of CM in an entire population. In Iceland, the presenting symptoms and mode of detection of CM are similar to those in other series.

  16. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  17. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Relations to Emergent Academic Skills among Children in Germany and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Ragnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated a direct assessment of behavioral self-regulation (the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders; HTKS) and its contribution to early academic achievement among young children in Germany and Iceland. The authors examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of the HTKS, investigated gender differences in young…

  18. People with Intellectual Disabilities in Iceland: A Bourdieuean Interpretation of Self-Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Kristin; Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir

    2009-01-01

    There are many barriers to social participation in Iceland for people with intellectual disabilities. This article builds on qualitative research with young adults with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this article is to develop an approach where the struggles over the meaning of social participation of people with intellectual…

  19. Possibilities in the Boy Turn? Comparative Lessons from Australia and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Recognising that there is now a globalised educational discourse about "failing boys" circulating in the privileged nations of the global north, this article provides a comparative perspective on educational policy responses to the "boy turn" in Australia and Iceland. Specificities of the responses to the boy turn in the two…

  20. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...