WorldWideScience

Sample records for ice mass loss

  1. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  2. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss from GRACE Monthly Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is currently experiencing a net mass loss. There are however large discrepancies between the published qualitative mass loss estimates, based on different data sets and methods. There are even large differences between the results based on the same data sources, as is the ...

  3. Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Wilson, Clark R.; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Eom, Jooyoung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE?derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by ...

  4. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here......-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent...

  5. Surface Mass Balance Contributions to Acceleration of Antarctic Ice Mass Loss during 2003- 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Scambos, T. A.; Kim, B. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.; Eom, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the GRACE mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE-derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by precipitation anomalies. However, on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica mass changes are not explained by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases. The total apparent GRACE acceleration over all of the AIS between 2003 and 2013 is -13.6±7.2 GTon/yr2. Of this total, we find that the surface mass balance component is -8.2±2.0 GTon/yr2. However, the GRACE estimate appears to contain errors arising from the atmospheric pressure fields used to remove air mass effects. The estimated acceleration error from this effect is about 9.8±5.8 GTon/yr2. Correcting for this yields an ice discharge acceleration of -15.1±6.5 GTon/yr2.

  6. Accelerated mass loss from Greenland ice sheet : Links to atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Choon-Ki; Tian, Baijun; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; van Angelen, Jan H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the mass imbalance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is critical to the accurate projection of its contribution to future sea level rise. Greenland's ice mass loss has been accelerating recently. Using satellite Earth-gravity and regional climate model data,

  7. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Van dam, Tonie; Hamilton, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of 35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby outlet glaciers. Volume loss from Helheim Glacier...... between 62N and 66N. Citation: Khan, S. A., J. Wahr, L. A. Stearns, G. S. Hamilton, T. van Dam, K. M. Larson, and O. Francis (2007), Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss....

  8. Accelerated ice-sheet mass loss in Antarctica from 18-year satellite laser ranging measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanggen Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctic is very difficult due to complex ice sheet condition and sparse in situ measurements. In this paper, the low-degree gravity field coefficients of up to degree and order 5 derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR measurements are used to determine the ice mass variations in Antarctica for the period 1993–2011. Results show that the ice mass is losing with -36±13 Gt/y in Antarctica, -42±11 Gt/y in the West Antarctica and 6±10 Gt/y in the East Antarctica from 1993 to 2011. The ice mass variations from the SLR 5×5 have a good agreement with the GRACE 5×5, GRACE 5×5 (1&2 and GRACE (60×60 for the entire continent since 2003, but degree 5 from SLR is not sufficient to quantify ice losses in West and East Antarctica, respectively. The rate of ice loss in Antarctica is -28±17 Gt/y for 1993-2002 and -55±17 Gt/y for 2003-2011, indicating significant accelerated ice mass losses since 2003. Furthermore, the results from SLR are comparable with GRACE measurements.

  9. Spread of ice mass loss into northwest Greenland observed by GRACE and GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John; Bevis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from three long-term sites on bedrock adjacent to the ice sheet. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over scales of a few hundred km. The GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites....... The GRACE results can be used to predict crustal uplift, which can be compared with the GPS data. In addition to showing that the northwest ice sheet margin is now losing mass, the uplift results from both the GPS measurements and the GRACE predictions show rapid acceleration in southeast Greenland in late...... 2003, followed by a moderate deceleration in 2006. Because that latter deceleration is weak, southeast Greenland still appears to be losing ice mass at a much higher rate than it was prior to fall 2003. In a more general sense, the analysis described here demonstrates that GPS uplift measurements can...

  10. Exploring the effect of East Antarctic ice mass loss on GIA-induced horizontal bedrock motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfal, S. A.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Hermans, T.; van der Wal, W.; Wilson, T. J.; Bevis, M. G.; Kendrick, E. C.; Dalziel, I.; Smalley, R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Ice history inputs used in Antarctic models of GIA include major centers of ice mass loss in West Antarctica. In the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) region spanning the boundary between East and West Antarctica, horizontal crustal motions derived from GPS observations from the Antarctic Network (ANET) component of the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) are towards these West Antarctic ice mass centers, opposite to the pattern of radial crustal motion expected in an unloading scenario. We investigate alternative ice history and earth structure inputs to GIA models in an attempt to reproduce observed crustal motions in the region. The W12 ice history model is altered to create scenarios including ice unloading in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin based on available glaciological records. These altered ice history models, along with the unmodified W12 ice history model, are coupled with 60 radially varying (1D) earth model combinations, including approximations of optimal earth profiles identified in published GIA models. The resulting model-predicted motions utilizing both the modified and unmodified ice history models fit ANET GPS-derived crustal motions in the northern TAM region for a suite of earth model combinations. Further south, where the influence of simulated Wilkes unloading is weakest and West Antarctic unloading is strongest, observed and predicted motions do not agree. The influence of simulated Wilkes ice unloading coupled with laterally heterogeneous earth models is also investigated. The resulting model-predicted motions do not differ significantly between the original W12 and W12 with simulated Wilkes unloading ice histories.

  11. Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Wouters, Bert; Wolken, Gabriel J; Burgess, David O; Sharp, Martin J; Cogley, J Graham; Braun, Carsten; Labine, Claude

    2011-05-19

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61 ± 7 gigatonnes per year (Gt yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17 ± 0.02 mm yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31 ± 8 Gt yr(-1) to 92 ± 12 Gt yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64 ± 14 Gt yr(-1) per 1 K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

  12. Spatial pattern of mass loss processes across the Greenland Ice Sheet from the Little Ice Age to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    The Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass through surface meltwater runoff and discharge from marine terminating outlet glaciers. The spatial variability and magnitude of these processes have been studied and described in detail for the past decades. Here, we combine the mass loss between the LIA to 2010...... these components are variable between the different sectors of the GrIS, e.g. in the southeast sector of the GrIS we find substantial mass loss, possibly driven by high precipitation rates but also the presence of a large number of marine terminating glaciers. Furthermore many areas currently undergoing changes...

  13. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Temperature, Melt, and Mass Loss: 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Luthcke, Scott B.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo

    2007-01-01

    Extensive melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented by a variety of ground and satellite measurements in recent years. If the well-documented warming continues in the Arctic, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will likely accelerate, contributing to sea-level rise. Modeling studies indicate that an annual or summer temperature rise of 1 C on the ice sheet will increase melt by 20-50% therefore, surface temperature is one of the most important ice-sheet parameters to study for analysis of changes in the mass balance of the ice-sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet contains enough water to produce a rise in eustatic sea level of up to 7.0 m if the ice were to melt completely. However, even small changes (centimeters) in sea level would cause important economic and societal consequences in the world's major coastal cities thus it is extremely important to monitor changes in the ice-sheet surface temperature and to ultimately quantify these changes in terms of amount of sea-level rise. We have compiled a high-resolution, daily time series of surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, using the I-km resolution, clear-sky land-surface temperature (LST) standard product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), from 2000 - 2006. We also use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, averaged over 10-day periods, to measure change in mass of the ice sheet as it melt and snow accumulates. Surface temperature can be used to determine frequency of surface melt, timing of the start and the end of the melt season, and duration of melt. In conjunction with GRACE data, it can also be used to analyze timing of ice-sheet mass loss and gain.

  14. Sustained mass loss of the northeast Greenland ice sheet triggered by regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, Kurt H.; Bevis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise over the past 20 years, accounting for 0.5 mm yr(-1) of a total of 3.2 mm yr(-1). A significant portion of this contribution is associated with the speed-up of an increased number of glaciers in southeast...... and northwest Greenland. Here, we show that the northeast Greenland ice stream, which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing sustained dynamic thinning, linked to regional warming, after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the Greenland ice sheet...... is of particular interest, because the drainage basin area covers 16% of the ice sheet (twice that of Jakobshavn Isbrae) and numerical model predictions suggest no significant mass loss for this sector, leading to an under-estimation of future global sea-level rise. The geometry of the bedrock and monotonic trend...

  15. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance: Distribution of Increased Mass Loss with Climate Warming; 2003-07 Versus 1992-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Benner, Anita C.; Beckley, Matthew; Cornejo, Helen G.; DiMarzio, John; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We derive mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) for 2003-07 from ICESat laser altimetry and compare them with results for 1992-2002 from ERS radar and airborne laser altimetry. The GIS continued to grow inland and thin at the margins during 2003 07, but surface melting and accelerated flow significantly increased the marginal thinning compared with the 1990s. The net balance changed from a small loss of 7 plus or minus 3 Gt a 1(sup -1) in the 1990s to 171 plus or minus 4 Gt a (sup -1) for 2003-07, contributing 0.5 mm a(sup -1) to recent global sea-level rise. We divide the derived mass changes into two components: (1) from changes in melting and ice dynamics and (2) from changes in precipitation and accumulation rate. We use our firn compaction model to calculate the elevation changes driven by changes in both temperature and accumulation rate and to calculate the appropriate density to convert the accumulation-driven changes to mass changes. Increased losses from melting and ice dynamics (17-206 Gt a(sup-1) are over seven times larger than increased gains from precipitation (10 35 Gt a(sup-1) during a warming period of approximately 2 K (10 a)(sup -1) over the GIS. Above 2000m elevation, the rate of gain decreased from 44 to 28 Gt a(sup-1), while below 2000m the rate of loss increased from 51 to 198 Gt a(sup-1). Enhanced thinning below the equilibrium line on outlet glaciers indicates that increased melting has a significant impact on outlet glaciers, as well as accelerating ice flow. Increased thinning at higher elevations appears to be induced by dynamic coupling to thinning at the margins on decadal timescales.

  16. Mass loss from the southern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Bjørn, Anders A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used...... retreat. Our results show that the advance of glaciers during the LIA occurs early after the Medieval Warm Period terminating soon after 1200 AD and culminates c. 1500-1600 AD. Historical maps also show that many glaciers on the western coast occupy a still-stand near the LIA maximum until 1900 AD before...

  17. Decreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan; Tedstone, Andrew J; Fettweis, Xavier; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2017-06-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation.

  18. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  19. Mass loss of Greenland from GRACE, IceSat and CryoSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    CryoSat data over the Greenland Ice Sheet are used to continue elevation height change data over the Greenland ice sheet, following a decade of detailed monitoring of ice sheet changes with GRACE and IceSat. The combination and validation of the different data for measuring changes is quantified...... by using available airborne lidar data from IceBridge and CryoVEx. There is a special challenge of using CryoSat as fill-in between EnviSat and Sentinel-3 for the longterm measurements of surface elevation changes, a key essential climate variable in the ESA Climate Change Initiative. Another challenge...... is the joint utilization of both altimetry and gravity field change measurements for consistent estimates of regional change patterns. In the paper we analyze GRACE, IceSat and CryoSat data since 2003, and present consistent estimates of overall mass changes with average values around -220 GT/year, showing...

  20. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasgen, Ingo; van den Broeke, Michiel; Bamber, J.L.Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    and Kanagaratnam, 2006) together with output of the regional atmospheric climate modelling (RACMO2/GR; Ettema et al., 2009), and surface-elevation changes from the Ice, cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat; Sørensen et al., 2011). We show that changing ice discharge (D), surface melting and subsequent run-off...... (M/R) and precipitation (P) all contribute, in a complex and regionally variable interplay, to the increasingly negative mass balance of the GrIS observed within the last decade. Interannual variability in P along the northwest and west coasts of the GrIS largely explains the apparent regional mass...

  1. How much can Greenland melt? An upper bound on mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through surface melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Bassis, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    With observations showing accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface melt, the Greenland Ice Sheet is becoming one of the most significant contributors to sea level rise. The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet o sea level rise is likely to accelerate in the coming decade and centuries as atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, potentially triggering ever larger surface melt rates. However, at present considerable uncertainty remains in projecting the contribution to sea level of the Greenland Ice Sheet both due to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and the ice sheet response to climate forcing. Here we seek an upper bound on the contribution of surface melt from the Greenland to sea level rise in the coming century using a surface energy balance model coupled to an englacial model. We use IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5, RCP6, RCP4.5, RCP2.6) climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations to project the maximum rate of ice volume loss and related sea-level rise associated with surface melting. To estimate the upper bound, we assume the Greenland Ice Sheet is perpetually covered in thick clouds, which maximize longwave radiation to the ice sheet. We further assume that deposition of black carbon darkens the ice substantially turning it nearly black, substantially reducing its albedo. Although assuming that all melt water not stored in the snow/firn is instantaneously transported off the ice sheet increases mass loss in the short term, refreezing of retained water warms the ice and may lead to more melt in the long term. Hence we examine both assumptions and use the scenario that leads to the most surface melt by 2100. Preliminary models results suggest that under the most aggressive climate forcing, surface melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes ~1 m to sea level by the year 2100. This is a significant contribution and ignores dynamic effects. We also examined a lower bound

  2. Measuring Two Decades of Ice Mass Loss using GRACE and SLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    We use Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) to extend the time series of ice mass change back in time to 1994. The SLR series is of far lesser spatial resolution than GRACE, so we apply a constrained inversion technique to better localize the signal. We approximate the likely errors due to SLR's measurement errors combined with the inversion errors from using a low-resolution series, then estimate the interannual mass change over Greenland and Antarctica.

  3. Icing losses on wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.

  4. Mass loss from the southern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age Maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used...... retreat. Our results show that the advance of glaciers during the LIA occurs early after the Medieval Warm Period terminating soon after 1200 AD and culminates c. 1500-1600 AD. Historical maps also show that many glaciers on the western coast occupy a still-stand near the LIA maximum until 1900 AD before...

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A

    2015-01-01

    the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal...

  6. SEA-LEVEL RISE. Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, A; Carlson, A E; Long, A J; Milne, G A; Clark, P U; DeConto, R; Horton, B P; Rahmstorf, S; Raymo, M E

    2015-07-10

    Interdisciplinary studies of geologic archives have ushered in a new era of deciphering magnitudes, rates, and sources of sea-level rise from polar ice-sheet loss during past warm periods. Accounting for glacial isostatic processes helps to reconcile spatial variability in peak sea level during marine isotope stages 5e and 11, when the global mean reached 6 to 9 meters and 6 to 13 meters higher than present, respectively. Dynamic topography introduces large uncertainties on longer time scales, precluding robust sea-level estimates for intervals such as the Pliocene. Present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past. Here, we outline advances and challenges involved in constraining ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change with use of paleo-sea level records. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  8. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes.

  9. Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Edward; Navarro, Francisco J; Pattyn, Frank; Domingues, Catia M; Fettweis, Xavier; Ivins, Erik R; Nicholls, Robert J; Ritz, Catherine; Smith, Ben; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Zwally, H Jay

    2013-06-06

    Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate change have been published. Whereas Greenland is losing ice mass at an increasing pace, current Antarctic ice loss is likely to be less than some recently published estimates. It remains unclear whether East Antarctica has been gaining or losing ice mass over the past 20 years, and uncertainties in ice-mass change for West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula remain large. We discuss the past six years of progress and examine the key problems that remain.

  10. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk

    2009-12-08

    We discuss the existence of cryospheric "tipping points" in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice-albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  11. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  12. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise.

  13. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  14. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  15. Greenland ice mass balance from GPS, GRACE and ICESat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    Greenland, using stereoscopic coverage by aerial photographs recorded in 1985, and subsequent comparative surface elevation data from ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) and ATM (Airborne Topographic Mapper) supplemented with measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment...... (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the GPS sites....

  16. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basinwide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted......Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  17. Increasing mass loss from Greenland's Mittivakkat Gletscher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mernild, S.H.; Knudsen, N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused glaciers to thin and retreat, and recent mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is well documented. Local glaciers peripheral to the ice sheet are also retreating, but few mass-balance observations are available to quantify that ret...... a local phenomenon, but are indicative of glacier changes in the broader region. Mass-balance observations for the MG therefore provide unique documentation of the general retreat of Southeast Greenland's local glaciers under ongoing climate warming....

  18. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  19. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  20. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  1. Detailed ice loss pattern in the northern Antarctic Peninsula : Widespread decline driven by ice front retreats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scambos, T. A.; Berthier, E.; Haran, T.; Shuman, C. A.; Cook, A. J.; Ligtenberg, S. R M; Bohlander, J.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula (nAP, < 66° S) is one of the most rapidly changing glaciated regions on earth, yet the spatial patterns of its ice mass loss at the glacier basin scale have to date been poorly documented. We use satellite laser altimetry and satellite stereo-image topography

  2. Mass balance of Greenland and the Canadian Ice Caps from combined altimetry and GRACE inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    The combination of GRACE and altimetry data may yield a high resolution mass balance time series of the Greenlandice sheet, highlighting the varying individual mass loss behaviour of major glaciers. By including the Canadian arctic ice caps in the estimation, a more reliable estimate of the mass...... loss of both Greenlandand the Canadian ice caps may be obtained, minimizing the leakage errors otherwise unavoidable by GRACE. Actually, the absolute value of the Greenlandice sheet mass loss is highly dependent on methods and how the effects of Arctic Canadian ice caps are separated in the GRACE...... loss of the ice caps and ice sheet basins for the period 2003-15. This period shows a marked increase of ice sheet melt, especially in NW and NE Greenland, but also show large variability, with the melt anomaly year of 2012 showing a record mass loss, followed by 2013 with essentially no Greenland mass...

  3. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  4. Improving volume loss estimates of the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet 2002-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    Studies have been carried out using various methods to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Remote sensing techniques used to determine the ice sheet volume includes airborne and satellite radar and laser methods and measurements of ice flow of outlet glaciers use InSAR satellite radar......) does not work on sloping surfaces and is affected by radar penetration into the snow. InSAR estimates require knowledge of outlet glacier thickness. GRACE has limited spatial resolution and is affected by mass variations not just from ice changes, but also from hydrologic and ocean mass variability...... and mass redistribution within the solid Earth. The accuracy of ice mass and ice volume estimates can be assessed by comparing results from different techniques. Here, we focus on volume loss estimates from ICESat, ATM and LVIS data. We estimate catchment-wide ice volume change in northwest Greenland...

  5. Acceleration of the GrIS mass loss as observed by GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has previously been analysed in a variety of ways, including altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations, establishing a continuing decrease in the ice mass, with a number of studies finding acceleration in the mass loss. Here, we examine...

  6. Mass loss from S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mass-loss process in S stars is studied using 65 S stars from the listing of Wing and Yorka (1977). The role of pulsations in the mass-loss process is examined. It is detected that stars with larger mass-loss rates have a greater amplitude of pulsations. The dust-to-gas ratio for the S stars is estimated as 0.002 and the average mass-loss rate is about 6 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr. Some of the properties of the S stars, such as scale height, surface density, and lifetime, are measured. It is determined that scale height is 200 pc; the total duration of the S star phase is greater than or equal to 30,000 yr; and the stars inject 3 x 10 to the -6th solar masses/sq kpc yr into the interstellar medium. 46 references

  7. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  8. Solitary Waves of Ice Loss Detected in Greenland Crustal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The annual cycle and secular trend of Greenland mass loading are well recorded in measurements of solid Earth deformation. While bedrock vertical displacements are in phase with loading as inferred from space observations, horizontal motions have received almost no attention. The horizontal bedrock displacements can potentially track the spatiotemporal detail of mass changes with great fidelity. Our analysis of Greenland crustal motion data reveals that a significant excitation of horizontal amplitudes occurs during the intense Greenland melting. A suite of space geodetic observations and climate reanalysis data cannot explain these large horizontal displacements. We discover that solitary seasonal waves of substantial mass transport traveled through Rink Glacier in 2010 and 2012. We deduce that intense summer melting enhanced either basal lubrication or shear softening, or both, causing the glacier to thin dynamically. The newly routed upstream sublglacial water was likely to be both retarded and inefficient, thus providing a causal mechanism for the prolonged ice transport to continue well into the winter months. As the climate continues to produce increasingly warmer spring and summer, amplified seasonal waves of mass transport may become ever more present in years of future observations. Increased frequency of amplified seasonal mass transport may ultimately strengthen the Greenland's dynamic ice mass loss, a component of the balance that will have important ramifications for sea level rise. This animation shows a solitary wave passing through Rink Glacier, Greenland, in 2012, recorded by the motion of a GPS station (circle with arrow). Darker blue colors within the flow indicate mass loss, red colors show mass gain. The star marks the center of the wave. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

  9. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  10. Mass loss and cepheid pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two purposes are served: to discuss the latest improvements in nonlinear pulsation theory indicating the ability to resolve features such as the ''Christy bump'' on the light curves and to show from the results of a bump model and recent observations that mass loss is one of the possible explanations for the mass discrepancy problem between evolutionary and pulsation theories. Recent observations by Sanford and Gow of Los Alamos and Bernat (McDonald Observatory) show that extensive mass loss has occurred in the evolution of the M supergiant α Orionis

  11. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  12. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, K.K.; Khan, S.A.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Angelen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change

  13. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively...... short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. Here, we estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet using data from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter during 2003-2009 and CryoSat-2 data during 2010...

  14. Mass loss from Eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.; Viotti, R.

    1979-01-01

    This high luminosity (5x10 6 solar luminosity) star since 1840 is losing mass at the rate of 7.5x10 -2 solar masses per year. The large mass loss could be the result of vibrational instabilities produced in the CNO hydrogen burning phase of a very massive (160 solar masses) star. The presence of high excitation lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of Eta Car suggests the idea of a hot zone excited by dissipation of the supersonic turbulent flow. (Auth.)

  15. Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, I; Wettlaufer, J S

    2009-01-06

    In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here, we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that although the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice-cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea-ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a critical threshold associated with the sudden loss of the remaining wintertime-only sea ice cover may be likely.

  16. High Artic Glaciers and Ice Caps Ice Mass Change from GRACE, Regional Climate Model Output and Altimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic hosts more than the 75% of the ice covered regions outside from Greenland and Antarctica. Available observations show that increased atmospheric temperatures during the last century have contributed to a substantial glaciers retreat in all these regions. We use satellite gravimetry by the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and apply a least square fit mascon approach to calculate time series of ice mass change for the period 2002-2016. Our estimates show that arctic glaciers have constantly contributed to the sea level rise during the entire observation period with a mass change of -170+/-20 Gt/yr equivalent to the 80% of the total ice mass change from the world Glacier and Ice Caps (GIC) excluding the Ice sheet peripheral GIC, which we calculated to be -215+/-32 GT/yr, with an acceleration of 9+/-4 Gt/yr2. The Canadian Archipelago is the main contributor to the total mass depletion with an ice mass trend of -73+/-9 Gt/yr and a significant acceleration of -7+/-3 Gt/yr2. The increasing mass loss is mainly determined by melting glaciers located in the northern part of the archipelago.In order to investigate the physical processes driving the observed ice mass loss we employ satellite altimetry and surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional climate model outputs available for the same time period covered by the gravimetry data. We use elevation data from the NASA ICESat (2003-2009) and ESA CryoSat-2 (2010-2016) missions to estimate ice elevation changes. We compare GRACE ice mass estimates with time series of surface mass balance from the Regional Climate Model (RACMO-2) and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) and determine the portion of the total mass change explained by the SMB signal. We find that in Iceland and in the and the Canadian Archipelago the SMB signal explains most of the observed mass changes, suggesting that ice discharge may play a secondary role here. In other region, e.g. in Svalbar, the SMB signal

  17. Examination of Icing Induced Loss of Control and Its Mitigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Colantonio, Renato O.

    2010-01-01

    Factors external to the aircraft are often a significant causal factor in loss of control (LOC) accidents. In today s aviation world, very few accidents stem from a single cause and typically have a number of causal factors that culminate in a LOC accident. Very often the "trigger" that initiates an accident sequence is an external environment factor. In a recent NASA statistical analysis of LOC accidents, aircraft icing was shown to be the most common external environmental LOC causal factor for scheduled operations. When investigating LOC accident or incidents aircraft icing causal factors can be categorized into groups of 1) in-flight encounter with super-cooled liquid water clouds, 2) take-off with ice contamination, or 3) in-flight encounter with high concentrations of ice crystals. As with other flight hazards, icing induced LOC accidents can be prevented through avoidance, detection, and recovery mitigations. For icing hazards, avoidance can take the form of avoiding flight into icing conditions or avoiding the hazard of icing by making the aircraft tolerant to icing conditions. Icing detection mitigations can take the form of detecting icing conditions or detecting early performance degradation caused by icing. Recovery from icing induced LOC requires flight crew or automated systems capable of accounting for reduced aircraft performance and degraded control authority during the recovery maneuvers. In this report we review the icing induced LOC accident mitigations defined in a recent LOC study and for each mitigation describe a research topic required to enable or strengthen the mitigation. Many of these research topics are already included in ongoing or planned NASA icing research activities or are being addressed by members of the icing research community. These research activities are described and the status of the ongoing or planned research to address the technology needs is discussed

  18. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  19. How reversible is sea ice loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Ridley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that increasing atmospheric CO2 results in global warming, leading to a decline in polar sea ice area. Here, the specific question of whether there is a tipping point in the sea ice cover is investigated. The global climate model HadCM3 is used to map the trajectory of sea ice area under idealised scenarios. The atmospheric CO2 is first ramped up to four times pre-industrial levels (4 × CO2, then ramped down to pre-industrial levels. We also examine the impact of stabilising climate at 4 × CO2 prior to ramping CO2 down to pre-industrial levels. Against global mean temperature, Arctic sea ice area is reversible, while the Antarctic sea ice shows some asymmetric behaviour – its rate of change slower, with falling temperatures, than its rate of change with rising temperatures. However, we show that the asymmetric behaviour is driven by hemispherical differences in temperature change between transient and stabilisation periods. We find no irreversible behaviour in the sea ice cover.

  20. Breaking Off of Large Ice Masses From Hanging Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralong, A.; Funk, M.

    In order to reduce damage to settlements or other installations (roads, railway, etc) and avoid loss of life, a forecast of the final failure time of ice masses is required. At present, the most promising approach for such a prediction is based on the regularity by which certain large ice masses accelerate prior to the instant of collapse. The lim- itation of this forecast lies in short-term irregularities and in the difficulties to obtain sufficiently accurate data. A better physical understanding of the breaking off process is required, in order to improve the forecasting method. Previous analyze has shown that a stepwise crack extension coupling with a viscous flow leads to the observed acceleration function. We propose another approach by considering a local damage evolution law (gener- alized Kachanow's law) coupled with Glen's flow law to simulate the spatial evolu- tion of damage in polycristalline ice, using a finite element computational model. The present study focuses on the transition from a diffuse to a localised damage reparti- tion occurring during the damage evolution. The influence of inhomogeneous initial conditions (inhomogeneity of the mechanical properties of ice, damage inhomogene- ity) and inhomogeneous boundary conditions on the damage repartition are especially investigated.

  1. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  2. Response timescales for martian ice masses and implications for ice flow on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutnik, Michelle Rebecca; Waddington, E.D.; Winebrener, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    a predictable shape, which is a function of ice temperature, ice rheology, and surface mass-exchange rate. In addition, the time for surface-shape adjustment is shorter than the characteristic time for significant deformation or displacement of internal layers within a flowing ice mass; as a result, surface......On Earth and on Mars, ice masses experience changes in precipitation, temperature, and radiation. In a new climate state, flowing ice masses will adjust in length and in thickness, and this response toward a new steady state has a characteristic timescale. However, a flowing ice mass has...... topography is more diagnostic of flow than are internal-layer shapes. Because the shape of Gemina Lingula, North Polar Layered Deposits indicates that it flowed at some time in the past, we use its current topography to infer characteristics of those past ice conditions, or past climate conditions, in which...

  3. Dynamics of the ice mass in Antarctica in the time of warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern age of global warming affect the general state of the Antarctic ice sheet and its mass balance. Studies of the Southern polar region of the Earth during the International Geophysical Year  (1957–1958 called the assumption of growth in the modern ice mass in East Antarctica. However, with the development of new methods, this conclusion has been questioned. At the turn of the century the study of global processes Earth started to use the satellite radar or laser altimetry and satellite gravimetry, which allows determining change of different masses on the Earth, including ice bodies. From the beginning of the XXI century, these methods have been used to calculate the continental ice balance. In our study, we analyze different data of recent years, supporting the earlier conclusion on continued growth of the ice mass in East Antarctica. How‑ ever, in West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula, on the contrary, there is increased loss of ice, leveling the increased income of ice mass of in the Central Antarctica. So all in all in the modern era of global warm‑ ing, the ice mass in Antarctica appears to be decreasing despite some growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Fluctuations of land ice mass reflect in the sea level variations, but in comparison with the scale of the Ant‑ arctic ice sheet its contribution to sea‑level rise is not so significant. The main reason for this is that the mass accumulation in East Antarctica with significant probability prevails over the ice outflow.

  4. Long term ice sheet mass change rates and inter-annual variability from GRACE gravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harig, C.

    2017-12-01

    The GRACE time series of gravimetry now stretches 15 years since its launch in 2002. Here we use Slepian functions to estimate the long term ice mass trends of Greenland, Antarctica, and several glaciated regions. The spatial representation shows multi-year to decadal regional shifts in accelerations, in agreement with increases in radar derived ice velocity. Interannual variations in ice mass are of particular interest since they can directly link changes in ice sheets to the drivers of change in the polar ocean and atmosphere. The spatial information retained in Slepian functions provides a tool to determine how this link varies in different regions within an ice sheet. We present GRACE observations of the 2013-2014 slowdown in mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet, which was concentrated in specific parts of the ice sheet and in certain months of the year. We also discuss estimating the relative importance of climate factors that control ice mass balance, as a function of location of the glacier/ice cap as well as the spatial variation within an ice sheet by comparing gravimetry with observations of surface air temperature, ocean temperature, etc. as well as model data from climate reanalysis products.

  5. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  6. Greenland and Antarctica Ice Sheet Mass Changes and Effects on Global Sea Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen years of GRACE data provide an excellent picture of the current mass changes of Greenland and Antarctica, with mass loss in the GRACE period 2002–2015 amounting to 265 ± 25 GT/year for Greenland (including peripheral ice caps), and 95 ± 50 GT/year for Antarctica, corresponding to 0.......72 and 0.26 mm/year average global sea level change. A significant acceleration in mass loss rate is found, especially for Antarctica, while Greenland mass loss, after a corresponding acceleration period, and a record mass loss in the summer of 2012, has seen a slight decrease in short-term mass loss trend....... The yearly mass balance estimates, based on point mass inversion methods, have relatively large errors, both due to uncertainties in the glacial isostatic adjustment processes, especially for Antarctica, leakage from unmodelled ocean mass changes, and (for Greenland) difficulties in separating mass signals...

  7. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerial photographs reveal late-20th-century dynamic ice loss in northwestern greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Korsgaard, Niels J

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to global sea-level rise. Recent mass loss in the northwest of Greenland has been substantial. Using aerial photographs, we produced digital elevation models and extended the time record of recent...

  9. GNET detected an anomalous "spike" in ice loss in Greenland during the 2010 melting season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevis, Michael G; Wahr, John M; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    ’s instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass. Superimposed on longer term trends, an anomalous ‘pulse’ of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during a ~5 month period in 2010, and we will show that this anomalous uplift is spatially correlated with the 2010 melting day anomaly (Tedesco...

  10. Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Iversen, Lars Lonsmann; Bjork, Anders Anker

    2017-01-01

    imagery. We find that delta progradation was driven by high freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet coinciding with periods of open water. Progradation was controlled by the local initial environmental conditions (that is, accumulated air temperatures above 0 degrees C per year, freshwater runoff...... of erosion and accretion along the large deltas of the main rivers in the Arctic5-7. Our results improve the understanding of Arctic coastal evolution in a changing climate, and reveal the impacts on coastal areas of increasing ice mass loss and the associated freshwater runoff and lengthening of open-water...

  11. Sea level changes from monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    We present mass change time series at basin scale for both Greenland and Antarctica, de-rived from GRACE data, and use these data to find the associated global sea level changes. We use two independent methods for GRACE ice mass loss estimation, including use of different GIA models and estimatio...

  12. The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) trends influence observed Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass loss, but the component of these trends related to anthropogenic forcing is unclear. Here we study the simulated spatial pattern of emergence of an anthropogenically derived GrIS SMB signal between 1850 and 2100

  13. Mass loss from Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results relating to the stellar winds and mass loss rates of the WR stars are reviewed, emphasising new data and their interpretation acquired at UV, IR and Radio wavelengths. The subject is discussed under the headings: physical and chemical properties of WR stars (effective temperatures and radiative luminosities; masses; chemical abundances); velocity, ionisation and excitation structure of WR winds; mass loss rates of WR stars; mass loss properties of WR stars in the LMC; comparisons with theoretical models of mass loss; ring nebulae around WR stars; conclusions. (author)

  14. Towards Quantification of Glacier Dynamic Ice Loss through Passive Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, A.; Nuth, C.; Weidle, C.; Schweitzer, J.; Kohler, J.; Buscaino, G.

    2015-12-01

    Global glaciers and ice caps loose mass through calving, while existing models are currently not equipped to realistically predict dynamic ice loss. This is mainly because long-term continuous calving records, that would help to better understand fine scale processes and key climatic-dynamic feedbacks between calving, climate, terminus evolution and marine conditions, do not exist. Combined passive seismic/acoustic strategies are the only technique able to capture rapid calving events continuously, independent of daylight or meteorological conditions. We have produced such a continuous calving record for Kronebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard, using data from permanent seismic stations between 2001 and 2014. However, currently no method has been established in cryo-seismology to quantify the calving ice loss directly from seismic data. Independent calibration data is required to derive 1) a realistic estimation of the dynamic ice loss unobserved due to seismic noise and 2) a robust scaling of seismic calving signals to ice volumes. Here, we analyze the seismic calving record at Kronebreen and independent calving data in a first attempt to quantify ice loss directly from seismic records. We make use of a) calving flux data with weekly to monthly resolution obtained from satellite remote sensing and GPS data between 2007 and 2013, and b) direct, visual calving observations in two weeks in 2009 and 2010. Furthermore, the magnitude-scaling property of seismic calving events is analyzed. We derive and discuss an empirical relation between seismic calving events and calving flux which for the first time allows to estimate a time series of calving volumes more than one decade back in time. Improving our model requires to incorporate more precise, high-resolution calibration data. A new field campaign will combine innovative, multi-disciplinary monitoring techniques to measure calving ice volumes and dynamic ice-ocean interactions simultaneously with terrestrial laser

  15. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  16. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric

    2006-07-15

    The concept that the Antarctic ice sheet changes with eternal slowness has been challenged by recent observations from satellites. Pronounced regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula triggered ice shelf collapse, which led to a 10-fold increase in glacier flow and rapid ice sheet retreat. This chain of events illustrated the vulnerability of ice shelves to climate warming and their buffering role on the mass balance of Antarctica. In West Antarctica, the Pine Island Bay sector is draining far more ice into the ocean than is stored upstream from snow accumulation. This sector could raise sea level by 1m and trigger widespread retreat of ice in West Antarctica. Pine Island Glacier accelerated 38% since 1975, and most of the speed up took place over the last decade. Its neighbour Thwaites Glacier is widening up and may double its width when its weakened eastern ice shelf breaks up. Widespread acceleration in this sector may be caused by glacier ungrounding from ice shelf melting by an ocean that has recently warmed by 0.3 degrees C. In contrast, glaciers buffered from oceanic change by large ice shelves have only small contributions to sea level. In East Antarctica, many glaciers are close to a state of mass balance, but sectors grounded well below sea level, such as Cook Ice Shelf, Ninnis/Mertz, Frost and Totten glaciers, are thinning and losing mass. Hence, East Antarctica is not immune to changes.

  17. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet - a study of ICESat data, surface density and firn compaction modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. S.; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Nielsen, K.

    2010-01-01

    ICESat has provided surface elevation measurements of the ice sheets since the launch in January 2003, resulting in a unique data set for monitoring the changes of the cryosphere. Here we present a novel method for determining the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet derived from ICESat...... in estimating the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. We find firn dynamics and surface densities to be important factors in deriving the mass loss from remote sensing altimetry. The volume change derived from ICESat data is corrected for firn compaction, vertical bedrock movement and an intercampaign...... boundary conditions. We find an annual mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet of 210 ± 21 Gt yr-1 in the period from October 2003 to March 2008. This result is in good agreement with other studies of the Greenland ice sheet mass balance, based on different remote sensing techniques....

  18. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Perennial water stratification and the role of freshwater in the mass balance of Arctic ice shelves and multiyear landfast sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic owe their origin to multiyear landfast sea ice (MLSI) growth during the post-Hypsithermal cooling ca. 3,000-4,000 BP. Since they grew in response to an arctic-wide climatic deterioration and contain evidence of occasional post-4,000 BP climatic ameliorations, they may be expected to be sensitive to future global climate changes manifested in the High Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to examine ice-ocean interactions and feedbacks, and the response of the ice shelves and the MLSI to the improved summer climate of the last ca. 100 years, and implications for the future. There is good evidence that there has been a negative surface mass balance since the turn of the century. Mass balance measurements on the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf between 1966 and 1985 indicate a total ice loss of 1.371 m at a mean annual rate of 68.5 mm. The interannual pattern of accumulation and ablation and the long-term losses on the ice shelf are similar to other Canadian High Arctic glacier mass balance records. It is evident from water and ice core records of salinity, δ 18 0 and tritium, that perennial water stratification is common below and behind the ice shelves and MLSI. The coastal waters are highly stratified, with anything from 0.5 m to 41.0 m of freshwater interposed between the overlying ice and underlying seawater. The primary source of the freshwater is summer run-off of snow-meltwater from the adjacent land and from the ice itself. There is minimal mixing between the influent freshwater and seawater, and the freshwater is either dammed behind the ice shelves and the MLSI, with subsequent under-ice freshwater outflows, or pooled in under-ice depressions

  20. Insights into Spatial Sensitivities of Ice Mass Response to Environmental Change from the SeaRISE Ice Sheet Modeling Project I: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Aschwanden, Andy; Bueler, Ed; Choi, Hyengu; Fastook, Jim; Granzow, Glen; Greve, Ralf; Gutowski, Gail; hide

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios from the Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project are applied to six three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale and to inform future modeling and field studies. Results indicate (i) growth with warming, except within low-latitude basins (where inland thickening is outpaced by marginal thinning); (ii) mass loss with enhanced sliding (with basins dominated by high driving stresses affected more than basins with low-surface-slope streaming ice); and (iii) mass loss with enhanced ice shelf melting (with changes in West Antarctica dominating the signal due to its marine setting and extensive ice shelves; cf. minimal impact in the Terre Adelie, George V, Oates, and Victoria Land region of East Antarctica). Ice loss due to dynamic changes associated with enhanced sliding and/or sub-shelf melting exceeds the gain due to increased precipitation. Furthermore, differences in results between and within basins as well as the controlling impact of sub-shelf melting on ice dynamics highlight the need for improved understanding of basal conditions, grounding-zone processes, ocean-ice interactions, and the numerical representation of all three.

  1. Overview of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance and Dynamics from ICESat Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to determine the present-day mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, identify changes that may be occurring in the surface-mass flux and ice dynamics, and estimate their contributions to global sea-level rise. Although ICESat's three lasers were planned to make continuous measurements for 3 to 5 years, the mission was re-planned to operate in 33-day campaigns 2 to 3 times each year following failure of the first laser after 36 days. Seventeen campaigns were conducted with the last one in the Fall of 2009. Mass balance maps derived from measured ice-sheet elevation changes show that the mass loss from Greenland has increased significantly to about 170 Gt/yr for 2003 to 2007 from a state of near balance in the 1990's. Increased losses (189 Gt/yr) from melting and dynamic thinning are over seven times larger'than increased gains (25 gt/yr) from precipitation. Parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic Peninsula are losing mass at an increasing rate, but other parts of West Antarctica and the East Antarctic ice sheet are gaining mass at an increasing rate. Increased losses of 35 Gt/yr in Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd.Coast are more than balanced by gains in base of Peninsula and ice stream C, D, & E systems. From the 1992-2002 to 2003-2007 period, the overall mass balance for Antarctica changed from a loss of about 60 Gt/yr to near balance or slightly positive.

  2. Greenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patrick M.; Tedesco, Marco; Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Luthcke, Scott B.; Fettweis, Xavier; Larour, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. At these scales, processes responsible for mass change are less well understood and modeled, and could potentially play an important role in future GrIS mass change. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the January 2003-December 2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of -178.9 ± 4.4 and -239.4 ± 7.7 Gt yr-1 respectively) in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet-wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss) agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, some areas exhibit significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or processes not accounted for by models related

  3. Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevis, Michael; Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2012-01-01

    for by an annual oscillation superimposed on a sustained trend. The oscillation is driven by earth’s elastic response to seasonal variations in ice mass and air mass (i.e., atmospheric pressure). Observed vertical velocities are higher and often much higher than predicted rates of postglacial rebound (PGR......), implying that uplift is usually dominated by the solid earth’s instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass rather than PGR. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous ‘pulse’ of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010...

  4. MASS BALANCE CHANGES AND ICE DYNAMICS OF GREENLAND AND ANTARCTIC ICE SHEETS FROM LASER ALTIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Babonis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have lost ice at accelerating rates, caused by increasing surface temperature. The melting of the two big ice sheets has a big impact on global sea level rise. If the ice sheets would melt down entirely, the sea level would rise more than 60 m. Even a much smaller rise would cause dramatic damage along coastal regions. In this paper we report about a major upgrade of surface elevation changes derived from laser altimetry data, acquired by NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat and airborne laser campaigns, such as Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS. For detecting changes in ice sheet elevations we have developed the Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC method. It computes elevation changes of small surface patches by keeping the surface shape constant and considering the absolute values as surface elevations. We report about important upgrades of earlier results, for example the inclusion of local ice caps and the temporal extension from 1993 to 2014 for the Greenland Ice Sheet and for a comprehensive reconstruction of ice thickness and mass changes for the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  5. Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice-Sheet from ICESat Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for 2003-2008 are derived from ICESat laser altimetry and compared with estimates for 1992-2002 derived from ERS radar altimetry. The net mass balance of 3 drainage systems (Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd) for 2003-2008 is a loss of 100 Gt/yr, which increased from a loss of 70 Gt/yr for the earlier period. The DS including the Bindschadler and MacAyeal ice streams draining into the Ross Ice Shelf has a mass gain of 11 Gt/yr for 2003-2008, compared to an earlier loss of 70 Gt/yr. The DS including the Whillans and Kamb ice streams has a mass gain of 12 Gt/yr, including a significant thickening on the upper part of the Kamb DS, compared to a earlier gain of 6 Gt/yr (includes interpolation for a large portion of the DS). The other two DS discharging into the Ronne Ice Shelf and the northern Ellsworth Coast have a mass gain of 39 Gt/yr, compared to a gain of 4 Gt/yr for the earlier period. Overall, the increased losses of 30 Gt/yr in the Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd DSs are exceeded by increased gains of 59 Gt/yr in the other 4 DS. Overall, the mass loss from the West Antarctic ice sheet has decreased to 38 Gt/yr from the earlier loss of 67 Gt/yr, reducing the contribution to sea level rise to 0.11 mm/yr from 0.19 mm/yr

  6. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  7. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  8. On the potential for abrupt Arctic winter sea-ice loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathiany, S.; Notz, Dirk; Mauritsen, T.; Raedel, G.; Brovkin, V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the transition from a seasonally ice-covered Arctic to an Arctic Ocean that is sea ice free all year round under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. It is shown that in comprehensive climate models, such loss of Arctic winter sea ice area is faster than the preceding loss of

  9. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agre...

  10. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  11. The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Serreze, Mark C.; Stroeve, Julienne [University of Colorado, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Arctic sea ice mass budgets for the twentieth century and projected changes through the twenty-first century are assessed from 14 coupled global climate models. Large inter-model scatter in contemporary mass budgets is strongly related to variations in absorbed solar radiation, due in large part to differences in the surface albedo simulation. Over the twenty-first century, all models simulate a decrease in ice volume resulting from increased annual net melt (melt minus growth), partially compensated by reduced transport to lower latitudes. Despite this general agreement, the models vary considerably regarding the magnitude of ice volume loss and the relative roles of changing melt and growth in driving it. Projected changes in sea ice mass budgets depend in part on the initial (mid twentieth century) ice conditions; models with thicker initial ice generally exhibit larger volume losses. Pointing to the importance of evolving surface albedo and cloud properties, inter-model scatter in changing net ice melt is significantly related to changes in downwelling longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation. These factors, along with the simulated mean and spatial distribution of ice thickness, contribute to a large inter-model scatter in the projected onset of seasonally ice-free conditions. (orig.)

  12. Trends in ice sheet mass balance, 1992 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.; Smith, B.; Velicogna, I.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Rignot, E. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A.; Krinner, G.; Joughin, I. R.; Nowicki, S.; Payne, A. J.; Scambos, T.; Schlegel, N.; Moyano, G.; Konrad, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a community effort, jointly supported by ESA and NASA, that aims to provide a consensus estimate of ice sheet mass balance from satellite gravimetry, altimetry and mass budget assessments, on an annual basis. The project has five experiment groups, one for each of the satellite techniques and two others to analyse surface mass balance (SMB) and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The basic premise for the exercise is that individual ice sheet mass balance datasets are generated by project participants using common spatial and temporal domains to allow meaningful inter-comparison, and this controlled comparison in turn supports aggregation of the individual datasets over their full period. Participation is open to the full community, and the quality and consistency of submissions is regulated through a series of data standards and documentation requirements. The second phase of IMBIE commenced in 2015, with participant data submitted in 2016 and a combined estimate due for public release in 2017. Data from 48 participant groups were submitted to one of the three satellite mass balance technique groups or to the ancillary dataset groups. The individual mass balance estimates and ancillary datasets have been compared and combined within the respective groups. Following this, estimates of ice sheet mass balance derived from the individual techniques were then compared and combined. The result is single estimates of ice sheet mass balance for Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula. The participants, methodology and results of the exercise will be presented in this paper.

  13. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; Geruo, A.; Barletta, Valentia R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, Rene; Galin, Natalia; hide

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods-especially in Greenland and West Antarctica-and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 plus or minus 49, +14 plus or minus 43, -65 plus or minus 26, and -20 plus or minus 14 gigatonnes year(sup -1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 plus or minus 0.20 millimeter year(sup -1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  14. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.; Molnia, Bruce F.

    2004-07-01

    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes ( ML≥2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes ( Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake ( Ms=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  15. Mass budget of Queen Elizabeth Islands glaciers and ice caps, Canada, from 1992 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate to say that the Canadian Artic Archipelago's mass loss has increased in recent years. However the role of ice dynamics changes in this area is not well known. In this study, we present a comprehensive velocity mapping of the CAA using ALOS/PALSAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS1 and Landsat data between 1992 and 2015. Glaciers speed are calculated using a speckle and feature tracking algorithm.The results reveals that three large marine-terminating glaciers have accelerated significantly after 2010, while most others have slowed down or retreated to a sill to become similar to land-terminating glaciers. By combining the velocities of these glaciers with ice thickness measurements from NASA's Operation IceBridge, we calculate their ice discharge. The fluxes of these glaciers increased significantly since 2000 with a marked increase after 2011. The comparison of ice discharge with the surface mass balance from RACMO-2, shows that these glaciers came out of balance after 2011, which is also a time period where their discharge almost doubled. The analysis of RACMO-2 reveals an increase in runoff between 1970's and today and a precipitation with no significant trend. We digitalize the calving front positions of the glaciers and show an increasing rate retreat since 1976. We conclude that global pattern of velocity changes shows that the mass losses due to surface mass balance will likely going to raise in the coming years and that ice discharge will have a smaller part in the contribution of the CAA to sea level rise.

  16. Mass-loss rates of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    Over much of the initial mass function, stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through a stellar wind during the late stages of their evolution when being a (super)giant star. As of today, we can not yet predict the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase for a given star with specific stellar parameters from first principles. This uncertainty directly impacts the accuracy of current stellar evolution and population synthesis models that predict the enrichment of the interstellar medium by these stellar winds. Efforts to establish the link between the initial physical and chemical conditions at stellar birth and the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase have proceeded on two separate tracks: (1) more detailed studies of the chemical and morpho-kinematical structure of the stellar winds of (super)giant stars in our own Milky Way by virtue of the proximity, and (2) large scale and statistical studies of a (large) sample of stars in other galaxies (such as the LMC and SMC) and globular clusters eliminating the uncertainty on the distance estimate and providing insight into the dependence of the mass-loss rate on the metallicity. In this review, I will present recent results of both tracks, will show how recent measurements confirm (some) theoretical predictions, but also how results from the first track admonish of common misconceptions inherent in the often more simplified analysis used to analyse the large samples from track 2.

  17. Postglacial Rebound and Current Ice Loss Estimates from Space Geodesy: The New ICE-6G (VM5a) Global Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, W. R.; Argus, D.; Drummond, R.; Moore, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    We compare, on a global basis, estimates of site velocity against predictions of the newly constructed postglacial rebound model ICE-6G (VM5a). This model is fit to observations of North American postglacial rebound thereby demonstrating that the ice sheet at last glacial maximum must have been, relative to ICE-5G,thinner in southern Manitoba, thinner near Yellowknife (northwest Territories), thicker in eastern and southern Quebec, and thicker along the British Columbia-Alberta border. The GPS based estimates of site velocity that we employ are more accurate than were previously available because they are based on GPS estimates of position as a function of time determined by incorporating satellite phase center variations [Desai et al. 2011]. These GPS estimates are constraining postglacial rebound in North America and Europe more tightly than ever before. In particular, given the high density of GPS sites in North America, and the fact that the velocity of the mass center (CM) of Earth is also more tightly constrained, the new model much more strongly constrains both the lateral extent of the proglacial forebulge and the rate at which this peripheral bulge (that was emplaced peripheral to the late Pleistocence Laurentia ice sheet) is presently collapsing. This fact proves to be important to the more accurate inference of the current rate of ice loss from both Greenland and Alaska based upon the time dependent gravity observations being provided by the GRACE satellite system. In West Antarctica we have also been able to significantly revise the previously prevalent ICE-5G deglaciation history so as to enable its predictions to be optimally consistent with GPS site velocities determined by connecting campaign WAGN measurements to those provided by observations from the permanent ANET sites. Ellsworth Land (south of the Antarctic peninsula), is observed to be rising at 6 ±3 mm/yr according to our latest analyses; the Ellsworth mountains themselves are observed to be

  18. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide glacier retreat and associated future runoff changes raise major concerns over the sustainability of global water resources1-4, but global-scale assessments of glacier decline and the resulting hydrological consequences are scarce5,6. Here we compute global glacier runoff changes for 56 large-scale glacierized drainage basins to 2100 and analyse the glacial impact on streamflow. In roughly half of the investigated basins, the modelled annual glacier runoff continues to rise until a maximum (`peak water') is reached, beyond which runoff steadily declines. In the remaining basins, this tipping point has already been passed. Peak water occurs later in basins with larger glaciers and higher ice-cover fractions. Typically, future glacier runoff increases in early summer but decreases in late summer. Although most of the 56 basins have less than 2% ice coverage, by 2100 one-third of them might experience runoff decreases greater than 10% due to glacier mass loss in at least one month of the melt season, with the largest reductions in central Asia and the Andes. We conclude that, even in large-scale basins with minimal ice-cover fraction, the downstream hydrological effects of continued glacier wastage can be substantial, but the magnitudes vary greatly among basins and throughout the melt season.

  19. Convergence on the Prediction of Ice Particle Mass and Projected Area in Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Ice particle mass- and area-dimensional power law (henceforth m-D and A-D) relationships are building-blocks for formulating microphysical processes and optical properties in cloud and climate models, and they are critical for ice cloud remote sensing algorithms, affecting the retrieval accuracy. They can be estimated by (1) directly measuring the sizes, masses and areas of individual ice particles at ground-level and (2) using aircraft probes to simultaneously measure the ice water content (IWC) and ice particle size distribution. A third indirect method is to use observations from method 1 to develop an m-A relationship representing mean conditions in ice clouds. Owing to a tighter correlation (relative to m-D data), this m-A relationship can be used to estimate m from aircraft probe measurements of A. This has the advantage of estimating m at small sizes, down to 10 μm using the 2D-Sterio probe. In this way, 2D-S measurements of maximum dimension D can be related to corresponding estimates of m to develop ice cloud type and temperature dependent m-D expressions. However, these expressions are no longer linear in log-log space, but are slowly varying curves covering most of the size range of natural ice particles. This work compares all three of the above methods and demonstrates close agreement between them. Regarding (1), 4869 ice particles and corresponding melted hemispheres were measured during a field campaign to obtain D and m. Selecting only those unrimed habits that formed between -20°C and -40°C, the mean mass values for selected size intervals are within 35% of the corresponding masses predicted by the Method 3 curve based on a similar temperature range. Moreover, the most recent m-D expression based on Method 2 differs by no more than 50% with the m-D curve from Method 3. Method 3 appears to be the most accurate over the observed ice particle size range (10-4000 μm). An m-D/A-D scheme was developed by which self-consistent m-D and A-D power laws

  20. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  1. First stars. II. Evolution with mass loss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahena, David; Hadrava, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-663 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : first stars * evolution * mass loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2012

  2. Modelling the contribution of supraglacial ice cliffs to the mass-balance of glaciers in the Langtang catchment, Nepalese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Miles, E.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2017-12-01

    Supraglacial cliffs are typical surface features of debris-covered glaciers worldwide, affecting surface evolution, and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface where melt rates can be very high. As a result, ice cliffs act as windows of energy transfer from the atmosphere to the ice, and enhance melt and mass losses of otherwise insulated ice. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has never been quantified at the glacier scale, and all inference has been obtained from upscaling results of point-scale models or observations at select individual cliffs. Here we use a 3D, physically-based backwasting model to estimate the volume losses associated with the melting and backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs for the entire debris-covered glacier area of the Langtang catchment. We estimate mass losses for the 2014 melt season and compare them to recent values of glacier mass balance determined from geodetic and numerical modelling approached. Cliff outlines and topography are derived from high-resolution stereo SPOT6-imagery from April 2014. Meteorological data to force the model are provided by automatic weather stations on- and off-glacier within the valley. The model simulates ice cliff backwasting by considering the cliff-atmosphere energy-balance, reburial by debris and the effects of adjacent ponds. In the melt season of 2014, cliffs' distribution and patterns of mass losses vary considerably from glacier to glacier, and we relate rates of volume loss to both glaciers' and cliffs' characteristics. Only cliffs with a northerly aspect account for substantial losses. Uncertainty in our estimates is due to the quality of the stereo DEM, uncertainties in the cliff delineation and the fact that we use a conservative approach to cliff delineation and discard very small cliffs and those for which uncertainty in topography is high. Despite these uncertainties, our work presents the first estimate of the importance of supraglacial ice

  3. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ice Mass Variations and the Local Climatic Factors in the Riparian Zone of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2016-12-01

    Californian icefields are natural basins of fresh water. They provide irrigation water to the farms in the central valley. We analyzed the ice mass loss rates, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST) in Sacramento and San Joaquin basins in California. The digital elevation models from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to calculate ice mass loss rate between the years 2002 and 2015. Additionally, Landsat TIR data were used to extract the land surface temperature. Data from local weather stations were analyzed to understand the spatiotemporal trends in air temperature. The results showed an overall mass recession of -0.8 ± 0.7 m w.e.a-1. We also noticed an about 60% loss in areal extent of the glaciers in the study basins between 2000 and 2015. Local climatic factors, along with the global climate patterns might have influenced the negative trends in the ice mass loss. Overall, there was an increase in the air temperature by 0.07± 0.02 °C in the central valley between 2000 and 2015. Furthermore, LST increased by 0.34 ± 0.4 °C and 0.55± 0.1 °C in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Our preliminary results show the decrease in area and mass of ice mass in the basins, and changing agricultural practices in the valley.

  4. Prediction of dry ice mass for firefighting robot actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, M. T.; Khan, Md R.; Shafie, A. A.; Salami, MJE; Mohamad Nor, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The limitation in the performance of electric actuated firefighting robots in high-temperature fire environment has led to research on the alternative propulsion system for the mobility of firefighting robots in such environment. Capitalizing on the limitations of these electric actuators we suggested a gas-actuated propulsion system in our earlier study. The propulsion system is made up of a pneumatic motor as the actuator (for the robot) and carbon dioxide gas (self-generated from dry ice) as the power source. To satisfy the consumption requirement (9cfm) of the motor for efficient actuation of the robot in the fire environment, the volume of carbon dioxide gas, as well as the corresponding mass of the dry ice that will produce the required volume for powering and actuation of the robot, must be determined. This article, therefore, presents the computational analysis to predict the volumetric requirement and the dry ice mass sufficient to power a carbon dioxide gas propelled autonomous firefighting robot in a high-temperature environment. The governing equation of the sublimation of dry ice to carbon dioxide is established. An operating time of 2105.53s and operating pressure ranges from 137.9kPa to 482.65kPa were achieved following the consumption rate of the motor. Thus, 8.85m3 is computed as the volume requirement of the CAFFR while the corresponding dry ice mass for the CAFFR actuation ranges from 21.67kg to 75.83kg depending on the operating pressure.

  5. Antarctic Mass Loss from GRACE from Space- and Time-Resolved Modeling with Slepian Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.

    2013-12-01

    The melting of polar ice sheets is a major contributor to global sea-level rise. Antarctica is of particular interest since most of the mass loss has occurred in West Antarctica, however updated glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models and recent mass gains in East Antarctica have reduced the continent-wide integrated decadal trend of mass loss. Here we present a spatially and temporally resolved estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change using Slepian localization functions. With a Slepian basis specifically for Antarctica, the basis functions maximize their energy on the continent and we can project the geopotential fields into a sparse set of orthogonal coefficients. By fitting polynomial functions to the limited basis coefficients we maximize signal-to-noise levels and need not perform smoothing or destriping filters common to other approaches. In addition we determine an empirical noise covariance matrix from the GRACE data to estimate the uncertainty of mass estimation. When applied to large ice sheets, as in our own recent Greenland work, this technique is able to resolve both the overall continental integrated mass trend, as well as the spatial distribution of the mass changes over time. Using CSR-RL05 GRACE data between Jan. 2003 and Jan 2013, we estimate the regional accelerations in mass change for several sub-regions and examine how the spatial pattern of mass has changed. The Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica has experienced a large acceleration in mass loss (-26 Gt/yr^2). While mass loss is concentrated near Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, it has also increased along the coast further towards the Ross ice shelf.

  6. Uplift rates from a new high-density GPS network in Palmer Land indicate significant late Holocene ice loss in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of ongoing ice-mass loss and associated melt water contribution to sea-level change from regions such as West Antarctica is dependent on a combination of remote sensing methods. A key method, the measurement of changes in Earth's gravity via the GRACE satellite mission, requires...... a potentially large correction to account for the isostatic response of the solid Earth to ice-load changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. In this study, we combine glacial isostatic adjustment modelling with a new GPS dataset of solid Earth deformation for the southern Antarctic Peninsula to test the current...... understanding of ice history in this region. A sufficiently complete history of past ice-load change is required for glacial isostatic adjustment models to accurately predict the spatial variation of ongoing solid Earth deformation, once the independently-constrained effects of present-day ice mass loss have...

  7. Contribution of deformation to sea-ice mass balance: a case study from an N-ICE2015 storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk

    2018-01-01

    The fastest and most efficient process of gaining sea ice volume is through the mechanical redistribution of mass as a consequence of deformation events. During the ice growth season divergent motion produces leads where new ice grows thermodynamically, while convergent motion fractures the ice...... and either piles the resultant ice blocks into ridges or rafts one floe under the other. Here we present an exceptionally detailed airborne dataset from a 9km2 area of first and second year ice in the Transpolar Drift north of Svalbard that allowed us to estimate the redistribution of mass from an observed...... deformation event. To achieve this level of detail we analyzed changes in sea ice freeboard acquired from two airborne laser scanner surveys just before and right after a deformation event brought on by a passing low pressure system. A linear regression model based on divergence during this storm can explain...

  8. Contribution of Deformation to Sea Ice Mass Balance: A Case Study From an N-ICE2015 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Skourup, Henriette; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Gerland, Sebastian; Granskog, Mats A.

    2018-01-01

    The fastest and most efficient process of gaining sea ice volume is through the mechanical redistribution of mass as a consequence of deformation events. During the ice growth season divergent motion produces leads where new ice grows thermodynamically, while convergent motion fractures the ice and either piles the resultant ice blocks into ridges or rafts one floe under the other. Here we present an exceptionally detailed airborne data set from a 9 km2 area of first year and second year ice in the Transpolar Drift north of Svalbard that allowed us to estimate the redistribution of mass from an observed deformation event. To achieve this level of detail we analyzed changes in sea ice freeboard acquired from two airborne laser scanner surveys just before and right after a deformation event brought on by a passing low-pressure system. A linear regression model based on divergence during this storm can explain 64% of freeboard variability. Over the survey region we estimated that about 1.3% of level sea ice volume was pressed together into deformed ice and the new ice formed in leads in a week after the deformation event would increase the sea ice volume by 0.5%. As the region is impacted by about 15 storms each winter, a simple linear extrapolation would result in about 7% volume increase and 20% deformed ice fraction at the end of the season.

  9. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  10. Remarkable separability of the circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice loss has an important effect on local climate through increases in ocean to atmosphere heat flux and associated feedbacks, and may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation that can enhance or counter changes that are due to greenhouse gases. The extent to which climate change in a warming world can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by Arctic sea ice loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. Here we use a novel sea ice nudging methodology in the Canadian Earth System Model, which has a fully coupled ocean, to isolate the effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to determine their additivity and sensitivity to mean state. We find that the separate effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled CO2 are remarkably additive and relatively insensitive to mean climate state. This separability is evident in several thermodynamic and dynamic fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. In this model, Arctic sea ice loss enhances the CO2-induced surface air temperature changes nearly everywhere and zonal wind changes over the Pacific sector, whereas sea ice loss counters CO2-induced sea level pressure changes nearly everywhere over land and zonal wind changes over the Atlantic sector. This separability of the response to Arctic sea ice loss from the response to CO2 doubling gives credence to the body of work in which Arctic sea ice loss is isolated from the forcing that modified it, and might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  11. Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic atmospheric responses to future sea-ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, M.; Polvani, L. M.; Sun, L.

    2017-12-01

    By the end of this century, the annual mean Antarctic sea ice area is projected to decline by over a third, an amount similar to that in the Arctic, but the effect of Antarctic sea ice loss on the atmosphere remains largely unexplored. Using the Community Earth Systems Model (CESM) Whole Atmosphere Coupled Climate Model (WACCM), we investigate the effect of future Antarctic sea ice loss, and contrast it with its Arctic counterpart. This is accomplished by analyzing integrations of the model with historic and future sea ice levels, using the RCP8.5 scenario. This allows us to disentangle the effect of future sea ice loss on the atmosphere from other aspects of the coupled system. We find that both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice loss act to shift the tropospheric jet equatorwards, counteracting the poleward shift due to increases in greenhouse gases. Although the total forcing to the atmosphere is similar in both hemispheres, the response to Arctic sea ice loss is larger in amplitude and but more seasonally varying, while the response in the Antarctic persists throughout the year but with a smaller amplitude. Furthermore, the atmospheric temperature response over the Antarctic is trapped closer to the surface than in the Arctic, and perhaps surprisingly, we find that the surface temperature response to Antarctic sea ice loss is unable to penetrate the Antarctic continent.

  12. Satellite-derived submarine melt rates and mass balance (2011-2015) for Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Ice-shelf-like floating extensions at the termini of Greenland glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of upstream glaciers and the ice sheet as a whole. While submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, the spatial distribution of submarine melting and its contribution to the total mass balance of these floating extensions is incompletely known and understood. Here, we use high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery collected between 2011 and 2015 to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues - Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier, 79N), Ryder Glacier (RG), and Petermann Glacier (PG). Submarine melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 50 m a-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. We compare the total melt rates to the influx of ice to the ice tongue to assess their contribution to the current mass balance. At Petermann Glacier and Ryder Glacier, we find that the combined submarine and aerial melt approximately balances the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet. At Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux (14.2 ± 0.96 km3 a-1 w.e., water equivalent) exceeds the inflow of ice (10.2 ± 0.59 km3 a-1 w.e.), indicating present thinning of the ice tongue.

  13. Geodetic mass balance measurements on debris and clean-ice tropical glaciers in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Frenierre, J.; Decker, C. R.; Jordan, E.; Wigmore, O.; Hodge, B. E.; Niederriter, C.; Michels, A.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers are recognized as highly sensitive indicators of climate change in high altitude, low latitude environments. In the tropical Andes, various analyses of glacier surface area change have helped illuminate the manifestation of climate change in this region, however, information about actual glacier mass balance behavior is much more limited given the relatively small glaciers, difficult access, poor weather, and/or limited local resources common here. Several new technologies, including aerial and terrestrial LIDAR and structure-from-motion photogrammetry using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), make mass balance measurements using geodetic approaches increasingly feasible in remote mountain locations, which can both further our understanding of changing climatic conditions, and improve our ability to evaluate the downstream hydrologic impacts of ice loss. At Volcán Chimborazo, Ecuador, these new technologies, combined with a unique, 5-meter resolution digital elevation model derived from 1997 aerial imagery, make possible an analysis of the magnitude and spatial patterns of mass balance behavior over the past two decades. Here, we evaluate ice loss between 1997 and 2017 at the tongues of two adjacent glaciers, one debris-covered and detached from its accumulation area (Reschreiter Glacier), and one debris-free and intact (Hans Meyer Glacier). Additionally, we incorporate data from 2012 and 2013 terrestrial LIDAR surveys to evaluate the behavior of the Reschreiter at a finer temporal resolution. We find that on the Hans Meyer, the mean surface deflation rate since 1997 at the present-day tongue has been nearly 3 m yr-1, while on the lower-elevation Reschreiter, the mean deflation rate has been approximately 1 m yr-1. However, the processes by which debris-covered ice becomes exposed results in highly heterogeneous patterns of ice loss, with some areas experiencing surface deflation rates approaching 15 m yr-1 when energy absorption is unimpeded.

  14. Isolating the atmospheric circulation response to Arctic sea-ice loss in the coupled climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Paul; Blackport, Russell

    2017-04-01

    In the coupled climate system, projected global warming drives extensive sea-ice loss, but sea-ice loss drives warming that amplifies and can be confounded with the global warming process. This makes it challenging to cleanly attribute the atmospheric circulation response to sea-ice loss within coupled earth-system model (ESM) simulations of greenhouse warming. In this study, many centuries of output from coupled ocean/atmosphere/land/sea-ice ESM simulations driven separately by sea-ice albedo reduction and by projected greenhouse-dominated radiative forcing are combined to cleanly isolate the hemispheric scale response of the circulation to sea-ice loss. To isolate the sea-ice loss signal, a pattern scaling approach is proposed in which the local multidecadal mean atmospheric response is assumed to be separately proportional to the total sea-ice loss and to the total low latitude ocean surface warming. The proposed approach estimates the response to Arctic sea-ice loss with low latitude ocean temperatures fixed and vice versa. The sea-ice response includes a high northern latitude easterly zonal wind response, an equatorward shift of the eddy driven jet, a weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex, an anticyclonic sea level pressure anomaly over coastal Eurasia, a cyclonic sea level pressure anomaly over the North Pacific, and increased wintertime precipitation over the west coast of North America. Many of these responses are opposed by the response to low-latitude surface warming with sea ice fixed. However, both sea-ice loss and low latitude surface warming act in concert to reduce storm track strength throughout the mid and high latitudes. The responses are similar in two related versions of the National Center for Atmospheric Research earth system models, apart from the stratospheric polar vortex response. Evidence is presented that internal variability can easily contaminate the estimates if not enough independent climate states are used to construct them

  15. How robust is the atmospheric circulation response to Arctic sea-ice loss in isolation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, P. J.; Hay, S. E.; Blackport, R.; McCusker, K. E.; Oudar, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is now apparent that active dynamical coupling between the ocean and atmosphere determines a good deal of how Arctic sea-ice loss changes the large-scale atmospheric circulation. In coupled ocean-atmosphere models, Arctic sea-ice loss indirectly induces a 'mini' global warming and circulation changes that extend into the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Ocean-atmosphere coupling also amplifies by about 50% Arctic free-tropospheric warming arising from sea-ice loss (Deser et al. 2015, 2016). The mechanisms at work and how to separate the response to sea-ice loss from the rest of the global warming process remain poorly understood. Different studies have used distinctive numerical approaches and coupled ocean-atmosphere models to address this problem. We put these studies on comparable footing using pattern scaling (Blackport and Kushner 2017) to separately estimate the part of the circulation response that scales with sea-ice loss in the absence of low-latitude warming from the part that scales with low-latitude warming in the absence of sea-ice loss. We consider well-sampled simulations from three different coupled ocean-atmosphere models (CESM1, CanESM2, CNRM-CM5), in which greenhouse warming and sea-ice loss are driven in different ways (sea ice albedo reduction/transient RCP8.5 forcing for CESM1, nudged sea ice/CO2 doubling for CanESM2, heat-flux forcing/constant RCP8.5-derived forcing for CNRM-CM5). Across these different simulations, surprisingly robust influences of Arctic sea-ice loss on atmospheric circulation can be diagnosed using pattern scaling. For boreal winter, the isolated sea-ice loss effect acts to increase warming in the North American Sub-Arctic, decrease warming of the Eurasian continent, enhance precipitation over the west coast of North America, and strengthen the Aleutian Low and the Siberian High. We will also discuss how Arctic free tropospheric warming might be enhanced via midlatitude ocean surface warming induced by sea-ice loss

  16. Consistency and discrepancy in the atmospheric response to Arctic sea-ice loss across climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara; Smith, Doug M.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Blackport, Russell; Kushner, Paul J.; Oudar, Thomas; McCusker, Kelly E.; Sun, Lantao

    2018-03-01

    The decline of Arctic sea ice is an integral part of anthropogenic climate change. Sea-ice loss is already having a significant impact on Arctic communities and ecosystems. Its role as a cause of climate changes outside of the Arctic has also attracted much scientific interest. Evidence is mounting that Arctic sea-ice loss can affect weather and climate throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The remote impacts of Arctic sea-ice loss can only be properly represented using models that simulate interactions among the ocean, sea ice, land and atmosphere. A synthesis of six such experiments with different models shows consistent hemispheric-wide atmospheric warming, strongest in the mid-to-high-latitude lower troposphere; an intensification of the wintertime Aleutian Low and, in most cases, the Siberian High; a weakening of the Icelandic Low; and a reduction in strength and southward shift of the mid-latitude westerly winds in winter. The atmospheric circulation response seems to be sensitive to the magnitude and geographic pattern of sea-ice loss and, in some cases, to the background climate state. However, it is unclear whether current-generation climate models respond too weakly to sea-ice change. We advocate for coordinated experiments that use different models and observational constraints to quantify the climate response to Arctic sea-ice loss.

  17. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Obleitner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced during winter due to enhanced circulation and lower humidity. During summer the driving gradients reverse sign and the associated fluxes provide energy for melt.

    About 4 cm of ice were lost at the measurement site during a reference year. This was due to some sublimation during winter, while the major loss resulted from melt during summer. Small amounts of accumulation occurred during spring due to refreezing of seepage water.

    These results are largely based on employing a numerical mass and energy balance model. Sensitivity studies prove reliability of the calculated energy balance regarding diverse measurement uncertainties and show that the annual mass balance of the ice strongly depends on cave air temperature during summer and the availability of seepage water in spring.

  18. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, B. C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R. E. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; King, M. A.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Urban, T.

    2014-04-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes as well as reprocessed data sets over a slightly longer period of time. A range of different Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity models were evaluated and a new Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than recent conventional GIA models. The new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea sector in West Antarctica (WA) and the Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica (EA). The total GIA-related mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 103 Gt yr-1, depending on the GRACE solution used, with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr-1. Over the time frame February 2003-October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of -100 ± 44 Gt yr-1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: -105 ± 22), consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with regional mass loss mostly concentrated in WA. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present-day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  19. Temporal and spatial variabilities of Antarctic ice mass changes inferred by GRACE in a Bayesian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Davis, J. L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) holds about 60% of all fresh water on the Earth, an amount equivalent to about 58 m of sea-level rise. Observation of AIS mass change is thus essential in determining and predicting its contribution to sea level. While the ice mass loss estimates for West Antarctica (WA) and the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) are in good agreement, what the mass balance over East Antarctica (EA) is, and whether or not it compensates for the mass loss is under debate. Besides the different error sources and sensitivities of different measurement types, complex spatial and temporal variabilities would be another factor complicating the accurate estimation of the AIS mass balance. Therefore, a model that allows for variabilities in both melting rate and seasonal signals would seem appropriate in the estimation of present-day AIS melting. We present a stochastic filter technique, which enables the Bayesian separation of the systematic stripe noise and mass signal in decade-length GRACE monthly gravity series, and allows the estimation of time-variable seasonal and inter-annual components in the signals. One of the primary advantages of this Bayesian method is that it yields statistically rigorous uncertainty estimates reflecting the inherent spatial resolution of the data. By applying the stochastic filter to the decade-long GRACE observations, we present the temporal variabilities of the AIS mass balance at basin scale, particularly over East Antarctica, and decipher the EA mass variations in the past decade, and their role in affecting overall AIS mass balance and sea level.

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, David C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, George M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  2. Modelling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and neighbouring ice caps : A dynamical and statistical downscaling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, B.P.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is the world’s second largest ice mass, storing about one tenth of the Earth’s freshwater. If totally melted, global sea level would rise by 7.4 m, affecting low-lying regions worldwide. Since the mid-1990s, increased atmospheric and oceanic temperatures have

  3. Remarkable separability of circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    Arctic sea ice loss may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation. The extent to which climate change can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by this loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. A novel sea ice nudging methodology in a fully coupled climate model reveals that the separate effects of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated Arctic sea ice loss are remarkably additive and insensitive to the mean climate state. This separability is evident in several fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. The separability of the responses might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  4. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  5. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance.

  6. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Rode, Karyn D; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-08-17

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; Rode, Karyn D.; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears.

  8. Temporal constraints on future accumulation-area loss of a major Arctic ice cap due to climate change (Vestfonna, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-28

    Arctic glaciers and ice caps are major contributors to past, present and future sea-level fluctuations. Continued global warming may eventually lead to the equilibrium line altitudes of these ice masses rising above their highest points, triggering unstoppable downwasting. This may feed future sea-level rise considerably. We here present projections for the timing of equilibrium-line loss at the major Arctic ice cap Vestfonna, Svalbard. The projections are based on spatially distributed climatic mass balance modelling driven by the outputs of multiple climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) forced by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. Results indicate strongly decreasing climatic mass balances over the 21(st) century for all RCPs considered. Glacier-wide mass-balance rates will drop down to -4 m a(-1) w.e. (water equivalent) at a maximum. The date at which the equilibrium line rises above the summit of Vestfonna (630 m above sea level) is calculated to range between 2040 and 2150, depending on scenario.

  9. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna

    2017-01-01

    Monthly gravity field models from the GRACE satellite mission are widely used to determine ice mass changes of large ice sheets as well as smaller glaciers and ice caps. Here, we investigate in detail the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps as derived from GRACE data. The small size...... of the Icelandic ice caps, their location close to other rapidly changing ice covered areas and the low viscosity of the mantle below Iceland make this especially challenging. The mass balance of the ice caps is well constrained by field mass balance measurements, making this area ideal for such investigations. We...... the Little Ice Age (∼ 1890 AD). To minimize the signal that leaks towards Iceland from Greenland, we employ an independent mass change estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from satellite laser altimetry. We also estimate the effect of post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment, from knowledge...

  10. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    rates indicates, that the modeled elastic displacements are well captured. Based on this analysis, the GIA rates are estimated to -1 ± 0.6 mm/yr at KELY, 2 ± 0.7 mm/yr at SCOR, and 0.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr at QAQ1. At the sites KULU and THU2 the elastic displacement rates could not be accurately estimated...... modeled and removed. Over a period of a few decades, the GIA rate is assumed to be constant. Hence, changes in the observed rate results from the present-day changes. Here, mass change grids, derived from Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data from three overlapping time spans are used...

  11. Uplift rates from a new high-density GPS network in Palmer Land indicate significant late Holocene ice loss in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Bentley, Michael J.; Nield, Grace A.; King, Edward C.; McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Barletta, Valentina; Bordoni, Andrea; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; Didova, Olga; Gunter, Brian C.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of ongoing ice-mass loss and associated melt water contribution to sea-level change from regions such as West Antarctica is dependent on a combination of remote sensing methods. A key method, the measurement of changes in Earth's gravity via the GRACE satellite mission, requires a potentially large correction to account for the isostatic response of the solid Earth to ice-load changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. In this study, we combine glacial isostatic adjustment modelling with a new GPS dataset of solid Earth deformation for the southern Antarctic Peninsula to test the current understanding of ice history in this region. A sufficiently complete history of past ice-load change is required for glacial isostatic adjustment models to accurately predict the spatial variation of ongoing solid Earth deformation, once the independently-constrained effects of present-day ice mass loss have been accounted for. Comparisons between the GPS data and glacial isostatic adjustment model predictions reveal a substantial misfit. The misfit is localized on the southwestern Weddell Sea, where current ice models under-predict uplift rates by approximately 2 mm yr-1. This under-prediction suggests that either the retreat of the ice sheet grounding line in this region occurred significantly later in the Holocene than currently assumed, or that the region previously hosted more ice than currently assumed. This finding demonstrates the need for further fieldwork to obtain direct constraints on the timing of Holocene grounding line retreat in the southwestern Weddell Sea and that GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance will be unreliable in this region until this is resolved.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon loss from Yedoma permafrost amplified by ice wedge thaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonk, J E; Mann, P J; Spencer, R G M; Bulygina, E B; Holmes, R M; Dowdy, K L; Davydova, A; Davydov, S P; Zimov, N; Eglinton, T I

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene Yedoma permafrost contains nearly a third of all organic matter (OM) stored in circum-arctic permafrost and is characterized by the presence of massive ice wedges. Due to its rapid formation by sediment accumulation and subsequent frozen storage, Yedoma OM is relatively well preserved and highly biologically available (biolabile) upon thaw. A better understanding of the processes regulating Yedoma degradation is important to improve estimates of the response and magnitude of permafrost carbon feedbacks to climate warming. In this study, we examine the composition of ice wedges and the influence of ice wedge thaw on the biolability of Yedoma OM. Incubation assays were used to assess OM biolability, fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the OM composition, and potential enzyme activity rates to examine the controls and regulation of OM degradation. We show that increasing amounts of ice wedge melt water in Yedoma-leached incubations enhanced the loss of dissolved OM over time. This may be attributed to the presence of low-molecular weight compounds and low initial phenolic content in the OM of ice wedges, providing a readily available substrate that promotes the degradation of Yedoma OC. The physical vulnerability of ice wedges upon thaw (causing irreversible collapse), combined with the composition of ice wedge-engrained OM (co-metabolizing old OM), underlines the particularly strong potential of Yedoma to generate a positive feedback to climate warming relative to other forms of non-ice wedge permafrost. (letter)

  13. Mechanisms causing reduced Arctic sea ice loss in a coupled climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. West

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled climate model HadGEM1 produces one of the most accurate simulations of the historical record of Arctic sea ice seen in the IPCC AR4 multi-model ensemble. In this study, we examine projections of sea ice decline out to 2030, produced by two ensembles of HadGEM1 with natural and anthropogenic forcings included. These ensembles project a significant slowing of the rate of ice loss to occur after 2010, with some integrations even simulating a small increase in ice area. We use an energy budget of the Arctic to examine the causes of this slowdown. A negative feedback effect by which rapid reductions in ice thickness north of Greenland reduce ice export is found to play a major role. A slight reduction in ocean-to-ice heat flux in the relevant period, caused by changes in the meridional overturning circulation (MOC and subpolar gyre in some integrations, as well as freshening of the mixed layer driven by causes other than ice melt, is also found to play a part. Finally, we assess the likelihood of a slowdown occurring in the real world due to these causes.

  14. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  15. Changing pattern of ice flow and mass balance for glaciers discharging into the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula, 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Helmut; Abdel Jaber, Wael; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Floricioiu, Dana; Melchior van Wessem, Jan; Nagler, Thomas; Miranda, Nuno; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-04-01

    We analysed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers on the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the periods 2011 to 2013 and 2013 to 2016, using high-resolution topographic data from the bistatic interferometric radar satellite mission TanDEM-X. Complementary to the geodetic method that applies DEM differencing, we computed the net mass balance of the main outlet glaciers using the mass budget method, accounting for the difference between the surface mass balance (SMB) and the discharge of ice into an ocean or ice shelf. The SMB values are based on output of the regional climate model RACMO version 2.3p2. To study glacier flow and retrieve ice discharge we generated time series of ice velocity from data from different satellite radar sensors, with radar images of the satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X as the main source. The study area comprises tributaries to the Larsen A, Larsen Inlet and Prince Gustav Channel embayments (region A), the glaciers calving into the Larsen B embayment (region B) and the glaciers draining into the remnant part of the Larsen B ice shelf in Scar Inlet (region C). The glaciers of region A, where the buttressing ice shelf disintegrated in 1995, and of region B (ice shelf break-up in 2002) show continuing losses in ice mass, with significant reduction of losses after 2013. The mass balance numbers for the grounded glacier area of region A are -3.98 ± 0.33 Gt a-1 from 2011 to 2013 and -2.38 ± 0.18 Gt a-1 from 2013 to 2016. The corresponding numbers for region B are -5.75 ± 0.45 and -2.32 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The mass balance in region C during the two periods was slightly negative, at -0.54 ± 0.38 Gt a-1 and -0.58 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The main share in the overall mass losses of the region was contributed by two glaciers: Drygalski Glacier contributing 61 % to the mass deficit of region A, and Hektoria and Green glaciers accounting for 67 % to the mass deficit of region B. Hektoria and Green glaciers accelerated significantly in 2010

  16. Changes in the Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a Warming Climate During 2003-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Luthcke, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) derived from ICESat and GRACE data both show that the net mass loss from GIS during 2003-2009 is about 175 Gt/year, which contributes 0.5mm/yr global sea-level rise. The rate of mass loss has increased significantly since the 1990's when the GIS was close to mass balance. Even though the GIS was close to mass balance during the 1990's, it was already showing characteristics of responding to8 warmer climate, specifically thinning at the margins and thickening inland at higher elevations. During 2003-2009, increased ice thinning due to increases in melting and acceleration of outlet glaciers began to strongly exceed the inland thickening from increases in accumulation. Over the entire GIS, the mass loss between the two periods, from increased melting and ice dynamics, increased by about 190 Gt/year while the mass gain, from increased precipitation and accumulation, increased by only about 15Gt/year. These ice changes occurred during a time when the temperature on GIS changed at rate of about 2K/decade. The distribution of elevation and mass changes derived from ICESat have high spatial resolution showing details over outlet glaciers, by drainage systems, and by elevation. However, information on the seasonal cycle of changes from ICESat data is limited, because the ICESat lasers were only operated during two to three campaigns per year of about 35 days duration each. In contrast, the temporal resolution of GRACE data, provided by the continuous data collection, is much better showing details of the seasonal cycle and the inter-annual variability. The differing sensitivity of the ICESat altimetry and the GRACE gravity methods to motion of the underlying bedrock from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is used to evaluate the GIA corrections provided by models. The two data types are also combined to make estimates of the partitioning of the mass gains and losses among accumulation, melting, and ice discharge from outlet

  17. Modelling historical and recent mass loss of McCall Glacier, Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delcourt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Volume loss of valley glaciers is now considered to be a significant contribution to sea level rise. Understanding and identifying the processes involved in accelerated mass loss are necessary to determine their impact on the global system. Here we present results from a series of model experiments with a higher-order thermomechanically coupled flowline model (Pattyn, 2002. Boundary conditions to the model are parameterizations of surface mass balance, geothermal heating, observed surface and 10 m ice depth temperatures. The time-dependent experiments aim at simulating the glacier retreat from its LIA expansion to present according to different scenarios and model parameters. Model output was validated against measurements of ice velocity, ice surface elevation and terminus position at different stages. Results demonstrate that a key factor in determining the glacier retreat history is the importance of internal accumulation (>50% in the total mass balance. The persistence of a basal temperate zone characteristic for this polythermal glacier depends largely on its contribution. Accelerated glacier retreat since the early nineties seems directly related to the increase in ELA and the sudden reduction in AAR due to the fact that a large lower elevation cirque – previously an important accumulation area – became part of the ablation zone.

  18. Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Published mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) lie between approximately +50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009, which span a range equivalent to 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar-altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (+28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. Although recent reports of large and accelerating rates of mass loss from GRACE=based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion. We find that the extrapolation used in the published IOM estimates for the 15 % of the periphery for which discharge velocities are not observed gives twice the rate of discharge per unit of associated ice-sheet area than the 85% faster-moving parts. Our calculations show that the published extrapolation overestimates the ice discharge by 282 Gt/yr compared to our assumption that the slower moving areas have 70% as much discharge per area as the faster moving parts. Also, published data on the time-series of discharge velocities and accumulation/precipitation do not support mass output increases or input decreases with time, respectively. Our modified IOM estimate, using the 70% discharge assumption and substituting input from a field-data compilation for input from an atmospheric model over 6% of area, gives a loss of only 13 Gt/year (versus 136 Gt/year) for the period around 2000. Two ERS-based estimates, our modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 to 2005 lie in a narrowed range of +27 to - 40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992-2001 is - 47 Gt

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. Amstrup; Eric T. DeWeaver; David C. Douglas; Bruce G. Marcot; George M. Durner; Cecilia M. Bitz; David A. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible...

  20. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  1. Mass loss in early stages of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Kozlowski, M.; Schramm, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that stars lose mass between their birth on the main sequence and their death as white dwarfs, or as neutron stars or black holes for more massive stars. Solar wind considerations indicate that not all of the mass loss occurs in a 'last gasp' to form a planetary nebula. Mass loss has be observed in O-B stars and in red giants, but the mass loss observed in these stages do not appear sufficient to account for all the loss required for stars to become white dwarfs. The problem is at what stages and in what manner the excess mass is lost. Suggestions have tended to favour He flashes for stars with M < 2.25 M. and possibly double shell instability flashes for stars in the range from 2.25 M. to 8 M. Although is is possible that significant mass is lost during these stages, there appears to be no quantitative support for this suggestion, and in particular none for the He flash. It is shown here that there is increasing evidence for substantial mass loss during the immediate post main sequence stages when the star is moving from the main sequence to the giant branch. Mass loss at these early stages of evolution may have implications on the subsequent evolution of the star and the amount of nuclearly processed material that is ejected into the interstellar-medium. The behaviour of Arcturus is discussed in these connections. (U.K.)

  2. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (2003-2008) from ICESat data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Karina

    2011-01-01

    ICESat has provided surface elevation measurements of the ice sheets since the launch in January 2003, resulting in a unique dataset for monitoring the changes of the cryosphere. Here, we present a novel method for determining the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, derived from ICESat...... studies of the Greenland ice sheet mass balance, based on different remote-sensing techniques....... altimetry data. Three different methods for deriving elevation changes from the ICESat altimetry dataset are used. This multi-method approach provides a method to assess the complexity of deriving elevation changes from this dataset. The altimetry alone can not provide an estimate of the mass balance...

  3. Land motion due to 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the contribution from ice sheets and glaciers to past sea level change is of great value for understanding sea level projections into the 21st century. However, quantifying and understanding past changes are equally important, in particular understanding the impact in the near-field where the signal is highest. We assess the impact of 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet on land motion using results from Kjeldsen et al, 2015. These results suggest that the ice sheet on average lost a minimum of 75 Gt/yr, but also show that the mass balance was highly spatial- and temporal variable, and moreover that on a centennial time scale changes were driven by a decreasing surface mass balance. Based on preliminary results we discuss land motion during the 20th century due to mass balance changes and the driving components surface mass balance and ice dynamics.

  4. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  5. Coupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is notoriously difficult to couple surface mass balance (SMB results from climate models to the changing geometry of an ice sheet model. This problem is traditionally avoided by using only accumulation from a climate model, and parameterizing the meltwater run-off as a function of temperature, which is often related to surface elevation (Hs. In this study, we propose a new strategy to calculate SMB, to allow a direct adjustment of SMB to a change in ice sheet topography and/or a change in climate forcing. This method is based on elevational gradients in the SMB field as computed by a regional climate model. Separate linear relations are derived for ablation and accumulation, using pairs of Hs and SMB within a minimum search radius. The continuously adjusting SMB forcing is consistent with climate model forcing fields, also for initially non-glaciated areas in the peripheral areas of an ice sheet. When applied to an asynchronous coupled ice sheet – climate model setup, this method circumvents traditional temperature lapse rate assumptions. Here we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Experiments using both steady-state forcing and glacial-interglacial forcing result in realistic ice sheet reconstructions.

  6. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  7. Future climate warming increases Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.; Price, S.

    2014-01-01

    The integrated surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has large interannual variability. Long-term future changes to this variability will affect GrIS dynamics, freshwater fluxes, regional oceanography, and detection of changes in ice volume trends. Here we analyze a simulated

  8. Evolution of a 30 solar mass star: the interplay of nuclear burning and mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, H.J.; Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Evolutionary tracks for a 30 solar mass star with various mass loss rates (MLR) were evolved to core He exhaustion. The 'overluminosity' of mass losing (ML) stars is explained in terms of the well known mass-luminosity (M-L) law. A critical ZAMS MLR above which mass loss leads to evolution to fainter luminosities is derived. Two tracks showed reversals in their direction of evolution across the HR diagram. These have been shown to be a consequence of mass loss dominating over the effects of the shell source. An analytic criterion for this condition has been derived. (Auth.)

  9. Constraining the Mass Loss Geometry of Beta Lyrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R. Lomax

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Massive binary stars lose mass by two mechanisms: jet-driven mass loss during periods of active mass transfer and by wind-driven mass loss. Beta Lyrae is an eclipsing, semi-detached binary whose state of active mass transfer provides a unique opportunity to study how the evolution of binary systems is affected by jet-driven mass loss. Roche lobe overflow from the primary star feeds the thick accretion disk which almost completely obscures the mass-gaining star. A hot spot predicted to be on the edge of the accretion disk may be the source of beta Lyrae’s bipolar outflows. I present results from spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin’s Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and the Flower and Cook Observatory’s photoelastic modulating polarimeter instrument which have implications for our current understanding of the system’s disk geometry. Using broadband polarimetric analysis, I derive new information about the structure of the disk and the presence and location of a hot spot. These results place constraints on the geometrical distribution of material in beta Lyrae and can help quantify the amount of mass lost from massive interacting binary systems during phases of mass transfer and jet-driven mass loss.

  10. Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet at High Elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas; Akins; Csatho; Fahnestock; Gogineni; Kim; Sonntag

    2000-07-21

    Comparison of ice discharge from higher elevation areas of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet with total snow accumulation gives estimates of ice thickening rates over the past few decades. On average, the region has been in balance, but with thickening of 21 centimeters per year in the southwest and thinning of 30 centimeters per year in the southeast. The north of the ice sheet shows less variability, with average thickening of 2 centimeters per year in the northeast and thinning of about 5 centimeters per year in the northwest. These results agree well with those from repeated altimeter surveys, except in the extreme south, where we find substantially higher rates of both thickening and thinning.

  11. Cloud Response to Arctic Sea Ice Loss and Implications for Feedbacks in the CESM1 Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A.; Kay, J. E.; Chepfer, H.; Guzman, R.; Bonazzola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have the potential to accelerate or slow the rate of Arctic sea ice loss through their radiative influence on the surface. Cloud feedbacks can therefore play into Arctic warming as clouds respond to changes in sea ice cover. As the Arctic moves toward an ice-free state, understanding how cloud - sea ice relationships change in response to sea ice loss is critical for predicting the future climate trajectory. From satellite observations we know the effect of present-day sea ice cover on clouds, but how will clouds respond to sea ice loss as the Arctic transitions to a seasonally open water state? In this study we use a lidar simulator to first evaluate cloud - sea ice relationships in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1) against present-day observations (2006-2015). In the current climate, the cloud response to sea ice is well-represented in CESM1: we see no summer cloud response to changes in sea ice cover, but more fall clouds over open water than over sea ice. Since CESM1 is credible for the current Arctic climate, we next assess if our process-based understanding of Arctic cloud feedbacks related to sea ice loss is relevant for understanding future Arctic clouds. In the future Arctic, summer cloud structure continues to be insensitive to surface conditions. As the Arctic warms in the fall, however, the boundary layer deepens and cloud fraction increases over open ocean during each consecutive decade from 2020 - 2100. This study will also explore seasonal changes in cloud properties such as opacity and liquid water path. Results thus far suggest that a positive fall cloud - sea ice feedback exists in the present-day and future Arctic climate.

  12. 21st century projections of surface mass balance changes for major drainage systems of the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, M; Fettweis, X

    2012-01-01

    Outputs from the regional climate model Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale at a spatial resolution of 25 km are used to study 21st century projected surface mass balance (SMB) over six major drainage basins of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). The regional model is forced with the outputs of three different Earth System Models (CanESM2, NorESM1 and MIROC5) obtained when considering two greenhouse gas future scenarios with levels of CO 2 equivalent of, respectively, 850 and >1370 ppm by 2100. Results indicate that the increase in runoff due to warming will exceed the increased precipitation deriving from the increase in evaporation for all basins, with the amount of net loss of mass at the surface varying spatially. Basins along the southwest and north coast are projected to have the highest sensitivity of SMB to increasing temperatures. For these basins, the global temperature anomaly corresponding to a decrease of the SMB below the 1980–99 average (when the ice sheet was near the equilibrium) ranges between +0.60 and +2.16 °C. For the basins along the northwest and northeast, these values range between +1.50 and +3.40 °C. Our results are conservative as they do not account for ice dynamics and changes in the ice sheet topography. (letter)

  13. Surface Energy and Mass Balance Model for Greenland Ice Sheet and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian

    The Greenland Ice Sheet contains nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of glacial ice. If the entire ice sheet completely melted, sea level would raise by nearly 7 meters. There is thus considerable interest in monitoring the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Each year, the ice sheet gains ice from snowfall and loses ice through iceberg calving and surface melting. In this thesis, we develop, validate and apply a physics based numerical model to estimate current and future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The numerical model consists of a coupled surface energy balance and englacial model that is simple enough that it can be used for long time scale model runs, but unlike previous empirical parameterizations, has a physical basis. The surface energy balance model predicts ice sheet surface temperature and melt production. The englacial model predicts the evolution of temperature and meltwater within the ice sheet. These two models can be combined with estimates of precipitation (snowfall) to estimate the mass balance over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We first compare model performance with in-situ observations to demonstrate that the model works well. We next evaluate how predictions are degraded when we statistically downscale global climate data. We find that a simple, nearest neighbor interpolation scheme with a lapse rate correction is able to adequately reproduce melt patterns on the Greenland Ice Sheet. These results are comparable to those obtained using empirical Positive Degree Day (PDD) methods. Having validated the model, we next drove the ice sheet model using the suite of atmospheric model runs available through the CMIP5 atmospheric model inter-comparison, which in turn built upon the RCP 8.5 (business as usual) scenarios. From this exercise we predict how much surface melt production will increase in the coming century. This results in 4-10 cm sea level equivalent, depending on the CMIP5 models. Finally, we try to bound melt water

  14. Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately ?50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (?28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. We also modify the IOM estimate using (1) an alternate extrapolation to estimate the discharge from the non-observed 15% of the periphery, and (2) substitution of input from a field data compilation for input from an atmospheric model in 6% of area. The modified IOM estimate reduces the loss from 136 Gt/year to 13 Gt/year. Two ERS-based estimates, the modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 2005 lie in a narrowed range of ?27 to -40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992 2001 is -47 Gt/year for West Antarctica, ?16 Gt/year for East Antarctica, and -31 Gt/year overall (?0.1 mm/year SLE), not including part of the Antarctic Peninsula (1.07% of the AIS area). Although recent reports of large and increasing rates of mass loss with time from GRACE-based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion

  15. Exploring the sensitivity of global ocean circulation to future ice loss from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condron, Alan [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The sensitivity of the global ocean circulation and climate to large increases in iceberg calving and meltwater discharges from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) are rarely studied and poorly understood. The requirement to investigate this topic is heightened by growing evidence that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is vulnerable to rapid retreat and collapse on multidecadal-to-centennial timescales. Observations collected over the last 30 years indicate that the WAIS is now losing mass at an accelerated and that a collapse may have already begun in the Amundsen Sea sector. In addition, some recent future model simulations of the AIS show the potential for rapid ice sheet retreat in the next 50 – 300 years. Such a collapse would be associated with the discharge of enormous volumes of ice and meltwater to the Southern Ocean. This project funds PI Condron to begin assessing the sensitivity of the global ocean circulation to projected increases in meltwater discharge and iceberg calving from the AIS for the next 50 – 100 years. A series of climate model simulations will determine changes in ocean circulation and temperature at the ice sheet grounding line, the role of mesoscale ocean eddies in mixing and transporting freshwater away from the continent to deep water formation regions, and the likely impact on the northward transport of heat to Europe and North America.

  16. Non-basal dislocations should be accounted for in simulating ice mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauve, T.; Montagnat, M.; Piazolo, S.; Journaux, B.; Wheeler, J.; Barou, F.; Mainprice, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Prediction of ice mass flow and associated dynamics is pivotal at a time of climate change. Ice flow is dominantly accommodated by the motion of crystal defects - the dislocations. In the specific case of ice, their observation is not always accessible by means of the classical tools such as X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Part of the dislocation population, the geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) can nevertheless be constrained using crystal orientation measurements via electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) associated with appropriate analyses based on the Nye (1950) approach. The present study uses the Weighted Burgers Vectors, a reduced formulation of the Nye theory that enables the characterization of GNDs. Applied to ice, this method documents, for the first time, the presence of dislocations with non-basal [ c ] or Burgers vectors. These [ c ] or dislocations represent up to 35% of the GNDs observed in laboratory-deformed ice samples. Our findings offer a more complex and comprehensive picture of the key plasticity processes responsible for polycrystalline ice creep and provide better constraints on the constitutive mechanical laws implemented in ice sheet flow models used to predict the response of Earth ice masses to climate change.

  17. Basin-scale partitioning of Greenland ice sheet mass balance components (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.L.; Stenseng, Lars; Skourup, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    The current deficit in Greenland ice sheet mass balance is due to both a decrease in surface mass balance (SMB) input and an increase in ice discharge (D) output. While SMB processes are beginning to be well captured by observationally-constrained climate modeling, insight into D is relatively...... of the gate. Using a 1961-1990 reference climatology SMB field from the MAR regional climate model, we quantify ice sheet mass balance within eighteen basins. We find a 2007-2011 mean D of 515±57 Gtyr-1. We find a 2007-2011 mean total mass balance of -262±21 Gtyr-1, which is equal to a 0.73 mm yr-1 global sea...... limited. We use InSAR-derived velocities, in combination with ice thickness observations, to quantify the mass flux (F) across a flux perimeter around the ice sheet at ~1700 m elevation. To quantify D, we correct F for SMB, as well as changes in volume due to ice dynamics, in the area downstream...

  18. New Mass-Conserving Bedrock Topography for Pine Island Glacier Impacts Simulated Decadal Rates of Mass Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nias, I. J.; Cornford, S. L.; Payne, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution ice flow modeling requires bedrock elevation and ice thickness data, consistent with one another and with modeled physics. Previous studies have shown that gridded ice thickness products that rely on standard interpolation techniques (such as Bedmap2) can be inconsistent with the conservation of mass, given observed velocity, surface elevation change, and surface mass balance, for example, near the grounding line of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica. Using the BISICLES ice flow model, we compare results of simulations using both Bedmap2 bedrock and thickness data, and a new interpolation method that respects mass conservation. We find that simulations using the new geometry result in higher sea level contribution than Bedmap2 and reveal decadal-scale trends in the ice stream dynamics. We test the impact of several sliding laws and find that it is at least as important to accurately represent the bedrock and initial ice thickness as the choice of sliding law.

  19. MASS LOSS IN PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS VIA CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ANGULAR MOMENTUM LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Alicia N. [Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: aarnio@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We develop an empirical model to estimate mass-loss rates via coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for solar-type pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Our method estimates the CME mass-loss rate from the observed energies of PMS X-ray flares, using our empirically determined relationship between solar X-ray flare energy and CME mass: log (M {sub CME}[g]) = 0.63 Multiplication-Sign log (E {sub flare}[erg]) - 2.57. Using masses determined for the largest flaring magnetic structures observed on PMS stars, we suggest that this solar-calibrated relationship may hold over 10 orders of magnitude in flare energy and 7 orders of magnitude in CME mass. The total CME mass-loss rate we calculate for typical solar-type PMS stars is in the range 10{sup -12}-10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We then use these CME mass-loss rate estimates to infer the attendant angular momentum loss leading up to the main sequence. Assuming that the CME outflow rate for a typical {approx}1 M {sub Sun} T Tauri star is <10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, the resulting spin-down torque is too small during the first {approx}1 Myr to counteract the stellar spin-up due to contraction and accretion. However, if the CME mass-loss rate is {approx}> 10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, as permitted by our calculations, then the CME spin-down torque may influence the stellar spin evolution after an age of a few Myr.

  20. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, Maria; Stocchi, Paolo; von der Heydt, Anna; Dijkstra, Hendrik; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean dynamic

  1. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, M.; Stocchi, P.; van der Heydt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~ 34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean

  2. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. L. Rae

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB, and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution general circulation models (GCMs. This is the first time an intercomparison has been carried out of RCM results for Greenland climate and SMB. Output from RCM simulations for the recent past with the four RCMs is evaluated against available observations. The evaluation highlights the importance of using a detailed snow physics scheme, especially regarding the representations of albedo and meltwater refreezing. Simulations with three of the RCMs for the 21st century using SRES scenario A1B from two GCMs produce trends of between −5.5 and −1.1 Gt yr−2 in SMB (equivalent to +0.015 and +0.003 mm sea level equivalent yr−2, with trends of smaller magnitude for scenario E1, in which emissions are mitigated. Results from one of the RCMs whose present-day simulation is most realistic indicate that an annual mean near-surface air temperature increase over Greenland of ~ 2°C would be required for the mass loss to increase such that it exceeds accumulation, thereby causing the SMB to become negative, which has been suggested as a threshold beyond which the ice sheet would eventually be eliminated.

  3. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance products from satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, René; Meister, Rakia; Barletta, Valentina R.; Shepherd, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Because of their important role in the Earth's climate system, ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has identified both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Since respondents of a user survey indicated that the ice sheet mass balance is one of the most important ECV data products needed to better understand climate change, the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project provide Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products based on satellite gravimetry data. The GMB products are derived from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) monthly solutions of release ITSG-Grace2016 produced at TU Graz. GMB basin products (i.e. time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheets and selected drainage basins) and GMB gridded products (e.g. mass balance estimates with a formal resolution of about 50km, covering the entire ice sheets) are generated for the period from 2002 until present. The first GMB product was released in mid 2016. Here we present an extended and updated version of the ESA CCI GMB products, which are freely available through data portals hosted by the projects (https://data1.geo.tu-dresden.de/ais_gmb, http://products.esa-icesheets-cci.org/products/downloadlist/GMB). Since the initial product release, the applied processing strategies have been improved in order to further reduce GRACE errors and to enhance the separation of signals super-imposed to the ice mass changes. While a regional integration approach is used by the AIS_cci project, the GMB products of the GIS_cci project are derived using a point mass inversion. The differences between both approaches are investigated through the example of the GIS, where an alternative GMB product was generated using the regional integration approach implemented by the AIS_cci. Finally, we present the latest mass balance estimates for both ice sheets as well as their corresponding contributions to global sea level rise.

  4. Balance Mass Flux and Velocity Across the Equilibrium Line in Ice Drainage Systems of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of balance mass flux and the depth-averaged ice velocity through the cross-section aligned with the equilibrium line are produced for each of six drainage systems in Greenland. (The equilibrium line, which lies at approximately 1200 m elevation on the ice sheet, is the boundary between the area of net snow accumulation at higher elevations and the areas of net melting at lower elevations around the ice sheet.) Ice drainage divides and six major drainage systems are delineated using surface topography from ERS (European Remote Sensing) radar altimeter data. The net accumulation rate in the accumulation zone bounded by the equilibrium line is 399 Gt/yr and net ablation rate in the remaining area is 231 Gt/yr. (1 GigaTon of ice is 1090 kM(exp 3). The mean balance mass flux and depth-averaged ice velocity at the cross-section aligned with the modeled equilibrium line are 0.1011 Gt kM(exp -2)/yr and 0.111 km/yr, respectively, with little variation in these values from system to system. The ratio of the ice mass above the equilibrium line to the rate of mass output implies an effective exchange time of approximately 6000 years for total mass exchange. The range of exchange times, from a low of 3 ka in the SE drainage system to 14 ka in the NE, suggests a rank as to which regions of the ice sheet may respond more rapidly to climate fluctuations.

  5. SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapp

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present SEMIC, a Surface Energy and Mass balance model of Intermediate Complexity for snow- and ice-covered surfaces such as the Greenland ice sheet. SEMIC is fast enough for glacial cycle applications, making it a suitable replacement for simpler methods such as the positive degree day (PDD method often used in ice sheet modelling. Our model explicitly calculates the main processes involved in the surface energy and mass balance, while maintaining a simple interface and requiring minimal data input to drive it. In this novel approach, we parameterise diurnal temperature variations in order to more realistically capture the daily thaw–freeze cycles that characterise the ice sheet mass balance. We show how to derive optimal model parameters for SEMIC specifically to reproduce surface characteristics and day-to-day variations similar to the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, version 2 and its incorporated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT (Soil Ice Snow Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer. A validation test shows that SEMIC simulates future changes in surface temperature and surface mass balance in good agreement with the more sophisticated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT included in MAR. With this paper, we present a physically based surface model to the ice sheet modelling community that is general enough to be used with in situ observations, climate model, or reanalysis data, and that is at the same time computationally fast enough for long-term integrations, such as glacial cycles or future climate change scenarios.

  6. Radar Interferometry Studies of the Mass Balance of Polar Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine the current state of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Our approach combines different techniques, which include satellite synthetic-aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), radar and laser altimetry, radar ice sounding, and finite-element modeling. In Greenland, we found that 3.5 times more ice flows out of the northern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet than previously accounted for. The discrepancy between current and past estimates is explained by extensive basal melting of the glacier floating sections in the proximity of the grounding line where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat in the ocean. The inferred basal melt rates are very large, which means that the glaciers are very sensitive to changes in ocean conditions. Currently, it appears that the northern Greenland glaciers discharge more ice than is being accumulated in the deep interior, and hence are thinning. Studies of temporal changes in grounding line position using InSAR confirm the state of retreat of northern glaciers and suggest that thinning is concentrated at the lower elevations. Ongoing work along the coast of East Greenland reveals an even larger mass deficit for eastern Greenland glaciers, with thinning affecting the deep interior of the ice sheet. In Antarctica, we found that glaciers flowing into a large ice shelf system, such as the Ronne Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea, exhibit an ice discharge in remarkable agreement with mass accumulation in the interior, and the glacier grounding line positions do not migrate with time. Glaciers flowing rapidly into the Amudsen Sea, unrestrained by a major ice shelf, are in contrast discharging more ice than required to maintain a state of mass balance and are thinning quite rapidly near the coast. The grounding line of Pine Island glacier (see diagram) retreated 5 km in 4 years, which corresponds to a glacier thinning rate of 3.5 m/yr. Mass imbalance is even more negative

  7. Mass loss rates of OB stars derived from infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Panagia, N.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the authors report briefly on a study of the mass loss of early type stars in the infrared. Up to now near infrared (1.25 - 4.8 μ) broad band photometry of 70 southern OB stars of various luminosity class has been secured. Program stars have been selected, among those bright enough in the infrared to give a suitable photometric accuracy, in order to cover a wide range of spectral types. 37 stars are found to exhibit emission in excess over a blackbody photospheric continuum, which is interpreted in terms of gas ejected in the form of an accelerated wind. By means of model calculations the corresponding mass loss rates are derived. The obtained values compare well with those determined independently by various authors for stars in common. Their data show that mass loss rates increase with luminosity and are a decreasing function of surface gravity. (Auth.)

  8. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  9. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  10. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  11. A 25-year Record of Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Muir, A. S.; Sundal, A.; McMillan, M.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A.; Engdahl, M.; Gilbert, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1992, the European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2), ENVISAT, and CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeters have measured the Antarctic ice sheet surface elevation, repeatedly, at approximately monthly intervals. These data constitute the longest continuous record of ice sheet wide change. In this paper, we use these observations to determine changes in the elevation, volume and mass of the East Antarctic and West Antarctic ice sheets, and of parts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet, over a 25-year period. The root mean square difference between elevation rates computed from our survey and 257,296 estimates determined from airborne laser measurements is 54 cm/yr. The longevity of the satellite altimeter data record allows to identify and chart the evolution of changes associated with meteorology and ice flow, and we estimate that 3.6 % of the continental ice sheet, and 21.7 % of West Antarctica, is in a state of dynamical imbalance. Based on this partitioning, we estimate the mass balance of the East and West Antarctic ice sheet drainage basins and the root mean square difference between these and independent estimates derived from satellite gravimetry is less than 5 Gt yr-1.

  12. Inter-comparison of ice sheet mass balance products from GRACE: ESA CCI Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.

    -term satellite-based data products are generated for selected ECVs. Since ice sheet mass balance is an ECV parameter of highest interest, both the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project will provide mass balance products based on satellite gravimetry data: (a) time series of monthly mass changes for individual drainage...... basins, and (b) gridded mass changes covering the entire ice sheet.Gravimetry Mass Balance (GMB) products are derived from data acquired by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Although GRACE data have the advantage of being directly sensitive to mass changes, their limited...... drainage basins the GMB time series are compared to independent mass balance products based on satellite altimetry and firn densification information from a regional climate model. This inter-comparison has aided the algorithm definition for the operational ECV production....

  13. Massive stars with mass loss: Evolution, nucleosynthesis, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantzos, N.

    1986-06-01

    Evolution and nucleosynthesis of mass loss WR stars is studied, particularly evolution of stars with initial mass between 50 and 100 solar masses, during combustion of H and He. A semi-empirical mass loss formalism, the Roxburgh criterion for convection, and nuclear data are used. Composition of the stellar surface and ejecta (and ejecta contribution to cosmic ray composition) are derived. The contribution of these stars to s elements in our solar system is shown. Their production of 26 Al is compared to the quantity in the galaxy. Gamma ray emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of this radionuclide is estimated in galactic longitude. The stars evolve as 0 and 0f stars during H combustion and spend 20% of their He combustion period as WN stars and 80% as WC-W0. Evolution always occurs in the blue part of the HR diagram, and satisfies observational constraints on its upper part [fr

  14. Mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical populations of white dwarfs and carbon stars were generated for Salpeter initial mass function and constant stellar birth rate history. The effect of very strong mass loss on the mass distribution of white dwarfs and luminosity distribution of carbon stars is discussed and the results are compared with observations. This comparison suggested that a signioficant mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch occurs besides stellar wind and planetary nebulae ejection. Thus it is possible to explain the absence of carbon stars with Msub(bol) 1.0 Msub(sun). The luminosity of asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds appears to be a very good indicator of the age

  15. Using ATM laser altimetry to constrain surface mass balance estimates and supraglacial hydrology of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studinger, M.; Medley, B.; Manizade, S.; Linkswiler, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Repeat airborne laser altimetry measurements can provide large-scale field observations to better quantify spatial and temporal variability of surface processes contributing to seasonal elevation change and therefore surface mass balance. As part of NASA's Operation IceBridge the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter measured the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet during spring (March - May) and fall (September - October) of 2015. Comparison of the two surveys reveals a general trend of thinning for outlet glaciers and for the ice sheet in a manner related to elevation and latitude. In contrast, some thickening is observed on the west (but not on the east) side of the ice divide above 2200 m elevation in the southern half, below latitude 69°N.The observed magnitude and spatial patterns of the summer melt signal can be utilized as input into ice sheet models and for validating reanalysis of regional climate models such as RACMO and MAR. We use seasonal anomalies in MERRA-2 climate fields (temperature, precipitation) to understand the observed spatial signal in seasonal change. Aside from surface elevation change, runoff from meltwater pooling in supraglacial lakes and meltwater channels accounts for at least half of the total mass loss. The ability of the ATM laser altimeters to image glacial hydrological features in 3-D and determine the depth of supraglacial lakes could be used for process studies and for quantifying melt processes over large scales. The 1-meter footprint diameter of ATM laser on the surface, together with a high shot density, allows for the production of large-scale, high-resolution, geodetic quality DEMs (50 x 50 cm) suitable for fine-scale glacial hydrology research and as input to hydrological models quantifying runoff.

  16. Freshwater fluxes into the subpolar North Atlantic from secular trends in Arctic land ice mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Wouters, B.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater fluxes (FWF) from river runoff and precipitation minus evaporation for the pan Arctic seas are relatively well documented and prescribed in ocean GCMs. Fluxes from Greenland and Arctic glaciers and ice caps on the other hand are generally ignored, despite their potential impacts on ocean circulation and marine biology and growing evidence for changes to the hydrography of parts of the subpolar North Atlantic. In a previous study we determined the FWF from Greenland for the period 1958-2010 using a combination of observations and regional climate modeling. Here, we update the analysis with data from new satellite observations to extend the record both in space and time. The new FWF estimates cover the period 1958-2014 and include the Canadian, Russian and Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard) in addition to the contributions from Greenland. We combine satellite altimetry (including CryoSat 2) with grounding line flux data, regional climate modeling of surface mass balance and gravimetry to produce consistent estimates of solid ice and liquid FWF into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The total cumulative FWF anomaly from land ice mass loss started to increase significantly in the mid 1990s and now exceeds 5000 km^3, a value that is about half of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s. The majority of the anomaly is entering two key areas of deep water overturning in the Labrador and Irminger Seas, at a rate that has been increasing steadily over the last ~20 years. Since the mid 2000s, however, the Canadian Arctic archipelago has been making a significant contribution to the FW anomaly entering Baffin Bay. Tracer experiments with eddy-permitting ocean GCMs suggest that the FW input from southern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic should accumulate in Baffin Bay with the potential to affect geostrophic circulation, stratification in the region and possibly the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We also examine the trajectory of

  17. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  18. The coupling between pulsation and mass loss in massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Rich

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can pulsational instabilities resolve the mass-loss problem of massive stars? How important is pulsation in structuring and modulating the winds of these stars? What role does pulsation play in redistributing angular momentum in massive stars? Although I cannot offer answers to these questions, I hope at the very least to explain how they come to be asked.

  19. Effect of mass loss on the. beta. Cephei instability strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    In this paper we aim to suggest on a speculative basis that the existence of mass loss by stellar wind in massive stars (M > 10 Msub(sun)) may affect the properties of the ..beta.. Cephei instability strip, and remove some of the difficulties encountered in the interpretation of their pulsation.

  20. Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Laura A; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether high levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were associated with the loss of muscle strength or muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons. SUBJECTS: The study included 986 men and

  1. Mass loss rates in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, C. de; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Hucht, K.A. van der

    1988-01-01

    From the literature we collected values for the rate of mass loss for 271 stars, nearly all of population I, and of spectral types 0 through M. Rates of stellar mass loss determined according to six different methods were compared and appear to yield the same result per star within the limits of errors; this is true regardless of the star's position in the HR-diagram. Thus average rates of mass loss were determined, and weights were allocated to the M-determinations for each star. In addition we studied some groups of other stars: fast rotators (22 Be-type stars), and chemically evolved stars (31 Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 C- and 4 S-type stars and 15 nuclei of planetary nebulae). The chemically evolved stars have rates of mass loss which are larger than those of ''normal'' stars occupying the same positions in the Hertzprung-Russel diagram, by factors: 160 for Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 for C-type stars, and by estimated factors of 10 3 to 10 4 for the nuclei of planetary nebulae

  2. Radiolysis of astrophysical ice analogs by energetic ions: the effect of projectile mass and ice temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Sergio; Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Rothard, Hermann; Boduch, Philippe; da Silveira, Enio F

    2011-09-21

    An experimental study of the interaction of highly charged, energetic ions (52 MeV (58)Ni(13+) and 15.7 MeV (16)O(5+)) with mixed H(2)O : C(18)O(2) astrophysical ice analogs at two different temperatures is presented. This analysis aims to simulate the chemical and the physicochemical interactions induced by cosmic rays inside dense, cold astrophysical environments, such as molecular clouds or protostellar clouds as well at the surface of outer solar system bodies. The measurements were performed at the heavy ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited onto a CsI substrate at 13 K and 80 K. In situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at different fluences. Radiolysis yields of the produced species were quantified. The dissociation cross section at 13 K of both H(2)O and CO(2) is about 3-4 times smaller when O ions are employed. The ice temperature seems to affect differently each species when the same projectile was employed. The formation cross section at 13 K of molecules such as C(18)O, CO (with oxygen from water), and H(2)O(2) increases when Ni ions are employed. The formation of organic compounds seems to be enhanced by the oxygen projectiles and at lower temperatures. In addition, because the organic production at 13 K is at least 4 times higher than the value at 80 K, we also expect that interstellar ices are more organic-rich than the surfaces of outer solar system bodies.

  3. Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.

  4. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  5. Atmospheric river impacts on Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, K.; Mote, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated during the early part of the 21st Century. Several episodes of widespread GrIS melt in recent years have coincided with intense poleward moisture transport by atmospheric rivers (ARs), suggesting that variability in the frequency and intensity of these events may be an important driver of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS. ARs may contribute to GrIS surface melt through the greenhouse effect of water vapor, the radiative effects of clouds, condensational latent heating within poleward-advected air masses, and the energy provided by liquid precipitation. However, ARs may also provide significant positive contributions to GrIS SMB through enhanced snow accumulation. Prior research on the role of ARs in Arctic climate has consisted of case studies of ARs associated with major GrIS melt events or examined the effects of poleward moisture flux on Arctic sea ice. In this study, a long-term (1979-2016) record of intense moisture transport events affecting Greenland is compiled using a conventional AR identification algorithm as well as a self-organizing map (SOM) classification applied to integrated water vapor transport (IVT) data from several atmospheric reanalysis datasets. An analysis of AR effects on GrIS melt and SMB is then performed with GrIS surface melt data from passive microwave satellite observations and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model. Results show that meltwater production is above normal during and after AR impact days throughout the GrIS during all seasons, with surface melt enhanced most by strong (> 85th percentile IVT) and extreme (> 95th percentile IVT) ARs. This relationship holds at the seasonal scale, as the total amount of water vapor transported to the GrIS by ARs is significantly greater during above-normal melt seasons. ARs exert a more complex influence on SMB. Normal (< 85th percentile IVT) ARs generally do not have a substantial impact on

  6. Ice Hockey Lung – A Case of Mass Nitrogen Dioxide Poisoning in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Brat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas.

  7. Antarctic Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Ice Sheet Mass Balance using GRACE: A Report from the Ice-sheet Mass Balance Exercise (IMBIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wahr, J. M.; Schrama, E. J.; Milne, G. A.; Barletta, V.; Horwath, M.; Whitehouse, P.

    2012-12-01

    In preparation for the Inter-govermental Panel on Climate Change: Assessment Report 5 (IPCC AR5), ESA and NASA have formed a committee of experts to perform a formal set of comparative experiments concerning space observations of ice sheet mass balance. This project began in August of 2011 and has now concluded with a report submitted for Science (Shepherd et al., 2012). The focus of the work conducted is to re-evaluate scientific reports on the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and Antarctic ice sheet (AIS). The most serious discrepancies have been reported for the AIS, amounting to as much as 0.9 mm/yr in discrepant sea level contribution. A direct method of determining the AIS is by space gravimetry. However, for this method to contribute to our understanding of sea level change, we require knowledge of present-day non-elastic vertical movements of bedrock in Antarctica. Quantifying the uncertainty and bias caused by lack of observational control on models of regional glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), was a major focus for our experiments. This regional process is the most problematic error source for GRACE-determinations of ice mass balance in Antarctica. While GIA likely dominates some large vertical motions in Antarctica that are now observed with GPS (Thomas et al., 2011, GRL), interpretations still require models. The reported uncertainty for space gravimetric (GRACE) based sea level sourcing is roughly 0.20 to 0.35 mm/yr. The uncertainty is also part of the error budget for mass balances derived from altimetry measurements, though at a much lower level. Analysis of the GRACE time series using CSR RL04 (2003.0-2010.10) for AIS mass balance reveals a small trend of order +1 to -24 Gt/yr without a GIA correction. Three periods were selected over which to perform inter-comparisons (see Table). One class of GIA models, that relies primarily on far field sea level reconstructions (e.g. ICE-5G), provide a GIA correction that places AIS mass imbalance (

  8. A Range Correction for Icesat and Its Potential Impact on Ice-sheet Mass Balance Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Moholdt, G.; Fricker, H. A.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a previously undocumented range error in NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that degrades elevation precision and introduces a small but significant elevation trend over the ICESat mission period. This range error (the Gaussian-Centroid or 'G-C'offset) varies on a shot-to-shot basis and exhibits increasing scatter when laser transmit energies fall below 20 mJ. Although the G-C offset is uncorrelated over periods less than1 day, it evolves over the life of each of ICESat's three lasers in a series of ramps and jumps that give rise to spurious elevation trends of -0.92 to -1.90 cm yr(exp -1), depending on the time period considered. Using ICESat data over the Ross and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves we show that (1) the G-C offset introduces significant biases in ice-shelf mass balance estimates, and (2) the mass balance bias can vary between regions because of different temporal samplings of ICESat.We can reproduce the effect of the G-C offset over these two ice shelves by fitting trends to sample-weighted mean G-C offsets for each campaign, suggesting that it may not be necessary to fully repeat earlier ICESat studies to determine the impact of the G-C offset on ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

  9. Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the 20% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to 1.6 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. A principal purpose of obtaining ice sheet elevation changes from satellite altimetry has been estimation of the current ice sheet mass balance. Limited information on ice sheet elevation change and their implications about mass balance have been reported by several investigators from radar altimetry (Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1&2). Analysis of ERS-1&2 data over Greenland for 7 years from 1992 to 1999 shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. Observed seasonal and interannual variations in ice surface elevation are larger than previously expected because of seasonal and interannUal variations in precipitation, melting, and firn compaction. In the accumulation zone, the variations in firn compaction are modeled as a function of temperature leaving variations in precipitation and the mass balance trend. Significant interannual variations in elevation in some locations, in particular the difference in trends from 1992 to 1995 compared to 1995 to 1999, can be explained by changes in precipitation over Greenland. Over the 7 years, trends in elevation are mostly positive at higher elevations and negative at lower elevations. In addition, trends for the winter seasons (from a trend analysis through the average winter elevations) are more positive than the corresponding trends for the summer. At lower elevations, the 7-year trends in some locations are strongly negative for summer and near zero or slightly positive for winter. These

  10. Elevation change and remote-sensing mass-balance methods on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is virtually impossible to obtain with traditional ground-based methods alone due to its vast size. It is thus desirable to develop mass-balance methods depending on remote sensing instead and this field has experienced a dramatic development within...... of measured surface elevation change over a 50x50~km part of the western Greenland Ice-Sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq. In this region, the mean observed elevation change has been -0.5~m from 2000 to 2003. However, the change is unevenly distributed with the northern and central part generally in balance...... the last decade. Large amounts of data have been collected from satellite and airborne platforms, yielding surface elevation changes and surface velocity fields. Here we present data from the Greenland Ice-Sheet margin acquired with a new small-scale airborne system, designed for regional high...

  11. Mass balance of the Amitsulôq ice cap, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Olesen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed mass balance measurements from the Amitsulôq ice cap in West Greenland spanning from 1982 to 1990. The data includes summer and winter balances from 26 stake locations distributed over five transects covering the whole ice cap. The mass balance measurements are combined...... with a recent satellite-derived digital elevation model to calculate the specific balance, which is in turn compared to discharge data from the adjacent Tasersiaq basin. The correlation between specific summer balance and discharge is R2 = 0.93 indicating that the basin discharge is dominated by glacial...... meltwater, linking the hydropower potential of the basin closely to the fate of the adjoining Greenland ice-sheet margin....

  12. The fluctuation theory of the stellar mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that fluctuations in the mass flow are as significant as the very existence of the flow has led to the development of a fluctuation theory of the stellar mass loss. A general theory for fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems - and such are stellar atmospheres - was developed long ago. In developing the general theory to a specific stellar theory, however, the arguments have not come up in their logical order. The present sketch of this theory improves on that order and is offered as a framework for further study. (Auth.)

  13. Chlorine loss and mass loss from polyvinylchloride and polyvinylidenchloride under the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, K.A.H.; Bertilsson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The loss of chlorine during the irradiation of PVC and PVDC in the electron microscope has been measured by the decay of the X-ray chlorine Kα signal. A number of factors affecting the measured beam damage curves have been considered and the experimental errors reduced to +- 10%. The results show that the chlorine decay curves can be best described by the sum of two exponentials, corresponding to the two different chlorine decay processes, these being: the dehydrochlorination of the polymer molecules and the dehydrochlorination of the polyene structure formed by the beam damage. The higher initial chlorine content of PVDC compared to PVC will result in a larger amount of chlorine atoms reacting with the polyene structure, which is more stable in the electron beam than the undamaged polymer. The chlorine loss, measured by X-ray analysis, has been compared to the mass loss, measured by energy loss analysis, and also with the volume changes of isolated spherical PVC particles. It has been concluded that the mass loss is almost entirely due to chlorine loss and that the residual structure has a density similar to the undamaged PVC. (author)

  14. Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high - resolution climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Janneke; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Box, Jason E.; Bales, Roger C.

    2009-01-01

    High‐resolution (∼11 km) regional climate modeling shows total annual precipitation on the Greenland ice sheet for 1958–2007 to be up to 24% and surface mass balance up to 63% higher than previously thought. The largest differences occur in coastal southeast Greenland, where the much higher

  15. Monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance at basin scale – and their associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    There are still discrepancies in published ice sheet mass balance results, even between ones based on the same data sets. It can be difficult to conclude from where the discrepancies arise, and it is therefore important to cross calibrate methods, data and models in order to determine...

  16. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution

  17. Atmospheric summer teleconnections and Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass variations: insights from MERRA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D; Molod, Andrea M; Cullather, Richard I; Zhao, Bin; Nowicki, Sophie M J; Lee, Jae N; Velicogna, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between leading atmospheric teleconnection patterns and Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) temperature, precipitation, and surface mass balance (SMB) are investigated for the last 36 summers (1979–2014) based on Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 reanalyses. The results indicate that the negative phase of both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation, associated with warm and dry conditions for the GrIS, lead to SMB decreases within 0–1 months. Furthermore, the positive phase of the East Atlantic (EA) pattern often lags the negative NAO, reflecting a dynamical linkage between these modes that acts to further enhance the warm and dry conditions over the GrIS, leading to a favorable environment for enhanced surface mass loss. The development of a strong negative NAO in combination with a strong positive EA in recent years leads to significantly larger GrIS warming compared to when the negative NAO occurs in combination with a negative or weak positive EA (0.69 K versus 0.13 K anomaly). During 2009 and 2011, weakened (as compared to conditions during the severe surface melt cases of 2010 and 2012) local high pressure blocking produced colder northerly flow over the GrIS inhibiting warming despite the occurrence of a strong negative NAO, reflecting an important role for the EA during those years. In particular, the EA acts with the NAO to enhance warming in 2010 and 2012, and weaken high pressure blocking in 2009 and 2011. In general, high pressure blocking primarily impacts the western areas of the GrIS via advective temperature increases, while changes in net surface radiative fluxes account for both western and eastern GrIS temperature changes. (letter)

  18. How Will Sea Ice Loss Affect the Greenland Ice Sheet? On the Puzzling Features of Greenland Ice-Core Isotopic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Roberts, William H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The modern cryosphere, Earth's frozen water regime, is in fast transition. Greenland ice cores show how fast theses changes can be, presenting evidence of up to 15 C warming events over timescales of less than a decade. These events, called Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events, are believed to be associated with rapid changes in Arctic sea ice, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The modern demise of Arctic sea ice may, in turn, instigate abrupt changes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The Arctic Sea Ice and Greenland Ice Sheet Sensitivity (Ice2Ice Chttps://ice2ice.b.uib.noD) initiative, sponsored by the European Research Council, seeks to quantify these past rapid changes to improve our understanding of what the future may hold for the Arctic. Twenty scientists gathered in Copenhagen as part of this initiative to discuss the most recent observational, technological, and model developments toward quantifying the mechanisms behind past climate changes in Greenland. Much of the discussion focused on the causes behind the changes in stable water isotopes recorded in ice cores. The participants discussed sources of variability for stable water isotopes and framed ways that new studies could improve understanding of modern climate. The participants also discussed how climate models could provide insights into the relative roles of local and nonlocal processes in affecting stable water isotopes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. Presentations of modeling results showed how a change in the source or seasonality of precipitation could occur not only between glacial and modern climates but also between abrupt events. Recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. Further, indications from recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. This feature complicates

  19. Low-mass stars with mass loss and low-luminosity carbon star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of large carbon enrichments in static stellar envelopes were investigated, using new Los Alamos opacities (including low-temperature carbon and molecular opacities) and including carbon ionizations. To search for the production of low-mass,low-luminosity carbon stars, detailed stellar evolutionary computations were carried out for a grid of low-mass stars of two different metallicities. The stars were evolved from the main sequence through all intermediate stages and through helium-shell flashes on the asymptotic giant branch. The effects of the latest nuclear reaction rates, the new Los Alamos opacities, Reimers-type wind mass loss, and detailed treatment of convection and semi-convection were investigated. Two low-luminosity carbon stars were achieved, in excellent agreement with observations. Conditions favoring dredge-up (and thus carbon-star production) include a reasonably large convective mixing length, low metallicity, relatively large envelope mass, and high flash strength. Mass loss was of major importance, tending to oppose dredge-up; the total mass-loss amounts inferred from observations suffice to prevent formation of high-mass, high-luminosity carbon stars

  20. Crustal uplift due to ice mass variability on Upernavik Isstrøm, west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Korsgaard, Niels J.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the mass loss rate of Upernavik Isstrøm (UI) using surface elevation changes between a SPOT 5 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from 2008 and NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) data from 2010. To assess the validity of our mass loss estimate, we analyze GPS data between 2007 and 201...

  1. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Convection and mass loss through the chromosphere of Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Betelgeuse is well suited for detailed study of the mass loss process in a massive red supergiant. We have engaged in a multi-scale, multi-color study to trace the ejected material from the photosphere to the interstellar medium, and understand its chemical evolution {formation of molecules and dust}. Infrared interferometry already gave us a detailed image of the photosphere, compatible with large convective cells. Adaptive optics spectro-imaging {1.0-2.2 microns} allowed us to detect the presence of the CN molecule and mass loss plume structures up to at least 6 R*. At larger distances, we observed silicate-rich dust in thermal IR {8-20 microns}. From the surface to 100 R*, we therefore have a continuous coverage with multicolor imagery. The chromosphere lies at a key location, between the photosphere and the molecular envelope. As shown by STIS spatially resolved spectroscopy {Lobel & Dupree 2001}, it contains rising and falling gases. Such structure is supported by our 3D modeling of the convection. In order to probe the dynamics of the envelope and its relation to photospheric spots and mass loss plumes, we propose to obtain UV imaging with STIS at 3 epochs to complement our coordinated ground-based effort as well as the earlier HST UV snapshots. We will use this imagery to correlate structures at different radii and temperatures, and to explore the time-scales of evolution. With the support of our 3D models, this information will answer specific questions including deciding between convective and polar explanations for bright spots and plumes. Our infrared imaging observations will be repeated contemporaneously with the requested HST/STIS images.

  3. After the Earthquake: Impacts of Seismic Snow and Ice Redistribution in Langtang Valley, Nepal, on Glacier Mass Balances and Hydrological Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Buri, P.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The magnitude 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake that struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 resulted in a catastrophic loss of life and property, and had major impacts in high mountain areas. The earthquake resulted in a number of massive ice avalanches in Langtang Valley that destroyed entire villages and killed over 300 people. We first conduct a remote sensing analysis of the entire catchment, and attempt to quantify the volumes of snow and ice redistributed through high-resolution optical imagery, thermal imagery, and DEM differencing. Where data are available we examine the impact on the surface mass balances of four major glaciers (Lirung, Shalbachaum, Langtang and Langshisha). Finally, we use the physically-based and fully distributed TOPKAPI model to simulate the impacts of the co-seismic snow and ice redistribution on the hydrology of the Langtang River.

  4. Mass loss from the K dwarf in V471 Tauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.; Bruhweiler, F.; Sion, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spectra of MgII h and k have been obtained for V471 Tau at phases zero (K dwarf in front) and 0.5 (white dwarf in front). At phase zero, strong blueshifted absorption is present, suggestive of a wind from the K dwarf with terminal velocity 600-700 km/sec and mass loss rate at least three orders of magnitude greater than solar. Discrete blue-shifted absorption features occur at velocities of about 200 and 500 km/sec. At phase 0.5, the blueshifted absorption is much weaker, although still detectable

  5. Evidence for Pulsation-Driven Mass Loss from δ Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Matthews, L. D.; Bono, G.; Barmby, P.; Welch, D. L.; Romaniello, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Huelsman, D.

    We found the first direct evidence that the Cepheid class namesake, δ Cephei, is currently losing mass. These observations are based on data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the infrared, and with the Very Large Array in the radio. We found that δ Cephei is associated with a vast circumstellar structure, reminiscent of a bow shock. This structure is created as the wind from the star interacts with the local interstellar medium. We measure an outflow velocity of ≈ 35. 5 km s- 1 and a mass loss rate of ≈ 10- 7-10- 6 M ⊙ year- 1. The very low dust content of the outflow suggests that the wind is possibly pulsation-driven, rather than dust-driven as common for other classes of evolved stars.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Trends, Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment, and Surface Processes from a Joint Inversion of Satellite Altimeter, Gravity, and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Espanol, Alba; Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Clarke, Peter J.; Flament, Thomas; Helm, Veit; King, Matt A.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Petrie, Elizabeth; Remy, Frederique; Schon, Nana; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present spatiotemporal mass balance trends for the Antarctic Ice Sheet from a statistical inversion of satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and elastic-corrected GPS data for the period 2003-2013. Our method simultaneously determines annual trends in ice dynamics, surface mass balance anomalies, and a time-invariant solution for glacio-isostatic adjustment while remaining largely independent of forward models. We establish that over the period 2003-2013, Antarctica has been losing mass at a rateof -84 +/- 22 Gt per yr, with a sustained negative mean trend of dynamic imbalance of -111 +/- 13 Gt per yr. West Antarctica is the largest contributor with -112 +/- 10 Gt per yr, mainly triggered by high thinning rates of glaciers draining into the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a dramatic increase in mass loss in the last decade, with a mean rate of -28 +/- 7 Gt per yr and significantly higher values for the most recent years following the destabilization of the Southern Antarctic Peninsula around 2010. The total mass loss is partly compensated by a significant mass gain of 56 +/- 18 Gt per yr in East Antarctica due to a positive trend of surface mass balance anomalies.

  7. Calibrating a surface mass-balance model for Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Thomas Vikhamar; Loe, Even; Taurisano, Andrea; Eiken, Trond; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kohler, Jack

    2007-10-01

    Austfonna (8120 km2) is by far the largest ice mass in the Svalbard archipelago. There is considerable uncertainty about its current state of balance and its possible response to climate change. Over the 2004/05 period, we collected continuous meteorological data series from the ice cap, performed mass-balance measurements using a network of stakes distributed across the ice cap and mapped the distribution of snow accumulation using ground-penetrating radar along several profile lines. These data are used to drive and test a model of the surface mass balance. The spatial accumulation pattern was derived from the snow depth profiles using regression techniques, and ablation was calculated using a temperature-index approach. Model parameters were calibrated using the available field data. Parameter calibration was complicated by the fact that different parameter combinations yield equally acceptable matches to the stake data while the resulting calculated net mass balance differs considerably. Testing model results against multiple criteria is an efficient method to cope with non-uniqueness. In doing so, a range of different data and observations was compared to several different aspects of the model results. We find a systematic underestimation of net balance for parameter combinations that predict observed ice ablation, which suggests that refreezing processes play an important role. To represent these effects in the model, a simple PMAX approach was included in its formulation. Used as a diagnostic tool, the model suggests that the surface mass balance for the period 29 April 2004 to 23 April 2005 was negative (-318 mm w.e.).

  8. A method for separating Antarctic postglacial rebound and ice mass balance using future ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, and GPS satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of ice elevation from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite can be combined with time-variable geoid measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to learn about ongoing changes in polar ice mass and viscoelastic rebound of the lithosphere under the ice sheet. We estimate the accuracy in recovering the spatially varying ice mass trend and postglacial rebound signals for Antarctica...

  9. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  10. Elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface mass balance and firn processes, 1960-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S. R M; Noël, B. P Y; Howat, I. M.; Box, J. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Steffen, K.; Harper, J. T.; Das, S. B.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, basal melt, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The last two contributions are quantified here using a firn model that includes

  11. Estimating the rates of mass change, ice volume change and snow volume change in Greenland from ICESat and GRACE data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, D.C.; Ditmar, P.G.; Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the quantification of ongoing mass and volume changes over the Greenland ice sheet. For that purpose, we used elevation changes derived from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission and monthly variations of the Earth’s gravity field

  12. Asymptotically simple spacetimes and mass loss due to gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    The cosmological constant Λ used to be a freedom in Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR), where one had a proclivity to set it to zero purely for convenience. The signs of Λ or Λ being zero would describe universes with different properties. For instance, the conformal structure of spacetime directly depends on Λ: null infinity ℐ is a spacelike, null, or timelike hypersurface, if Λ > 0, Λ = 0, or Λ 0 in Einstein’s theory of GR. A quantity that depends on the conformal structure of spacetime, especially on the nature of ℐ, is the Bondi mass which in turn dictates the mass loss of an isolated gravitating system due to energy carried away by gravitational waves. This problem of extending the Bondi mass to a universe with Λ > 0 has spawned intense research activity over the past several years. Some aspects include a closer inspection on the conformal properties, working with linearization, attempts using a Hamiltonian formulation based on “linearized” asymptotic symmetries, as well as obtaining the general asymptotic solutions of de Sitter-like spacetimes. We consolidate on the progress thus far from the various approaches that have been undertaken, as well as discuss the current open problems and possible directions in this area.

  13. Can preferred atmospheric circulation patterns over the North-Atlantic-Eurasian region be associated with arctic sea ice loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasemann, Berit; Handorf, Dörthe; Jaiser, Ralf; Dethloff, Klaus; Nakamura, Tetsu; Ukita, Jinro; Yamazaki, Koji

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of atmospheric circulation regimes, we study whether the recent Arctic sea ice loss and Arctic Amplification are associated with changes in the frequency of occurrence of preferred atmospheric circulation patterns during the extended winter season from December to March. To determine regimes we applied a cluster analysis to sea-level pressure fields from reanalysis data and output from an atmospheric general circulation model. The specific set up of the two analyzed model simulations for low and high ice conditions allows for attributing differences between the simulations to the prescribed sea ice changes only. The reanalysis data revealed two circulation patterns that occur more frequently for low Arctic sea ice conditions: a Scandinavian blocking in December and January and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation pattern in February and March. An analysis of related patterns of synoptic-scale activity and 2 m temperatures provides a synoptic interpretation of the corresponding large-scale regimes. The regimes that occur more frequently for low sea ice conditions are resembled reasonably well by the model simulations. Based on those results we conclude that the detected changes in the frequency of occurrence of large-scale circulation patterns can be associated with changes in Arctic sea ice conditions.

  14. Respective roles of direct GHG radiative forcing and induced Arctic sea ice loss on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, Thomas; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Chauvin, Fabrice; Cattiaux, Julien; Terray, Laurent; Cassou, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    The large-scale and synoptic-scale Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation responses to projected late twenty-first century Arctic sea ice decline induced by increasing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) concentrations are investigated using the CNRM-CM5 coupled model. An original protocol, based on a flux correction technique, allows isolating the respective roles of GHG direct radiative effect and induced Arctic sea ice loss under RCP8.5 scenario. In winter, the surface atmospheric response clearly exhibits opposing effects between GHGs increase and Arctic sea ice loss, leading to no significant pattern in the total response (particularly in the North Atlantic region). An analysis based on Eady growth rate shows that Arctic sea ice loss drives the weakening in the low-level meridional temperature gradient, causing a general decrease of the baroclinicity in the mid and high latitudes, whereas the direct impact of GHGs increase is more located in the mid-to-high troposphere. Changes in the flow waviness, evaluated from sinuosity and blocking frequency metrics, are found to be small relative to inter-annual variability.

  15. Reconstruction of the 1979–2006 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Results from a 28-year simulation (1979–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveal an increase of solid precipitation (+0.4±2.5 km3 yr−2 and run-off (+7.9±3.3 km3 yr−2 of surface meltwater. The net effect of these competing factors is a significant Surface Mass Balance (SMB loss of −7.2±5.1 km3 yr−2. The contribution of changes in the net water vapour flux (+0.02±0.09 km3 yr−2 and rainfall (+0.2±0.2 km3 yr−2 to the SMB variability is negligible. The meltwater supply has increased because the GrIS surface has been warming up +2.4°C since 1979. Sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and net solar radiation have not varied significantly over the last three decades. However, the simulated downward infrared flux has increased by 9.3 W m−2 since 1979. The natural climate variability (e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation does not explain these changes. The recent global warming, due to the greenhouse gas concentration increase induced by human activities, could be a cause of these changes. The doubling of surface meltwater flux into the ocean over the period 1979–2006 suggests that the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given the likely meltwater-induced acceleration of outlet glaciers. This study suggests that increased melting overshadows over an increased accumulation in a warming scenario and that the GrIS is likely to keep losing mass in the future. An enduring GrIS melting will probably affect in the future an certain effect on the stability of the thermohaline circulation and the global sea level rise.

  16. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...... site is located approximately 2 km NW of the topographic summit; the surface velocity at the GISP 2 site is 1.7 m/yr in the W direction. The present mass balance at Summit is calculated to be -0.03+/-0.04 m/yr, i.e. close to steady state. This result is the best now available for Summit. A small...... thinning rate might be a transient response of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to the temperature increase at the Wisconsin-Holocene transition....

  17. Analysis of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from ICESat Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    If protoplanets formed from 10 to 20 kilometer diameter planetesimals in a runaway accretion process prior to their oligarchic growth into the terrestrial planets, it is only logical to ask where these planetesimals may have formed in order to assess the initial composition of the Earth. We have used Weidenschilling's model for the formation of comets (1997) to calculate an efficiency factor for the formation of planetesimals from the solar nebula, then used this factor to calculate the feeding zones that contribute to material contained within 10, 15 and 20 kilometer diameter planetesimals at 1 A.V. as a function of nebular mass. We find that for all reasonable nebular masses, these planetesimals contain a minimum of 3% water as ice by mass. The fraction of ice increases as the planetesimals increase in size and as the nebular mass decreases, since both factors increase the feeding zones from which solids in the final planetesimals are drawn. Is there really a problem with the current accretion scenario that makes the Earth too dry, or is it possible that the nascent Earth lost significant quantities of water in the final stages of accretion?

  18. Search for indications of the neutrino mass hierarchy using IceCube/DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuermann, Martin; Vehring, Markus; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel prize in physics was awarded for ''the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass'', showing the high relevance of neutrino masses for modern particle physics. However, the ordering of the three neutrino masses is still unknown and is often referred to as neutrino mass hierarchy. Its measurement is a major goal for future experiments. One strategy is to measure matter effects in the oscillation pattern of atmospheric neutrinos e.g. as proposed for the PINGU extension of the IceCube neutrino observatory. Already now, the IceCube/DeepCore detector at the Geographic South Pole can be used to search for this signature. In this talk, we present an analysis based on data taken between 2011 and 2015. Due to recent improvements in the detector's reconstruction performance and the quality of the data selection, a measurement on the significance level of 1 sigma is expected.

  19. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  20. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  1. Calculation of mass discharge of the Greenland ice sheet in the Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Rybak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass discharge calculation is a challenging task for the ice sheet modeling aimed at evaluation of their contribution to the global sea level rise during past interglacials, as well as one of the consequences of future climate change. In Greenland, ablation is the major source of fresh water runoff. It is approximately equal to the dynamical discharge (iceberg calving. Its share might have still larger during the past interglacials when the margins of the GrIS retreated inland. Refreezing of the melted water and its retention are two poorly known processes playing as a counterpart of melting and, thus, exerting influence on the run off. Interaction of ice sheets and climate is driven by energy and mass exchange processes and is complicated by numerous feed-backs. To study the complex of these processes, coupling of an ice sheet model and a climate model (i.e. models of the atmosphere and the ocean in one model is required, which is often called the Earth System Model (ESM. Formalization of processes of interaction between the ice sheets and climate within the ESM requires elaboration of special techniques to deal with dramatic differences in spatial and temporal variability scales within each of three ESM’s blocks. In this paper, we focus on the method of coupling of a Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM with the climate model INMCM having been developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences. Our coupling approach consists in applying of a special buffer model, which serves as an interface between GrISM and INMCM. A simple energy and water exchange model (EWBM-G allows realistic description of surface air temperature and precipitation fields adjusted to a relief of elevation of the GrIS surface. In a series of diagnostic numerical experiments with the present-day GrIS geometry and the modeled climate we studied sensitivity of the modeled surface mass balance and run off to the key EWBM-G parameters and compared

  2. Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles - I. Theoretical model - Mass-loss history unravelled in VYCMa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decin, L.; Hony, S.; de Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    Context. Mass loss plays a dominant role in the evolution of low mass stars while they are on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The gas and dust ejected during this phase are a major source in the mass budget of the interstellar medium. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of

  3. High-elevation mass loss of Greenland increasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. L.; Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    project, repeated airborne LIDAR and radar surveys were carried out along the entire margin of the Greenland ice sheet in the years 2007 and 2011, providing bed and surface elevation profiles. Using these profiles, we establish a flux gate along the flight path, passing through 19 drainage basins...

  4. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  5. Rate of Mass Loss Across the Instability Threshold for Thwaites Glacier Determines Rate of Mass Loss for Entire Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, M. S.; Hulbe, C. L.; Jackson, C. S.; Martin, D. F.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid change now underway on Thwaites Glacier (TG) raises concern that a threshold for unstoppable grounding line retreat has been or is about to be crossed. We use a high-resolution ice sheet model to examine the mechanics of TG self-sustained retreat by nudging the grounding line just past the point of instability. We find that by modifying surface slope in the region of the grounding line, the rate of the forcing dictates the rate of retreat, even after the external forcing is removed. Grounding line retreats that begin faster proceed more rapidly because the shorter time interval for the grounding line to erode into the grounded ice sheet means relatively thicker ice and larger driving stress upstream of the boundary. Retreat is sensitive to short-duration re-advances associated with reduced external forcing where the bathymetry allows regrounding, even when an instability is invoked.

  6. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim, E-mail: nho0512@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  7. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  8. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (I.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  9. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  10. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  11. The spatial variable glacier mass loss over the southeast Tibet Plateau and the climate cause analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, L.; Ding, X.; Song, C.; Sheng, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate glaciers can be highly sensitive to global climate change due to relatively humid and warm local climate. Numerous temperate glaciers are distributed in the southeastern Tibet Plateau (SETP) and their changes are still poorly represented. Based on a latest glacier inventory and ICESat altimetry measurements, we examine the spatial heterogeneity of glacier change in the SETP (including the central and eastern Nyainqêntanglha ranges) and further analyze its relation with climate change by using station-based and gridded meteorological data. Our results show that SETP glaciers experienced drastic surface lowering at about -0.84±0.26 m a-1 on average over 2003-2008. Debris-covered ice thinned at an average rate of -1.13±0.32 m a-1, in comparison with -0.92±0.17 m a-1 over the debris-free ice areas. The thinning rate is the strongest in the southeastern sub-region (up to -1.24 m a-1 ) and moderate ( -0.45 m a-1 ) in the central and northwestern parts, which is in general agreement with the pattern of surface mass changes based on the GRACE gravimetry observation. Long-term climate data at weather stations show that, in comparison with the period of 1992-2002, mean temperature increased by 0.46 °C - 0.59 °C in the recent decade (2003-2013); while the change of summer precipitation exhibited remarkably spatial variability, following a southeast-northwest contrasting pattern (decreasing by over 10% in the southeast, to stable level in the central region, and increment up to 10% in the northwest). This spatially variable precipitation change is consistent with results from CN05 grid data and ERA re-analysis data, and agrees well with the spatial pattern of glacier surface elevation changes. The results suggest that overall negative glacier mass balances in SETP are governed by temperature rising, while the different precipitation change could contribute to inconsistent glacier thinning rates. The spatial pattern of precipitation decrease and mass loss might

  12. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Mass-loss Rates of Hot-Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherenkov, A.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Pyatnitskaya St. 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fossati, L.; Möstl, C., E-mail: bisikalo@inasan.ru [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2017-09-01

    Hot-Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation and plasma flows coming from their host stars. Past ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope observations, supported by hydrodynamic models, confirmed that these factors lead to the formation of an extended envelope, part of which lies beyond the Roche lobe. We use gas-dynamic simulations to study the impact of time variations in the parameters of the stellar wind, namely that of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the envelope of the typical hot-Jupiter HD 209458b. We consider three CMEs characterized by different velocities and densities, taking their parameters from typical CMEs observed for the Sun. The perturbations in the ram-pressure of the stellar wind during the passage of each CME tear off most of the envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe. This leads to a substantial increase of the mass-loss rates during the interaction with the CME. We find that the mass lost by the planet during the whole crossing of a CME is of ≈10{sup 15} g, regardless of the CME taken into consideration. We also find that over the course of 1 Gyr, the mass lost by the planet because of CME impacts is comparable to that lost because of high-energy stellar irradiation.

  13. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  14. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  15. The Impact of Atmospheric Modeling Errors on GRACE Estimates of Mass Loss in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ryan A.; Nerem, R. Steven; Wiese, David N.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic errors in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly mass estimates over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets can originate from low-frequency biases in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Operational Analysis model, the atmospheric component of the Atmospheric and Ocean Dealising Level-1B (AOD1B) product used to forward model atmospheric and ocean gravity signals in GRACE processing. These biases are revealed in differences in surface pressure between the ECMWF Operational Analysis model, state-of-the-art reanalyses, and in situ surface pressure measurements. While some of these errors are attributable to well-understood discrete model changes and have published corrections, we examine errors these corrections do not address. We compare multiple models and in situ data in Antarctica and Greenland to determine which models have the most skill relative to monthly averages of the dealiasing model. We also evaluate linear combinations of these models and synthetic pressure fields generated from direct interpolation of pressure observations. These models consistently reveal drifts in the dealiasing model that cause the acceleration of Antarctica's mass loss between April 2002 and August 2016 to be underestimated by approximately 4 Gt yr-2. We find similar results after attempting to solve the inverse problem, recovering pressure biases directly from the GRACE Jet Propulsion Laboratory RL05.1 M mascon solutions. Over Greenland, we find a 2 Gt yr-1 bias in mass trend. While our analysis focuses on errors in Release 05 of AOD1B, we also evaluate the new AOD1B RL06 product. We find that this new product mitigates some of the aforementioned biases.

  16. Ice on wind power plants. Detection, frequency, minimizing risk for injuries to humans and production loss; Is paa vindkraftverk. Detektering, utbredning, personskaderiskminimering och produktionsbortfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, Rolf (HoloOptics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    The project had three different objectives:- To calibrate an icing sensor, developed with the support of Vindforsk, according to the amount of ice on the rotor blades.- To determine at which degree of icing measures has to be taken to reduce the risk of public health hazards due to ice throws.- To give a general indication of the performance losses due to icing In the study a coastal shore based turbine (Vestas V44, situated close to Haernoesand in the northern Sweden) was used as the test object, a turbine placed at 176 m above sea level and 4 km away from the open sea. The turbine is also close to an attractive alpine ski-slope. Due to this the plant is closed 2-3 weeks per year to reduce the risk of ice throw. In the study two ice sensors were used, one with automatic de-icing and one without de-icing. The icing signal was sent to the operator and HoloOptics via SMS. The SMS sender was also connected to a temperature sensor. Furthermore, 12 'IceMarkers' were mounted on one of the rotor blades to verify the distribution of ice. To log the output of the turbine a logger was installed. The logger measured the 10 minutes mean power output. Wind-speed, wind-direction and temperatures were available from a mast located at a distance of 400 m to the wind turbine. Study period: March-December 2008 of which, at this location, four month are prone to icing. By the use of the IceMarkers it was found that shortly after the icing began the whole blade was relatively simultaneous covered with, minimum, a thin layer of ice (maybe less than 0,1 mm in thickness). The distribution of ice on the blade was verified by the use of a flash and a camera. However it was found to be difficult to verify at times with fog or precipitation. When temperatures varied around zero C the relation between indication and actual icing was less obvious. Sometimes the blades became/were de-iced without any indication from the corresponding indicator. The indicators themselves, without any

  17. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86 × 106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  18. 21st century changes in the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet simulated with the global model CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, M.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Van den Broeke, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present here the first projections of 21st century surface mass balance change of the Greenland ice sheet simulated with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM is a fully-coupled, global climate model developed at many research centers and universities, primarily in the U.S. The model calculates the surface mass balance in the land component (the Community Land Model, CLM), at the same resolution as the atmosphere (1 degree), with an energy-balance scheme. The snow physics included in CLM for non-glaciated surfaces (SNiCAR model, Flanner and Zender, 2005) are used over the ice sheet. The surface mass balance is calculated for 10 elevation classes, and then downscaled to the grid of the ice sheet model (5 km in this case) via vertical linear interpolation between elevation classes combined with horizontal bilinear interpolation. The ice sheet topography is fixed at present-day values for the simulations presented here. The use of elevation classes reduces computational costs while giving results that reproduce well the mass balance gradients at the steep margins of the ice sheet. The simulated present-day surface mass balance agrees well with results from regional models. We focus on the regional model RACMO (Ettema et al. 2009) to compare the results on 20th-century surface mass balance evolution and two-dimensional patterns. The surface mass balance of the ice sheet under RCP8.5. forcing becomes negative in the last decades of the 21st century. The equilibrium line becomes ~500 m higher on average. Accumulation changes are positive in the accumulation zone. We examine changes in refreezing, accumulation, albedo, surface fluxes, and the timing of the melt season.

  19. Identification of hydrogen and deuterium at the surface of water ice by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, F.; Toekesi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The study of elastically backscattered electrons from surfaces by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) has been recently recommended as an alternative technique to quantify the H content at the surface of a-C:H and polymer samples. This analysis is based on the fact that the energy loss of the incident electrons due to the recoil effect depends on the atomic mass of the particular atom present at the surface. The observed difference in recoil energies between H and O atoms (about 2 eV for 1.5 keV primary electrons) can be easily measured with standard electron spectrometers used in surface analysis. In this paper we go one step forward to explore if, with the same experimental approach, it is possible to differentiate between hydrogen and deuterium (D) in the surface region of a sample. This capability could be important for technological fields such as surface functionalization, where it is desired to distinguish between H and D at surfaces after interaction with labeled compounds. We have chosen normal and deuterated water as test labeled compounds because this polar molecule is of key importance in numerous surface reactions. It has been shown that H and D can be easily distinguished at the surface of water ice [4] using standard REELS measurements with 1000 - 1650 eV primary-electron energies, i.e., a surface analytical technique. Differences in recoil energies of the O - H and O - D atom pairs present in H 2 O and D 2 O have been found to agree with MC simulations (see Fig.1). There are many possible applications of H and D detection by REELS. Among many others, this study opens the possibility of nondestructive studies of deuterium-labeled atoms present or adsorbed on surfaces. For example, studies of H incorporation into a polymer or carbonbased surface after plasma activation with gas mixtures with several labeled molecules containing H atoms. Acknowledgements F.Y. thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science

  20. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the sea level rise (SLR originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS, we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 general circulation models (GCMs. Our results indicate that in a warmer climate, mass gain from increased winter snowfall over the GrIS does not compensate mass loss through increased meltwater run-off in summer. Despite the large spread in the projected near-surface warming, all the MAR projections show similar non-linear increase of GrIS surface melt volume because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from GCM output, we show that the uncertainty from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of the projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a GrIS SMB decrease equivalent to a mean SLR of +4 ± 2 cm and +9 ± 4 cm for the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. These estimates do not consider the positive melt–elevation feedback, although sensitivity experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes demonstrate that this is a significant feedback, and highlight the importance of coupling regional climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow the assessment of future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes to rising temperatures, as well as their mutual feedbacks.

  1. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bonin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  2. Using satellite laser ranging to measure ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer A.; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Minkang

    2018-01-01

    A least squares inversion of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data over Greenland and Antarctica could extend gravimetry-based estimates of mass loss back to the early 1990s and fill any future gap between the current Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the future GRACE Follow-On mission. The results of a simulation suggest that, while separating the mass change between Greenland and Antarctica is not possible at the limited spatial resolution of the SLR data, estimating the total combined mass change of the two areas is feasible. When the method is applied to real SLR and GRACE gravity series, we find significantly different estimates of inverted mass loss. There are large, unpredictable, interannual differences between the two inverted data types, making us conclude that the current 5×5 spherical harmonic SLR series cannot be used to stand in for GRACE. However, a comparison with the longer IMBIE time series suggests that on a 20-year time frame, the inverted SLR series' interannual excursions may average out, and the long-term mass loss estimate may be reasonable.

  3. Causes and consequences of mid–21st-century rapid ice loss events simulated by the Rossby centre regional atmosphere-ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Paquin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that the Arctic climate is undergoing important transition. One manifestation of this change is seen in the rapid sea-ice cover decrease as experienced in 2007 and 2012. Although most numerical climate models cannot adequately reproduce the recent changes, some models produce similar Rapid Ice Loss Events (RILEs during the mid–21st-century. This study presents an analysis of four specific RILEs clustered around 2040 in three transient climate projections performed with the coupled Rossby Centre regional Atmosphere-Ocean model (RCAO. The analysis shows that long-term thinning causes increased vulnerability of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover. In the Atlantic sector, pre-conditioning (thinning of sea ice combined with anomalous atmospheric and oceanic heat transport causes large ice loss, while in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice albedo feedback appears important, particularly along the retreating sea-ice margin. Although maximum sea-ice loss occurs in the autumn, response in surface air temperature occurs in early winter, caused by strong increase in ocean-atmosphere surface energy fluxes, mainly the turbulent fluxes. Synchronicity of the events around 2040 in the projections is caused by a strong large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly at the Atlantic lateral boundary of the regional model. The limited impact on land is caused by vertical propagation of the surface heat anomaly rather than horizontal, caused by the absence of low-level temperature inversion over the ocean.

  4. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

  5. Stringent limits on the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Veale, A.; Judge, P.; Bookbinder, J.A.; Hubeny, I.

    1990-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Willson et al. (1987) that A- and F-type main-sequence stars might undergo significant mass loss due to pulsationally driven winds, upper limits to the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs have been obtained using VLA observations. These stringent upper limits show that the level of ionized mass loss would have at most only a small effect on stellar evolution. Radiative-equilibrium atmospheric and wind models for early A dwarfs indicate that it is highly likely that a wind flowing from such stars would be significantly ionized. In addition, late A and early F dwarfs exhibit chromospheric emission indicative of significant nonradiative heating. The present mass-loss limits are thus representative of the total mass-loss rates for these stars. It is concluded that A and F dwarfs are not losing sufficient mass to cause A dwarfs to evolve into G dwarfs. 24 refs

  6. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Strelnikova, I.; Strelnikov, B. [Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Kuehlungsborn (DE)] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density - which we here estimate to be on the order of {proportional_to}100 cm{sup -3} - and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence) need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82-88 km) seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5-86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass) within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range {proportional_to}2-8 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 3} (corresponding to mass densities of {proportional_to}20-80 ng/m{sup 3}, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3-12 ppm) and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement. (orig.)

  7. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density – which we here estimate to be on the order of ~100 cm−3 – and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82–88 km seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5–86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range ~2–8×10−14 cm3/cm3 (corresponding to mass densities of ~20–80 ng/m3, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3–12 ppm and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement.

  8. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density – which we here estimate to be on the order of ~100 cm−3 – and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82–88 km seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5–86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range ~2–8×10−14 cm3/cm3 (corresponding to mass densities of ~20–80 ng/m3, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3–12 ppm and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement.

  9. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on stellar and galactic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    L.A. Willson, G.H. Bowen and C. Struck-Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10 -9 M mass of sun/yr, diminishing over several times 10 8 years. The author attempts to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M 0 , and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 x 10 8 years. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 M mass of sun and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gry. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M mass of sun and a metallicity-dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus-remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence to the present

  10. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: Probing chemical composition of D2O ice beneath a H2O ice layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D 2 O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D 2 O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H 2 O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H 2 O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D 2 O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D 2 O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H 2 O molecules in the shockwave. We call this “shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation” technique as “two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers.” This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processes—ablation and ionization. This new technique

  11. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: Probing chemical composition of D{sub 2}O ice beneath a H{sub 2}O ice layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui, E-mail: ryang73@ustc.edu; Gudipati, Murthy S., E-mail: gudipati@jpl.nasa.gov [Science Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-301, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D{sub 2}O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D{sub 2}O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H{sub 2}O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H{sub 2}O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D{sub 2}O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D{sub 2}O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H{sub 2}O molecules in the shockwave. We call this “shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation” technique as “two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers.” This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processes—ablation and

  12. The evolution of massive stars with mass loss: the H- and the He-burning phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of a massive star to its final fate is strongly modified by the efficient mass loss episodes it experiences during its lifetime. In the following, we will briefly summarize how the H- and the He- burning phases depend on the adopted mass loss rate.

  13. Katabatic winds diminish precipitation contribution to the Antarctic ice mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Jacopo; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Gallée, Hubert; Forbes, Richard M; Genthon, Christophe; Krinner, Gerhard; Berne, Alexis

    2017-10-10

    Snowfall in Antarctica is a key term of the ice sheet mass budget that influences the sea level at global scale. Over the continental margins, persistent katabatic winds blow all year long and supply the lower troposphere with unsaturated air. We show that this dry air leads to significant low-level sublimation of snowfall. We found using unprecedented data collected over 1 year on the coast of Adélie Land and simulations from different atmospheric models that low-level sublimation accounts for a 17% reduction of total snowfall over the continent and up to 35% on the margins of East Antarctica, significantly affecting satellite-based estimations close to the ground. Our findings suggest that, as climate warming progresses, this process will be enhanced and will limit expected precipitation increases at the ground level.

  14. Range contraction and increasing isolation of a polar bear subpopulation in an era of sea-ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, Kristin L; Born, Erik W; Atkinson, Stephen N; Wiig, Øystein; Andersen, Liselotte W; Lunn, Nicholas J; Dyck, Markus; Regehr, Eric V; McGovern, Richard; Heagerty, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to result in range shifts and habitat fragmentation for many species. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice will reduce barriers to dispersal or eliminate movement corridors, resulting in increased connectivity or geographic isolation with sweeping implications for conservation. We used satellite telemetry, data from individually marked animals (research and harvest), and microsatellite genetic data to examine changes in geographic range, emigration, and interpopulation connectivity of the Baffin Bay (BB) polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) subpopulation over a 25-year period of sea-ice loss. Satellite telemetry collected from n  = 43 (1991-1995) and 38 (2009-2015) adult females revealed a significant contraction in subpopulation range size (95% bivariate normal kernel range) in most months and seasons, with the most marked reduction being a 70% decline in summer from 716,000 km 2 (SE 58,000) to 211,000 km 2 (SE 23,000) ( p  Bears in the 2000s were less likely to leave BB, with significant reductions in the numbers of bears moving into Davis Strait (DS) in winter and Lancaster Sound (LS) in summer. Harvest recoveries suggested both short and long-term fidelity to BB remained high over both periods (83-99% of marked bears remained in BB). Genetic analyses using eight polymorphic microsatellites confirmed a previously documented differentiation between BB, DS, and LS; yet weakly differentiated BB from Kane Basin (KB) for the first time. Our results provide the first multiple lines of evidence for an increasingly geographically and functionally isolated subpopulation of polar bears in the context of long-term sea-ice loss. This may be indicative of future patterns for other polar bear subpopulations under climate change.

  15. Dissolved organic carbon loss from Yedoma permafrost amplified by ice wedge thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.E.; Mann, P.J.; Dowdy, K.L.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S.P.; Zimov, N.; Spencer, R.G.M.; Bulygina, E.B.; Eglinton, T.I.; Holmes, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene Yedoma permafrost contains nearly a third of all organic matter (OM) stored in circum-arctic permafrost and is characterized by the presence of massive ice wedges. Due to its rapid formation by sediment accumulation and subsequent frozen storage, Yedoma OM is relatively well preserved

  16. Overview and sample applications of SMILES and Odin-SMR retrievals of upper tropospheric humidity and cloud ice mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrievals of cloud ice mass and humidity from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES and the Odin-SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer limb sounder are presented and example applications of the data are given. SMILES data give an unprecedented view of the diurnal variation of cloud ice mass. Mean regional diurnal cycles are reported and compared to some global climate models. Some improvements in the models regarding diurnal timing and relative amplitude were noted, but the models' mean ice mass around 250 hPa is still low compared to the observations. The influence of the ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation state on the upper troposphere is demonstrated using 12 years of Odin-SMR data. The same retrieval scheme is applied for both sensors, and gives low systematic differences between the two data sets. A special feature of this Bayesian retrieval scheme, of Monte Carlo integration type, is that values are produced for all measurements but for some atmospheric states retrieved values only reflect a priori assumptions. However, this "all-weather" capability allows a direct statistical comparison to model data, in contrast to many other satellite data sets. Another strength of the retrievals is the detailed treatment of "beam filling" that otherwise would cause large systematic biases for these passive cloud ice mass retrievals. The main retrieval inputs are spectra around 635/525 GHz from tangent altitudes below 8/9 km for SMILES/Odin-SMR, respectively. For both sensors, the data cover the upper troposphere between 30° S and 30° N. Humidity is reported as both relative humidity and volume mixing ratio. The vertical coverage of SMILES is restricted to a single layer, while Odin-SMR gives some profiling capability between 300 and 150 hPa. Ice mass is given as the partial ice water path above 260 hPa, but for Odin-SMR ice water content, estimates are also provided. Besides a smaller contrast between most dry and wet

  17. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input–output

  18. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input–output method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Schrama, E.J.O.; van der Wal, W.; van den Broeke, MR; Enderlin, EM

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input–output

  19. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H

    2012-01-01

    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs

  20. The Impact of Sea Ice Loss on Wave Dynamics and Coastal Erosion Along the Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.; Wobus, C. W.; Matell, N.; Urban, F. E.; Clow, G. D.; Stanton, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice has been shrinking rapidly over the past few decades, and attendant acceleration of erosion is now occurring along the Arctic coast. This both brings coastal infrastructure into harm’s way and promotes a complex response of the adjacent landscape to global change. We quantify the effects of declining sea ice extent on coastal erosion rates along a 75-km stretch of coastal permafrost bluffs adjacent to the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, where present-day erosion rates are among the highest in the world at ~14 m yr-1. Our own observations reinforce those of others, and suggest that the rate-limiting process is thermal erosion at the base of the several-meter tall bluffs. Here we focus on the interaction between the nearshore sea ice concentration, the location of the sea ice margin, and the fetch-limited, shallow water wave field, since these parameters ultimately control both sea surface temperatures and the height to which these waters can bathe the frozen bluffs. Thirty years of daily or bi-daily passive microwave data from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I satellites reveal that the nearshore open water season lengthened ~54 days over 1979-2009. The open water season, centered in August, expands more rapidly into the fall (September and October~0.92 day yr-1) than into the early summer (July~0.71 days yr-1). Average fetch, defined for our purposes as the distance from the sea ice margin to the coast over which the wind is blowing, increased by a factor 1.7 over the same time-span. Given these time series, we modeled daily nearshore wave heights during the open water season for each year, which we integrated to provide a quantitative metric for the annual exposure of the coastal bluffs to thermal erosion. This “annual wave exposure” increased by 250% during 1979-2009. In the same interval, coastal erosion rates reconstructed from satellite and aerial photo records show less acceleration. We attribute this to a disproportionate extension of the

  1. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 1: Greenland (1958-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Melchior van Wessem, J.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van As, Dirk; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate modelled Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) near-surface climate, surface energy balance (SEB) and surface mass balance (SMB) from the updated regional climate model RACMO2 (1958-2016). The new model version, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates updated glacier outlines, topography and ice albedo fields. Parameters in the cloud scheme governing the conversion of cloud condensate into precipitation have been tuned to correct inland snowfall underestimation: snow properties are modified to reduce drifting snow and melt production in the ice sheet percolation zone. The ice albedo prescribed in the updated model is lower at the ice sheet margins, increasing ice melt locally. RACMO2.3p2 shows good agreement compared to in situ meteorological data and point SEB/SMB measurements, and better resolves the spatial patterns and temporal variability of SMB compared with the previous model version, notably in the north-east, south-east and along the K-transect in south-western Greenland. This new model version provides updated, high-resolution gridded fields of the GrIS present-day climate and SMB, and will be used for projections of the GrIS climate and SMB in response to a future climate scenario in a forthcoming study.

  2. Assessment of electrical stunning in fresh water of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and chilling in ice water for loss of consciousness and sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate loss of consciousness and sensibility after electrical stunning in fresh water and live chilling in ice water for slaughter of African catfish using measurement of electrical brain and heart activity. To provoke immediate loss of consciousness and

  3. Observationally constrained surface mass balance of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuipers Munneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface mass balance (SMB of the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS, Antarctica, is poorly constrained due to a dearth of in situ observations. Combining several geophysical techniques, we reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of SMB over the LCIS. Continuous time series of snow height (2.5–6 years at five locations allow for multi-year estimates of seasonal and annual SMB over the LCIS. There is high interannual variability in SMB as well as spatial variability: in the north, SMB is 0.40 ± 0.06 to 0.41 ± 0.04 m w.e. year−1, while farther south, SMB is up to 0.50 ± 0.05 m w.e. year−1. This difference between north and south is corroborated by winter snow accumulation derived from an airborne radar survey from 2009, which showed an average snow thickness of 0.34 m w.e. north of 66° S, and 0.40 m w.e. south of 68° S. Analysis of ground-penetrating radar from several field campaigns allows for a longer-term perspective of spatial variations in SMB: a particularly strong and coherent reflection horizon below 25–44 m of water-equivalent ice and firn is observed in radargrams collected across the shelf. We propose that this horizon was formed synchronously across the ice shelf. Combining snow height observations, ground and airborne radar, and SMB output from a regional climate model yields a gridded estimate of SMB over the LCIS. It confirms that SMB increases from north to south, overprinted by a gradient of increasing SMB to the west, modulated in the west by föhn-induced sublimation. Previous observations show a strong decrease in firn air content toward the west, which we attribute to spatial patterns of melt, refreezing, and densification rather than SMB.

  4. Lithology and Bedrock Geotechnical Properties in Controlling Rock and Ice Mass Movements in Mountain Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, A.; Kargel, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides and ice avalanches kill >5000 people annually (D. Petley, 2012, Geology http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G33217.1); destroy or damage homes and infrastructure; and create secondary hazards, such as flooding due to blocked rivers. Critical roles of surface slope, earthquake shaking, soil characteristics and saturation, river erosional undercutting, rainfall intensity, snow loading, permafrost thaw, freeze-thaw and frost shattering, debuttressing of unstable masses due to glacier thinning, and vegetation burn or removal are well-known factors affecting landslides and avalanches. Lithology-dependent bedrock physicochemical-mechanical properties—especially brittle elastic and shear strength, and chemical weathering properties that affect rock strength, are also recognized controls on landsliding and avalanching, but are not commonly considered in detail in landslide susceptibility assessment. Lithology controls the formation of weakened, weathered bedrock; the formation and accumulation of soils; soil saturation-related properties of grain size distribution, porosity, and permeability; and soil creep related to soil wetting-drying and freeze-thaw. Lithology controls bedrock abrasion and glacial erosion and debris production rates, the formation of rough or smoothed bedrock surface by glaciation, fluvial, and freeze-thaw processes. Lithologic variability (e.g., bedding; fault and joint structure) affects contrasts in chemical weathering rates, porosity, and susceptibility to frost shattering and chemical weathering, hence formation of overhanging outcrops and weakened slip planes. The sudden failure of bedrock or sudden slip of ice on bedrock, and many other processes depend on rock lithology, microstructure (porosity and permeability), and macrostructure (bedding; faults). These properties are sometimes considered in gross terms for landslide susceptibility assessment, but in detailed applications to specific development projects, and in detailed mapping over

  5. Increasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van As, Dirk; Langer Andersen, Morten; Petersen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godthåbsfjord. RCM data (1960-2012) are resampled to a high...... spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automaticweather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation andoverestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent...

  6. Recent mass balance of the Purogangri Ice Cap, central Tibetan Plateau, by means of differential X-band SAR interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Neckel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their remoteness, altitude and harsh climatic conditions, little is known about the glaciological parameters of ice caps on the Tibetan Plateau. This study presents a geodetic mass balance estimate of the Purogangri Ice Cap, Tibet's largest ice field between 2000 and 2012. We utilized data from the actual TerraSAR-X mission and its add-on for digital elevation measurements and compared it with elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The employed data sets are ideal for this approach as both data sets were acquired at X-band at nearly the same time of the year and are available at a fine grid spacing. In order to derive surface elevation changes we employed two different methods. The first method is based on differential synthetic radar interferometry while the second method uses common DEM differencing. Both approaches revealed a slightly negative mass budget of −44 ± 15 and −38 ± 23 mm w.eq. a−1 (millimeter water equivalent respectively. A slightly negative trend of −0.15 ± 0.01 km2 a−1 in glacier extent was found for the same time period employing a time series of Landsat data. Overall, our results show an almost balanced mass budget for the studied time period. Additionally, we detected one continuously advancing glacier tongue in the eastern part of the ice cap.

  7. Effects of mass loss on the evolution of massive stars. I. Main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Blake, J.B.; Hainebach, K.L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mass loss on the evolution and surface composition of massive stars during main-sequence evolution are examined. While some details of the evolutionary track depend on the formula used for the mass loss, the results appear most sensitive to the total mass removed during the main-sequence lifetime. It was found that low mass-loss rates have very little effect on the evolution of a star; the track is slightly subluminous, but the lifetime is almost unaffected. High rates of mass loss lead to a hot, high-luminosity stellar model with a helium core surrounded by a hydrogen-deficient (Xapprox.0.1) envelope. The main-sequence lifetime is extended by a factor of 2--3. These models may be identified with Wolf-Rayet stars. Between these mass-loss extremes are intermediate models which appear as OBN stars on the main sequence. The mass-loss rates required for significant observable effects range from 8 x 10 -7 to 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , depending on the initial stellar mass. It is found that observationally consistent mass-loss rates for stars with M> or =30 M/sub sun/ may be sufficiently high that these stars lose mass on a time scale more rapidly than their main-sequence core evolution time. This result implies that the helium cores resulting from the main-sequence evolution of these massive stars may all be very similar to that of a star of Mapprox.30 M/sub sun/ regardless of the zero-age mass

  8. Ice particle mass-dimensional parameter retrieval and uncertainty analysis using an Optimal Estimation framework applied to in situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhuocan; Mace, Jay; Avalone, Linnea; Wang, Zhien

    2015-04-01

    The extreme variability of ice particle habits in precipitating clouds affects our understanding of these cloud systems in every aspect (i.e. radiation transfer, dynamics, precipitation rate, etc) and largely contributes to the uncertainties in the model representation of related processes. Ice particle mass-dimensional power law relationships, M=a*(D ^ b), are commonly assumed in models and retrieval algorithms, while very little knowledge exists regarding the uncertainties of these M-D parameters in real-world situations. In this study, we apply Optimal Estimation (OE) methodology to infer ice particle mass-dimensional relationship from ice particle size distributions and bulk water contents independently measured on board the University of Wyoming King Air during the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS). We also utilize W-band radar reflectivity obtained on the same platform (King Air) offering a further constraint to this ill-posed problem (Heymsfield et al. 2010). In addition to the values of retrieved M-D parameters, the associated uncertainties are conveniently acquired in the OE framework, within the limitations of assumed Gaussian statistics. We find, given the constraints provided by the bulk water measurement and in situ radar reflectivity, that the relative uncertainty of mass-dimensional power law prefactor (a) is approximately 80% and the relative uncertainty of exponent (b) is 10-15%. With this level of uncertainty, the forward model uncertainty in radar reflectivity would be on the order of 4 dB or a factor of approximately 2.5 in ice water content. The implications of this finding are that inferences of bulk water from either remote or in situ measurements of particle spectra cannot be more certain than this when the mass-dimensional relationships are not known a priori which is almost never the case.

  9. Evolution of massive stars with mass loss: surface abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greggio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The location of theoretical stellar models in the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram depends on a variety of poorly understood physical processes which may occur during the evolution of massive stars. The comparison between theoretical predictions and observations of the surface chemical composition of these objects can help in understanding their evolution and to set more stringent limits to the mentioned parameters. To this end, evolutionary sequences corresponding to 20, 40 and 60 solar masses have been computed up to core He exhaustion, following in detail the abundance variations of CNO, Ne and Mg isotopes. (Auth.)

  10. Mass loss due to gravitational waves with Λ > 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    2017-07-01

    The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the ’60s. Recent findings from the observation of distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well explained by sticking a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Einstein field equations), we generalize this notion of Bondi mass-energy and thereby provide a firm theoretical description of how an isolated gravitating system loses energy as it radiates gravitational waves, in a universe that expands at an accelerated rate. This is in line with the observational front of LIGO’s first announcement in February 2016 that gravitational waves from the merger of a binary black hole system have been detected.

  11. The Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on Recent Greenland Surface Mass Loss and Mass Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Porter, D. F.; Fettweis, X.; Luthcke, S. B.; Mote, T. L.; Rennermalm, A.; Hanna, E.

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent changes in Greenland surface mass losses and atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, little attention has been given to the potential role of large-scale atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal variability of mass loss and partitioning of the GrIS mass loss. Using a combination of satellite gravimetry measurements, outputs of the MAR regional climate model and reanalysis data, we show that changes in atmospheric patterns since 2013 over the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (NAA) modulate total mass loss trends over Greenland together with the spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss partitioning. For example, during the 2002 - 2012 period, melting persistently increased, especially along the west coast, as a consequence of increased insulation and negative NAO conditions characterizing that period. Starting in 2013, runoff along the west coast decreased while snowfall increased substantially, when NAO turned to a more neutral/positive state. Modeled surface mass balance terms since 1950 indicate that part of the GRACE-period, specifically the period between 2002 and 2012, was exceptional in terms of snowfall over the east and northeast regions. During that period snowfall trend decreased to almost 0 Gt/yr from a long-term increasing trend, which presumed again in 2013. To identify the potential impact of atmospheric patterns on mass balance and its partitioning, we studied the spatial and temporal correlations between NAO and snowfall/runoff. Our results indicate that the correlation between summer snowfall and NAO is not stable during the 1950 - 2015 period. We further looked at changes in patterns of circulation using self organizing maps (SOMs) to identify the atmospheric patterns characterizing snowfall during different periods. We discuss potential implications for past changes and future GCM and RCM simulations.

  12. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10–100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  13. Mass balance and sliding velocity of the Puget lobe of the cordilleran ice sheet during the last glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    An estimate of the sliding velocity and basal meltwater discharge of the Puget lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet can be calculated from its reconstructed extent, altitude, and mass balance. Lobe dimensions and surface altitudes are inferred from ice limits and flow-direction indicators. Net annual mass balance and total ablation are calculated from relations empirically derived from modern maritime glaciers. An equilibrium-line altitude between 1200 and 1250 m is calculated for the maximum glacial advance (ca. 15,000 yr B.P.) during the Vashon Stade of the Fraser Glaciation. This estimate is in accord with geologic data and is insensitive to plausible variability in the parameters used in the reconstruction. Resultant sliding velocities are as much as 650 m/a at the equilibrium line, decreasing both up- and downglacier. Such velocities for an ice sheet of this size are consistent with nonsurging behavior. Average meltwater discharge increases monotonically downglacier to 3000 m3/sec at the terminus and is of a comparable magnitude to ice discharge over much of the glacier's ablation area. Palcoclimatic inferences derived from this reconstruction are consistent with previous, independently derived studies of late Pleistocene temperature and precipitation in the Pacific Northwest. ?? 1986.

  14. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  15. Massive stars evolution with mass-loss. 20-100 M(sun) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Sreenivasan, S R [Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Nasi, E [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-02-01

    The evolution of stars with initial masses 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 M(sun) and Population I chemical composition (X = 0.700, Z = 0.02) is calculated, taking into account mass-loss due to stellar winds, from the main sequence up to the early stages of central He-burning. This study incorporates mass-loss rates predicted by the theory of Castor et al. (1975) for the early type phases and a novel way of treating mass-loss rates due to acoustic energy flux driven winds in the later stages analogous to the work of Fusi-Pecci and Renzini (1975a). The results are presented in terms of evolutionary tracks, isochrones, loci of constant mass-loss rates and loci of constant mass in the HR diagram. The effects of mass-loss on the internal structure of the models as well as on the occurrence of semiconvection are also investigated. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and observational results is made and possible implications for O, Of, Wolf-Rayet stars and red supergiants are brought out.

  16. Effects of Main-Sequence Mass Loss on Stellar and Galactic Chemical Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    1988-06-01

    L. A. Willson, G. H. Bowen and C. Struck -Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10^{-9}M o/yr, diminishing over several times 10^8 years. We attempted to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M o, and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 times 10^8 years. Compared to a constant -mass model, these models require a reduced initial ^4He abundance, have deeper envelope convection zones and higher ^8B neutrino fluxes. Early processing of present surface layers at higher interior temperatures increases the surface ^3He abundance, destroys Li, Be and B, and decreases the surface C/N ratio following first dredge-up. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 Mo and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gyr. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M o and a metallicity -dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus -remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main

  17. Airborne Laser Altimetry Mapping of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Application to Mass Balance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Wright, W.; Yungel, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 and '99, the Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) program completed resurveys of lines occupied 5 years earlier revealing elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet and identifying areas of significant thinning, thickening and balance. In planning these surveys, consideration had to be given to the spatial constraints associated with aircraft operation, the spatial nature of ice sheet behavior, and limited resources, as well as temporal issues, such as seasonal and interannual variability in the context of measurement accuracy. This paper examines the extent to which the sampling and survey strategy is valid for drawing conclusions on the current state of balance of the Greenland ice sheet. The surveys covered the entire ice sheet with an average distance of 21.4 km between each location on the ice sheet and the nearest flight line. For most of the ice sheet, the elevation changes show relatively little spatial variability, and their magnitudes are significantly smaller than the observed elevation change signal. As a result, we conclude that the density of the sampling and the accuracy of the measurements are sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions on the state of balance of the entire ice sheet over the five-year survey period. Outlet glaciers, however, show far more spatial and temporal variability, and each of the major ones is likely to require individual surveys in order to determine its balance.

  18. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  19. On Land Ice Mass Change in Southernmost South America, Antarctic Peninsula and Coastal Antarctica consistent with GRACE, GPS and Reconstructed Ice History for Past 1000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik; Wiese, David; Watkins, Michael; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Landerer, Felix; Simms, Alex; Boening, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The improved spatial coverage provided by high-quality Global Positioning System observing systems on exposed bedrock has allowed these space geodetic experiments to play an increasingly important role in constraining both glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes and viscoelastic responses to present-day glacial mass changes (PGMC). Improved constraints on models of ice mass change in the Southern Hemisphere at present-day, during the Little Ice Age, and during the Late Holocene are invaluable for reconciling climate and sea-level variability on a global scale during the present solar radiation forcing and Milankovic orbital configuration. Studies by Jacobs et al. (1992), Whitehouse et al. (2012), King et al. (2012), Boening et al (2012), and others, support the contention that GRACE observations of both GIA and PGMC in the Southern Hemisphere are dominated by the geography and climate of coastal environments. This makes the proper masking of those environments for GRACE-determinations of secular mass balance especially sensitive, and downscaling, rescaling, and use of correlation mascon methods a non-trivial part of the analysis. Here we employ two analysis methods to determine the mass balances of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia and incorporate GPS observations of ongoing uplift for GIA correction into both. Using data that roughly span 2002-2013, we determine -25 ± 5 Gt/yr for the uncorrected Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and -12 Gt/yr for southern Patagonia and the Cordillera Darwin (PCD). With corrections for GIA these are increased to -34 ± 8 Gt/yr for AP and -22 ± 6 Gt/yr for PCD.

  20. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Whitney, Barbara; McDonald, Iain; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles; Misselt, Karl; Hora, Joe; Indebetouw, Remy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dust production and stellar mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. Due to its close proximity to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), NGC 362 was imaged with the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer cameras onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy program. We detect several cluster members near the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) that exhibit infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar dust and find that dust is not present in measurable quantities in stars below the tip of the RGB. We modeled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the stars with the strongest IR excess and find a total cluster dust mass-loss rate of 3.0 +2.0 -1.2 x 10 -9 M sun yr -1 , corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 8.6 +5.6 -3.4 x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 , assuming [Fe/H] =-1.16. This mass loss is in addition to any dustless mass loss that is certainly occurring within the cluster. The two most extreme stars, variables V2 and V16, contribute up to 45% of the total cluster dust-traced mass loss. The SEDs of the more moderate stars indicate the presence of silicate dust, as expected for low-mass, low-metallicity stars. Surprisingly, the SED shapes of the stars with the strongest mass-loss rates appear to require the presence of amorphous carbon dust, possibly in combination with silicate dust, despite their oxygen-rich nature. These results corroborate our previous findings in ω Centauri.

  1. CONNECTING FLARES AND TRANSIENT MASS-LOSS EVENTS IN MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wolk, Scott J., E-mail: osten@stsci.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme magnetic reconnection events with transient mass-loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares and show that there is rough agreement for these values with solar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection. This allows an integrated flare rate in a particular waveband to be used to estimate the amount of associated transient mass-loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass-loss in the form of coronal mass ejections, then the cumulative effect of this mass-loss could be large. We find that for young solar-like stars and active M dwarfs, the total mass lost due to transient magnetic eruptions could have significant impacts on disk evolution, and thus planet formation, and also exoplanet habitability.

  2. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (β = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass ≤1 M J and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of β = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a ∼ 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  3. SYNTHETIC AGB EVOLUTION .3. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MASS-LOSS LAWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROENEWEGEN, MAT; DEJONG, T

    In Paper I of this series we presented a model to calculate in a synthetic way the evolution of thermal-pulsing AGB stars. The model was applied to the LMC and values were derived for the minimum core mass for third dredge-up and the dredge-up efficiency. In Paper I mass loss on the AGB was

  4. Isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as probes of nucleosynthesis, stellar mass losses and galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Lequeux, J.; Vigroux, L.

    1975-01-01

    Evidences for a 12 C/ 13 C ratio different in the interstellar medium and in the solar system (40 instead of 89) and for a large N/O ratio in the centers of galaxies are reviewed and are explained by an enrichment of the interstellar medium in 13 C and N by mass loss of stars of various masses [fr

  5. Comparison of surface mass balance of ice sheets simulated by positive-degree-day method and energy balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bauer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glacial cycles of the late Quaternary are controlled by the asymmetrically varying mass balance of continental ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. Surface mass balance is governed by processes of ablation and accumulation. Here two ablation schemes, the positive-degree-day (PDD method and the surface energy balance (SEB approach, are compared in transient simulations of the last glacial cycle with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2. The standard version of the CLIMBER-2 model incorporates the SEB approach and simulates ice volume variations in reasonable agreement with paleoclimate reconstructions during the entire last glacial cycle. Using results from the standard CLIMBER-2 model version, we simulated ablation with the PDD method in offline mode by applying different combinations of three empirical parameters of the PDD scheme. We found that none of the parameter combinations allow us to simulate a surface mass balance of the American and European ice sheets that is similar to that obtained with the standard SEB method. The use of constant values for the empirical PDD parameters led either to too much ablation during the first phase of the last glacial cycle or too little ablation during the final phase. We then substituted the standard SEB scheme in CLIMBER-2 with the PDD scheme and performed a suite of fully interactive (online simulations of the last glacial cycle with different combinations of PDD parameters. The results of these simulations confirmed the results of the offline simulations: no combination of PDD parameters realistically simulates the evolution of the ice sheets during the entire glacial cycle. The use of constant parameter values in the online simulations leads either to a buildup of too much ice volume at the end of glacial cycle or too little ice volume at the beginning. Even when the model correctly simulates global ice volume at the last glacial maximum (21 ka, it is unable to simulate

  6. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    records with a 25 m grid resolution and vertical uncertainty of 4.6m. Comparative DEMs were derived from laser altimetry data recorded in 2005 and 2010. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be partitioned into surface mass balance (SMB) processes (runoff and precipitation) and ice dynamics...

  7. Biogeochemical cycling in a subarctic fjord adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meire, L.

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures in the Arctic have increased rapidly in recent years resulting in the melting of sea ice and glaciers at unprecedented rates. In 2012, sea ice extent across the Arctic reached a record minimum and the melt extent of Greenland Ice Sheet reached a record maximum. The accelerated mass loss

  8. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  9. Icing Impacts on Wind Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil

    was developed for the identification of icing periods from the turbine power data and the nacelle wind speeds. This method was based on the spread of power production observations at cold temperatures that was not seen during warmer periods. Using the insights gained through the observational analysis...... and the turbine power loss. The model took the shape of a hierarchal model that combined a decision tree model, based on the existence of ice on the turbine blade, and two Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The GAM for periods where icing was forecast was found to include the terms wind speed, total ice mass...

  10. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Angelen, J. H.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Lhermitte, S.; Fettweis, X.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Broeke, M. R.; Meijgaard, E.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme. The snow albedo scheme uses grain size as a prognostic variable and further depends on cloud cover, solar zenith angle and black carbon concentration. For the control experiment the overestimation of absorbed shortwave radiation (+6%) at the K-transect (west Greenland) for the period 2004–2009 is...

  11. Estimating the ice thickness of mountain glaciers with an inverse approach using surface topography and mass-balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Picasso, Marco; Farinotti, Daniel; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin; Blatter, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical method to estimate the ice thickness distribution within a two-dimensional, non-sliding mountain glacier, given a transient surface geometry and a mass-balance distribution, which are relatively easy to obtain for a large number of glaciers. The inverse approach is based on the shallow ice approximation (SIA) of ice flow and requires neither filtering of the surface topography with a lower slope limit nor approximation of constant basal shear stress. We first address this problem for a steady-state surface geometry. Next, we use an apparent surface mass-balance description that makes the transient evolution quasi-stationary. Then, we employ a more elaborated fixed-point method in which the bedrock solution is iteratively obtained by adding the difference between the computed and known surface geometries at the end of the considered time interval. In a sensitivity study, we show that the procedure is much more susceptible to small perturbations in surface geometry than mass-balance. Finally, we present preliminary results for bed elevations in three space dimensions. (paper)

  12. Evolution of Mass Functions of Coeval Stars through Wind Mass Loss and Binary Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; Langer, N.; de Mink, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stellar mass functions and ages of stellar populations are crucial to much of astrophysics. We analyze the evolution of stellar mass functions of coeval main-sequence stars, including all relevant aspects of single and binary star evolution. We show that the slope of the

  13. Prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery who were prescribed speech therapy. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Cutoff values were 6.36 cm 2 /m 2 for men and 3.92 cm 2 /m 2 for women. The Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) was used to assess the swallowing function. Univariate and ordered logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between skeletal muscle mass loss and dysphagia. The study included 50 men and 15 women (mean age 73 ± 8 y). The mean SMI was 4.72 ± 1.37 cm 2 /m 2 in men and 3.33 ± 1.42 cm 2 /m 2 in women. Skeletal muscle mass loss was found in 53 (82%) patients. Twelve had tracheostomy cannula. Thirteen were non-oral feeding (FILS levels 1-3), 5 were oral food intake and alternative nutrition (levels 4-6), and 47 were oral food intake alone (levels 7-9) at discharge. The FILS at discharge was significantly lower in patients with skeletal muscle mass loss. Ordered logistic regression analysis of swallowing function showed that skeletal muscle mass loss and tracheostomy cannula were associated independently with the FILS at discharge. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss is very high, and skeletal muscle mass loss is associated with swallowing function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PULSATION-TRIGGERED MASS LOSS FROM AGB STARS: THE 60 DAY CRITICAL PERIOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ∼10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ∼300 days.

  15. Using a mass balance to determine the potency loss during the production of a pharmaceutical blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaplow, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    The manufacture of a blend containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inert excipients is a precursor for the production of most pharmaceutical capsules and tablets. However, if there is a net water gain or preferential loss of API during production, the potency of the final drug product may be less than the target value. We use a mass balance to predict the mean potency loss during the production of a blend via wet granulation and fluidized bed drying. The result is an explicit analytical equation for the change in blend potency a function of net water gain, solids losses (both regular and high-potency), and the fraction of excipients added extragranularly. This model predicts that each 1% gain in moisture content (as determined by a loss on drying test) will decrease the API concentration of the final blend at least 1% LC. The effect of pre-blend solid losses increases with their degree of superpotency. This work supports Quality by Design by providing a rational method to set the process design space to minimize blend potency losses. When an overage is necessary, the model can help justify it by providing a quantitative, first-principles understanding of the sources of potency loss. The analysis is applicable to other manufacturing processes where the primary sources of potency loss are net water gain and/or mass losses.

  16. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  17. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind...... of periosteal BFR/BS (2-fold increase vs. BTX, Pmuscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, Pmuscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse......BMD, -13%, Pmuscle mass (-69%, Pmuscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Adiabatic mass loss in binary stars. II. (Ge+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H.; Webbink, R. F.; Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z=0.02) of mass 0.10M⊙-100M⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio qad (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q{equiv}Mdonor/Maccretor) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, qad plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with qad declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching qad=2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n=3/2 polytrope. Our calculated qad values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen & Han (2003MNRAS.341..662C) of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems that must be stable against rapid mass

  19. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M circle dot , with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M circle dot . The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as ∼12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. What can we learn from the self-attraction and loading fingerprints about pre-GRACE mass-loss acceleration from Greenland and Antarctica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. L.; Vinogradova, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    Tide-gauge records from the North Atlantic reveal significant acceleration in sea level starting in the late 20th century. We have analyzed the tide-gauge data using a model in which the accelerations are assumed to be zero prior to 1990. The estimated accelerations range from -1 to +3 m cy-2 and exhibit a systematic spatial variability. Davis and Vinogradova [2017] demonstrated that to model this variability in sea-level acceleration requires contributions from several distinct physical processes: accelerated mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets and acceleration associated with ocean circulation and heat uptake. Atmospheric pressure also contributes to the observed changes in sea level, at a much smaller amplitude. Because we are focusing on sea-level accelerations (i.e., sea-level rate changes), the contribution from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is negligible. Modeling of observed sea-level acceleration is achieved using external constraints for the important physical processes. Using GRACE results, we can calculate the sea-level "fingerprints" for Greenland and Antarctica associated with mass loading and gravitational perturbations. For the North Atlantic, Greenland induces a significant spatial variation in sea-level change—dominated by the solid-Earth response to the mass loss—whereas Antarctica contributes a spatially constant acceleration. The observations prefer a scaling of the solid-Earth/gravitational response, and we present the implications of this result for ice-mass changes prior to the onset of GRACE observations (2002-3).

  1. A new programme for monitoring the mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Gravesen, Peter; Bech Andersen, Signe

    2008-01-01

    ). The Arctic region as a whole is warming up much more rapidly than the globe at large (ACIA 2005) and it is desirable to quantify these changes in order to provide the decision-makers with a firm knowledge base. To cover this need, the Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy has now launched a new Programme...

  2. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Dupret, Marc-Antoine [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LESIA (France)], E-mail: Helanie.Godart@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: Arlette.Noels@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: ma.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  3. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2008-01-01

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  4. Tropical Cyclone Track Convergence Patterns, Arctic Sea-Ice Loss, and Superstorm Sandy: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Francis, J. A.; Byrne, J. M.; Graham, J. R.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The potential for disruption to populations and food production due to global climate change will be catastrophic in some regions. Among the most vulnerable regions are those impacted by intensifying or changing tropical cyclones (TC). The objective of this research is to identify historical trends in TC tracks and regional circulation patterns that may forecast increasing risks due to TC intensification under global climate warming. We carry out spatial and temporal analysis of the 1979 - 2011 International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) historical hurricane database. The data were divided into several subsets to allow analysis of trend in: (i) early (JJAS) and late (OND) seasonal trends; and (ii) multi-year intervals (1979-95 and 1996-2011) to differentiate possible long term trends, if any. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) overlay analysis of the IBTrACS 64 knot hurricane wind radii data identified varying levels of historical tropical cyclone track convergence in the North Atlantic (NA) basin. Results of the track convergence analysis provide a first order analysis regarding changing potential population vulnerabilities due to changing seasonal or long-term tropical cyclone activity. During the summer of 2012, the amount of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean was diminished to about half of its normal extent and 25% of its normal volume relative to the nearly steady conditions that existed before the 1980s. This record loss continues an inexorable decline observed during recent decades. The dramatic increase in open water allows much more solar energy absorption at high latitude. Most of this extra heat returns to the atmosphere in autumn, contributing to the Arctic's rate of warming; exceeding that of mid-latitudes by a factor of two to three, a phenomenon called Arctic Amplification (AA). During October 2012, prior to the arrival of Superstorm Sandy along the eastern seaboard, AA was particularly strong, resulting in a substantial

  5. Investigation of Electron Beam Induced Mass Loss of Embedding Media in the Low Voltage STEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, V.; Hrubanová, Kamila; Nebesářová, J.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, S3 (2014), s. 1270-1271 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : mass loss * mass -thickness measurement * low voltage STEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  6. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of sea ice cover and icebergs on circulation and water mass formation in a numerical circulation model of the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinniman, Michael S.; Klinck, John M.; Smith, Walker O.

    2007-11-01

    Satellite imagery shows that there was substantial variability in the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea during 2001-2003. Much of this variability is thought to be due to several large icebergs that moved through the area during that period. The effects of these changes in sea ice on circulation and water mass distributions are investigated with a numerical general circulation model. It would be difficult to simulate the highly variable sea ice from 2001 to 2003 with a dynamic sea ice model since much of the variability was due to the floating icebergs. Here, sea ice concentration is specified from satellite observations. To examine the effects of changes in sea ice due to iceberg C-19, simulations were performed using either climatological ice concentrations or the observed ice for that period. The heat balance around the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) shows that the dominant term in the surface heat budget is the net exchange with the atmosphere, but advection of oceanic warm water is also important. The area average annual basal melt rate beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is reduced by 12% in the observed sea ice simulation. The observed sea ice simulation also creates more High-Salinity Shelf Water. Another simulation was performed with observed sea ice and a fixed iceberg representing B-15A. There is reduced advection of warm surface water during summer from the RSP into McMurdo Sound due to B-15A, but a much stronger reduction is due to the late opening of the RSP in early 2003 because of C-19.

  8. Ocean Tide Influences on the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Laurie; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen A.

    2018-03-01

    Ocean tides are the main source of high-frequency variability in the vertical and horizontal motion of ice sheets near their marine margins. Floating ice shelves, which occupy about three quarters of the perimeter of Antarctica and the termini of four outlet glaciers in northern Greenland, rise and fall in synchrony with the ocean tide. Lateral motion of floating and grounded portions of ice sheets near their marine margins can also include a tidal component. These tide-induced signals provide insight into the processes by which the oceans can affect ice sheet mass balance and dynamics. In this review, we summarize in situ and satellite-based measurements of the tidal response of ice shelves and grounded ice, and spatial variability of ocean tide heights and currents around the ice sheets. We review sensitivity of tide heights and currents as ocean geometry responds to variations in sea level, ice shelf thickness, and ice sheet mass and extent. We then describe coupled ice-ocean models and analytical glacier models that quantify the effect of ocean tides on lower-frequency ice sheet mass loss and motion. We suggest new observations and model developments to improve the representation of tides in coupled models that are used to predict future ice sheet mass loss and the associated contribution to sea level change. The most critical need is for new data to improve maps of bathymetry, ice shelf draft, spatial variability of the drag coefficient at the ice-ocean interface, and higher-resolution models with improved representation of tidal energy sinks.

  9. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. VI. LUMINOSITIES AND MASS-LOSS RATES ON POPULATION SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Sargent, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first application of the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch ModelS (GRAMS) model grid to the entire evolved stellar population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of 80,843 radiative transfer models of evolved stars and circumstellar dust shells composed of either silicate or carbonaceous dust. We fit GRAMS models to ∼30,000 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC, using 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Our published data set consists of thousands of evolved stars with individually determined evolutionary parameters such as luminosity and mass-loss rate. The GRAMS grid has a greater than 80% accuracy rate discriminating between oxygen- and carbon-rich chemistry. The global dust injection rate to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the LMC from RSGs and AGB stars is on the order of 2.1 × 10 –5 M ☉ yr –1 , equivalent to a total mass injection rate (including the gas) into the ISM of ∼6 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 . Carbon stars inject two and a half times as much dust into the ISM as do O-rich AGB stars, but the same amount of mass. We determine a bolometric correction factor for C-rich AGB stars in the K s band as a function of J – K s color, BC K s = -0.40(J-K s ) 2 + 1.83(J-K s ) + 1.29. We determine several IR color proxies for the dust mass-loss rate (M-dot d ) from C-rich AGB stars, such as log M-dot d = (-18.90/((K s -[8.0])+3.37) - 5.93. We find that a larger fraction of AGB stars exhibiting the 'long-secondary period' phenomenon are more O-rich than stars dominated by radial pulsations, and AGB stars without detectable mass loss do not appear on either the first-overtone or fundamental-mode pulsation sequences.

  10. HRR Upgrade to mass loss calorimeter and modified Schlyter test for FR Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced Heat Release Rate (HRR) methodology has been extended to the Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) and the Modified Schlyter flame spread test to evaluate fire retardant effectiveness used on wood based materials. Modifications to MLC include installation of thermopile on the chimney walls to correct systematic errors to the sensible HRR calculations to account for...

  11. Observations of mass loss from OB and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this review, three observationally accessible parameters of the winds of OB and Wolf-Rayet stars are discussed: (1) Terminal velocities, (2) Velocity laws, (3) Mass loss rates. In addition, some discussion of the ionisation structure of the winds is included. In general, only the most recent results for OB stars are mentioned. (Auth.)

  12. Core-powered mass-loss and the radius distribution of small exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations identify a valley in the radius distribution of small exoplanets, with planets in the range 1.5-2.0 R⊕ significantly less common than somewhat smaller or larger planets. This valley may suggest a bimodal population of rocky planets that are either engulfed by massive gas envelopes that significantly enlarge their radius, or do not have detectable atmospheres at all. One explanation of such a bimodal distribution is atmospheric erosion by high-energy stellar photons. We investigate an alternative mechanism: the luminosity of the cooling rocky core, which can completely erode light envelopes while preserving heavy ones, produces a deficit of intermediate sized planets. We evolve planetary populations that are derived from observations using a simple analytical prescription, accounting self-consistently for envelope accretion, cooling and mass-loss, and demonstrate that core-powered mass-loss naturally reproduces the observed radius distribution, regardless of the high-energy incident flux. Observations of planets around different stellar types may distinguish between photoevaporation, which is powered by the high-energy tail of the stellar radiation, and core-powered mass-loss, which depends on the bolometric flux through the planet's equilibrium temperature that sets both its cooling and mass-loss rates.

  13. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias mountains, Alaska

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gulick, S.P.S.; Jaeger, J.M.; Mix, A.C.; Asahi, H.; Bahlburg, H.; Belanger, C.L.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Childress, L.; Cowan, E.; Drab, L.; Forwick, M.; Fukumura, A.; Ge, S.; Gupta, S.M.; Kioka, A.; Konno, S.; LeVay, L.J.; Marz, C.; Matsuzaki, K.M.; McClymont, E.L.; Moy, C.; Muller, J.; Nakamura, A.; Ojima, T.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Ridgway, K.D.; Romero, O.E.; Slagle, A.L.; Stoner, J.S.; St-Onge, G.; Suto, I.; Walczak, M.D.; Worthington, L.L.; Bailey, I.; Enkelmann, E.; Reece, R.; Swartz, J.M.

    the onset of quasi-periodic (~100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent...

  14. AGB mass-loss variations: What can we learn from (sub)millimetre observations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehaes, S.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Decin, L.; Hony, S.; Raskin, G.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the mass loss of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars undergoes variations on different time scales. We address here the question of the influence of these variations on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these sources. We therefore constructed models for the

  15. Mass loss of evolved massive stars: the circumstellar environment at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarges, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss of evolved stars is still largely mysterious, despite its importance as the main evolution engine for the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. For red supergiants (RSG), the triggering of the outflow and the mechanism of dust condensation remain unknown. Concerning red giant stars, we still do not know how their mass loss is able to form a bipolar planetary nebula. During my PhD thesis, I observed evolved stars with high angular resolution techniques. They allowed us to study the surface and the close environment of these stars, from where mass loss originates. With near-infrared interferometric observations, I characterized the water vapor and carbon monoxide envelope of the nearby RSG Betelgeuse. I also monitored a hot spot on its surface and analyzed the structure of its convection, as well as that of Antares (another very nearby supergiant) thanks to radiative hydrodynamical simulations. Diffraction-limited imaging techniques (near-infrared adaptive optics, ultraviolet space telescope) allowed me to observe the evolution of inhomogeneities in the circumstellar envelope of Betelgeuse and to discover a circumstellar disk around L2 Puppis, an asymptotic giant branch star. These multi-scale and multi-wavelength observations obtained at several epochs allowed us to monitor the evolution of the structures and to derive information on the dynamics of the stellar environment. With a wider stellar sample expected in the next few years, this observing program will allow a better understanding of the mass loss of evolved stars. (author)

  16. Postoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, complications and quality of life in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; Verberne, Hein J.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe postoperative undernutrition in terms of postoperative losses of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) with respect to complications, quality of life, readmission, and 1-y mortality after cardiac surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing cardiac

  17. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian activity was studied in 36 dry, Bos taurus cows fed to achieve different rates of body mass loss and gain in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Cows were fed hay to supply either 70% (Treatments 1, 2) or 40% (Treatments. 3,4) of their ME requirements for maintenance until they became anoestrus. Following a 90-day ...

  18. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  19. Geomagnetic reversals, polar ice and cosmic spherules: some recent measurements with a small dedicated accelerator mass-spectrometry facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed techniques for measuring the cosmogenic isotopes 10 Be (half-life 1.5 Ma) and 26 Al (716 ka) by using a small (ca. 2.2 MV) dedicated accelerator mass spectrometer facility. Three recent applications of such measurements are as follows. 1. 10 Be has been measured in marine-sediment cores at levels corresponding to three recent geomagnetic reversals. We observe an increase in 10 Be production at each of these times. The results give information on the form and length of the geomagnetic intensity changes during a reversal, and the level at which magnetic remanence is acquired in the sediments. 2. 10 Be has been measured over a 2083 m ice core, corresponding to the last climatic cycle, recovered from Vostok, Antarctica. The results suggest that the precipitation rate during the last Ice Age was about half of its present rate. There are also some indications of fairly rapid 10 Be production changes. 3. 10 Be and 26 Al have been measured in 'cosmic spherules' (small round objects, ca. 500 μm diameter) recovered in deep-sea sediments and in melt lakes on Greenland ice. The results confirm an extraterrestrial origin for such objects, as well as indicating that the parent bodies of most of them were irradiated in space as small (less than 1 cm) objects. These spherules thus very probably represent cometary debris. (author)

  20. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 2: Antarctica (1979-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior van Wessem, Jan; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice P. Y.; van Meijgaard, Erik; Amory, Charles; Birnbaum, Gerit; Jakobs, Constantijn L.; Krüger, Konstantin; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Medley, Brooke; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van Tricht, Kristof; Trusel, Luke D.; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; Wouters, Bert; Wuite, Jan; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate modelled Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) near-surface climate, surface mass balance (SMB) and surface energy balance (SEB) from the updated polar version of the regional atmospheric climate model, RACMO2 (1979-2016). The updated model, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates upper-air relaxation, a revised topography, tuned parameters in the cloud scheme to generate more precipitation towards the AIS interior and modified snow properties reducing drifting snow sublimation and increasing surface snowmelt. Comparisons of RACMO2 model output with several independent observational data show that the existing biases in AIS temperature, radiative fluxes and SMB components are further reduced with respect to the previous model version. The model-integrated annual average SMB for the ice sheet including ice shelves (minus the Antarctic Peninsula, AP) now amounts to 2229 Gt y-1, with an interannual variability of 109 Gt y-1. The largest improvement is found in modelled surface snowmelt, which now compares well with satellite and weather station observations. For the high-resolution ( ˜ 5.5 km) AP simulation, results remain comparable to earlier studies. The updated model provides a new, high-resolution data set of the contemporary near-surface climate and SMB of the AIS; this model version will be used for future climate scenario projections in a forthcoming study.

  1. Mass loss by stars at the stage of the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    For a given initial stellar mass function, star formation function, and initial chemical composition, distributions have been constructed for stars of the asymptotic giant branch by luminosity, and for white dwarfs by mass, by calculating the approximate evolution of a large number of stars. Variants are calculated with different assumptions about the mass loss in the asymptotic branch. Theory can be reconciled with observation only if it is assumed that at this stage there is also a still large mass loss in addition to the stellar wind and the ejection of a planetary nebula shell. This provides the explanation for the absence in the Magellanic clouds of carbon stars with M /sub bol/ 1.0M /sub ./. The degenerate carbon-oxygen nuclei of stars evolving along the asymptotic giant branch cannot attain the Chandrasekhar limit on account of the great mass loss by the stars. The luminosity of stars of the asymptotic giant branch in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds is a good indicator of the age of the clusters

  2. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; Marlborough, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus for 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars and for 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si IV doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km/s. Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered, there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotational effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass-loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be one billionth or one ten-billionth of a solar mass per year. The data suggest that the extended atmospheres associated with Be-star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection.

  3. Imaging spectroscopy to assess the composition of ice surface materials and their impact on glacier mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, Kathrin; Huss, Matthias; Damm, Alexander; de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The ice-albedo feedback plays a crucial role in various glaciological processes, but especially influences ice melt. Glacier surface albedo is one of the most important variables in the energy balance of snow and ice, but depends in a complicated way on many factors, such as cryoconite concentration, impurities due to mineral dust, soot or organic matter, grain size or ice surface morphology. Our understanding on how these various factors influence glacier albedo is still limited hindering a spatially and temporally explicit parameterization of energy balance models and requiring strongly simplified assumptions on actual albedo values. Over the last two decades, several studies have focused on glacier surface albedo using automatic in-situ weather stations in combination with radiation measurement setups or satellite images. Due to limitations of both approaches in matching either the spatial or the temporal length scale of glacier albedo, still fairly little is known about the state, changes and impact of glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps, although there are obvious changes in surface characteristics on most alpine glaciers over the last years. With use of the APEX (Airborne Prism EXperiment) image spectrometer, measurements of reflected radiation were acquired in high spatial and spectral resolution on Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland, to explicitly analyse the ice surface. In-situ radiometric measurements were acquired with an ASD field spectrometer in parallel to APEX overflights. These data are intended to be used for validation purposes as well as input data for the linear spectral unmixing analysis of the APEX data. Seasonal glacier mass balance is monitored since five years using the direct glaciological method. This contribution presents a first evaluation of the data collected in summer 2013. The obtained in-situ and airborne reflectance measurements were used in combination with a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) approach to assess the

  4. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Van Loon, J. Th.

    2011-01-01

    Dust production among post-main-sequence stars is investigated in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) based on infrared photometry and spectroscopy. We identify metallic iron grains as the probable dominant opacity source in these winds. Typical evolutionary timescales of asymptotic giant branch stars suggest the mass-loss rates we report are too high. We suggest that this is because the iron grains are small or elongated and/or that iron condenses more efficiently than at solar metallicity. Comparison to other works suggests metallic iron is observed to be more prevalent toward lower metallicities. The reasons for this are explored, but remain unclear. Meanwhile, the luminosity at which dusty mass loss begins is largely invariant with metallicity, but its presence correlates strongly with long-period variability. This suggests that the winds of low-mass stars have a significant driver that is not radiation pressure, but may be acoustic driving by pulsations.

  5. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  6. Evaluation of a 12-km Satellite-Era Reanalysis of Surface Mass Balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Nowicki, S.; Zhao, B.; Max, S.

    2016-12-01

    The recent contribution to sea level change from the Greenland Ice Sheet is thought to be strongly driven by surface processes including melt and runoff. Global reanalyses are potential means of reconstructing the historical time series of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), but lack spatial resolution needed to resolve ablation areas along the periphery of the ice sheet. In this work, the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) is used to examine the spatial and temporal variability of surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet. MERRA-2 is produced for the period 1980 to the present at a grid spacing of ½° latitude by ⅝° longitude, and includes snow hydrology processes including compaction, meltwater percolation and refreezing, runoff, and a prognostic surface albedo. The configuration of the MERRA-2 system allows for the background model - the Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) - to be carried in phase space through analyzed states via the computation of analysis increments, a capability referred to as "replay". Here, a MERRA-2 replay integration is conducted in which atmospheric forcing fields are interpolated and adjusted to sub- atmospheric grid-scale resolution. These adjustments include lapse-rate effects on temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other atmospheric variables that are known to have a strong elevation dependency over ice sheets. The surface coupling is performed such that mass and energy are conserved. The atmospheric forcing influences the surface representation, which operates on land surface tiles with an approximate 12-km spacing. This produces a high-resolution, downscaled SMB which is interactively coupled to the reanalysis model. We compare the downscaled SMB product with other reanalyses, regional climate model values, and a second MERRA-2 replay in which the background model has been replaced with a 12-km, non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5. The assessment

  7. Explaining individual variation in patterns of mass loss in breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthill Innes C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of birds have a disproportionate representation in the literature on life-history evolution, because of the (apparent ease with which the costs and benefits can be quantified and manipulated. During reproduction, birds frequently show a highly conserved pattern of mass change and changes in mass loss during breeding have been widely considered to be a valid short-term measure of the costs of reproduction. Experimental manipulations of the breeding attempts of birds usually argue that the presence of a response shows that a cost of reproduction exists, but there is little consensus as to how the size of these costs can be measured. Results We model this mass loss by considering how a parent can maximise its lifetime reproductive success, using a theoretical framework that is particularly suited to modelling parental care in altricial birds. If lifetime reproductive success is taken to be the sum of a parent's current and future reproductive success, we show that the exact forms of these components will influence the optimal amount of mass a parent should lose. In particular, we demonstrate that the shape of the relationship between parental investment and chick survival will lead to differing degrees of investment between parents of different initial qualities: parents with initially high levels of energy reserves could conceivably invested a lesser, similar or greater amount of resources than parents with initially low reserves, and these initially 'heavy' parents could potentially end up being lighter than the initially 'lighter' individuals. Conclusion We argue that it is difficult to make predictions about the dependence of a parent's final mass on its initial mass, and therefore mass loss should only be used as a short-term measure of the costs of reproduction with caution. The model demonstrates that we require a better understanding of the relationship between mass loss and both current and future reproductive

  8. Mass loss from red giants - A simple evolutionary model for NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7027 is a young planetary nebula with the remnants of a red giant circumstellar envelope surrounding the central, ionized region. By comparing the outer molecular envelope with the inner ionized material, it is argued that the mass loss rate has decreased by at least a factor of 3, and more probably by about a factor of 10, during the past 1000 years. From this result, it is argued that the luminosity of the central star has also decreased substantially during the same time, consistent with models for the rapid evolution of stars just after they evolve off the asymptotic giant branch. In this picture, the distance to NGC 7027 is less than 1300 pc. NGC 7027 was the last (and best) example of a star where apparently the momentum in the outflowing mass /M(dot)v/ is considerably greater than the momentum in the radiation field (L/c). With the above description of this object, the evidence is now strong that quite often the mass lost from late-type giants is ultimately driven to infinity by radiation pressure on grains. If M(dot)v is as large as L/c for asymptotic branch stars, then it is expected that the total amount of mass lost during this stage of evolution is of the same magnitude as the initial mass of the star, and therefore this mass loss can profoundly affect the star's ultimate fate.

  9. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, T.P. Jr.; Marlborough, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus of 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars, and 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si iv doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km s -1 . Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotation effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be 10 -10 --10 -9 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . The data are suggestive that the extended atmospheres associated with Be star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection

  10. Statistically optimal estimation of Greenland Ice Sheet mass variations from GRACE monthly solutions using an improved mascon approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, J.; Ditmar, P.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2018-03-01

    We present an improved mascon approach to transform monthly spherical harmonic solutions based on GRACE satellite data into mass anomaly estimates in Greenland. The GRACE-based spherical harmonic coefficients are used to synthesize gravity anomalies at satellite altitude, which are then inverted into mass anomalies per mascon. The limited spectral content of the gravity anomalies is properly accounted for by applying a low-pass filter as part of the inversion procedure to make the functional model spectrally consistent with the data. The full error covariance matrices of the monthly GRACE solutions are properly propagated using the law of covariance propagation. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate the importance of a proper data weighting and of the spectral consistency between functional model and data. The developed methodology is applied to process real GRACE level-2 data (CSR RL05). The obtained mass anomaly estimates are integrated over five drainage systems, as well as over entire Greenland. We find that the statistically optimal data weighting reduces random noise by 35-69%, depending on the drainage system. The obtained mass anomaly time-series are de-trended to eliminate the contribution of ice discharge and are compared with de-trended surface mass balance (SMB) time-series computed with the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO 2.3). We show that when using a statistically optimal data weighting in GRACE data processing, the discrepancies between GRACE-based estimates of SMB and modelled SMB are reduced by 24-47%.

  11. Limited influence of climate change mitigation on short-term glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg; Maussion, Fabien; Champollion, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Glacier mass loss is a key contributor to sea-level change1,2, slope instability in high-mountain regions3,4 and the changing seasonality and volume of river flow5-7. Understanding the causes, mechanisms and time scales of glacier change is therefore paramount to identifying successful strategies for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we use temperature and precipitation fields from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 output to force a glacier evolution model, quantifying mass responses to future climatic change. We find that contemporary glacier mass is in disequilibrium with the current climate, and 36 ± 8% mass loss is already committed in response to past greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, mitigating future emissions will have only very limited influence on glacier mass change in the twenty-first century. No significant differences between 1.5 and 2 K warming scenarios are detectable in the sea-level contribution of glaciers accumulated within the twenty-first century. In the long-term, however, mitigation will exert strong control, suggesting that ambitious measures are necessary for the long-term preservation of glaciers.

  12. Arctic marine mammal population status, sea ice habitat loss, and conservation recommendations for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Harry; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lowry, Lloyd; Moore, Sue E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Wiig, Øystein; Boveng, Peter; Angliss, Robyn P.; Born, Erik W.; Litovka, Dennis; Quakenbush, Lori; Lydersen, Christian; Vongraven, Dag; Ugarte, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arctic marine mammals (AMMs) are icons of climate change, largely because of their close association with sea ice. However, neither a circumpolar assessment of AMM status nor a standardized metric of sea ice habitat change is available. We summarized available data on abundance and trend for each AMM species and recognized subpopulation. We also examined species diversity, the extent of human use, and temporal trends in sea ice habitat for 12 regions of the Arctic by calculating the dates of spring sea ice retreat and fall sea ice advance from satellite data (1979–2013). Estimates of AMM abundance varied greatly in quality, and few studies were long enough for trend analysis. Of the AMM subpopulations, 78% (61 of 78) are legally harvested for subsistence purposes. Changes in sea ice phenology have been profound. In all regions except the Bering Sea, the duration of the summer (i.e., reduced ice) period increased by 5–10 weeks and by >20 weeks in the Barents Sea between 1979 and 2013. In light of generally poor data, the importance of human use, and forecasted environmental changes in the 21st century, we recommend the following for effective AMM conservation: maintain and improve comanagement by local, federal, and international partners; recognize spatial and temporal variability in AMM subpopulation response to climate change; implement monitoring programs with clear goals; mitigate cumulative impacts of increased human activity; and recognize the limits of current protected species legislation. PMID:25783745

  13. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Graefener, Goetz, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.uk [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of {approx_equal}2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot{sub trans} between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the {approx}50 M{sub Sun} mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  14. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2012-01-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of ≅2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot trans between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the ∼50 M ☉ mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  15. Mass loss and asymmetries in the lines of Iota Coronae Borealis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent observations by Smith and Parsons of the Hg--Mn star iota CrB have revealed slight asymmetries in the absorption lines. While these asymmetries are near the limits of detection at the resolution used, their appearance in several lines indicates that they are real. Proposed explanations of this phenomenon are not completely satisfactory. In this Letter it will be shown that the asymmetries are consistent with an accelerating radial flow of material in the photosphere of this star. The velocity needed to reproduce the observed asymmetry corresponds to a mass loss rate of roughly 10 -7 M/sub solar mass/ yr -1

  16. Evolutionary calculations for planetary nebula nuclei with continuing mass loss and realistic starting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.J.; Wood, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations for nuclei of planetary nebulae are described. They were made using assumptions regarding mass of the NPN, phase in the He shell flash cycle at which the NPN leaves the AGB, and time variation of the mass loss rate. Comparison of the evolutionary tracks with the observational Harman-Seaton sequence indicates that some recently published NPN luminosities may be too low by a factor of three. Comparison of the calculated timescales with the observed properties of NPN and of white dwarfs provides marginal evidence for the PN ejection being initiated by the helium shell flash itself

  17. Loss of mass and performance in skeletal muscle tissue: a continuum model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giantesio Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuum hyperelastic model which describes the mechanical response of a skeletal muscle tissue when its strength and mass are reduced by aging. Such a reduction is typical of a geriatric syndrome called sarcopenia. The passive behavior of the material is described by a hyperelastic, polyconvex, transversely isotropic strain energy function, and the activation of the muscle is modeled by the so called active strain approach. The loss of ability of activating of an elder muscle is then obtained by lowering of some percentage the active part of the stress, while the loss of mass is modeled through a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. The obtained stress-strain relations are graphically represented and discussed in order to study some of the effects of sarcopenia.

  18. Effect of mass loss on the chemical yields from massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1979-01-01

    Recent results on the calculation of the chemical yields from massive stars, are rediscussed by taking into account the occurrence of mass loss by stellar wind during the core H- and He-burning phases. The new yields are found to be compatible with the observed distribution of chemical abundances in the solar system, except for He. The net enrichment of several elements over the galaxy's lifetime is found to be consistent with the current estimate of the star formation rate, if we adopt a two phase process of galaxy formation (halodisk). The relative He to heavy element enrichment rate ..delta..Y/..delta..Z turns out to agree with the observational value when mass loss by stellar wind is taken into account.

  19. Computational Modelling of the Structural Integrity following Mass-Loss in Polymeric Charred Cellular Solids

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. M. Whitty; J. Francis; J. Howe; B. Henderson

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational technique is presented for embedding mass-loss due to burning into the ANSYS finite element modelling code. The approaches employ a range of computational modelling methods in order to provide more complete theoretical treatment of thermoelasticity absent from the literature for over six decades. Techniques are employed to evaluate structural integrity (namely, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and compressive brittle strength) of honeycomb systems known to approximate t...

  20. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  1. Fire spread in chaparral: comparison of data with flame-mass loss relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Thomas H. Fletcher; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between flame length, mass loss rate, and the Froude number have become well-established for many different fuels over the past 60 years. Chaparral, a mixture of shrub plants from the Mediterranean climate zone of southwestern North America, represents a fuel type—living plants—that has seldom been included in the development of these relationships....

  2. Effect of rotational mixing and metallicity on the hot star wind mass-loss rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 567, July (2014), A63/1-A63/7 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10589S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars: winds * outflows * stars: mass-loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  3. A new approach to estimate ice dynamic rates using satellite observations in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kallenberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance changes of the Antarctic ice sheet are of significant interest due to its sensitivity to climatic changes and its contribution to changes in global sea level. While regional climate models successfully estimate mass input due to snowfall, it remains difficult to estimate the amount of mass loss due to ice dynamic processes. It has often been assumed that changes in ice dynamic rates only need to be considered when assessing long-term ice sheet mass balance; however, 2 decades of satellite altimetry observations reveal that the Antarctic ice sheet changes unexpectedly and much more dynamically than previously expected. Despite available estimates on ice dynamic rates obtained from radar altimetry, information about ice sheet changes due to changes in the ice dynamics are still limited, especially in East Antarctica. Without understanding ice dynamic rates, it is not possible to properly assess changes in ice sheet mass balance and surface elevation or to develop ice sheet models. In this study we investigate the possibility of estimating ice sheet changes due to ice dynamic rates by removing modelled rates of surface mass balance, firn compaction, and bedrock uplift from satellite altimetry and gravity observations. With similar rates of ice discharge acquired from two different satellite missions we show that it is possible to obtain an approximation of the rate of change due to ice dynamics by combining altimetry and gravity observations. Thus, surface elevation changes due to surface mass balance, firn compaction, and ice dynamic rates can be modelled and correlated with observed elevation changes from satellite altimetry.

  4. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  5. Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing. PMID:26601195

  6. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Barnosky, Anthony D; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-06-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth "mass extinction" depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the "background" rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.

  7. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning at an ice-hockey game: initial approach and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Populaire, Jacques; Desruelles, Didier; Sabbe, Marc B

    2013-12-01

    A mass carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication during an ice-hockey game is described. Two hundred and thirty-five patients were seen in different hospitals, 88 of them the same night at the nearby emergency department. To evaluate long-term implications and to identify relevant indicators, a follow-up study was organized 1 year after the incident. Apart from the file data from the emergency departments, a 1-year follow-up mailing was sent to all patients. One hundred and ninety-one patients returned their questionnaire (86%). The mean age of the patients was 28 years, with 61% men. The mean carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was 9.9%. COHb levels were significantly higher for individuals on the ice (referee, players and maintenance personnel). There was a significant relationship with the initial presence of dizziness, fatigue and the COHb level. Headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were not significantly related to the COHb levels. The relationship between symptoms and CO level, however, should be interpreted with caution as there was a wide range between exposure and blood tests. 5.2% of patients had residual complaints, all including headache, with a significant higher incidence with high COHb levels. Only two patients had an abnormal neurological control (one slightly disturbed electroencephalography and one persistent encephalopathic complaint). Work incapacity was also significantly related to COHb levels. CO mass poisonings remain a risk in indoor sporting events. Although it causes an acute mass casualty incident, it is limited in time and delayed problems are scarce. Symptomatology is a poor tool for triage. The best prevention is the use of nonmineral energy sources such as for example electricity.

  8. Mass and loss analysis of a space-type radiation cooled insulated DC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, g.E.

    1986-01-01

    As both the power levels and transmission distances increase such as for large future nuclear power systems, the transmission line becomes an important element in the power chain between the source and load bus. Thus, the transmission line's characteristics must be determined so that the effect of these characteristics on the total power system can be assessed. These design characteristics include the specific mass, percent power loss, size, voltage and power levels, and operating temperatures of the conductor and insulating materials. In a previous paper, the dc transmission line's characteristics of a noninsulated solid cylindrical conductor were determined. In that analysis the expression derived for the transmission line's mass only included the conductor mass and the operating temperature of the line was that of the conductor. In the analysis of this paper, a single layer of insulation is added to the solid cylindrical conductor. In this analysis the dependency of the dc transmission line's mass, loss, and size on the power and voltage levels, conductor and insulation surface temperatures, transmission distance, and conductor and insulation material properties is determined. This analysis can be extended to multi-layers of insulation but the complexity of the analysis increases as the number of layers increase

  9. Constraints on continental crustal mass loss via chemical weathering using lithium and its isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X. M.

    2012-04-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" that is the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems point to the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 1×10^10 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  10. Luminosities and mass-loss rates of Local Group AGB stars and red supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Sloan, G. C.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Mass loss is one of the fundamental properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and through the enrichment of the interstellar medium, AGB stars are key players in the life cycle of dust and gas in the universe. However, a quantitative understanding of the mass-loss process is still largely lacking. Aims: We aim to investigate mass loss and luminosity in a large sample of evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies with a variety of metalliticies and star-formation histories: the Small and Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Fornax, Carina, and Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Methods: Dust radiative transfer models are presented for 225 carbon stars and 171 oxygen-rich evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies for which spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer are available. The spectra are complemented with available optical and infrared photometry to construct spectral energy distributions. A minimization procedure was used to determine luminosity and mass-loss rate (MLR). Pulsation periods were derived for a large fraction of the sample based on a re-analysis of existing data. Results: New deep K-band photometry from the VMC survey and multi-epoch data from IRAC (at 4.5 μm) and AllWISE and NEOWISE have allowed us to derive pulsation periods longer than 1000 days for some of the most heavily obscured and reddened objects. We derive (dust) MLRs and luminosities for the entire sample. The estimated MLRs can differ significantly from estimates for the same objects in the literature due to differences in adopted optical constants (up to factors of several) and details in the radiative transfer modelling. Updated parameters for the super-AGB candidate MSX SMC 055 (IRAS 00483-7347) are presented. Its current mass is estimated to be 8.5 ± 1.6 M⊙, suggesting an initial mass well above 8 M⊙ in agreement with estimates based on its large Rubidium abundance. Using synthetic photometry, we present and discuss colour-colour and

  11. Optimal controls of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part II: Parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiah, Ali; Krarti, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A detailed analysis is presented to assess the performance of thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ► Utility rates have been found to be significant in assessing the operation of TES systems. ► Optimal control strategies for TES systems can save up to 40% of total energy cost of office buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a series of parametric analysis to investigate the factors that affect the effectiveness of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs (including energy and demand costs) while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions in buildings. The analysis is based on a validated model-based simulation environment and includes several parameters including the optimization cost function, base chiller size, and ice storage tank capacity, and weather conditions. It found that the combined use of building thermal mass and active thermal energy storage system can save up to 40% of the total energy costs when integrated optimal control are considered to operate commercial buildings.

  12. Predictors of fat-free mass loss 1 year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, B; Cataldi, M; Busetto, L; Aiello, M L; Musella, M; Capone, D; Parolisi, S; Policastro, V; Ragozini, G; Belfiore, A

    2018-03-24

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most frequently performed bariatric surgery interventions because of its safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised on its detrimental effect on patient nutritional state that can ultimately lead to the loss of fat-free mass (FFM). There is interest in identifying predictors for the early identification of patients at risk of this highly unwanted adverse because they could benefit of nutritional preventive interventions. Therefore, we investigated whether anthropometric parameters, body composition or resting energy expenditure (REE) measured before surgery could predict FFM loss 1 year after LSG. Study design was retrospective observational. We retrieved data on body weight, BMI, body composition and REE before and 1 year after LSG from the medical files of 36 patients operated on by LSG at our institutions. Simple regression, the Oldham's method and multilevel analysis were used to identify predictors of FFM loss. Averaged percentage FFM loss 1 year after LSG was 17.0 ± 7.7% with significant differences between sexes (20.8 ± 6.6 in males and 12.2 ± 6.1% in females, p FFM loss was strongly predicted by pre-surgery FFM and this effect persisted also after correcting for the contribution of sex. High FFM values before surgery predict a more severe FFM loss after LSG. This factor could also account for the higher FFM loss in men than in women. Our finding could help in the early identification of patient requiring a nutritional support after LSG.

  13. Increase in transmission loss of single panels by addition of mass inclusions to a poro-elastic layer: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidner, M. R. F.; Fuller, C. R.; Gardner, B.

    2006-06-01

    The insertion loss of standard acoustic blankets can be significantly improved at low frequencies by the addition of randomly placed mass inclusions to the poro-elastic layers. The improvement is much greater than that due to the mass effect alone. The mass inclusions act as resonant systems and so increase the structure impedance. This paper reports the results of experimental investigations into this phenomenon. Increases in insertion loss of 15 dB in the 100 Hz third octave band are reported.

  14. Episodic mass loss from the hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula Longmore 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A spectacular transient mass-loss episode from the extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula (PN) Longmore 4 (Lo 4) was discovered in 1992 by Werner et al. During that event, the star temporarily changed from its normal PG 1159 spectrum to that of an emission-line low-luminosity early-type Wolf-Rayet [WCE] star. After a few days, Lo 4 reverted to its normal, predominantly absorption-line PG 1159 type. To determine whether such events recur, and if so how often, I monitored the optical spectrum of Lo 4 from early 2003 to early 2012. Out of 81 spectra taken at random dates, 4 of them revealed mass-loss outbursts similar to that seen in 1992. This indicates that the episodes recur approximately every 100 days (if the recurrence rate has been approximately constant and the duration of a typical episode is ∼5 days), and that the star is in a high-mass-loss state about 5% of the time. Since the enhanced stellar wind is hydrogen-deficient, it arises from the photosphere and is unlikely to be related to phenomena such as a binary or planetary companion or infalling dust. I speculate on plausible mechanisms for these unique outbursts, including the possibility that they are related to the non-radial GW Vir-type pulsations exhibited by Lo 4. The central star of the PN NGC 246 has stellar parameters similar to those of Lo 4, and it is also a GW Vir-type pulsator with similar pulsation periods. I obtained 167 spectra of NGC 246 between 2003 and 2011, but no mass ejections were found.

  15. IN-SITU PROBING OF RADIATION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF ORGANICS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ICE ANALOGS—NOVEL LASER DESORPTION LASER IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Yang Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of organic molecules in ice grains in the interstellar medium (ISM) under cosmic rays, stellar radiation, and local electrons and ions is critical to our understanding of the connection between ISM and solar systems. Our study is aimed at reaching this goal of looking directly into radiation-induced processing in these ice grains. We developed a two-color laser-desorption laser-ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic method (2C-MALDI-TOF), similar to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results presented here with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) probe molecules embedded in water-ice at 5 K show for the first time that hydrogenation and oxygenation are the primary chemical reactions that occur in astrophysical ice analogs when subjected to Lyα radiation. We found that hydrogenation can occur over several unsaturated bonds and the product distribution corresponds to their stabilities. Multiple hydrogenation efficiency is found to be higher at higher temperatures (100 K) compared to 5 K—close to the interstellar ice temperatures. Hydroxylation is shown to have similar efficiencies at 5 K or 100 K, indicating that addition of O atoms or OH radicals to pre-ionized PAHs is a barrierless process. These studies—the first glimpses into interstellar ice chemistry through analog studies—show that once accreted onto ice grains PAHs lose their PAH spectroscopic signatures through radiation chemistry, which could be one of the reason for the lack of PAH detection in interstellar ice grains, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers of protoplanetary disks.

  16. Application of GRACE to the assessment of model-based estimates of monthly Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Wiese, David N.; Larour, Eric Y.; Watkins, Michael M.; Box, Jason E.; Fettweis, Xavier; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the Greenland Ice Sheet's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task that requires accurate estimates of ice sheet sensitivity to climate change. Forward ice sheet models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior, yet confidence is low because evaluation of historical simulations is challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for model evaluation. Recent advancements in processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using Bayesian-constrained mass concentration ("mascon") functions have led to improvements in spatial resolution and noise reduction of monthly global gravity fields. Specifically, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution (GRACE_JPL) offers an opportunity for the assessment of model-based estimates of ice sheet mass balance (MB) at ˜ 300 km spatial scales. Here, we quantify the differences between Greenland monthly observed MB (GRACE_JPL) and that estimated by state-of-the-art, high-resolution models, with respect to GRACE_JPL and model uncertainties. To simulate the years 2003-2012, we force the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) with anomalies from three different surface mass balance (SMB) products derived from regional climate models. Resulting MB is compared against GRACE_JPL within individual mascons. Overall, we find agreement in the northeast and southwest where MB is assumed to be primarily controlled by SMB. In the interior, we find a discrepancy in trend, which we presume to be related to millennial-scale dynamic thickening not considered by our model. In the northwest, seasonal amplitudes agree, but modeled mass trends are muted relative to GRACE_JPL. Here, discrepancies are likely controlled by temporal variability in ice discharge and other related processes not represented by our model simulations, i.e., hydrological processes and ice-ocean interaction. In the southeast, GRACE_JPL exhibits larger seasonal amplitude than predicted by the

  17. Barrow real-time sea ice mass balance data: ingestion, processing, dissemination and archival of multi-sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Eicken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor data can be highly variable in nature and also varied depending on the physical quantity being observed, sensor hardware and sampling parameters. The sea ice mass balance site (MBS) operated in Barrow by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (http://seaice.alaska.edu/gi/observatories/barrow_sealevel) is a multisensor platform consisting of a thermistor string, air and water temperature sensors, acoustic altimeters above and below the ice and a humidity sensor. Each sensor has a unique specification and configuration. The data from multiple sensors are combined to generate sea ice data products. For example, ice thickness is calculated from the positions of the upper and lower ice surfaces, which are determined using data from downward-looking and upward-looking acoustic altimeters above and below the ice, respectively. As a data clearinghouse, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) processes real time data from many sources, including the Barrow MBS. Doing so requires a system that is easy to use, yet also offers the flexibility to handle data from multisensor observing platforms. In the case of the Barrow MBS, the metadata system needs to accommodate the addition of new and retirement of old sensors from year to year as well as instrument configuration changes caused by, for example, spring melt or inquisitive polar bears. We also require ease of use for both administrators and end users. Here we present the data and processing steps of using sensor data system powered by the NoSQL storage engine, MongoDB. The system has been developed to ingest, process, disseminate and archive data from the Barrow MBS. Storing sensor data in a generalized format, from many different sources, is a challenging task, especially for traditional SQL databases with a set schema. MongoDB is a NoSQL (not only SQL) database that does not require a fixed schema. There are several advantages using this model over the traditional relational database management system (RDBMS

  18. Transient Mass-loss Analysis of Solar Observations Using Stellar Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosley, M. K.; Norman, C. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Osten, R. A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Low-frequency dynamic spectra of radio bursts from nearby stars offer the best chance to directly detect the stellar signature of transient mass loss on low-mass stars. Crosley et al. (2016) proposes a multi-wavelength methodology to determine coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters, such as speed, mass, and kinetic energy. We test the validity and accuracy of the results derived from the methodology by using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray observations and Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer radio observations. These are analogous observations to those that would be found in the stellar studies. Derived results from these observations are compared to direct white light measurements of the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. We find that, when a pre-event temperature can be determined, the accuracy of CME speeds are within a few hundred km s{sup −1}, and are reliable when specific criteria has been met. CME mass and kinetic energies are only useful in determining the approximate order of magnitude measurements when considering the large errors associated to them. These results will be directly applicable to the interpretation of any detected stellar events and the derivation of stellar CME properties.

  19. Surveying Drifting Icebergs and Ice Islands: Deterioration Detection and Mass Estimation with Aerial Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Crawford

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Icebergs and ice islands (large, tabular icebergs are challenging targets to survey due to their size, mobility, remote locations, and potentially difficult environmental conditions. Here, we assess the precision and utility of aerial photography surveying with structure-from-motion multi-view stereo photogrammetry processing (SfM and vessel-based terrestrial laser scanning (TLS for iceberg deterioration detection and mass estimation. For both techniques, we determine the minimum amount of change required to reliably resolve iceberg deterioration, the deterioration detection threshold (DDT, using triplicate surveys of two iceberg survey targets. We also calculate their relative uncertainties for iceberg mass estimation. The quality of deployed Global Positioning System (GPS units that were used for drift correction and scale assignment was a major determinant of point cloud precision. When dual-frequency GPS receivers were deployed, DDT values of 2.5 and 0.40 m were calculated for the TLS and SfM point clouds, respectively. In contrast, values of 6.6 and 3.4 m were calculated when tracking beacons with lower-quality GPS were used. The SfM dataset was also more precise when used for iceberg mass estimation, and we recommend further development of this technique for iceberg-related end-uses.

  20. GAS LOSS BY RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING AND INTERNAL FEEDBACK FROM LOW-MASS MILKY WAY SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerick, Andrew; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Grcevich, Jana [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Gatto, Andrea [Max-Planck-Institute für Astrophysik, Garching, bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites in the Milky Way (MW) is affected by a combination of ram pressure stripping (RPS), tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the MW using three-dimensional, high-resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low-mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that RPS is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that although RPS can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play to reconcile our computed stripping times with the rapid quenching timescales deduced from observations of low-mass MW dwarf galaxies. We discuss the roles additional physics may play in this scenario, including host-satellite tidal interactions, cored versus cuspy dark matter profiles, reionization, and satellite preprocessing. We conclude that a proper accounting of these physics together is necessary to understand the quenching of low-mass MW satellites.

  1. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Snow and Ice Particle Sizes and Mass Concentrations at Altitudes Up to 9 km (30,000 ft)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeck, Richard

    1998-01-01

    About 7600 nautical miles (nm) (14,000 km) of select ice particle measurements over the United States have been compiled into a single, computerized database for use in characterizing ice crystal and snowflake...

  3. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied

  4. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)], E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2008-11-15

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied.

  5. State of Arctic Sea Ice North of Svalbard during N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; King, Jennifer; Gerland, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The N-ICE2015 cruise, led by the Norwegian Polar Institute, was a drift experiment with the research vessel R/V Lance from January to June 2015, where the ship started the drift North of Svalbard at 83°14.45' N, 21°31.41' E. The drift was repeated as soon as the vessel drifted free. Altogether, 4 ice stations where installed and the complex ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system was studied with an interdisciplinary Approach. During the N-ICE2015 cruise, extensive ice thickness and snow depth measurements were performed during both, winter and summer conditions. Total ice and snow thickness was measured with ground-based and airborne electromagnetic instruments; snow depth was measured with a GPS snow depth probe. Additionally, ice mass balance and snow buoys were deployed. Snow and ice thickness measurements were performed on repeated transects to quantify the ice growth or loss as well as the snow accumulation and melt rate. Additionally, we collected independent values on surveys to determine the general ice thickness distribution. Average snow depths of 32 cm on first year ice, and 52 cm on multi-year ice were measured in January, the mean snow depth on all ice types even increased until end of March to 49 cm. The average total ice and snow thickness in winter conditions was 1.92 m. During winter we found a small growth rate on multi-year ice of about 15 cm in 2 months, due to above-average snow depths and some extraordinary storm events that came along with mild temperatures. In contrast thereto, we also were able to study new ice formation and thin ice on newly formed leads. In summer conditions an enormous melt rate, mainly driven by a warm Atlantic water inflow in the marginal ice zone, was observed during two ice stations with melt rates of up to 20 cm per 24 hours. To reinforce the local measurements around the ship and to confirm their significance on a larger scale, we compare them to airborne thickness measurements and classified SAR-satellite scenes. The

  6. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  7. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, Michiel M.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Reerink, Thomas J.; Bintanja, Richard; Madsen, Marianne S.; Yang, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by

  8. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, Michiel M.; Van De Wal, Roderik S.W.; Reerink, Thomas J.; Bintanja, Richard; Madsen, Marianne S.; Yang, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model ECEarth by

  9. A Conceptual Analysis of Mass Loss and Frequency Redistribution in Wolf-Rayet Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Onifer, A. J.; Gayley, K. G.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand Wolf-Rayet stars as progenitors of gamma-ray bursts, an understanding of the effect metallicity has on Wolf-Rayet mass loss is needed. Using simple analytic models, we study the Mdot - Z relation of a WN star and compare the results to similar models. We find that Mdot roughly follows a power law in Z with index 0.88 from -2.5 < log Z/Z_sun < -1 and appears to flatten by log Z/Z_sun ~ -0.5.

  10. Radio Photosphere and Mass-Loss Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscy, S. J.; Jura, M.; Reid, M. J.

    2005-06-01

    We have used the VLA to detect emission from the supergiant VY CMa at radio wavelengths and have constructed 3000-4500 K isothermal outer atmospheres constrained by the data. These models produce a radio photosphere at 1.5-2 R*. An extrapolation of the model can account for the observed total mass-loss rate of the star. We also present mid-infrared imaging of the supergiant which suggests that warm dust is extended in the same direction as the near-infrared reflection nebula around VY CMa. The origin of the asymmetries in the outflow remains an unsolved problem.

  11. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet cross-validated with the input-output method (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Van der Wal, W.; Van den Broeke, M.; Enderlin, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighbouring glaciated regions using a least-squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output

  12. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallée, H.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sea level rise (SLR) originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Mod`ele Atmosph´erique R´egional), forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model

  13. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  14. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya Univsersity, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: kurokawa@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  15. Galactic chemical evolution with main-sequence mass loss and the distribution of F and G dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Simple closed galactic chemical-evolution models incorporating early main-sequence stellar mass loss have been developed for disk ages of 5, 10, and 15 Gyr. Relative to models without stellar mass loss, the models are shown to produce a 30-60 percent increase in the present mass ratio of dwarfs to dwarfs plus remnants, and a 200-250 percent increase in the total mass of late F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence at the current disk age. For present disk ages 5 and 10 Gyr, the total mass of mid-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence is also shown to increase by 90-120 percent. It is concluded that models with main-sequence mass loss have a slightly reduced gas metallicity and slightly increased gas fraction midway through the evolution. 30 references

  16. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  17. A path model of sarcopenia on bone mass loss in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Guido, D; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M A; Perna, S; Grassi, M

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreases in muscle mass, strength, power (sarcopenia) and bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of this study were to investigate in elderly the role of sarcopenia on BMD loss by a path model, including adiposity, inflammation, and malnutrition associations. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in 159 elderly subjects (52 male/107 female; mean age 80.3 yrs). Muscle strength was determined with dynamometer. Serum albumin and PCR were also assessed. Structural equations examined the effect of sarcopenia (measured by Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass, Total Muscle Mass, Handgrip, Muscle Quality Score) on osteoporosis (measured by Vertebral and Femoral T-scores) in a latent variable model including adiposity (measured by Total Fat Mass, BMI, Ginoid/Android Fat), inflammation (PCR), and malnutrition (serum albumin). The sarcopenia assumed a role of moderator in the adiposity-osteoporosis relationship. Specifically, increasing the sarcopenia, the relationship adiposity-osteoporosis (β: -0.58) decrease in intensity. Adiposity also influences sarcopenia (β: -0.18). Malnutrition affects the inflammatory and the adiposity states (β: +0.61, and β: -0.30, respectively), while not influencing the sarcopenia. Thus, adiposity has a role as a mediator of the effect of malnutrition on both sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Malnutrition decreases adiposity; decreasing adiposity, in turn, increase the sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This study suggests such as in a group of elderly sarcopenia affects the link between adiposity and BMD, but not have a pure independent effect on osteoporosis.

  18. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  19. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Maria; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Raverty, Stephen A.; Shadwick, Robert E.; André, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4 hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30 hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events.

  20. Mass loss, levitation, accretion, and the sharp-lined features in hot white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Kondo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We have studied eight white dwarfs, seven DA and one He-rich types, observed at a high resolution (lambda/Δlambdaroughly-equal10 4 ) with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Of the seven DA white dwarfs, three show spectral signatures of ionized heavy elements, such as Si II, SI III, C IV, Si IV, and N V, arising in the immediate environment of these stars. The shortward-shifted lines in two (G191--B2B and 2111+49) of the three DA types showing metallic lines are tentatively interpreted as an indication of mass loss from these stars. The He-rich white dwarf shows the features due to C cV and He II, which also arise in the immediate environment of that star. Although the statistical sample presented here is limited, we tentatively suggest a temperature and effective gravity range (T/sub eff/> or approx. =20,000 K and log (g) < or approx. =8.0) in DA white dwarfs within which metallic lines are present either in the photosphere or in the halo of the stars. We examine the physical processes relevant to the appearance of such metallic lines. We tentatively propose that radiative levitation can explain the appearance of the observed lines in the hot DA white dwarfs, although the role of radiation forces in mass loss is not clear

  1. Atmospheric mass-loss of extrasolar planets orbiting magnetically active host stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Sairam; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Dash, Spandan

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic stellar activity of exoplanet hosts can lead to the production of large amounts of high-energy emission, which irradiates extrasolar planets, located in the immediate vicinity of such stars. This radiation is absorbed in the planets' upper atmospheres, which consequently heat up and evaporate, possibly leading to an irradiation-induced mass-loss. We present a study of the high-energy emission in the four magnetically active planet-bearing host stars, Kepler-63, Kepler-210, WASP-19, and HAT-P-11, based on new XMM-Newton observations. We find that the X-ray luminosities of these stars are rather high with orders of magnitude above the level of the active Sun. The total XUV irradiation of these planets is expected to be stronger than that of well-studied hot Jupiters. Using the estimated XUV luminosities as the energy input to the planetary atmospheres, we obtain upper limits for the total mass- loss in these hot Jupiters.

  2. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  3. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  4. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment. A plaus......Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment....... A plausible contributor to the accentuated catabolic drive in ICU patients is a synergistic response to inflammation and inactivity leading to loss of muscle mass. As these entities are predominantly present in the early phase of ICU stay, interventions employed during this time frame may exhibit the greatest...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...

  5. The circumstellar shells and mass loss rates of four M supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernat, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    A reanalysis of the physical structure of the circumstellar gas shells of four bright M supergiants, Betelgeuse, Antares, α Herculis, and μ Cephei, has been undertaken. The observational data include old Hale Observatories plates, recent McDonald Struve telescope plates, and McDonald 2.7 m photoelectric scans. These data are analyzed in the full expanding spherical geometry formulation of the radiative transfer equation.The results of the present analysis indicate that column densities in the gas shells must be revised downward compared with the previous plane-parallel results. However, the physical extents of the shells are considerably larger than previously assumed. These extents are inferred through ionization modeling, Weymann's Ca II technique, and direct observation. Also inferred are schematic wavelength-dependent chromospheric color temperatures. These results lead to much larger mass loss rates (in the range 6.7 x 10 -7 to 4.2 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -2 ) than previously inferred. The influence of these large rates of mass loss on the evolution of both stars and the Galaxy is briefly discussed

  6. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. IV. Constraining mass loss and lifetimes of low mass, low metallicity AGB stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Marigo, Paola [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo; Gullieuszik, Marco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Aringer, Bernhard [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-20

    The evolution and lifetimes of thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars suffer from significant uncertainties. In this work, we analyze the numbers and luminosity functions of TP-AGB stars in six quiescent, low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≲ –0.86) galaxies taken from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury sample, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry in both optical and near-infrared filters. The galaxies contain over 1000 TP-AGB stars (at least 60 per field). We compare the observed TP-AGB luminosity functions and relative numbers of TP-AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars, N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB}, to models generated from different suites of TP-AGB evolutionary tracks after adopting star formation histories derived from the HST deep optical observations. We test various mass-loss prescriptions that differ in their treatments of mass loss before the onset of dust-driven winds (pre-dust). These comparisons confirm that pre-dust mass loss is important, since models that neglect pre-dust mass loss fail to explain the observed N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB} ratio or the luminosity functions. In contrast, models with more efficient pre-dust mass loss produce results consistent with observations. We find that for [Fe/H] ≲ –0.86, lower mass TP-AGB stars (M ≲ 1 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes of ∼0.5 Myr and higher masses (M ≲ 3 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes ≲ 1.2 Myr. In addition, assuming our best-fitting mass-loss prescription, we show that the third dredge-up has no significant effect on TP-AGB lifetimes in this mass and metallicity range.

  7. The Roles of Tidal Evolution and Evaporative Mass Loss in the Origin of CoRoT-7 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Miller, Neil; Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2010-01-01

    CoRoT-7 b is the first confirmed rocky exoplanet, but, with an orbital semimajor axis of 0.0172 au, its origins may be unlike any rocky planet in our Solar System. In this study, we consider the roles of tidal evolution and evaporative mass loss in CoRoT-7 b's history, which together have modified the planet's mass and orbit. If CoRoT-7 b has always been a rocky body, evaporation may have driven off almost half its original mass, but the mass loss may depend sensitively on the extent of tidal decay of its orbit. As tides caused CoRoT-7 b's orbit to decay, they brought the planet closer to its host star, thereby enhancing the mass loss rate. Such a large mass loss also suggests the possibility that CoRoT-7 b began as a gas giant planet and had its original atmosphere completely evaporated. In this case, we find that CoRoT-7 b's original mass probably did not exceed 200 Earth masses (about two-third of a Jupiter mass). Tides raised on the host star by the planet may have significantly reduced the orbital semimajor axis, perhaps causing the planet to migrate through mean-motion resonances with the other planet in the system, CoRoT-7 c. The coupling between tidal evolution and mass loss may be important not only for CoRoT-7 b but also for other close-in exoplanets, and future studies of mass loss and orbital evolution may provide insight into the origin and fate of close-in planets, both rocky and gaseous.

  8. Mass loss of stars on the asymptotic giant branch. Mechanisms, models and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Susanne; Olofsson, Hans

    2018-01-01

    As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations, they trigger shock waves in the extended stellar atmosphere. There, massive outflows of gas and dust have their origin, which enrich the interstellar medium and, eventually, lead to a transformation of the cool luminous giants into white dwarfs. Dust grains forming in the upper atmospheric layers play a critical role in the wind acceleration process, by scattering and absorbing stellar photons and transferring their outward-directed momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions. Recent progress in high-angular-resolution instrumentation, from the visual to the radio regime, is leading to valuable new insights into the complex dynamical atmospheres of AGB stars and their wind-forming regions. Observations are revealing asymmetries and inhomogeneities in the photospheric and dust-forming layers which vary on time-scales of months, as well as more long-lived large-scale structures in the circumstellar envelopes. High-angular-resolution observations indicate at what distances from the stars dust condensation occurs, and they give information on the chemical composition and sizes of dust grains in the close vicinity of cool giants. These are essential constraints for building realistic models of wind acceleration and developing a predictive theory of mass loss for AGB stars, which is a crucial ingredient of stellar and galactic chemical evolution models. At present, it is still not fully possible to model all these phenomena from first principles, and to predict the mass-loss rate based on fundamental stellar parameters only. However, much progress has been made

  9. THE c2d SPITZER SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF ICES AROUND LOW-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS. IV. NH3 AND CH3OH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Lahuis, Fred; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; Oeberg, Karin I.; Linnartz, Harold; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2010-01-01

    NH 3 and CH 3 OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH 3 CN and CH 3 OCH 3 . Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. This is particularly the case for low-mass protostars, for which only the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope has permitted high-sensitivity observations of the ices around these objects. In this work, we investigate the ∼8-10 μm region in the Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) spectra of 41 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). These data are part of a survey of interstellar ices in a sample of low-mass YSOs studied in earlier papers in this series. We used both an empirical and a local continuum method to correct for the contribution from the 10 μm silicate absorption in the recorded spectra. In addition, we conducted a systematic laboratory study of NH 3 - and CH 3 OH-containing ices to help interpret the astronomical spectra. We clearly detect a feature at ∼9 μm in 24 low-mass YSOs. Within the uncertainty in continuum determination, we identify this feature with the NH 3 ν 2 umbrella mode and derive abundances with respect to water between ∼2% and 15%. Simultaneously, we also revisited the case of CH 3 OH ice by studying the ν 4 C-O stretch mode of this molecule at ∼9.7 μm in 16 objects, yielding abundances consistent with those derived by Boogert et al. based on a simultaneous 9.75 and 3.53 μm data analysis. Our study indicates that NH 3 is present primarily in H 2 O-rich ices, but that in some cases, such ices are insufficient to explain the observed narrow FWHM. The laboratory data point to CH 3 OH being in an almost pure methanol ice, or mixed mainly with CO or CO 2 , consistent with its formation through hydrogenation on grains. Finally, we use our derived NH 3 abundances in combination with previously published abundances of other solid N-bearing species to find that up to 10%-20% of

  10. Mass ablation and magnetic flux losses through a magnetized plasma-liner wall interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2017-07-01

    The understanding of energy and magnetic flux losses in a magnetized plasma medium confined by a cold wall is of great interest in the success of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). In a MagLIF scheme, the fuel is magnetized and subsonically compressed by a cylindrical liner. Magnetic flux conservation is degraded by the presence of gradient-driven transport processes such as thermoelectric effects (Nernst) and magnetic field diffusion. In previous publications [Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 042702 (2015)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold solid wall (liner) was studied using the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension. The Nernst term degraded the magnetic flux conservation, while both thermal energy and magnetic flux losses were reduced with the electron Hall parameter ωeτe with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-1/2. In the analysis made in the present paper, we consider a similar situation, but with the liner being treated differently. Instead of a cold solid wall acting as a heat sink, we model the liner as a cold dense plasma with low thermal conduction (that could represent the cryogenic fuel layer added on the inner surface of the liner in a high-gain MagLIF configuration). Mass ablation comes into play, which adds notably differences to the previous analysis. The direction of the plasma motion is inverted, but the Nernst term still convects the magnetic field towards the liner. Magnetization suppresses the Nernst velocity and improves the magnetic flux conservation. Thermal energy in the hot plasma is lost in heating the ablated material. When the electron Hall parameter is large, mass ablation scales as (ωeτe)-3/10, while both the energy and magnetic flux losses are reduced with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-7/10.

  11. The evolution of low-mass close binary systems. IV. 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/: Catastrophic mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of both components of a 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/ binary with initial separation 1.60 R/sub sun/ is presented. This system reaches mass transfer during core hydrogen burning in the primary. The primary has such a deep convective envelope that mass transfer proceeds on a dynamical time scale. Mass exchange is followed through the first 6.25 x 10 -3 M/sub sun/, by which time the transfer rate has reached 8.33 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -1 .It is shown that mass transfer on a dynamical time scale leads to supercritical accretion by the secondary component, and hence is presumably accompanied by extensive mass and angular momentum losses. Stability against such rapid mass transfer may impose severe limitations on the masses and mass ratios of cataclysmic variables

  12. An ice flow modeling perspective on bedrock adjustment patterns of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olaizola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes, the GRACE data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. Recently, a new method has been proposed where ice mass changes and bedrock changes are simultaneously solved. Results show bedrock subsidence over almost the entirety of Greenland in combination with ice mass loss which is only half of the currently standing estimates. This subsidence can be an elastic response, but it may however also be a delayed response to past changes. In this study we test whether these subsidence patterns are consistent with ice dynamical modeling results. We use a 3-D ice sheet–bedrock model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach to study the pattern and magnitude of bedrock changes in Greenland. Different mass balance forcings are used. Simulations since the Last Glacial Maximum yield a bedrock delay with respect to the mass balance forcing of nearly 3000 yr and an average uplift at present of 0.3 mm yr−1. The spatial pattern of bedrock changes shows a small central subsidence as well as more intense uplift in the south. These results are not compatible with the gravity based reconstructions showing a subsidence with a maximum in central Greenland, thereby questioning whether the claim of halving of the ice mass change is justified.

  13. Increased West Antarctic and unchanged East Antarctic ice discharge over the last 7 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S.; Moholdt, Geir; Scambos, Ted; Fahnstock, Mark; Ligtenberg, Stefan; van den Broeke, Michiel; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-01

    Ice discharge from large ice sheets plays a direct role in determining rates of sea-level rise. We map present-day Antarctic-wide surface velocities using Landsat 7 and 8 imagery spanning 2013-2015 and compare to earlier estimates derived from synthetic aperture radar, revealing heterogeneous changes in ice flow since ˜ 2008. The new mapping provides complete coastal and inland coverage of ice velocity north of 82.4° S with a mean error of image pairs acquired during the daylight period. Using an optimized flux gate, ice discharge from Antarctica is 1929 ± 40 Gigatons per year (Gt yr-1) in 2015, an increase of 36 ± 15 Gt yr-1 from the time of the radar mapping. Flow accelerations across the grounding lines of West Antarctica's Amundsen Sea Embayment, Getz Ice Shelf and Marguerite Bay on the western Antarctic Peninsula, account for 88 % of this increase. In contrast, glaciers draining the East Antarctic Ice Sheet have been remarkably constant over the period of observation. Including modeled rates of snow accumulation and basal melt, the Antarctic ice sheet lost ice at an average rate of 183 ± 94 Gt yr-1 between 2008 and 2015. The modest increase in ice discharge over the past 7 years is contrasted by high rates of ice sheet mass loss and distinct spatial patters of elevation lowering. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is experiencing high rates of mass loss and displays distinct patterns of elevation lowering that point to a dynamic imbalance. We find modest increase in ice discharge over the past 7 years, which suggests that the recent pattern of mass loss in Antarctica is part of a longer-term phase of enhanced glacier flow initiated in the decades leading up to the first continent-wide radar mapping of ice flow.

  14. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Douglas I.; Thompson, Sarah; Gulley, Jason; Mertes, Jordan; Luckman, Adrian; Nicholson, Lindsey

    2017-09-01

    We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1) a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2) supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3) sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4) perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5) englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6) a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake) dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  15. Bacterial ice nuclei impact cloud lifetime and radiative properties and reduce atmospheric heat loss in the BRAMS simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Tassio S; Gonçalves, Fábio L T; Yamasoe, Marcia A; Martins, Jorge A; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae acting as ice nuclei (IN) on cloud properties to understand its impact on local radiative budget and heating rates. These bacteria may become active IN at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. Numerical simulations were developed using the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System (BRAMS). To investigate the isolated effect of bacterial IN, four scenarios were created considering only homogeneous and bacterial ice nucleation, with 1, 10 and 100 IN per cubic meter of cloud volume and one with no bacteria. Moreover, two other scenarios were generated: the BRAMS default parameterization and its combination with bacterial IN. The model reproduced a strong convective cell over São Paulo on 3 March 2003. Results showed that bacterial IN may change cloud evolution as well as its microphysical properties, which in turn influence cloud radiative properties. For example, the reflected shortwave irradiance over an averaged domain in a scenario considering bacterial IN added to the BRAMS default parameterization was 14% lower than if bacteria were not considered. Heating rates can also be impacted, especially due to differences in cloud lifetime. Results suggest that the omission of bacterial IN in numerical models, including global cloud models, could neglect relevant ice nucleation processes that potentially influence cloud radiative properties. (letter)

  16. CO{sub 2} ICE TOWARD LOW-LUMINOSITY EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS: EVIDENCE FOR EPISODIC MASS ACCRETION VIA CHEMICAL HISTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pontoppidan, Klaus M., E-mail: hyojeong@astro.as.utexas.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    We present Spitzer IRS spectroscopy of CO{sub 2} ice bending mode spectra at 15.2 {mu}m toward 19 young stellar objects (YSOs) with luminosity lower than 1 L{sub Sun} (3 with luminosity lower than 0.1 L{sub Sun }). Ice on dust grain surfaces can encode the history of heating because pure CO{sub 2} ice forms only at elevated temperature, T > 20 K, and thus around protostars of higher luminosity. Current internal luminosities of YSOs with L < 1L{sub Sun} do not provide the conditions needed to produce pure CO{sub 2} ice at radii where typical envelopes begin. The presence of detectable amounts of pure CO{sub 2} ice would signify a higher past luminosity. Many of the spectra require a contribution from a pure, crystalline CO{sub 2} component, traced by the presence of a characteristic band splitting in the 15.2 {mu}m bending mode. About half of the sources (9 out of 19) in the low-luminosity sample have evidence for pure CO{sub 2} ice, and 6 of these have significant double-peaked features, which are very strong evidence of pure CO{sub 2} ice. The presence of the pure CO{sub 2} ice component indicates that the dust temperature, and hence luminosity of the central star/accretion disk system, must have been higher in the past. An episodic accretion scenario, in which mixed CO-CO{sub 2} ice is converted to pure CO{sub 2} ice during each high-luminosity phase, explains the presence of pure CO{sub 2} ice, the total amount of CO{sub 2} ice, and the observed residual C{sup 18}O gas.

  17. Resource loss as a predictor of posttrauma symptoms among college women following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Axsom, Danny

    2009-01-01

    We examined risk factors for posttrauma symptomatology, 2 and 6 months following the April 2007 mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Using a conservation of resources framework and a Web-based survey methodology, we prospectively evaluated the relations among preshooting distress, social support, resource loss, and posttrauma symptomatology in a sample of 293 female students enrolled at the university at the time of the shootings. Structural equation modeling supported that preshooting social support and distress predicted resource loss postshooting. Resource loss predicted symptomatology 2 months and 6 months after the shooting. Implications of the results for research and intervention following mass trauma are discussed.

  18. Premature loss of muscle mass and function in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, N; Bunout, D; Hirsch, S; Barrera, G; Leiva, L; Henríquez, S; De la Maza, M P

    2016-07-01

    Muscle mass and function are among the most relevant factors that contribute to an optimal quality of life, and are strong predictors of mortality in the elderly. Loss of lean tissues and deterioration of muscle function have been described as one of the many complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but most studies do not isolate age as an intervening factor. To study whether adult DM2 patients up to 60years of age have decreased muscle mass and function compared with healthy non-diabetic (ND) subjects of similar age. Appendicular fat-free mass (ApFFM) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), handgrip strength (HS), quadriceps strength (QS), 12 min walking capacity (12MW) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were measured in 100 DM2 patients and 39 ND controls. Muscle quality, or the ratio between lean mass and muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, and the functional limitations associated with pain and stiffness assessed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthrosis Index (WOMAC) were also recorded. Specific tests were performed to rule out microvascular diabetic complications (retinal and peripheral nerves), metabolic control, kidney function and vitamin D status and examine their association with ApFFM and function. ApFFM was significantly higher among DM2 female patients and lower among diabetic men. However opposite results were obtained when individual values were corrected for body mass index (BMI), specifically among women, who were more likely to be obese. As for muscle strength and global functionality tests, significantly better performances in TUG, 12MW, QS and HS were observed among ND subjects of both sexes. These differences prevailed even after excluding diabetic patients with microvascular complications as well as those with more than 10years of diabetes. Muscle quality was also significantly better among ND women. Higher scores of pain and stiffness in the WOMAC scale correlated with 12MW and TUG in both groups but

  19. Carbon input belowground is the major C flux contributing to leaf litter mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubino, Mauro; Dungait; Evershed

    2010-01-01

    and analysed for their total C and 13C content. Gas chromatography (GC), GC–mass spectrometry (MS) and GC-combustion-isotope ratio (GC/C/IRMS) were used to analyse phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) extracted from soil samples to identify the groups of soil micro-organisms that had incorporated litter-derived C...... and to determine the quantity of C incorporated by the soil microbial biomass (SMB). By the end of the experiment, the litter had lost about 80% of its original weight. The fraction of litter C lost as an input into the soil (67 ± 12% of the total C loss) was found to be twice as much as the fraction released...

  20. Volcanic eruptions on Io - Implications for surface evolution and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io results in a continual resurfacing of the satellite. Analysis of required burial rates to erase impact craters, the mass production in the observed plumes, and the energy requirements for the volcanic activity suggest resurfacing rates of 0.001 to 10 cm/yr in recent geologic time. If this rate is typical of the last 4.5 Gyr, then extensive recycling of the upper crust and mantle must have occurred. The currently estimated loss rate of S, O, and Na from Io into the magnetosphere corresponds to only a small fraction of the resurfacing rate and should not have resulted in either extensive erosion or total depletion of any of the escaping species.

  1. Gravity-Assist Trajectories to the Ice Giants: An Automated Method to Catalog Mass-or Time-Optimal Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kyle M.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an automated method of calculating mass (or time) optimal gravity-assist trajectories without a priori knowledge of the flyby-body combination. Since gravity assists are particularly crucial for reaching the outer Solar System, we use the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, as example destinations for this work. Catalogs are also provided that list the most attractive trajectories found over launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038. The tool developed to implement this method, called the Python EMTG Automated Trade Study Application (PEATSA), iteratively runs the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG), a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in-house trajectory optimization tool. EMTG finds gravity-assist trajectories with impulsive maneuvers using a multiple-shooting structure along with stochastic methods (such as monotonic basin hopping) and may be run with or without an initial guess provided. PEATSA runs instances of EMTG in parallel over a grid of launch dates. After each set of runs completes, the best results within a neighborhood of launch dates are used to seed all other cases in that neighborhood---allowing the solutions across the range of launch dates to improve over each iteration. The results here are compared against trajectories found using a grid-search technique, and PEATSA is found to outperform the grid-search results for most launch years considered.

  2. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-20

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  3. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  4. Ultra-trace determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Arctic ice using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacorte, S; Quintana, J; Tauler, R; Ventura, F; Tovar-Sánchez, A; Duarte, C M

    2009-12-04

    This study presents the optimization and application of an analytical method based on the use of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the ultra-trace analysis of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) in Arctic ice. In a first step, the mass-spectrometry conditions were optimized to quantify 48 compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorinated pesticides) at the low pg/L level. In a second step, the performance of this analytical method was evaluated to determine POPs in Arctic cores collected during an oceanographic campaign. Using a calibration range from 1 to 1800 pg/L and by adjusting acquisition parameters, limits of detection at the 0.1-99 and 102-891 pg/L for organohalogenated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively, were obtained by extracting 200 mL of unfiltered ice water. alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, DDTs, chlorinated biphenyl congeners 28, 101 and 118 and brominated diphenyl ethers congeners 47 and 99 were detected in ice cores at levels between 0.5 to 258 pg/L. We emphasise the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SBSE in comparison with traditional extraction techniques used to analyze POPs in ice.

  5. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs 0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.

  7. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Longland, Thomas M; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-08-01

    Amino acids are major nutrient regulators of muscle protein turnover. After protein ingestion, hyperaminoacidemia stimulates increased rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis, suppresses muscle protein breakdown, and promotes net muscle protein accretion for several hours. These acute observations form the basis for strategized protein intake to promote lean mass accretion, or prevent lean mass loss over the long term. However, factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are important in mediating the anabolic effects of amino acids on skeletal muscle and must be considered within the context of evaluating the reported efficacy of long-term studies investigating protein supplementation as part of a dietary strategy to promote lean mass accretion and/or prevent lean mass loss. Current research suggests that dietary protein supplementation can augment resistance exercise-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength and can preserve skeletal muscle mass during periods of diet-induced energy restriction. Perhaps less appreciated, protein supplementation can augment resistance training-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass even in individuals habitually consuming 'adequate' (i.e., >0.8 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) protein. Additionally, overfeeding energy with moderate to high-protein intake (15-25 % protein or 1.8-3.0 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) is associated with lean, but not fat mass accretion, when compared to overfeeding energy with low protein intake (5 % protein or ~0.68 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹). Amino acids represent primary nutrient regulators of skeletal muscle anabolism, capable of enhancing lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating the loss of lean mass during periods of energy deficit, although factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are likely important in mediating these effects.

  8. Ultra-trace determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Artic ice using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lacorte Bruguera, Silvia; Quintana, Jordi; Tauler, Romà; Ventura, Francesc; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the optimization and application of an analytical method based on the use of stirbarsorptiveextraction (SBSE) gaschromatographycoupled to massspectrometry (GC–MS) for the ultra-trace analysis of POPs (PersistentOrganicPollutants) in Arctic ice. In a first step, the mass-spectrometry conditions were optimized to quantify 48 compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorinated pesticides) at the low pg/L level....

  9. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  10. Modeling of Camembert-type cheese mass loss in a ripening chamber: main biological and physical phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélias, A; Mirade, P-S; Corrieu, G

    2007-11-01

    A model of the mass loss of Camembert-type cheese was established with data obtained from 2 experimental ripening trials carried out in 2 pilot ripening chambers. During these experiments, a cheese was continuously weighed and the relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in the ripening chamber were recorded online. The aim was to establish a simple but accurate model that would predict cheese mass changes according to available online measurements. The main hypotheses were that 1) the cheese water activity was constant during ripening, 2) the respiratory activity of the microflora played a major role by inducing heat production, combined with important water evaporation, 3) the temperature gradient existing inside the cheese was negligible, and the limiting phenomenon was the convective transfer. The water activity and the specific heat of the cheeses were assessed by offline measurements. The others parameters in the model were obtained from the literature. This dynamic model was built with 2 state variables: the cheese mass and the surface temperature of the cheese. In this way, only the heat transfer coefficient had to be fitted, and it was strongly determined by the airflow characteristics close to the cheeses. Model efficiency was illustrated by comparing the estimated and measured mass and the mass loss rate for the 2 studied runs; the relative errors were less than 1.9 and 3.2% for the mass loss and the mass loss rate, respectively. The dynamic effects of special events, such as room defrosting or changes in chamber relative humidity, were well described by the model, especially in terms of kinetics (mass loss rates).

  11. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS, INTEGRATED RED GIANT BRANCH MASS LOSS, AND DUST PRODUCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611 +213 -200 pc and age as 12 ± 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor ω Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of ∼1000 L sun , becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 L sun . Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.

  12. GREENLAND ICE SHEET CHANGES FROM SPACE USING LASER, RADAR AND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Stenseng, Lars; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    The Greenland cryosphere is undergoing rapid changes, and these are documented by remote sensing from space. In this paper, an inversion scheme is used to derive mass changes from gravity changes observed by GRACE, and to derive the mean annual mass loss for the Greenland Ice Sheet, which...... is estimated to be 204 Gt/yr for the period 2002-2010. NASA’s laser altimetry satellite ICESat has provided elevation estimates of the ice sheet since January 2003. In order to be able to compare GRACE and ICESat derived results, the ICESat volume change must be converted into a mass change estimate. Therefore...

  13. Fast Winds and Mass Loss from Metal-Poor Field Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.; Strader, Jay

    2009-11-01

    Echelle spectra of the infrared He I λ10830 line were obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck 2 telescope for 41 metal-deficient field giant stars including those on the red giant branch (RGB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and red horizontal branch (RHB). The presence of this He I line is ubiquitous in stars with T effgsim 4500 K and MV fainter than -1.5, and reveals the dynamics of the atmosphere. The line strength increases with effective temperature for T effgsim 5300 K in RHB stars. In AGB and RGB stars, the line strength increases with luminosity. Fast outflows (gsim 60 km s-1) are detected from the majority of the stars and about 40% of the outflows have sufficient speed as to allow escape of material from the star as well as from a globular cluster. Outflow speeds and line strengths do not depend on metallicity for our sample ([Fe/H]= -0.7 to -3.0), suggesting the driving mechanism for these winds derives from magnetic and/or hydrodynamic processes. Gas outflows are present in every luminous giant, but are not detected in all stars of lower luminosity indicating possible variability. Mass loss rates ranging from ~3 × 10-10 to ~6 × 10-8 M sun yr-1 estimated from the Sobolev approximation for line formation represent values with evolutionary significance for red giants and RHB stars. We estimate that 0.2 M sun will be lost on the RGB, and the torque of this wind can account for observations of slowly rotating RHB stars in the field. About 0.1-0.2 M sun will be lost on the RHB itself. This first empirical determination of mass loss on the RHB may contribute to the appearance of extended horizontal branches in globular clusters. The spectra appear to resolve the problem of missing intracluster material in globular clusters. Opportunities exist for "wind smothering" of dwarf stars by winds from the evolved population, possibly leading to surface pollution in regions of high stellar density. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which

  14. Toward understanding the role of the atmosphere in pan Arctic change and sea ice loss; an update on the status of focused campaigns under POLARCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Bates, T.; Brock, C. A.; Clerbaux, C.; Crawford, J. H.; Dibb, J. E.; Elansky, N.; Ghan, S.; Hirdman, D.; Honrath, R. E.; Jacob, D. J.; Law, K.; Paris, J.; Quinn, P.; Schlager, H.; Singh, H. B.; Sodemann, H.; Stohl, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sea ice loss reached an extraordinary extent in 2007, decreasing in area more than 2.5 million square kilometres below the 1979 extent. Sea ice loss is one of many Arctic processes resulting from a warming climate. The dynamics of a changing Arctic system are particularly sensitive to climate change and filled with uncertainties and complex feedback mechanisms - most being simply unknown. During the International Polar Year (IPY) a number of international partnerships were formed to establish the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT). Under the umbrella of POLARCAT projects cooperated with national funding to undertake the most comprehensive assessment of air pollution impacts on the Arctic to date. In the spring and summer of 2008 more than 20 institutes from ten nations participated in intensive aircraft, ship, and station-based campaigns with accompanying efforts from the satellite and modelling communities to provide near real time products for mission planning and analysis. The campaigns provided an assessment of the role that tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and transport play in the Arctic. The spring campaigns focused on anthropogenic pollution, while the summer campaigns targeted biomass burning. During the spring of 2008, over 80 flights were flown by five different aircraft as part of the ARCTAS, ISDAC, ARCPAC, and French POLARCAT campaigns, the ICEALOT campaign commissioned the R/V Knorr to travel over 12,000 km, and numerous specialty satellite and modelling products were developed with near real time distribution. These same products were again used for flight planning and forecasting in the summer when an additional 50+ flights were flown by the ARCTAS, French POLARCAT, Siberian YAK, and GRACE campaigns. Several ground based stations and the Siberian TROICA campaign also conducted intensive operating periods (IOPs). We present an overview of the

  15. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 092.D-0587.

  16. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  17. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-07-25

    The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth's sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the numbers and degrees of range contraction (indicative of population shrinkage and/or population extinctions according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature) using a sample of 27,600 vertebrate species, and on a more detailed analysis documenting the population extinctions between 1900 and 2015 in 177 mammal species. We find that the rate of population loss in terrestrial vertebrates is extremely high-even in "species of low concern." In our sample, comprising nearly half of known vertebrate species, 32% (8,851/27,600) are decreasing; that is, they have decreased in population size and range. In the 177 mammals for which we have detailed data, all have lost 30% or more of their geographic ranges and more than 40% of the species have experienced severe population declines (>80% range shrinkage). Our data indicate that beyond global species extinctions Earth is experiencing a huge episode of population declines and extirpations, which will have negative cascading consequences on ecosystem functioning and services vital to sustaining civilization. We describe this as a "biological annihilation" to highlight the current magnitude of Earth's ongoing sixth major extinction event.

  18. Photometry of SN 2002ic and implications for the progenitor mass-loss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Wang, L.; Aldering, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new pre-maximum and late-time optical photometry of the Type Ia/IIn supernova 2002ic. These observations are combined with the published V-band magnitudes of Hamuy et al. (2003) and the VLT spectrophotometry of Wang et al. (2004) to construct the most extensive light curve to date of this unusual supernova. The observed flux at late time is significantly higher relative to the flux at maximum than that of any other observed Type Ia supernova and continues to fade very slowly a year after explosion. Our analysis of the light curve suggests that a non-Type Ia supernova component becomes prominent ∼20 days after explosion. Modeling of the non-Type Ia supernova component as heating from the shock interaction of the supernova ejecta with pre-existing circumstellar material suggests the presence of a ∼1.7 x 1015 cm gap or trough between the progenitor system and the surrounding circumstellar material. This gap could be due to significantly lower mass-loss ∼15 (nu omega /10 km/s) -1 years prior to explosion or evacuation of the circumstellar material by a low-density fast wind. The latter is consistent with observed properties of proto-planetary nebulae and with models of white-dwarf + asymptotic giant branch star progenitor systems with the asymptotic giant branch star in the proto-planetary nebula phase

  19. Modelling snow ice and superimposed ice on landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow ice and superimposed ice formation on landfast sea ice in a Svalbard fjord, Kongsfjorden, was investigated with a high-resolution thermodynamic snow and sea-ice model, applying meteorological weather station data as external forcing. The model shows that sea-ice formation occurs both at the ice bottom and at the snow/ice interface. Modelling results indicated that the total snow ice and superimposed ice, which formed at the snow/ice interface, was about 14 cm during the simulation period, accounting for about 15% of the total ice mass and 35% of the total ice growth. Introducing a time-dependent snow density improved the modelled results, and a time-dependent oceanic heat flux parameterization yielded reasonable ice growth at the ice bottom. Model results suggest that weather conditions, in particular air temperature and precipitation, as well as snow thermal properties and surface albedo are the most critical factors for the development of snow ice and superimposed ice in Kongsfjorden. While both warming air and higher precipitation led to increased snow ice and superimposed ice forming in Kongsfjorden in the model runs, the processes were more sensitive to precipitation than to air temperature.

  20. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance are key to the long term stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although the most extensive ice shelf mass loss currently is occurring in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, many other ice shelves experience changes in thickness on time scales from annual to ice age cycles. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Shelf. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows substantial variability in Ross Ice Shelf height on interannual time scales, complicating detection of potential long-term climate-change signals in the mass budget of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf surface snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. We investigate Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophysical data from the ROSETTA-Ice surveys using IcePod. We use two ice-penetrating radars; a 2 GHz unit that images fine-structure in the upper 400 m of the ice surface and a 360 MHz radar to identify the ice shelf base. We have identified internal layers that are continuous along flow from the grounding line to the ice shelf front. Based on layer continuity, we conclude that these layers must be the horizons between the continental ice of the outlet glaciers and snow accumulation once the ice is afloat. We use the Lagrangian change in thickness of these layers, after correcting for strain rates derived using modern day InSAR velocities, to estimate multidecadal averaged basal melt rates. This method provides a novel way to quantify basal melt, avoiding the confounding impacts of spatial and short-timescale variability in surface accumulation and firn densification processes. Our estimates show elevated basal melt rates (> -1m/yr) around Byrd and Mullock glaciers within 100 km from the ice shelf front. We also compare modern InSAR velocity derived strain rates with estimates from the comprehensive ground-based RIGGS observations during 1973-1978 to estimate the potential magnitude of

  1. Simulating ice thickness and velocity evolution of Upernavik Isstrøm 1849-2012 by forcing prescribed terminus positions in ISSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubner, Konstanze; Box, Jason E.; Schlegel, Nicole J.; Larour, Eric Y.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Solgaard, Anne M.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Larsen, Signe H.; Rignot, Eric; Dupont, Todd K.; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2018-04-01

    Tidewater glacier velocity and mass balance are known to be highly responsive to terminus position change. Yet it remains challenging for ice flow models to reproduce observed ice margin changes. Here, using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM; Larour et al. 2012), we simulate the ice velocity and thickness changes of Upernavik Isstrøm (north-western Greenland) by prescribing a collection of 27 observed terminus positions spanning 164 years (1849-2012). The simulation shows increased ice velocity during the 1930s, the late 1970s and between 1995 and 2012 when terminus retreat was observed along with negative surface mass balance anomalies. Three distinct mass balance states are evident in the reconstruction: (1849-1932) with near zero mass balance, (1932-1992) with ice mass loss dominated by ice dynamical flow, and (1998-2012), when increased retreat and negative surface mass balance anomalies led to mass loss that was twice that of any earlier period. Over the multi-decadal simulation, mass loss was dominated by thinning and acceleration responsible for 70 % of the total mass loss induced by prescribed change in terminus position. The remaining 30 % of the total ice mass loss resulted directly from prescribed terminus retreat and decreasing surface mass balance. Although the method can not explain the cause of glacier retreat, it enables the reconstruction of ice flow and geometry during 1849-2012. Given annual or seasonal observed terminus front positions, this method could be a useful tool for evaluating simulations investigating the effect of calving laws.

  2. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V

    2014-06-08

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources.

  3. Changes in summer sea ice, albedo, and portioning of surface solar radiation in the Pacific sector of Arctic Ocean during 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ruibo; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Leppäranta, Matti; Wang, Jia; Kaleschke, Lars; Zhang, Zhanhai

    2016-08-01

    SSM/I sea ice concentration and CLARA black-sky composite albedo were used to estimate sea ice albedo in the region 70°N-82°N, 130°W-180°W. The long-term trends and seasonal evolutions of ice concentration, composite albedo, and ice albedo were then obtained. In July-August 1982-2009, the linear trend of the composite albedo and the ice albedo was -0.069 and -0.046 units per decade, respectively. During 1 June to 19 August, melting of sea ice resulted in an increase of solar heat input to the ice-ocean system by 282 MJ·m-2 from 1982 to 2009. However, because of the counter-balancing effects of the loss of sea ice area and the enhanced ice surface melting, the trend of solar heat input to the ice was insignificant. The summer evolution of ice albedo matched the ice surface melting and ponding well at basin scale. The ice albedo showed a large difference between the multiyear and first-year ice because the latter melted completely by the end of a melt season. At the SHEBA geolocations, a distinct change in the ice albedo has occurred since 2007, because most of the multiyear ice has been replaced by first-year ice. A positive polarity in the Arctic Dipole Anomaly could be partly responsible for the rapid loss of summer ice within the study region in the recent years by bringing warmer air masses from the south and advecting more ice toward the north. Both these effects would enhance ice-albedo feedback.

  4. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A. M. S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G. M.; Humphreys, E. M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, thus allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R⋆ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R⋆) southeast of the star and has a dust mass of at least 2.5 × 10-4 M⊙. It has a dust emissivity spectral index of β = -0.1 at its peak, implying that it is optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of Td ≲ 100 K. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to the peak of this massive dust clump. The other main dust component, VY, is located at the position of the star and contains a total dust mass of 4.0 × 10-5 M⊙. It also contains a weaker dust feature extending over 60 R⋆ to the north with the total component having a typical dust emissivity spectral index of β = 0.7. We find that at least 17% of the dust mass around VY CMa is located in clumps ejected within a more quiescent roughly spherical stellar wind, with a quiescent dust mass loss rate of 5 × 10-6 M⊙yr-1. The anisotropic morphology of the dust indicates a continuous, directed mass loss over a few decades, suggesting that this mass loss cannot be driven by large convection cells alone. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. An integrated approach for estimating global glacio isostatic adjustment, land ice, hydrology and ocean mass trends within a complete coupled Earth system framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Martin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Future sea level rise (SLR) is one of the most serious consequences of climate change. Therefore, understanding the drivers of past sea level change is crucial for improving predictions. SLR integrates many Earth system components including oceans, land ice, terrestrial water storage, as well as solid Earth effects. Traditionally, each component have been tackled separately, which has often lead to inconsistencies between discipline-specific estimates of each part of the sea level budget. To address these issues, the European Research Council has funded a five year project aimed at producing a physically-based, data-driven solution for the complete coupled land-ocean-solid Earth system that is consistent with the full suite of observations, prior knowledge and fundamental geophysical constraints. The project is called "GlobalMass" and based at University of Bristol. Observed mass movement from the GRACE mission plus vertical land motion from a global network of permanent GPS stations will be utilized in a data-driven approach to estimate glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) without introducing any assumptions about the Earth structure or ice loading history. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) will be used as the framework to combine the satellite and in-situ observations alongside prior information that incorporates the physics of the coupled system such as conservation of mass and characteristic length scales of different processes in both space and time. The BHM is used to implement a simultaneous solution at a global scale. It will produce a consistent partitioning of the integrated SLR signal into its steric (thermal) and barystatic (mass) component for the satellite era. The latter component is induced by hydrological mass trends and melting of land ice. The BHM was developed and tested on Antarctica, where it has been used to separate surface, ice dynamic and GIA signals simultaneously. We illustrate the approach and concepts with examples from this test case

  6. Ice sheet-ocean interactions and sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets has increased rapidly since the mid-1990s. Their combined loss now accounts for about one-third of global sea level rise. In Greenland, a growing body of evidence points to the marine margins of these glaciers as the region from which this dynamic response originated. Similarly, ice streams in West Antarctica that feed vast floating ice shelves have exhibited large decadal changes. We review observational evidence and present physical mechanisms that might explain the observed changes, in particular in the context of ice sheet-ocean interactions. Processes involve cover 7 orders of magnitudes of scales, ranging from mm boundary-layer processes to basin-scale coupled atmosphere-ocean variability. We discuss observational needs to fill the gap in our mechanistic understanding.

  7. Changes in mass loss and chemistry of AG-80 epoxy resin after 160 keV proton irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)]. E-mail: czq04@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Mingren [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Yang Dezhuang [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); He Shiyu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Wang Jinhe [Precision Engineering Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Xiao Jingdong [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Li Zhijun [39th Institute, China Electronic Science and Technology Groups Inc., Xi-an 710065 (China)

    2005-06-01

    The AG-80 resin is a new type of thermosetting matrix for advanced carbon/epoxy composites. Mass loss effect and the related outgassing are major concerns for its application in space. The changes in mass loss, outgassing and chemical structure under 160 keV proton exposure were investigated for the AG-80 epoxy resin. The variation in chemistry was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental results show that with increasing the proton fluence, the surface colour of specimens is getting darker. Mass loss ratios ascend remarkably until the fluence of approximately 5.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, and then tend to leveling off. The surface roughness of specimens exhibits an increasing trend followed by decreasing as a function of proton fluence. Under the exposure, the C-C, C-H, C-N and C-O bonds are broken, a variety of molecule ions with smaller molecule weight are formed, and carbon is enriched in the surface layer of specimens. The changes in mass loss and surface roughness of the AG-80 epoxy resin could be attributed to the formation of the molecule ions and the enrichment of carbon content in the surface layer due to proton radiation.

  8. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A.M.S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G.M.; Humphreys, E.M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These

  9. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  10. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    Background: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. Objective: We explored the prevalence

  11. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. OBJECTIVE: We explored the prevalence

  12. Mass loss and flammability of insulation materials used in sandwich panels during the pre-flashover phase of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giunta d'Albani, A.W.; de Kluiver, L.L.; de Korte, A.C.J.; van Herpen, R.; Weewer, R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings contain more and more synthetic insulation materials in order to meet the increasing energy-performance demands. These synthetic insulation materials have a different response to fire. In this study, the mass loss and flammability limits of different sandwich panels and their

  13. Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Margaret M. Carreiro

    2003-01-01

    Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented...

  14. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  15. Optimal control of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part I: Simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiah, Ali; Krarti, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simulation environment is described to account for both passive and active thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ► Laboratory testing results have been used to validate the predictions from the simulation environment. ► Optimal control strategies for TES systems have been developed as part of the simulation environment. - Abstract: This paper presents a simulation environment that can evaluate the benefits of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs including energy and demand charges while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions within commercial buildings. The building thermal storage is controlled through pre-cooling strategies by setting space indoor air temperatures. The ice storage system is controlled by charging the ice tank and operating the chiller during low electrical charge periods and melting the ice during on-peak periods. Optimal controls for both building thermal storage and ice storage are developed to minimize energy charges, demand charges, or combined energy and demand charges. The results obtained from the simulation environment are validated using laboratory testing for an optimal controller.

  16. Usefulness of the Ice-Cream Cone Pattern in Computed Tomography for Prediction of Angiomyolipoma in Patients With a Small Renal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Yun, Bu Hyeon; Hwang, In Sang; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jin Woong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A morphologic contour method for assessing an exophytic renal mass as benign versus malignant on the basis of the shape of the interface with the renal parenchyma was recently developed. We investigated the usefulness of this morphologic contour method for predicting angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for small renal masses (SRMs). Materials and Methods From January 2004 to March 2013, among 197 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for suspicious renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the medical records of 153 patients with tumors (AML or RCC) ≤3 cm in diameter were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics including age, gender, type of surgery, size and location of tumor, pathologic results, and specific findings of the imaging study ("ice-cream cone" shape) were compared between the AML and RCC groups. Results AML was diagnosed in 18 patients and RCC was diagnosed in 135 patients. Gender (p=0.001), tumor size (p=0.032), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (p=0.001) showed statistically significant differences between the AML group and the RCC group. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR], 5.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 18.57; p=0.011), tumor size (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.92; p=0.034), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (OR, 18.12; 95% CI, 4.97 to 66.06; p=0.001) were predictors of AML. Conclusions This study confirmed a high incidence of AML in females. Also, the ice-cream cone shape and small tumor size were significant predictors of AML in SRMs. These finding could be beneficial for counseling patients with SRMs. PMID:23956824

  17. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Recent studies of O-type stars have demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed. Fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g., P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the Hα emission. Wind inhomogeneity (so-called "clumping") may be the main cause of this discrepancy. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented 3D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. Methods: In the first step, the analyses started with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit to the observed Hα emission lines best. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e., P v) we then applied our 3D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths ("macroclumping"), a non-void interclump medium, and a velocity dispersion inside the clumps. The ionization stratifications and underlying photospheric spectra were adopted from the PoWR models. The properties of the wind clumps were constrained by fitting the observed resonance line profiles. Results: Our results show that with the mass-loss rates that fit Hα (and other Balmer and He ii lines), the UV resonance lines (especially the unsaturated doublet of P v) can also be reproduced with no problem when macroclumping is taken into account. There is no need to artificially reduce the mass-loss rates or to assume a subsolar phosphorus abundance or an extremely high clumping factor, unlike what was claimed by other authors. These consistent mass-loss rates are lower by a factor of 1.3 to 2.6, compared to the mass-loss rate recipe from Vink et al. Conclusions: Macroclumping resolves the previously reported discrepancy between Hα and P v mass-loss diagnostics. Based on

  18. Impact of energy loss index on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Terumasa; Okura, Hiroyuki; Kume, Teruyoshi; Fukuhara, Kenzo; Imai, Koichiro; Hayashida, Akihiro; Neishi, Yoji; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Tanemoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the energy loss index (ELI) has been proposed as a new functional index to assess the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the ELI on left ventricular mass (LVM) regression in patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical valves. A total of 30 patients with severe AS who underwent AVR with mechanical valves was studied. Echocardiography was performed to measure the LVM before AVR (pre-LVM) (n = 30) and repeated 12 months later (post-LVM) (n = 19). The ELI was calculated as [effective orifice area (EOA) × aortic cross sectional area]/(aortic cross sectional area - EOA) divided by the body surface area. The LVM regression rate (%) was calculated as 100 × (post-LVM - pre-LVM)/(pre-LVM). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death and heart failure requiring hospitalization. LVM regressed significantly (245.1 ± 84.3 to 173.4 ± 62.6 g, P regression rate negatively correlated with the ELI (R = -0.67, P regression rates (area under the curve = 0.825; P = 0.030). Patients with ELI regression after AVR with mechanical valves. Whether the ELI is a stronger predictor of clinical events than EOAI is still unclear, and further large-scale study is necessary to elucidate the clinical impact of the ELI in patients with AVR.

  19. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoorter, M.A.; Bamber, J.L.; Griggs, J.A.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Moholdt, G.

    2013-01-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year1, 2. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near

  20. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  1. High Arctic Holocene temperature record from the Agassiz ice cap and Greenland ice sheet evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S; Fisher, David A; Milne, Glenn A; Vinther, Bo M; Tarasov, Lev; Huybrechts, Philippe; Lacelle, Denis; Main, Brittany; Zheng, James; Bourgeois, Jocelyne; Dyke, Arthur S

    2017-06-06

    We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene. The warmer early Holocene inferred from the Agassiz ice core leads to an estimated ∼1 km of ice thinning in northwest Greenland during the early Holocene using the Camp Century ice core. Ice modeling results show that this large thinning is consistent with our air temperature reconstruction. The modeling results also demonstrate the broader significance of the enhanced warming, with a retreat of the northern ice margin behind its present position in the mid Holocene and a ∼25% increase in total Greenland ice sheet mass loss (∼1.4 m sea-level equivalent) during the last deglaciation, both of which have implications for interpreting geodetic measurements of land uplift and gravity changes in northern Greenland.

  2. Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from three years of IceTop and IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, K.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    IceTop is the surface component of the IceCube Observatory, composed of frozen water tanks at the top of IceCube’s strings. Data from this detector can be analyzed in different ways with the goal of measuring cosmic ray spectrum and composition. The shower size S125 from IceTop alone can be used as a proxy for primary energy, and unfolded into an all-particle spectrum. In addition, S125 from the surface can be combined with high-energy muon energy loss information from the deep IceCube detector for those air showers which pass through both. Using these coincident events in a complementary analysis, both the spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays can be extracted in parallel using a neural network. Both of these analyses have been performed on three years of IceTop and IceCube data. Both all-particle spectra as well as individual spectra for elemental groups are presented.

  3. Ice shelf thickness change from 2010 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Floating ice shelves fringe 74 % of Antarctica's coastline, providing a direct link between the ice sheet and the surrounding oceans. Over the last 25 years, ice shelves have retreated, thinned, and collapsed catastrophically. While change in the mass of floating ice shelves has only a modest steric impact on the rate of sea-level rise, their loss can affect the mass balance of the grounded ice-sheet by influencing the rate of ice flow inland, due to the buttressing effect. Here we use CryoSat-2 altimetry data to map the detailed pattern of ice shelf thickness change in Antarctica. We exploit the dense spatial sampling and repeat coverage provided by the CryoSat-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometric mode (SARIn) to investigate data acquired between 2010 to the present day. We find that ice shelf thinning rates can exhibit large fluctuations over short time periods, and that the improved spatial resolution of CryoSat-2 enables us to resolve the spatial pattern of thinning with ever greater detail in Antarctica. In the Amundsen Sea, ice shelves at the terminus of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers have thinned at rates in excess of 5 meters per year for more than two decades. We observe the highest rates of basal melting near to the ice sheet grounding line, reinforcing the importance of high resolution datasets. On the Antarctic Peninsula, in contrast to the 3.8 m per decade of thinning observed since 1992, we measure an increase in the surface elevation of the Larsen-C Ice-Shelf during the CryoSat-2 period.

  4. Influence of temperature fluctuations on equilibrium ice sheet volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgeholm Mikkelsen, Troels; Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing temperatures. The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has a nonlinear response to warming. Cold and warm anomalies of equal size do not cancel out and it is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual fluctuations in temperature. We find that the steady-state volume of an ice sheet is biased toward larger size if interannual temperature fluctuations are not taken into account in numerical modeling of the ice sheet. We illustrate this in a simple ice sheet model and find that the equilibrium ice volume is approximately 1 m SLE (meters sea level equivalent) smaller when the simple model is forced with fluctuating temperatures as opposed to a stable climate. It is therefore important to consider the effect of interannual temperature fluctuations when designing long experiments such as paleo-spin-ups. We show how the magnitude of the potential bias can be quantified statistically. For recent simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, we estimate the bias to be 30 Gt yr-1 (24-59 Gt yr-1, 95 % credibility) for a warming of 3 °C above preindustrial values, or 13 % (10-25, 95 % credibility) of the present-day rate of ice loss. Models of the Greenland Ice Sheet show a collapse threshold beyond which the ice sheet becomes unsustainable. The proximity of the threshold will be underestimated if temperature fluctuations are not taken into account. We estimate the bias to be 0.12 °C (0.10-0.18 °C, 95 % credibility) for a recent estimate of the threshold. In light of our findings it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will influence the mass balance of the ice sheets.

  5. Oceans Melting Greenland: Early Results from NASA's Ocean-Ice Mission in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenty, Ian; Willis, Josh K.; Khazendar, Ala

    2016-01-01

    the continental shelf, and about the extent to which the ocean interacts with glaciers. Early results from NASA's five-year Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission, based on extensive hydrographic and bathymetric surveys, suggest that many glaciers terminate in deep water and are hence vulnerable to increased...... melting due to ocean-ice interaction. OMG will track ocean conditions and ice loss at glaciers around Greenland through the year 2020, providing critical information about ocean-driven Greenland ice mass loss in a warming climate....

  6. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  7. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  8. On ISSM and leveraging the Cloud towards faster quantification of the uncertainty in ice-sheet mass balance projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, E.; Schlegel, N.

    2016-11-01

    With the Amazon EC2 Cloud becoming available as a viable platform for parallel computing, Earth System Models are increasingly interested in leveraging its capabilities towards improving climate projections. In particular, faced with long wait periods on high-end clusters, the elasticity of the Cloud presents a unique opportunity of potentially "infinite" availability of small-sized clusters running on high-performance instances. Among specific applications of this new paradigm, we show here how uncertainty quantification in climate projections of polar ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) can be significantly accelerated using the Cloud. Indeed, small-sized clusters are very efficient at delivering sensitivity and sampling analysis, core tools of uncertainty quantification. We demonstrate how this approach was used to carry out an extensive analysis of ice-flow projections on one of the largest basins in Greenland, the North-East Greenland Glacier, using the Ice Sheet System Model, the public-domain NASA-funded ice-flow modeling software. We show how errors in the projections were accurately quantified using Monte-Carlo sampling analysis on the EC2 Cloud, and how a judicious mix of high-end parallel computing and Cloud use can best leverage existing infrastructures, and significantly accelerate delivery of potentially ground-breaking climate projections, and in particular, enable uncertainty quantification that were previously impossible to achieve.

  9. Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Casey, K.A.; DiGirolamo, N.E.; Wan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet was measured for each melt season from 2000 to 2005 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)–derived land-surface temperature (LST) data-product maps. During the period of most-active melt, the mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the ice sheet was highest in 2002 (−8.29 ± 5.29°C) and 2005 (−8.29 ± 5.43°C), compared to a 6-year mean of −9.04 ± 5.59°C, in agreement with recent work by other investigators showing unusually extensive melt in 2002 and 2005. Surface-temperature variability shows a correspondence with the dry-snow facies of the ice sheet; a reduction in area of the dry-snow facies would indicate a more-negative mass balance. Surface-temperature variability generally increased during the study period and is most pronounced in the 2005 melt season; this is consistent with surface instability caused by air-temperature fluctuations.

  10. Sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise increases steadily. A fundamental question remains whether the ice discharge will lead to marine ice sheet instability (MISI) and collapse of certain sectors of the ice sheet or whether ice loss will increase linearly with the warming trends. Therefore, we employ a newly developed ice sheet model of the Antarctic ice sheet, called f.ETISh (fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet model) to simulate ice sheet response to abrupt perturbations in ocean and atmospheric temperature. The f.ETISh model is a vertically integrated hybrid (SSA/SIA) ice sheet model including ice shelves. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, including strain heating and horizontal advection. The marine boundary is represented by a flux condition either coherent with power-law basal sliding (Pollard & Deconto (2012) based on Schoof (2007)) or according to Coulomb basal friction (Tsai et al., 2015), both taking into account ice-shelf buttressing. Model initialization is based on optimization of the basal friction field. Besides the traditional MISMIP tests, new tests with respect to MISI in plan-view models have been devised. The model is forced with stepwise ocean and atmosphere temperature perturbations. The former is based on a parametrised sub-shelf melt (limited to ice shelves), while the latter is based on present-day mass balance/surface temperature and corrected for elevation changes. Surface melting is introduced using a PDD model. Results show a general linear response in mass loss to ocean warming. Nonlinear response due to MISI occurs under specific conditions and is highly sensitive to the basal conditions near the grounding line, governed by both the initial conditions and the basal sliding/deformation model. The Coulomb friction model leads to significantly higher

  11. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance modelling and freshwater flux for 2007, and in a 1995-2007 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    y-1); the only year with a negative GrIS SMB. Runoff in 2007 was approximately 35% greater than average for 1995-2006. From 1995 through 2007 overall, precipitation decreased while ablation increased, leading to an increased average SMB loss of 127 km3. The modelled GrIS SMB was merged with previous......-stations) were used as model inputs. The GrIS minimum surface melt extent of 29% occurred in 1996, while the greatest extent of 51% was present in 2007. The 2007 melt extent was 20% greater than the average for 1995-2006. The year 2007 had the highest GrIS surface runoff (523 km3 y-1) and the lowest SMB (-3 km3...... estimates of GrIS subglacial runoff (from geothermal melt) and GrIS calving to quantify GrIS freshwater flux to the ocean, indicating an average negative mass-balance of 265 (±83) km3 y-1. This study further suggests an average GrIS freshwater flux of approximately 786 km3 y-1 to the ocean, of which 45...

  12. Extensive Holocene ice sheet grounding line retreat and uplift-driven readvance in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Albrecht, T.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Reese, R.; Stansell, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Whitehouse, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) reached its Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extent 29-14 kyr before present. Numerical models used to project future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise exploit reconstructions of post-LGM ice mass loss to tune model parameterizations. Ice-sheet reconstructions are poorly constrained in areas where floating ice shelves or a lack of exposed geology obstruct conventional glacial-geological techniques. In the Weddell and Ross Sea sectors, ice-sheet reconstructions have traditionally assumed progressive grounding line (GL) retreat throughout the Holocene. Contrasting this view, using three distinct lines of evidence, we show that the GL retreated hundreds of kilometers inland of its present position, before glacial isostatic rebound during the Mid to Late Holocene caused the GL to readvance to its current position. Evidence for retreat and readvance during the last glacial termination includes (1) widespread radiocarbon in sediment cores recovered from beneath ice streams along the Siple and Gould Coasts, indicating marine exposure at least 200 km inland of the current GL, (2) ice-penetrating radar observations of relic crevasses and other englacial structures preserved in slow-moving grounded ice, indicating ice-shelf grounding and (3) an ensemble of new ice-sheet simulations showing widespread post-LGM retreat of the GL inland of its current location and later readvance. The model indicates that GL readvance across low slope ice-stream troughs requires uplift-driven grounding of the ice shelf on topographic highs (ice rises). Our findings highlight ice-shelf pinning points and lithospheric response to unloading as drivers of major ice-sheet fluctuations. Full WAIS collapse likely requires GL retreat well beyond its current position in the Ronne and Ross Sectors and linkage via Amundsen Sea sector glaciers.

  13. Can mountain glacier melting explains the GRACE-observed mass loss in the southeast Tibetan Plateau: From a climate perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Ke, Linghong; Huang, Bo; Richards, Keith S.

    2015-01-01

    The southeast Tibetan Plateau (SETP) includes the majority of monsoonal temperate glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA), which is an important source of water for the upper reaches of several large Asian river systems. Climatic change and variability has substantial impacts on cryosphere and hydrological processes in the SETP. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravimetry observations between 2003 and 2009 suggest that there was an average mass loss rate of - 5.99 ± 2.78 Gigatonnes (Gt)/yr in this region. Meanwhile, the hydrological data by model calculations from the GLDAS/Noah and CPC are used to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with a slight negative trend of about - 0.3 Gt/yr. The recent studies (Kääb et al., 2012; Gardner et al., 2013) reported the thinning rates of mountain glaciers in HMA based on the satellite laser altimetry, and an approximate estimation of the glacier mass budget in the SETP was 4.69 ± 2.03 Gt/yr during 2003-2009. This estimate accounted for a large proportion ( 78.3%) of the difference between the GRACE TWS and model-calculated TWS changes. To better understand the cause of sharp mass loss existing in the SETP, the correlations between key climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) and the GRACE TWS changes are examined at different timescales between 2003 and 2011. The results show that precipitation is the leading factors of abrupt, seasonal and multi-year undulating signals of GRACE TWS anomaly time series, but with weak correlations with the inter-annual trend and annual mass budget of GRACE TWS. In contrast, the annual mean temperature is tightly associated with the annual net mass budget (r = 0.81, p < 0.01), which indirectly suggests that the GRACE-observed mass loss in the SETP may be highly related to glacial processes.

  14. Accelerated modern human?induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Garc?a, Andr?s; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth?s biota is entering a sixth ?mass extinction? depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the ?background? rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we...

  15. Uncertainty Quantification for Ice Sheet Science and Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, C.; Schlegel, N.; Limonadi, D.; Schodlok, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Watkins, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better quantify uncertainties in global mean sea level rise projections and in particular upper bounds, we aim at systematically evaluating the contributions from ice sheets and potential for extreme sea level rise due to sudden ice mass loss. Here, we take advantage of established uncertainty quantification tools embedded within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) as well as sensitivities to ice/ocean interactions using melt rates and melt potential derived from MITgcm/ECCO2. With the use of these tools, we conduct Monte-Carlo style sampling experiments on forward simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet, by varying internal parameters and boundary conditions of the system over both extreme and credible worst-case ranges. Uncertainty bounds for climate forcing are informed by CMIP5 ensemble precipitation and ice melt estimates for year 2100, and uncertainty bounds for ocean melt rates are derived from a suite of regional sensitivity experiments using MITgcm. Resulting statistics allow us to assess how regional uncertainty in various parameters affect model estimates of century-scale sea level rise projections. The results inform efforts to a) isolate the processes and inputs that are most responsible for determining ice sheet contribution to sea level; b) redefine uncertainty brackets for century-scale projections; and c) provide a prioritized list of measurements, along with quantitative information on spatial and temporal resolution, required for reducing uncertainty in future sea level rise projections. Results indicate that ice sheet mass loss is dependent on the spatial resolution of key boundary conditions - such as bedrock topography and melt rates at the ice-ocean interface. This work is performed at and supported by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Supercomputing time is also supported through a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere program.

  16. Mass loss from OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the atmospheres of OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems indicates that when the stellar surface is close enough to the saddle in the gravitational potential to provide a mass transfer rate adequate to power a compact x-ray source, large-amplitude variations in the rate of mass flow occur. 9 references

  17. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large-scale ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goeller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no doubt about the existence of a widespread hydrological network under the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux–basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  18. The impact of short-term heat storage on the ice-albedo feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, C.; Wright, N.; Perovich, D. K.; Song, A.; Deeb, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    The partitioning of solar energy in the ice-ocean-atmosphere environment is a powerful control over Arctic sea ice mass balance. Ongoing transitions of the sea ice toward a younger, thinner state are enhancing absorption of solar energy and contributing to further declines in sea ice in a classic ice-albedo feedback. Here we investigate the solar energy balance over shorter timescales. In particular, we are concerned with short term delays in the transfer of absorbed solar energy to the ice caused by heat storage in the upper ocean. By delaying the realization of ice melt, and hence albedo decline, heat storage processes effectively retard the intra-season ice-albedo feedback. We seek to quantify the impact and variability of such intra-season storage delays on full season energy absorption. We use in-situ data collected from Arctic Observing Network (AON) sea ice sites, synthesized with the results of imagery processed from high resolution optical satellites, and basin-scale remote sensing products to approach the topic. AON buoys are used to monitor the storage and flux of heat, while satellite imagery allows us to quantify the evolution of surrounding ice conditions and predict the aggregate scale solar absorption. We use several test sites as illustrative cases and demonstrate that temporary heat storage can have substantial impacts on seasonal energy absorption and ice loss. A companion to this work is presented by N. Wright at this meeting.

  19. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large scale ice sheet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  20. Effects of badminton and ice hockey on bone mass in young males: a 12-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, Taru; Nordström, Peter; Nordström, Anna

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different types of weight bearing physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and evaluate any residual benefits after the active sports career. Beginning at 17 years of age, BMD was measured 5 times, during 12 years, in 19 badminton players, 48 ice hockey players, and 25 controls. During the active career, badminton players gained significantly more BMD compared to ice hockey players at all sites: in their femoral neck (mean difference (Delta) 0.06 g/cm(2), p=0.04), humerus (Delta 0.06 g/cm(2), p=0.01), lumbar spine (Delta 0.08 g/cm(2), p=0.01), and their legs (Delta 0.05 g/cm(2), p=0.003), after adjusting for age at baseline, changes in weight, height, and active years. BMD gains in badminton players were higher also compared to in controls at all sites (Delta 0.06-0.17 g/cm(2), pbadminton players and 37 ice hockey players stopped their active career a mean of 6 years before the final follow-up. Both these groups lost significantly more BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to the control group (Delta 0.05-0.12 g/cm(2), pbadminton players had significantly higher BMD of the femoral neck, humerus, lumbar spine, and legs (Delta 0.08-0.20 g/cm(2), pbadminton is a more osteogenic sport compared to ice hockey. The BMD benefits from previous training were partially sustained with reduced activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    . In a number of in vitro culture systems, Dlk1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis indirectly through osteoblast-dependent increased production of proinflammatory bone-resorbing cytokines (eg, Il7, Tnfa, and Ccl3). We found that ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss was associated with increased production of Dlk1...... in the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss....

  2. Rare earth elements determined in Antarctic ice by inductively coupled plasma-Time of flight, quadrupole and sector field-mass spectrometry: An inter-comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, D.; Wegner, A.; Gabrielli, P.; Ruth, U.; Barbante, C.; Kriews, M.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a suitable tool for multi-element analysis at low concentration levels. Rare earth element (REE) determinations in standard reference materials and small volumes of molten ice core samples from Antarctica have been performed with an ICP-time of flight-MS (ICP-TOF-MS) system. Recovery rates for REE in e.g. SPS-SW1 amounted to ∼103%, and the relative standard deviations were 3.4% for replicate analysis at REE concentrations in the lower ng L -1 range. Analyses of REE concentrations in Antarctic ice core samples showed that the ICP-TOF-MS technique meets the demands of restricted sample mass. The data obtained are in good agreement with ICP-Quadrupole-MS (ICP-Q-MS) and ICP-Sector Field-MS (ICP-SF-MS) results. The ICP-TOF-MS system determines accurately and precisely REE concentrations exceeding 5 ng L -1 while between 0.5 and 5 ng L -1 accuracy and precision are element dependent

  3. Impact of improved Greenland ice sheet surface representation in the NASA GISS ModelE2 GCM on simulated surface mass balance and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.; LeGrande, A. N.; Fischer, E.; Tedesco, M.; Kelley, M.; Schmidt, G. A.; Fettweis, X.

    2017-12-01

    Towards achieving coupled simulations between the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2 general circulation model (GCM) and ice sheet models (ISMs), improvements have been made to the representation of the ice sheet surface in ModelE2. These include a sub-grid-scale elevation class scheme, a multi-layer snow model, a time-variable surface albedo scheme, and adjustments to parameterization of sublimation/evaporation. These changes improve the spatial resolution and physical representation of the ice sheet surface such that the surface is represented at a level of detail closer to that of Regional Climate Models (RCMs). We assess the impact of these changes on simulated Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB). We also compare ModelE2 simulations in which winds have been nudged to match the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis with simulations from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM forced by the same reanalysis. Adding surface elevation classes results in a much higher spatial resolution representation of the surface necessary for coupling with ISMs, but has a negligible impact on overall SMB. Implementing a variable surface albedo scheme increases melt by 100%, bringing it closer to melt simulated by MAR. Adjustments made to the representation of topography-influenced surface roughness length in ModelE2 reduce a positive bias in evaporation relative to MAR. We also examine the impact of changes to the GrIS surface on regional atmospheric and oceanic climate in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations with ModelE2, finding a general warming of the Arctic due to a warmer GrIS, and a cooler North Atlantic in scenarios with doubled atmospheric CO2 relative to pre-industrial levels. The substantial influence of changes to the GrIS surface on the oceans and atmosphere highlight the importance of including these processes in the GCM, in view of potential feedbacks between the ice sheet

  4. Glaciers and ice caps outside Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Marin; Wolken, G.; Burgess, D.; Cogley, J.G.; Copland, L.; Thomson, L.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L.M.; O'Neel, Shad; Pelto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps cover an area of over 400 000 km2 in the Arctic, and are a major influence on global sea level (Gardner et al. 2011, 2013; Jacob et al. 2012). They gain mass by snow accumulation and lose mass by meltwater runoff. Where they terminate in water (ocean or lake), they also lose mass by iceberg calving. The climatic mass balance (Bclim, the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual meltwater runoff) is a widely used index of how glaciers respond to climate variability and change. The total mass balance (ΔM) is defined as the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual mass losses (by iceberg calving plus runoff).

  5. Polar Ice Caps: a Canary for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsaker, W.; Lowell, T. V.; Sagredo, E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Ice caps are glacier masses that are highly sensitive to climate change. Because of their hypsometry they can have a binary state. When relatively slight changes in the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) either intersect or rise above the land the ice can become established or disappear. Thus these upland ice masses have a fast response time. Here we consider a way to extract the ELA signal from independent ice caps adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. It may be that these ice caps are sensitive trackers of climate change that also impact the ice sheet margin. One example is the Istorvet Ice Cap located in Liverpool Land, East Greenland (70.881°N, 22.156°W). The ice cap topography and the underlying bedrock surface dips to the north, with peak elevation of the current ice ranging in elevation from 1050 to 745 m.a.s.l. On the eastern side of the ice mass the outlet glaciers extending down to sea level. The western margin has several small lobes in topographic depressions, with the margin reaching down to 300 m.a.s.l. Topographic highs separate the ice cap into at least 5 main catchments, each having a pair of outlet lobes toward either side of the ice cap. Because of the regional bedrock slope each catchment has its own elevation range. Therefore, as the ELA changes it is possible for some catchments of the ice cap to experience positive mass balance while others have a negative balance. Based on weather observations we estimate the present day ELA to be ~1000 m.a.s.l, meaning mass balance is negative for the majority of the ice cap. By tracking glacier presence/absence in these different catchments, we can reconstruct small changes in the ELA. Another example is the High Ice Cap (informal name) in Milne Land (70.903°N, 25.626°W, 1080 m), East Greenland. Here at least 4 unconformities in ice layers found near the southern margin of the ice cap record changing intervals of accumulation and ablation. Therefore, this location may also be sensitive to slight

  6. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p rights reserved.

  7. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  8. The Antarctic Ice Sheet, Sea Ice, and the Ozone Hole: Satellite Observations of how they are Changing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctica is the Earth's coldest and highest continent and has major impacts on the climate and life of the south polar vicinity. It is covered almost entirely by the Earth's largest ice sheet by far, with a volume of ice so great that if all the Antarctic ice were to go into the ocean (as ice or liquid water), this would produce a global sea level rise of about 60 meters (197 feet). The continent is surrounded by sea ice that in the wintertime is even more expansive than the continent itself and in the summertime reduces to only about a sixth of its wintertime extent. Like the continent, the expansive sea ice cover has major impacts, reflecting the sun's radiation back to space, blocking exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere, and providing a platform for some animal species while impeding other species. Far above the continent, the Antarctic ozone hole is a major atmospheric phenomenon recognized as human-caused and potentially quite serious to many different life forms. Satellites are providing us with remarkable information about the ice sheet, the sea ice, and the ozone hole. Satellite visible and radar imagery are providing views of the large scale structure of the ice sheet never seen before; satellite laser altimetry has produced detailed maps of the topography of the ice sheet; and an innovative gravity-measuring two-part satellite has allowed mapping of regions of mass loss and mass gain on the ice sheet. The surrounding sea ice cover has a satellite record that goes back to the 1970s, allowing trend studies that show a decreasing sea ice presence in the region of the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas, to the west of the prominent Antarctic Peninsula, but increasing sea ice presence around much of the rest of the continent. Overall, sea ice extent around Antarctica has increased at an average rate of about 17,000 square kilometers per year since the late 1970s, as determined from satellite microwave data that can be collected under both light and

  9. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  10. High-Resolution, Long-Slit Spectroscopy of VY Canis Majoris: The Evidence for Localized High Mass Loss Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Ruch, Gerald; Wallerstein, George

    2005-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy of the OH/IR supergiant VY CMa and its circumstellar ejecta reveals evidence for high mass loss events from localized regions on the star occurring over the past 1000 yr. The reflected absorption lines and the extremely strong K I emission lines show a complex pattern of velocities in the ejecta. We show that the large, dusty northwest arc, expanding at ~50 km s-1 with respect to the embedded star, is kinematically distinct from the surrounding nebulosity and was ejected about 400 yr ago. Other large, more filamentary loops were probably expelled as much as 800-1000 yr ago, whereas knots and small arcs close to the star resulted from more recent events 100-200 yr ago. The more diffuse, uniformly distributed gas and dust is surprisingly stationary, with little or no velocity relative to the star. This is not what we would expect for the circumstellar material from an evolved red supergiant with a long history of mass loss. We therefore suggest that the high mass loss rate for VY CMa is a measure of the mass carried out by these specific ejections accompanied by streams or flows of gas through low-density regions in the dust envelope. VY CMa may thus be our most extreme example of stellar activity, but our results also bring into question the evolutionary state of this famous star. In a separate appendix, we discuss the origin of the very strong K I and other rare emission lines in its spectrum.

  11. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans

    2017-06-01

    IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  12. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  13. Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation Balance and Peripheral Thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabill; Abdalati; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    2000-07-21

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over northern Greenland in 1994 and 1999 have been coupled with previously reported data from southern Greenland to analyze the recent mass-balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Above 2000 meters elevation, the ice sheet is in balance on average but has some regions of local thickening or thinning. Thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year close to the coast. Interpolation of our results between flight lines indicates a net loss of about 51 cubic kilometers of ice per year from the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise sea level by 0.13 millimeter per year-approximately 7% of the observed rise.

  14. The photometric evolution of star clusters and the preferential loss of low-mass bodies – with an application to globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context. To obtain an accurate description of broad-band photometric star cluster evolution, certain effects should be accounted for. Energy equipartition leads to mass segregation and the preferential loss of low-mass stars, while stellar remnants severel