WorldWideScience

Sample records for ic chip stress

  1. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-02-01

    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  2. Full chip modelling of ICs under CDM stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowariraj, Mary Sheela Bobby

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, CDM ESD stress on the Integrated Circuits (IC) and the various factors which affect the robustness of an IC design against CDM stress is investigated. One of the main reasons for CDM failure are the voltage gradients set across the circuit during CDM stress. The IC being also the sou

  3. Full chip modelling of ICs under CDM stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowariraj, M.S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, CDM ESD stress on the Integrated Circuits (IC) and the various factors which affect the robustness of an IC design against CDM stress is investigated. One of the main reasons for CDM failure are the voltage gradients set across the circuit during CDM stress. The IC being also the

  4. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  5. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

    1999-08-03

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

  6. Module comprising IC memory stack dedicated to and structurally combined with an IC microprocessor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John C. (Inventor); Indin, Ronald J. (Inventor); Shanken, Stuart N. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A computer module is disclosed in which a stack of glued together IC memory chips is structurally integrated with a microprocessor chip. The memory provided by the stack is dedicated to the microprocessor chip. The microprocessor and its memory stack may be connected either by glue and/or by solder bumps. The solder bumps can perform three functions--electrical interconnection, mechanical connection, and heat transfer. The electrical connections in some versions are provided by wire bonding.

  7. Photoelasticity analysis of thermal stresses in the plastic ICs. Hikari danseiho ni yoru IC package nai oryoku no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Shibuya, Y. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-20

    Recent highly integrated semiconductors have tendencies of being finer patterns and larger silicon chip area. Plastic packages excellent in productivity have been proved to be highly reliable in moisture resistance due to improved sealing resin and have become the main part of IC packages. However, in such devices featuring larger chip area and finer circuit pattern as large capacity memories, the problem of internal stress due to sealing resin contraction has been highlighted as a new problem. In this study, a photoelasticity which is a relatively simple method is employed to evaluate stress within sealing resin, and the review on effects of stress on the interior of sealing resin and chip are reported. Further, the effect of a buffer coat formed on the chip to reduce the stress on a silicon chip, and the effect of package shape on the thermal stress has been examined by means of photoelasticity, and the result is also shown. 10 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sou...... inlet of microphone. External electrical connection can be made economically reliable and the thermal stress is avoided with the small size solid state silicon based condenser microphone....... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  9. A Single-Chip Solar Energy Harvesting IC Using Integrated Photodiodes for Biomedical Implant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Law, Man-Kay; Mak, Pui-In; Martins, Rui P

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%. By employing an auxiliary charge pump (AQP) using zero threshold voltage (ZVT) devices in parallel with the main charge pump, a low startup voltage of 0.25 V is obtained while minimizing the reversion loss. A 4 Vin gate drive voltage is utilized to reduce the conduction loss. Systematic charge pump and solar cell area optimization is also introduced to improve the energy harvesting efficiency. The proposed system is implemented in a standard 0.18- [Formula: see text] CMOS technology and occupies an active area of 1.54 [Formula: see text]. Measurement results show that the on-chip charge pump can achieve a maximum efficiency of 67%. With an incident power of 1.22 [Formula: see text] from a halogen light source, the proposed energy harvesting IC can deliver an output power of 1.65 [Formula: see text] at 64% charge pump efficiency. The chip prototype is also verified using in-vitro experiment.

  10. New IC package, assembly technique by means of a "blind" alignment "flip-chip" method and assembling facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir V. Novikov

    2004-01-01

    @@ In spite of a long period of the development ofmicroelectronic components base, the problem of the creation of IC package design, providing minimal area losses in contrast with area of a chip, remains unsolved [1]Area losses can be described by the parameter P,which is equal to the ratio between the package area in plan and the chip area:

  11. Stress Voiding in IC Interconnects - Rules of Evidence for Failure Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FILTER, WILLIAM F.

    1999-09-17

    Mention the words ''stress voiding'', and everyone from technology engineer to manager to customer is likely to cringe. This IC failure mechanism elicits fear because it is insidious, capricious, and difficult to identify and arrest. There are reasons to believe that a damascene-copper future might be void-free. Nevertheless, engineers who continue to produce ICs with Al-alloy interconnects, or who assess the reliability of legacy ICs with long service life, need up-to-date insights and techniques to deal with stress voiding problems. Stress voiding need not be fearful. Not always predictable, neither is it inevitable. On the contrary, stress voids are caused by specific, avoidable processing errors. Analytical work, though often painful, can identify these errors when stress voiding occurs, and vigilance in monitoring the improved process can keep it from recurring. In this article, they show that a methodical, forensics approach to failure analysis can solve suspected cases of stress voiding. This approach uses new techniques, and patiently applies familiar ones, to develop evidence meeting strict standards of proof.

  12. A New Method for Optimizing Layout Parameter of an Integrated On-Chip Inductor in CMOS RF IC's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力南; 钱鹤

    2000-01-01

    Analyzing the influence on Q factor, which was caused by the parasitic effect in a CMOS RF on-chip integrated inductor, a concise method to increase the Q factor has been ob tained when optimizing the layout parameter. Using this method, the Q factor of 7.9 can be achieved in a 5nH inductor (operating frequency is 2GHz) while the errors in inductance are less than 0.5 % compared with the aimed values. It is proved by experiments that this method can guarantee the sufficient accuracy but require less computation time. Therefore, it is of great use for the design of the inductor in CMOS RF IC's.

  13. Novel on chip-interconnection structures for giga-scale integration VLSI ICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelakuditi, Usha R.; Reddy, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the guidelines of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) Intel has already designed and manufactured the next generation product of the Itanium family containing 1.72 billion transistors. In each new technology due to scaling, individual transistors are becoming smaller and faster, and are dissipating low power. The main challenge with these systems is wiring of these billion transistors since wire length interconnect scaling increases the distributed resistance-capacitance product. In addition, high clock frequencies necessitate reverse scaling of global and semi-global interconnects so that they satisfy the timing constraints. Hence, the performances of future GSI systems will be severely restricted by interconnect performance. It is therefore essential to look at interconnect design techniques that will reduce the impact of interconnect networks on the power, performance and cost of the entire system. In this paper a new routing technique called Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing similar to Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is discussed. This technique is highly useful for the current high density CMOS VLSI ICs. The major advantages of WPM routing technique are flexible, robust, simple to implement, and realized with low area, low power and performance overhead requirements.

  14. Thermal Stress Analysis of a Speculative IC Engine Piston using CAE Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh pandey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pressure due to expanding combustion gases in the combustion chamber space at the top of the cylinder which generate thermal stresses due to presence of heat involved on the reciprocating masses. The present work deals with the use of different materials for IC engine piston and a comparative study is made to achieve the best possible result. Piston parameters are taken using the conventional formulas and are constant throughout the analysis. Moreover the boundary conditions are chosen such that the piston does not moves sideways except in the direction of line of action of the piston itself.

  15. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  16. 加快IC/IP研发,推动系统芯片发展%Accelerating Development of System-on-Chip by Speeding-Up R & D of IC/IP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世六; 赖凡

    2013-01-01

    The law of development of integrated circuit technology and industry was investigated based on detailed facts and accurate data.It is concluded that a better way to promote the development of system-on-chip with independent intellectual property rights is to enhance the competitiveness in IC/IP industry.%运用翔实的事实和数据,分析研究集成电路技术和产业发展规律.提出发展我国集成电路(包括IP)产业的竞争力是推动自主可控系统芯片发展的较好途径.

  17. Stress insensitive multilayer chip inductor with ferrite core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwas, B.; Madhuri, W., E-mail: madhuriw12@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudan; Kaleemulla, S. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Mg{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is synthesized by sol gel auto combustion technique. The obtained ferrite powder is finally sintered in a microwave furnace at 850°C. Multilayer chip inductor (MLCI) of two layers is prepared by screen printing technique. The sintered ferrite is characterized by X-ray diffraction. The frequency response of dielectric constant is studied in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5MHz. Dielectric polarization is discussed in the light of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. The prepared MLCI is studied for stress sensitivity in the range of 0 to 8 MPa.

  18. Two-Stage Driving Circuit for One-Chip TFT-LCD Driver IC%TFT-LCD驱动芯片的二级驱动电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高武; 魏廷存; 高德远

    2007-01-01

    针对单芯片集成的TFT-LCD驱动芯片的特性,提出了在γ校正电路中加入两级驱动Buffef的驱动电路结构,以及提高其驱动能力的有效措施.对于具有13个驱动buffer的二级驱动电路,当由一个灰度电压驱动全部396个像素单元时,驱动电压的最大安定时间约为19.2μs;静态消耗电流为518μA,与传统的64个驱动buffer电路相比,其功耗减小了77%.本文的设计结果已成功应用于132RGB×176分辨率、26万色彩色显示手机用TFT-LCD驱动芯片中,其也可用于PDA、数码相机等其他便携电子设备的显示驱动.%A two-stage driving circuit of a one-chip TFT-LCD driver IC for portable electronic devices is proposed. The driving buffers of the new circuit are built in the γ-correction circuit rather than in the source driver.The power consumption,die area,and driving capability of the driving circuit are discussed in detail. For a twostage driving circuit with 13 driving buffers, the settling time of the driving voltage within 0.2% error is about 19.2μs when 396 pixel-loads are driven by the same grayscale voltage. The quiescent current of the whole driving circuit is 518μA,and the power consumption can be reduced by 77%. The proposed driving circuit is successfully applied in a 132RGB×176-dot,260k color one-chip driver IC developed by us for the TFT-LCD of mobile phone,and it can also be used in other portable electronic devices, such as PDAs and digital cameras.

  19. The Implementation and Analysis of a Trojan Circuit in IC Chips%一种木马电路的实现与特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝霞; 韩玲; 李阳; 邹雪城

    2012-01-01

    由于硬件木马等恶意电路的隐蔽性,攻击者可以利用其窃取机密信息,破坏硬件电路,造成严重的经济损失与社会危害.本文基于典型的芯片设计流程与EDA工具,首先建立硬件木马的电路模型,然后尝试在一简单ADC芯片中,利用其电路的剩余空间,设计实现了一种计数器木马电路.该木马电路的规模大约占芯片总面积的5.6%,将受污染的电路与真实电路一起用标准CMOS工艺HJ0.25μm流片,然后采用旁路功耗分析技术进行深入分析.实验数据表明,在正常工作情况下,受污染和没受污染的芯片功耗并无明显差异,而当木马触发条件满足时,受污染的芯片却成功的实现了攻击.%Hidden Trojan circuits provide an attacker with a stealthy attack vector. Trojan circuits can bypass traditional defensive techniques as they occupy a layer below the entire software stack. We present the design and implementation of a counter Trojan circuits into a IC chip by standard CMOS technology HJ0. 25urn, then we analyze such flexible hardware allows powerful, general purpose attacks, while remaining surprisingly low in the amount of additional hardware.

  20. Heat stress during development alters post-harvest sugar contents and chip processing quality of potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses that increase tuber contents of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose decrease the value of chipping potatoes because such tubers produce dark-colored chips that are unacceptable to processors and consumers. Stem-end chip defect (SECD), which causes regions of dark color al...

  1. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  2. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  3. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  4. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  5. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  6. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  7. SPROC: A multiple-processor DSP IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.

    1991-01-01

    A large, single-chip, multiple-processor, digital signal processing (DSP) integrated circuit (IC) fabricated in HP-Cmos34 is presented. The innovative architecture is best suited for analog and real-time systems characterized by both parallel signal data flows and concurrent logic processing. The IC is supported by a powerful development system that transforms graphical signal flow graphs into production-ready systems in minutes. Automatic compiler partitioning of tasks among four on-chip processors gives the IC the signal processing power of several conventional DSP chips.

  8. Detecting Hardware Trojans in IC Chips with Side Channel Analysis%基于旁路分析的集成电路芯片硬件木马检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵崇征; 邓高明; 赵强

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at the difficulty in detecting hardware Trojans inside IC chips, a novel idea about detecting Troian circuits with side channel analysis is introduced. After formally defining the problem of detecting hardware Trojans in IC chips with side channel analysis, the differences between principle components analysis on side channel signals acquired from chips with Trojan circuits and without Trojan circuits were analyzed. Detection experiments with principle components analysis were taken out on a DES cipher chip implemented on a FPGA board. The results of experiments verified the effect of Hardware Trojans detection with principle components analysis on side channel signal.%针对密码芯片中硬件木马电路检测的困难性,介绍了根据芯片旁路信息进行硬件木马检测的思想.在形式化定义基于旁路分析的硬件木马检测问题的基础上,分析了含硬件木马与不含硬件木马的密码芯片对应旁路信号在主成份分析结果上的差异,并以此对FPGA实现的含硬件木马的DES密码原型芯片进行了检测实验,实验结果表明了基于旁路信号主成份分析在密码芯片硬件木马检测中的效果.

  9. RADIATION HARDENED ANALOG IC FOR SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dvornikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of specialized analog integrated circuit design for sensor equipments are considered. It is offered to produce of radiation hardened analog IC on structured chips for economic efficiency at small production volume. The approach to analog IC design is described, including recommendations for choice of: types and quantities of structured chip analogue components; active and passive components; schematic decisions of analogue components with programmed parameters and small sensitivity to radiation. 

  10. Observation of amorphous chromium in modified C4 flip chip solder joints after thermal stress testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooghan, T.K.; Nakahara, S.; Hooghan, K.; Privette, R.W.; Bachman, M.A.; Moyer, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Flip chip reliability was evaluated using thermal stress tests at 150 deg. C. Electrical failures of flip chip devices were found to occur at the solder/under-bump-metallization interface by forming a porous amorphous chromium layer. The formation of the porous amorphous layer responsible for electrical failures resulted from the outdiffusion of copper atoms from a copper-chromium co-deposit, used as one of the under-bump-metallization layers. A strong interaction of Cu with the Sn component of the solder is the driving force of the Cu outdiffusion.

  11. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely than the general population to have systemic lupus erythematosus. More recent research has revealed that IC may ... Pain & IC Hunner’s Ulcers IC Flares Women & IC Pregnancy & IC Intimacy & ... Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia ...

  12. Pregnancy and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home About IC Women & IC Pregnancy & IC Pregnancy & IC How Pregnancy Affects IC Unfortunately, there is limited scientific data ... 2009 issue of the ICA Update . Planning Your Pregnancy Planning ahead for your pregnancy will let you: ...

  13. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  14. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a 3rd Generation Addressable CMOS Piezoresistive Stress Sensing Test Chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.

    1999-04-13

    Piezoresistive stress sensing chips have been used extensively for measurement of assembly related die surface stresses. Although many experiments can be performed with resistive structures which are directly bonded, for extensive stress mapping it is necessary to have a large number of sensor cells which can be addressed using CMOS logic circuitry. Our previous test chip, the ATC04, has 100 cells, each approximately 0.012 in. on a side, on a chip with a side dimension of 0.45 in. When a cell resistor is addressed, it is connected to a four terminal measurement bus through CMOS transmission gates. In theory, the gate resistances do not affect the measurement. In practice, there may be subtle effects which appear when very high accuracy is required. At high temperatures, gate leakage can increase to a point at which the resistor measurement becomes inaccurate. For ATC04 this occurred at or above 50 C. Here, we report on the first measurements obtained with a new prototype test chip, the ATC06. This prototype was fabricated in a 0.5 micron feature size silicided CMOS process using the MOSIS prototyping facility. The cell size was approximately 0.004 in. on a side. In order to achieve piezoresistive behavior for the implanted resistors it was necessary to employ a non-standard silicide ''blocking'' process. The stress sensitivity of both implanted and polysilicon blocked resistors is discussed. Using a new design strategy for the CMOS logic, it was possible to achieve a design in which only 5 signals had to be routed to a cell for addressing vs. 9 for ATC04. With our new design, the resistor under test is more effectively electrically isolated from other resistors on the chip, thereby improving high temperature performance. We present data showing operation up to 140 C.

  15. Experiment-Based Computational Investigation of Thermomechanical Stresses in Flip Chip BGA Using the ATC4.2 Test Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, Steven N.; Nguyen, Luu; Peterson, David W.; Sweet, James N.

    1999-08-02

    Stress measurement test chips were flip chip assembled to organic BGA substrates containing micro-vias and epoxy build-up interconnect layers. Mechanical degradation observed during temperature cycling was correlated to a damage theory developed based on 3D finite element method analysis. Degradation included die cracking, edge delamination and radial fillet cracking.

  16. Stresses from flip-chip assembly and underfill; measurements with the ATC4.1 assembly test chip and analysis by finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Burchett, S.N.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-31

    The authors report the first measurements of in-situ flip-chip assembly mechanical stresses using a CMOS piezoresistive test chip repatterned with a fine pitch full area array. A special printed circuit board substrate was designed at Sandia and fabricated by the Hadco Corp. The flip-chip solder attach (FCA) and underfill was performed by a SEMATECH member company. The measured incremental stresses produced by the underfill are reported and discussed for several underfill materials used in this experiment. A FEM of a one-quarter section of the square assembly has been developed to compare with the measured as-assembled and underfill die surface stresses. The initial model utilized linear elastic constitutive models for the Si, solder, underfill, and PC board components. Detailed comparisons between theory and experiment are presented and discussed.

  17. Validating theoretical calculations of thermomechanical stress and deformation using the ATC4.1 flip-chip test vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Burchett, S.N.

    1997-08-01

    Two closed form analytical solutions for tri-material thermomechanical stress and deformation, along with one-quarter section finite element model (FEM), were validated using an in-situ CMOS piezoresistive stress measurement test chip that has been repatterened into a fine pitch area array flip-chip. A special printed circuit board substrate for the test chip was designed at Sandia and fabricated by the Hadco Corp. The flip-chip solder attach (FCA) and underfill was performed by a SEMATECH member company. The measured incremental stresses produced by the underfill are reported and discussed for two underfill materials used in this experiment. Detailed comparisons between theory and experiment are presented and discussed.

  18. Effect of dendrite arm spacing and the γ’ phase size on stress rupture properties of Ni3Al-base single crystal superalloy IC6SX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dendrite arm spacing and the size of γ’ phase on stress rupture properties of as-cast Ni3Al-based single crystal superalloy IC6SX was studied.It has been found that the stress rupture properties were affected by dendrite arm spacing and the size of γ’ phase significantly,i.e.,the stress rupture lives of as-cast specimens under the test condition of 1100°C/120 MPa were significantly increased from about 10 h to 31 h with decreasing dendrite arm spacing and the size of γ’ phase from 3.0 μm and 1.6 μm to 1.3 μm and 0.8 μm,respectively.The creep cracks generated easily in the brittle Y-NiMo phase.Then the cracks gradually mergered and grew up during creep,and finally led to specimens fracture.The orientated coarsening of γ’ phase has been found in the stress ruptured specimens,due to the elements diffusion.However,the γ’ phase did not form the integrated structure during the short periods of 10-31 h as the creep tests lasted.

  19. CHIP, a carboxy terminus HSP-70 interacting protein, prevents cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Miranda, Felipe; Adão-Novaes, Juliana; Hauswirth, William W; Linden, Rafael; Petrs-Silva, Hilda; Chiarini, Luciana B

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and protein misfolding are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress activates unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptative response. However, severe ER stress can induce cell death. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase and co-chaperone Carboxyl Terminus HSP70/90 Interacting Protein (CHIP) prevents neuron death in the hippocampus induced by severe ER stress. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) were exposed to Tunicamycin, a pharmacological ER stress inducer, to trigger cell death. Overexpression of CHIP was achieved with a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) and significantly diminished ER stress-induced cell death, as shown by analysis of propidium iodide (PI) uptake, condensed chromatin, TUNEL and cleaved caspase 3 in the CA1 region of OHSCs. In addition, overexpression of CHIP prevented upregulation of both CHOP and p53 both pro-apoptotic pathways induced by ER stress. We also detected an attenuation of eIF2a phosphorylation promoted by ER stress. However, CHIP did not prevent upregulation of BiP/GRP78 induced by UPR. These data indicate that overexpression of CHIP attenuates ER-stress death response while maintain ER stress adaptative response in the central nervous system. These results indicate a neuroprotective role for CHIP upon UPR signaling. CHIP emerge as a candidate for clinical intervention in neurodegenerative diseases associated with ER stress.

  20. IC Treatment: Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restrictions than MAOIs. Studies Testing Antidepressants to Treat IC With the exception of the TCA called amitriptyline ( ... when you have IC). Antidepressants Used to Treat IC Some of the current antidepressants your physician may ...

  1. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as his or her teachers, principal, school nurse, gym teacher, etc. Your child’s symptoms may be ... Out IC How to Schedule an IC Advocacy District Visit IC Advocates in Action Spur Research Funding ...

  2. Three-dimensional IC trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Y.

    1986-12-01

    VLSI will be reaching to the limit of minimization in the 1990s, and after that, further increase of packing density or functions might depend on the vertical integration technology. Three-dimensional (3-D) integration is expected to provide several advantages, such as 1) parallel processing, 2) high-speed operation, 3) high packing density, and 4) multifunctional operation. Basic technologies of 3-D IC are to fabricate SOI layers and to stack them monolithically. Crystallinity of the recrystallized layer in SOI has increasingly become better, and very recently crystal-axis controlled, defect-free single-crystal areas has been obtained in chip size level by laser recystallization technology. Some basic functional models showing the concept or image of a future 3-D IC were fabricated in two or three stacked active layers. Some other proposals of subsystems in the application of 3-D structure, and the technical issues for realizing practical 3-D IC, i.e., the technology for fabricating high-quality SOI crystal on complicated surface topology, crosstalk of the signals between the stacked layers, total power consumption and cooling of the chip, are also discussed in this paper.

  3. On-chip stress relaxation testing method for freestanding thin film materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombier, M; Guisbiers, G; Colla, M-S; Vayrette, R; Raskin, J-P; Pardoen, T

    2012-10-01

    A stress relaxation method for freestanding thin films is developed based on an on-chip internal stress actuated microtensile testing set-up. The on-chip test structures are produced using microfabrication techniques involving cleaning, deposition, lithography, and release. After release from the substrate, the test specimens are subjected to uniaxial tension. The applied load decays with the deformation taking place during relaxation. This technique is adapted to strain rates lower than 10(-6)∕s and permits the determination of the strain rate sensitivity of very thin films. The main advantage of the technique is that the relaxation tests are simultaneously performed on thousands of specimens, pre-deformed up to different strain levels, for very long periods of time without monopolizing any external mechanical loading equipment. Proof of concept results are provided for 205-nm-thick sputtered AlSi(0.01) films and for 350-nm-thick evaporated Pd films showing unexpectedly high relaxation at room temperature.

  4. Stress response of Caenorhabditis elegans induced by space crowding in a micro-column array chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixian; Tang, Lichun; Xia, Yuyang; Hu, Liang; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2013-04-01

    Crowding stress has been reported to play an important role in affecting physiological behaviour. To study this process, a reliable analytical method under confined space is essential. In this work, we demonstrated a microfluidic approach for investigating physiological responses of C. elegans to confined spaces. The PDMS microfluidic chip consisting of arrays of micro-columns enabled us to mimic different crowding conditions by changing the intervals among micro-columns. C. elegans were transferred into this micro-column array and the subcellular distribution of DAF-16, which is a well-known transcription factor regulating different stress responses, was monitored for analysing the physiological responses to the confined spaces. We found that the worms exhibited a gradual increase in DAF-16 nuclear localization in the micro-column array with intervals from 200 μm to 40 μm. Moreover, the results showed that the absence of food and crowding stress could cooperate to promote increased DAF-16 nuclear localization. Finally, loss-of-function mutations in mec-4 and mec-10, which are amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel genes expressed in all six gentle touch neurons, accelerated the velocity of DAF-16 nuclear localization, induced by confined space, revealing that mec-4/mec-10 were not required for this stress response. Thus, this device will provide a versatile, reliable and controllable platform for crowding stress studies.

  5. Design of a LOW Cost IC Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakot Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost Integrated Circuit (IC testing is now a burning issue in semiconductor technology. Conventional IC tester, Automatic Test Equipment (ATE, cannot cope with the today’s continuously increasing complexities in IC technology. Deterministic algorithm, which is an idea of 1960’s, is adopted in the ATE. Recently pseudo-random testing approach of IC testing has been emerged as an economically viable alternative to the expensive deterministic testing approach. This study introduces the design of a System-on-a-chip (Soc implementing pseudo-random test technique for low cost IC testing with reliable performance. It is capable of testing combinational circuits as well as sequential circuits with scan-port facilities efficiently. It can also be used for testing Printed Circuit Board (PCB interconnection faults.

  6. Phenotype Transformation of Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells Due to Applied Shear Stresses Within a Microfluidic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmei; Lee, Joohyung; Ali, Mir; Kim, Jungkyu; Lacerda, Carla M R

    2017-06-15

    Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses. Mechanobiological responses of valvular interstitial cells were evaluated at shear stresses ranging from 0 to 4.26 dyn/cm(2). When flow rates were higher than 0.78 dyn/cm(2), cells elongated and aligned with the flow direction. In addition, we found that shear stress enhanced the formation of focal adhesions and up-regulated PAVIC transformation, assessed by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β. This study reveals a link between the action of shear forces, cell phenotype transformation and focal adhesion formation. This constitutes the first step towards the development of co-cultures (interstitial-endothelial cells) on organ-on-a-chip devices, which will enable studies of the signaling pathways regulating force-induced valvular degeneration in microtissues and potential discovery of valvular degeneration therapies.

  7. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  8. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  9. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  10. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  11. Calculation and Validation of Thermomechanical Stresses in Flip Chip BGA Using the ATC4.2 Test Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, S.N.; Mitchell, R.T.; Nguyen, L.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1999-03-09

    We report the first in situ measurements of thermomechanical stresses in a 1000 I/O 250 {micro}m pitch piezoresistive flip chip test chip assembled to a 755 I/O 1.0 mm pitch 35 mm Ball Grid Array (BGA). The BGA substrates employed build-up dielectric layers containing micro-vias over conventional fiberglass laminate cores. Experimental data, which include in situ stress and die bending measurements, were correlated to closed form and Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations. Cracking and delamination were observed in some of the experimental groups undergoing temperature cycling. Through use of bounding conditions in the FEM simulations, these failures were associated with debonding of the underfill fillet from the die edge that caused stresses to shift to weaker areas of the package.

  12. Effect of electro-acupuncture on gene expression in heart of rats with stress-induced pre-hypertension based on gene chip technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo Yan Xie Xiaojia Guo Changqing Wang Zhaoyang Liu Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore electro-acupuncture's(EA's)effect on gene expression in heart of rats with stress-induced pre-hypertension and try to reveal its biological mechanism based on gene chip...

  13. Innovative Teaching of IC Design and Manufacture Using the Superchip Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. R.; Wilcock, R.; McNally, I.; Swabey, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an intelligent chip architecture has allowed a large cohort of undergraduate (UG) students to be given effective practical insight into integrated circuit (IC) design by designing and manufacturing their own ICs. To achieve this, an efficient chip architecture, the "Superchip," was developed, which allows multiple student…

  14. Comparison of thermomigration behaviors between Pb-free flip chip solder joints and microbumps in three dimensional integrated circuits: Bump height effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Jhu, Wei-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Packaging technology is currently transition from flip chip technology to three dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) to meet the requirements of consumer electronic products. Compared to flip chip technology, the dimension of microbumps in 3D ICs is shrunk by a factor of 10. In this study, the behaviors of thermomigration in Pb-free solders of flip chip and 3D ICs are presented. When the bump height is 100 μm in the flip chip samples, the Sn protrusion was observed at the hot end and voids formation at the cold end. However, when the bump height is reduced to 5.8 μm in the 3D IC samples, no significant microstructural evolution of Sn was found; instead, the dissolution of Ni under-bump metallization at hot end was observed. We propose that discrepancy between flip chip solder joints and 3D IC microbumps is mainly attributed to the effect of back stress and the presence of thicker Ni under-bump metallization in the 3D IC packaging. Moreover, the critical temperature gradient in terms of different bump heights is discussed, showing below which there will be no net effect of thermomigration of Sn.

  15. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Click to learn more about these and ...

  16. Monitoring cellular stress responses to nanoparticles using a lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lukas; Charwat, Verena; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Bellutti, Florian; Brueckl, Hubert; Ertl, Peter

    2011-08-07

    As nanotechnology moves towards widespread commercialization, new technologies are needed to adequately address the potential health impact of nanoparticles (NPs). Assessing the safety of over 30,000 NPs through animal testing would not only be expensive, but it would also raise a number of ethical considerations. Furthermore, existing in vitro cell-based assays are not sufficient in scope to adequately address the complexity of cell-nanoparticle interactions including NP translocation, accumulation and co-transport of e.g. allergens. In particular, classical optical/fluorescent endpoint detection methods are known to provide irreproducible, inaccurate and unreliable results since these labels can directly react with the highly catalytic surfaces of NP. To bridge this technological gap we have developed a lab-on-a-chip capable of continuously and non-invasively monitoring the collagen production of primary human fibroblast cells (NHDF) using contactless dielectric microsensors. Human dermal fibroblast cells are responsible for the maintenance of soft tissue integrity, are found throughout the human body and their primary function is collagen expression. We show that cellular collagen production can be readily detected and used to assess cellular stress responses to a variety of external stimuli, including exposure to nanoparticles. Results of the study showed a 20% and 95% reduction of collagen production following 4 hour exposure to 10 μg mL(-1) gold and silver nanoparticles (dia.10 nm), respectively. Furthermore a prolonged perfusion of sub-toxic concentrations (0.1 μg mL(-1)) of silver NP reduced NHDF collagen production by 40% after 10 h indicating increased NP take up and accumulation. We demonstrate that the application of microfluidics for the tailored administration of different NP treatments constitutes a powerful new tool to study cell-nanoparticle interactions and nanoparticle accumulation effects in small cell populations.

  17. Reliability and Characteristics of Wafer-Level Chip-Scale Packages under Current Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Ying; Kung, Heng-Yu; Lai, Yi-Shao; Hsiung Tsai, Ming; Yeh, Wen-Kuan

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we present a novel approach and method for elucidating the characteristics of wafer-level chip-scale packages (WLCSPs) for electromigration (EM) tests. The die in WLCSP was directly attached to the substrate via a soldered interconnect. The shrinking of the area of the die that is available for power, and the solder bump also shrinks the volume and increases the density of electrons for interconnect efficiency. The bump current density now approaches to 106 A/cm2, at which point the EM becomes a significant reliability issue. As known, the EM failure depends on numerous factors, including the working temperature and the under bump metallization (UBM) thickness. A new interconnection geometry is adopted extensively with moderate success in overcoming larger mismatches between the displacements of components during current and temperature changes. Both environments and testing parameters for WLCSP are increasingly demanded. Although failure mechanisms are considered to have been eliminated or at least made manageable, new package technologies are again challenging its process, integrity and reliability. WLCSP technology was developed to eliminate the need for encapsulation to ensure compatibility with smart-mount technology (SMT). The package has good handing properties but is now facing serious reliability problems. In this work, we investigated the reliability of a WLCSP subjected to different accelerated current stressing conditions at a fixed ambient temperature of 125 °C. A very strong correlation exists between the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the WLCSP test vehicle and the mean current density that is carried by a solder joint. A series of current densities were applied to the WLCSP architecture; Black's power law was employed in a failure mode simulation. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was adopted to determine the differences existing between high- and low-current-density failure modes.

  18. LD to IC

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    LC to IC – Publication of posts: Following the publication of new LD to IC posts, we regret that a large number of post descriptions are not available in both CERN official languages, English and French. Consequently, the Staff Association has decided to provide assistance to those who need it with the translation of one or more posts of interest. To do this, please contact the Staff Association secretariat, tel. 72819 or 72761 or 74224.

  19. Systolic array IC for genetic computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.

    1991-01-01

    Measuring similarities between large sequences of genetic information is a formidable task requiring enormous amounts of computer time. Geneticists claim that nearly two months of CRAY-2 time are required to run a single comparison of the known database against the new bases that will be found this year, and more than a CRAY-2 year for next year's genetic discoveries, and so on. The DNA IC, designed at HP-ICBD in cooperation with the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is being implemented in order to move the task of genetic comparison onto workstations and personal computers, while vastly improving performance. The chip is a systolic (pumped) array comprised of 16 processors, control logic, and global RAM, totaling 400,000 FETS. At 12 MHz, each chip performs 2.7 billion 16 bit operations per second. Using 35 of these chips in series on one PC board (performing nearly 100 billion operations per second), a sequence of 560 bases can be compared against the eventual total genome of 3 billion bases, in minutes--on a personal computer. While the designed purpose of the DNA chip is for genetic research, other disciplines requiring similarity measurements between strings of 7 bit encoded data could make use of this chip as well. Cryptography and speech recognition are two examples. A mix of full custom design and standard cells, in CMOS34, were used to achieve these goals. Innovative test methods were developed to enhance controllability and observability in the array. This paper describes these techniques as well as the chip's functionality. This chip was designed in the 1989-90 timeframe.

  20. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  1. Serial cerebral hemodynamic change after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery: evaluated by acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT(acz-SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Jae Seung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Im, Ki Chun; Kim, Euy Nyong; Mun, Dae Hyeog [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated serial cerebral hemodynamic changes after EC-IC bypass surgery in symptomatic pts with atherosclerotic occlusion of internal carotid (lCA) or mid-cerebral artery (MCA) using Acz-SPECT. 25 symptomatic pts (M/F 19/6, 53{+-}10 y) with ICA and MCA occlusion (16 uni - and 9 bilateral) prospectively underwent Acz-SPECT using Tc-99m ECD before and 1 week after EC-IC bypass surgery. Of these, 16 underwent additional f/u Acz-SPECT 5 mo later. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve of MCA territory were evaluated visually and SPECT findings were classified into 4 groups: N/N; R/N; N/R; and R/R (perfusion/perfusion reserve: N = normal, R = reduced). For semiquantitative analysis, all SPECT images were normalized to MNI template and mean counts of MCA territory and cerebellum were obtained by AAL. Cerebral perfusion index (PI =C{sub region}/C{sub cere}) and perfusion reserve index (RI = (PI{sub Acz} - PI{sub basal}) /Pl{sub basal}) were calculated. Preop SPECT findings of ipsilateral MCA in 25 pts were R/N (4%), N/R (12%), and R/R (84% ). Early postop SPECT showed improvement of perfusion (26%) and/or reserve (68%) in ipsilateral MCA. Of 16 pts with 5mo f/u SPECT, 6 (38%) showed further improvement of perfusion or reserve. However, 4 (25%) showed aggravation of perfusion and one of these underwent revision surgery. Preop PI (1.1{+-}0.1) and RI (0.11{+-}0.07) of ipsilateral MCA were significantly lower than those of contralateral hemispheres (p<0.05). After surgery, PIs of bilateral MCA did not change at early postop period but improved in ipsilateral MCA at 5mo. Rls of ipsilateral MCA increased significantly (68%) at early postop period (P<0.001) and then did not changed. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve changed with different manner during 5 mo after bypass surgery and perfusion reserve changed more dramatically than perfusion. Acz-SPECT is a feasible method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamic change after EC-IC bypass surgery.

  2. Local IC Market:Not Made in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ranking first in the world's integrated circuits (IC) market with a value of US$40.8 billion, China is becoming the Silicon Valley of the East as overseas investors compete to establish companies and factories to assemble or design chips for cell phones, computers and any other type of electronic device.

  3. A learning-enabled neuron array IC based upon transistor channel models of biological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, S; Nease, S; Hasler, P; Ramakrishnan, S; Wunderlich, R; Basu, A; Degnan, B

    2013-02-01

    We present a single-chip array of 100 biologically-based electronic neuron models interconnected to each other and the outside environment through 30,000 synapses. The chip was fabricated in a standard 350 nm CMOS IC process. Our approach used dense circuit models of synaptic behavior, including biological computation and learning, as well as transistor channel models. We use Address-Event Representation (AER) spike communication for inputs and outputs to this IC. We present the IC architecture and infrastructure, including IC chip, configuration tools, and testing platform. We present measurement of small network of neurons, measurement of STDP neuron dynamics, and measurement from a compiled spiking neuron WTA topology, all compiled into this IC.

  4. A Unified Submodular Framework for Multimodal IC Trojan Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushanfar, Farinaz; Mirhoseini, Azalia; Alkabani, Yousra

    This paper presents a unified formal framework for integrated circuits (IC) Trojan detection that can simultaneously employ multiple noninvasive measurement types. Hardware Trojans refer to modifications, alterations, or insertions to the original IC for adversarial purposes. The new framework formally defines the IC Trojan detection for each measurement type as an optimization problem and discusses the complexity. A formulation of the problem that is applicable to a large class of Trojan detection problems and is submodular is devised. Based on the objective function properties, an efficient Trojan detection method with strong approximation and optimality guarantees is introduced. Signal processing methods for calibrating the impact of inter-chip and intra-chip correlations are presented. We propose a number of methods for combining the detections of the different measurement types. Experimental evaluations on benchmark designs reveal the low-overhead and effectiveness of the new Trojan detection framework and provides a comparison of different detection combining methods.

  5. Near-chip compliant layer for reducing perimeter stress during assembly process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.; Takken, Todd E.; Tian, Shurong; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-14

    A heat source (single semiconductor chip or group of closely spaced semiconductor chips of similar height) is provided on a first side of a substrate, which substrate has on said first side a support member comprising a compressible material. A heat removal component, oriented at an angle to said heat source, is brought into proximity of said heat source such that said heat removal component contacts said support member prior to contacting said heat source. Said heat removal component is assembled to said heat source such that said support member at least partially absorbs global inequality of force that would otherwise be applied to said heat source, absent said support member comprising said compressible material.

  6. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  7. Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability in Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate Chip Sea Star as a biomarker for environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. V. Trono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, pertains to small and random departures from perfect symmetry of an organism's bilateral traits and has been used as a measurement of developmental instability and as a potential indicator of stress in populations. It measures the variations from symmetry of a symmetrical structure whose sides are said to be genetically identical, with similar history of gene activity and experiencing the same environment. Symmetries are potentially the basis for studies on FA. Hence, this study assessed the potential of FA as a reliable developmental instability and environmental stress indicator in five-fold dihedral symmetrical Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate chip sea fish from three (3 different sites (Linamon, Lanao del Norte; Initao, Misamis Oriental and Jasaan, Misamis Oriental. FA for each population from every site was measured for comparison. In this study, anatomical landmarks were subjected to Procrustes superimposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA using "Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data" (SAGE program. Results showed highly significant FA and significant DA for population from Jasaan and Linamon where habitat disturbance due to anthropogenic activities were prevalent. Thus, experienced more stress compared to the other populations, suggesting that significant variation in size or left-right side of each individual could be a product of genotype-environment interaction. Moreover, insignificant FA and high DA was obtained from Initao (protected seascape area which indicated that variation among individual genotypes and asymmetry in phenotypes is mostly induced by genetics under less stressful environment. Significant FA and increase FA present inability of species to buffer stress in its developmental pathways and have implications on species fitness. Hypothesis assumes that fluctuating asymmetry has costs, reflects the quality of individuals and the level of genetic and environmental stress experienced by

  8. TDR method for determine IC's parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenkov, V.; Rodionov, D.; Khlybov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Frequency domain simulation is a widely used approach for determine integrated circuits parameters. This approach can be found in most of software tools used in IC industry. Time domain simulation approach shows intensive usage last years due to some advantages. In particular it applicable for analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary systems where frequency domain is inapplicable. Resolution of time domain systems allow see heterogeneities on distance 1mm, determine it parameters and properties. Authors used approach based on detecting reflected signals from heterogeneities - time domain reflectometry (TDR). Field effect transistor technology scaling up to 30-60nm gate length and 10nm gate dielectric, heterojunction bi-polar transistors with 10-30nm base width allows fabricate digital IC's with 20GHz clock frequency and RF-IC's with tens GHz bandwidth. Such devices and operation speed suppose transit signal by use microwave lines. There are local heterogeneities can be found inside of the signal path due to connections between different parts of signal lines (stripe line-RF-connector pin, stripe line - IC package pin). These heterogeneities distort signals that cause bandwidth decrease for RF-devices. Time domain research methods of transmission and reflected signals give the opportunities to determine heterogeneities, it properties, parameters and built up equivalent circuits. Experimental results are provided and show possibility for inductance and capacitance measurement up to 25GHz. Measurements contains result of signal path research on IC and printed circuit board (PCB) used for 12GHz RF chips. Also dielectric constant versus frequency was measured up to 35GHz.

  9. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  10. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  11. Research on security vulnerability of chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Li, Qingbao; Li, Zhou

    2013-03-01

    The 21st century is the information era. IC (Integrated Circuit) is the basis of the modern information industry. The security vulnerability or back door of IC is directly related to the entire information system security. From the perspective of information security, security vulnerability of chip is led out through the practical examples and then the importance of security vulnerability of chip is emphasized. By comparing the security vulnerability of chip with the software virus, the characteristics of the chip vulnerabilities are summed up. Moreover, this paper describes the security vulnerability models of different control logic chips, combinational and sequential logic chips models. Finally it puts forward two kinds of detecting methods of security vulnerability of chip against the two models.

  12. JOULE HEATING INDUCED INTERCONNECT FAILURE IN 3D IC TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Menglu

    2016-01-01

    With the slow-down of Moore’s law of scaling transistors, the industry is looking for 3D IC technology to extend the Moore’s law by stacking chips vertically. In the 3D IC technology, Joule heating is the most serious reliability concern because of increased power density. Moreover, there are new interconnects in the package to support vertical stacking, including the Through Silicon Via (TSV) inside silicon die, μ-bumps between different dies, and redistribution layer (RDL) to fan out the cu...

  13. Analysis of TNF-α-induced Leukocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulated by Fluid Shear Stress Using Microfluidic Chip-based Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan; YANG De-yu; LIAO Juan; GONG Fang; HE Ping; LIU Bei-zhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to the research of the impact of fluid shear stress on the adhesion between vascular endothelial cells and leukocyte induced by tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) by microfliudic chip technology. Microfluidic chip was fabricated by soft lithograph;Endothelial microfluidic chip was constructed by optimizing types of the extracellular matrix proteins modified in the microchannel and cell incubation time;human umbilical vein endothelial cells EA.Hy926 lined in the microchannel were exposed to fluid shear stress of 1.68 dynes/cm2 and 8.4 dynes/cm2 respectively. Meanwhile, adhesion between EA.Hy926 cells and leukocyte was induced by TNF-αunder a flow condition. EA. Hy926 cell cultured in the static condition was used as control group. The numbers of fluorescently-labeled leukocyte in microchannel were counted to quantize the adhesion level between EA. Hy926 cells and leukocyte; cell immunofluorescence technique was used to detect the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression. The constructed endothelial microfluidic chip can afford to the fluid shear stress and respond to exogenous stimulus of TNF-α;compared with the adhesion numbers of leukocyte in control group, adhesion between EA. Hy926 cells exposed to low fluid shear stress and leukocyte was reduced under the stimulus of TNF-α at a concentration of 10 ng/ml(P<0.05);leukocyte adhesion with EA. Hy926 cells exposed to high fluid shear stress was reduced significantly than EA. Hy926 cells in control group and EA.1Hy926 cells exposed to low fluid shear stress ( P<0.01); the regulation mechanism of fluid shear stress to the adhesion between EA. Hy926 cells and leukocyte induced by TNF-αwas through the way of ICAM-1. The endothelial microfluidic chip fabricated in this paper could be used to study the functions of endothelial cell in vitro and provide a new technical platform for exploring the pathophysiology of the related cardiovascular system diseases under a flow environment.

  14. Innovation System of IC Industry Lead by Firms in System Level ---A Case Study On Apple Inc.'s A4 Chip R & D%整机厂主导的集成电路产业创新系统研究--基于苹果公司A4芯片研发的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成卓

    2014-01-01

    文章基于工业技术创新的要素联动模型,对整机厂主导的集成电路产业创新系统进行了研究,报告了世界上较为先进和成熟的集成电路产业创新系统运行现状。通过采用典型案例分析方法,对苹果公司A4芯片研发过程进行了细致调查,反映了整机厂、集成电路企业在联动过程中的技术突破、产业协同、区域分布、创新绩效等特征。文章以整个电子信息产业链视角来研究集成电路产业发展,为国家集成电路产业发展政策顶层设计提供了有益的参考。文章认为:从创新系统发起看,整机厂较强芯片评价能力、较大的芯片采购规模是加速技术创新的先决条件;从创新系统演化看,对行业发展趋势的共识是技术创新各方耦合的根本组织力量;从创新系统空间看,全球优势创新资源联动是实现快速技术突破的有效手段;从创新系统绩效看,基础软件等下游核心技术是充分释放创新能量的必要保障。%Based on factor simulation model in industrial innovation, this paper exams the creative development of IC industry lead by firm in system level and presents the situation of advanced creative system of IC industry. Through case study--the Apple Inc. 's A4 chip R&D, this paper reflects the technique outbreak, industrial interaction, geographic space and innovation performance in the ecosystem consisting of system and IC firm. This paper gives constructive implications for national IC industry policy making in the perspective of the whole IT industry chain. The conclusion implies:in the side of the initiative of creative system, system firm's strong capability of chip assessment and large procurement scale are the precondition to accelerate technique outbreak. In the side of the evolution of creative system, the consensus toward the trend of industry is the fundamental force to organize each participants for creating. In the side of

  15. Thermal Stress Assessment for Transient Liquid-Phase Bonded Si Chips in High-Power Modules Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Kicin, Slavo; Brem, Franziska; Leinenbach, Christian

    2017-02-01

    The potential of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonding for chip packaging applications has been evaluated, focusing on three interlayer arrangements (Ag-Sn-Ag, Ni-Sn-Ni, and Ag-Sn-Ni). Shear tests on TLP-bonded components provided the interlayer-dependent mechanical strength as well as failure mode and position. Critical local stresses, i.e., failure criteria, within the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer were derived by replicating the shear test conditions with finite-element methods. The missing coefficient of thermal expansion for Ag3Sn IMC was obtained by producing small IMC bulk samples and subjecting them to dilatometric measurements. The experimental results were implemented into a finite-element model of a representative power module architecture to provide first predictions on thermally induced residual stresses that could be classified into fail/safe, as successfully validated by TLP chip bonding experiments. A numerical parameter study then assessed thermal stresses, including failure prediction and design optimization for TLP-bonded Si chips, considering the influence of process temperature, service conditions, TLP interlayer system, and metallization layers within the TLP joint. The presented procedure serves as a guideline to choose an appropriate TLP interlayer system for predefined boundary conditions, or vice versa.

  16. Thermal Stress Assessment for Transient Liquid-Phase Bonded Si Chips in High-Power Modules Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Kicin, Slavo; Brem, Franziska; Leinenbach, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The potential of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonding for chip packaging applications has been evaluated, focusing on three interlayer arrangements (Ag-Sn-Ag, Ni-Sn-Ni, and Ag-Sn-Ni). Shear tests on TLP-bonded components provided the interlayer-dependent mechanical strength as well as failure mode and position. Critical local stresses, i.e., failure criteria, within the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer were derived by replicating the shear test conditions with finite-element methods. The missing coefficient of thermal expansion for Ag3Sn IMC was obtained by producing small IMC bulk samples and subjecting them to dilatometric measurements. The experimental results were implemented into a finite-element model of a representative power module architecture to provide first predictions on thermally induced residual stresses that could be classified into fail/safe, as successfully validated by TLP chip bonding experiments. A numerical parameter study then assessed thermal stresses, including failure prediction and design optimization for TLP-bonded Si chips, considering the influence of process temperature, service conditions, TLP interlayer system, and metallization layers within the TLP joint. The presented procedure serves as a guideline to choose an appropriate TLP interlayer system for predefined boundary conditions, or vice versa.

  17. Physical IC debug ─ backside approach and nanoscale challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kerst

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical analysis for IC functionality in submicron technologies requires access through chip backside. Based upon typical global backside preparation with 50–100 µm moderate silicon thickness remaining, a state of the art of the analysis techniques available for this purpose is presented and evaluated for functional analysis and layout pattern resolution potential. A circuit edit technique valid for nano technology ICs, is also presented that is based upon the formation of local trenches using the bottom of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI as endpoint for Focused Ion Beam (FIB milling. As a derivative from this process, a locally ultra thin silicon device can be processed, creating a back surface as work bench for breakthrough applications of nanoscale analysis techniques to a fully functional circuit through chip backside. Several applications demonstrate the power and potential of this new approach.

  18. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  19. Reducing Area & Power Overhead In Design of Light Weight Sensor For Detection of Reclcled ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Prabakaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The counterfeiting and recycling of integrated circuits (ICs have become major issues in recent years, potentially impacting the security and reliability of electronic systems bound for military, financial, or other critical applications. With identical functionality and packaging, it would be extremely difficult to distinguish recycled ICs from unused ICs. In the existing Ring Oscillator (RO based sensor with 90nm technology test chip shows the effective detection of recycled ICs. The impact of RO based sensor is that, it is difficult to identify recycled ICs used shorter than one month and it requires more power and area overhead. To provide a solution to the existing system, Clock Anti fuses (CAF based sensor is implemented to enhance the effective recognition of recycled ICs even if the IC used for a very short period. MAF is implemented in FPGA to verify its effectiveness.

  20. Exploring the Limits of Cell Adhesion under Shear Stress within Physiological Conditions and beyond on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie E. M. Stamp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion processes are of ubiquitous importance for biomedical applications such as optimization of implant materials. Here, not only physiological conditions such as temperature or pH, but also topographical structures play crucial roles, as inflammatory reactions after surgery can diminish osseointegration. In this study, we systematically investigate cell adhesion under static, dynamic and physiologically relevant conditions employing a lab-on-a-chip system. We screen adhesion of the bone osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 on a titanium implant material for pH and temperature values in the physiological range and beyond, to explore the limits of cell adhesion, e.g., for feverish and acidic conditions. A detailed study of different surface roughness Rq gives insight into the correlation between the cells’ abilities to adhere and withstand shear flow and the topography of the substrates, finding a local optimum at Rq = 22 nm. We use shear stress induced by acoustic streaming to determine a measure for the ability of cell adhesion under an external force for various conditions. We find an optimum of cell adhesion for T = 37 °C and pH = 7.4 with decreasing cell adhesion outside the physiological range, especially for high T and low pH. We find constant detachment rates in the physiological regime, but this behavior tends to collapse at the limits of 41 °C and pH 4.

  1. An Evaluation of an Integrated On-Chip/Off-Chip Network for High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew G. Schmidt; Kritikos, William V.; Shanyuan Gao; Ron Sass

    2012-01-01

    As the number of cores per discrete integrated circuit (IC) device grows, the importance of the network on chip (NoC) increases. However, the body of research in this area has focused on discrete IC devices alone which may or may not serve the high-performance computing community which needs to assemble many of these devices into very large scale, parallel computing machines. This paper describes an integrated on-chip/off-chip network that has been implemented on an a...

  2. The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.C.; Gibbard, P.L.; Fan, J.-X.

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) has a long tradition of producing international charts that communicate higher-order divisions of geological time and actual knowledge on the absolute numerical ages of their boundaries. The primary objective of ICS is to define precisely a global

  3. A CMOS IC-based multisite measuring system for stimulation and recording in neural preparations in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tateno, Takashi; Nishikawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 × 5.0 mm CMOS IC chip, a reconfigurable logic device (field-programmable gate array, FPGA), and a PC. To test the system, microelectrode arrays (MEAs) w...

  4. 集成电路芯片温度依赖的PbSe量子点PL光谱研究%Study of PL Spectra of PbSe Quantum Dots for IC Chip Temperature Dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤林; 张宇; 刘文闫; 王国光; 张铁强

    2015-01-01

    制备了3.6,5.1和6.0 nm三种尺寸的胶体PbSe量子点,并对其光学特性进行实验研究。在室温条件下,实验发现小尺寸胶体PbSe量子点的光致发光光谱随温度升高发生红移;大尺寸胶体PbSe量子点的光致发光光谱随温度升高发生蓝移。以PbSe量子点温度依赖的光致发光光谱特性为基础,提出一种新型的集成电路芯片温度检测方法。这种新型的温度检测方法是将胶体PbSe量子点沉积在集成电路板表面,使用激光器发射出平行激光束,使芯片表面的胶体PbSe量子点层光致发光,通过红外光谱仪接收光致发光光谱,实现温度的检测;利用图像采集系统对芯片表面特定微小区域成像,实现微米尺度区域的温度检测。实验结果表明,测量精度为±3℃,其相对误差不大于5%。%Colloidal PbSe QDs were prepared with the particle size of 3.6 ,5.1 and 6.0 nm ,and the temperature-dependent opti-cal properties of colloidal PbSe QDs were investigated .At the room temperature ,the experiment showed that there is red shift with increasing temperature;photoluminescence spectra of large size colloidal PbSe QDs is blue shifted with increasing tempera-ture .Proposed a temperature detection method of integrated circuit was proposed based on photoluminescence spectra of colloidal PbSe QDs .The method for temperature detection includes colloidal PbSe quantum dots deposited on the surface of the printed circuit board ,colloidal PbSe quantum dots of the surface are excited by the laser and infrared spectrometer receives photolumi-nescence spectra .Image acquisition system used for micron scale areas of temperature detection collects a tiny and specific areas imaging in the surface of chip .Experiments showed that the measurement accuracy is ± 3 ℃ and the relative error is less than 5% .

  5. Reducing the thermal stress in a heterogeneous material stack for large-area hybrid optical silicon-lithium niobate waveguide micro-chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, P. O.; Mookherjea, S.

    2017-04-01

    The bonding of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) is becoming important for a new category of linear and nonlinear micro-photonic optical devices. In studying the bonding of SOI to LNOI through benzocyclobutene (BCB), a popular interlayer bonding dielectric used in hybrid silicon photonic devices, we use thermal stress calculations to suggest that BCB thickness does not affect thermal stress in this type of structure, and instead, thermal stress can be mitigated satisfactorily by matching the handles of the SOI and LNOI. We bond LNOI with a silicon handle to a silicon chip, remove the handle on the LNOI side, and thermally cycle the bonded stack repeatedly from room temperature up to 300°C and back down without incurring thermal stress cracks, which do appear when using LNOI with a lithium niobate handle, regardless of the BCB thickness. We show that this process can be used to create many hybrid silicon-lithium niobate waveguiding structures on a single patterned SOI chip bonded to a large-area (16 mm × 4.2 mm) lithium niobate film.

  6. On-Chip Quantitative Measurement of Mechanical Stresses During Cell Migration with Emulsion Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, D.; Quignard, S.; Gruget, C.; Pincet, F.; Chen, Y.; Piel, M.; Fattaccioli, J.

    2016-07-01

    The ability of immune cells to migrate within narrow and crowded spaces is a critical feature involved in various physiological processes from immune response to metastasis. Several in-vitro techniques have been developed so far to study the behaviour of migrating cells, the most recent being based on the fabrication of microchannels within which cells move. To address the question of the mechanical stress a cell is able to produce during the encounter of an obstacle while migrating, we developed a hybrid microchip made of parallel PDMS channels in which oil droplets are sparsely distributed and serve as deformable obstacles. We thus show that cells strongly deform droplets while passing them. Then, we show that the microdevice can be used to study the influence of drugs on migration at the population level. Finally, we describe a quantitative analysis method of the droplet deformation that allows measuring in real-time the mechanical stress exerted by a single cell. The method presented herein thus constitutes a powerful analytical tool for cell migration studies under confinement.

  7. On-Chip Quantitative Measurement of Mechanical Stresses During Cell Migration with Emulsion Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, D.; Quignard, S.; Gruget, C.; Pincet, F.; Chen, Y.; Piel, M.; Fattaccioli, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of immune cells to migrate within narrow and crowded spaces is a critical feature involved in various physiological processes from immune response to metastasis. Several in-vitro techniques have been developed so far to study the behaviour of migrating cells, the most recent being based on the fabrication of microchannels within which cells move. To address the question of the mechanical stress a cell is able to produce during the encounter of an obstacle while migrating, we developed a hybrid microchip made of parallel PDMS channels in which oil droplets are sparsely distributed and serve as deformable obstacles. We thus show that cells strongly deform droplets while passing them. Then, we show that the microdevice can be used to study the influence of drugs on migration at the population level. Finally, we describe a quantitative analysis method of the droplet deformation that allows measuring in real-time the mechanical stress exerted by a single cell. The method presented herein thus constitutes a powerful analytical tool for cell migration studies under confinement. PMID:27373558

  8. Effect of electro-acupuncture on gene expression in heart of rats with stress-induced pre-hypertension based on gene chip technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Xie, Xiaojia; Guo, Changqing; Wang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Qingguo

    2015-06-01

    To explore electro-acupuncture's (EA's) effect on gene expression in heart of rats with stress-induced pre-hypertension and try to reveal its biological mechanism based on gene chip technology. Twenty-seven Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The stress-induced hypertensive rat model was prepared by electric foot-shocks combined with generated noise. Molding cycle lasted for 14 days and EA intervene was applied,on rats in model + EA group during model preparation. Rat Gene 2.0 Sense Target Array technology was used for the determination of gene expression profiles and the screened key genes were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Compared with blank control group, 390 genes were changed in model group; compared with model control group, 330 genes were changed in model+EA group. Significance analysis of gene function showed that the differentially expressed genes are those involved in biological process, molecular function and cellular components. RT-PCR result of the screened key genes is consistent with that of gene chip test. EA could significantly lower blood pressure of stress-induced pre-hypertension rats and affect its gene expression profile in heart. Genes that related to the contraction of vascular smooth muscle may be involved in EA's anti-hypertensive mechanism.

  9. Mocha Chip: A Graphical Programming System for IC Module Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-14

    128 A.4 MOCHA CIDP ........................................................................................... 131 APPENDIX B Tutorials...that diagrams don’t change in appearance across editing sessions. If the information is omitted or inconsistent, Mocha Draw provides reasonable values...Lisp code only has to evaluate parameters and communicate the resulting structure to Mocha Assem, so it seems reasonable that a greater than ten

  10. Oneindigheid van het IC Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne-Johan

    2005-01-01

    In de IC-elektronica is het begrip oneindig (en zijn alter-ego nul) al vele jaren zowel de rode draad als de grote leidraad: er worden steeds weer nieuwere technologieën en (systeem- en circuit)principes ontwikkeld om dichter bij het gewenste nulpunt en dichter bij de nagestreefde oneindigheid te ge

  11. ICS - i et minoritetsetnisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Birgit Raundahl

    ICS anvendes i hovedparten af landets kommuner, som en generel socialfaglig metode i sagsbehandlingen omkring udsatte børn, unge og deres familier. Imidlertid findes der ingen forskning, erfaringsopsamling, evaluering eller systematiseret viden fra dansk kontekst, der sætter fokus på anvendelse a...

  12. Animal experiments with the microelectronics neural bridge IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Pei, Fei; Wang, Zhigong; Lü, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    The combination of the neural science and the microelectronics science offers a new way to restore the function of central nervous system. A neural regeneration module is used to be implanted into body to bridge the damaged nerve. A microelectronics neural bridge IC designed in CSMC 0.5□m CMOS process which can detect the neural signal and stimulate the nerve is presented. The neural regeneration module is composed of the microelectronics neural bridge IC and some discrete devices. An animal experiment has been done to check whether the neural signal can be transmitted with the chip normally or not. The animal experiment results suggest that the neural regeneration module can make the neural signal transmit normally.

  13. Development of an ASD IC for the Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Orito, R; Kubo, H; Miuchi, K; Nagayoshi, T; Okada, Y; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, M

    2004-01-01

    A new amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and manufactured for the Micro Pixel Chamber ($\\mu$-PIC). The design of this ASD IC is based on the ASD IC (TGC-ASD) for the Thin Gap Chamber in the LHC Atlas Experiment. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 5-times longer than that of the TGC-ASD, and some other modifications have been made in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the $\\mu$-PIC. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 80 ns and its gain is approximately 0.8 V/pC. The output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. A baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier, and the current used for the baseline restoration is 5-times smaller than that of the TGC-ASD. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The ASD...

  14. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  15. IC-index and maximum IC-colorings of double-stars%双星图的 IC-指数及极大 IC-着色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜臻颖

    2014-01-01

    The problem of IC-coloring of double-stars is studied .It concludes a lower bound of the IC-in-dex of double-starts by showing a kind of IC-coloring above all ,then a upper bound of IC-index is ob-teined based on the definition of maximum IC-coloring .Since the upper bound and lower bound are e-qual ,the IC-index is determined ,thus two kinds of maximum IC-colorings of double-stars is proved .%研究了双星图的IC-着色问题。首先通过给出双星图一种IC-着色,得到其IC-指数的下界,再从极大IC-着色的定义出发,得到了IC-指数的上界。由上下界相等得到了双星图的IC-指数,从而证明了其2种极大IC-着色方案。

  16. Flexible packaging of solid-state integrated circuit chips with elastomeric microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Bowei Zhang; Quan Dong; Korman, Can E.; Zhenyu Li; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible technology is proposed to integrate smart electronics and microfluidics all embedded in an elastomer package. The microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the integrated circuits (ICs). The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the IC chip. This avoids the traditional IC packaging challenges, such as wire-bonding and flip-chip bonding, which are not compatible with current microfluidic technologies. As a demonstratio...

  17. Aluminum nitride for heatspreading in RF IC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, L.; Iborra, E.; Schellevis, H.; Clement, M.; Olivares, J.; Nanver, L. K.

    2008-09-01

    To reduce the electrothermal instabilities in silicon-on-glass high-frequency bipolar devices, the integration of thin-film aluminum nitride as a heatspreader is studied. The AlN is deposited by reactive sputtering and this material is shown to fulfill all the requirements for actively draining heat from RF IC's, i.e., it has good process compatibility, sufficiently high thermal conductivity and good electrical isolation also at high frequencies. The residual stress and the piezoelectric character of the material, both of which can be detrimental for the present application, are minimized by a suitable choice of deposition conditions including variable biasing of the substrate in a multistep deposition cycle. Films of AlN as thick as 4 μm are successfully integrated in RF silicon-on-glass bipolar junction transistors that display a reduction of more than 70% in the value of the thermal resistance.

  18. Experiment list: SRX119684 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2,13603 GSM874990: ES.H3K79me2; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=H1 human Embryonic stem cell || cell line=H1 || treatment=diagnost...ic sample (pre-treatment) || chip antibody=H3K79me2 || chip antibody manufacturer=A

  19. 75 FR 54940 - Agency Information Collection (IC) Activities; Revision of an Approved IC; Accident Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Agency Information Collection (IC) Activities; Revision of an Approved IC; Accident Recordkeeping Requirements AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... revision of the Information Collection (IC) entitled, ``Accident Recordkeeping Requirements,''...

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the low-frequency (1/f) noise of linear ICs: reliability physics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khobare, S.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Reliability Evaluation Lab.)

    1982-01-01

    Linear integrated circuits IC709 and 741 were irradiated by gamma rays using cobalt-60 source. Low-frequency noise was measured for these ICs before and after irradiation dose levels 10/sup 4/, 10/sup 5/, 10/sup 6/ and 5x10/sup 6/R. In general IC741s appeared to be more noisy than IC709s. The noise levels increase substantially in the case of IC741 after gamma irradiation of 10/sup 6/R. Comparative measurement results are presented in this article. These results may be useful to correlate radiation as a defect producing stress, mode and type of failures and reliability of linear ICs.

  1. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kenneth R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lally, Bryan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  2. Computing fundamentals IC3 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Kick start your journey into computing and prepare for your IC3 certification With this essential course book you'll be sending e-mails, surfing the web and understanding the basics of computing in no time. Written by Faithe Wempen, a Microsoft Office Master Instructor and author of more than 120 books, this complete guide to the basics has been tailored to provide comprehensive instruction on the full range of entry-level computing skills. It is a must for students looking to move into almost any profession, as entry-level computing courses have become a compulsory requirement in the modern w

  3. Development of Equivalent Material Properties of Microbump for Simulating Chip Stacking Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC structure with a significant scale mismatch causes difficulty in analytic model construction. This paper proposes a simulation technique to introduce an equivalent material composed of microbumps and their surrounding wafer level underfill (WLUF. The mechanical properties of this equivalent material, including Young’s modulus (E, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, are directly obtained by applying either a tensile load or a constant displacement, and by increasing the temperature during simulations, respectively. Analytic results indicate that at least eight microbumps at the outermost region of the chip stacking structure need to be considered as an accurate stress/strain contour in the concerned region. In addition, a factorial experimental design with analysis of variance is proposed to optimize chip stacking structure reliability with four factors: chip thickness, substrate thickness, CTE, and E-value. Analytic results show that the most significant factor is CTE of WLUF. This factor affects microbump reliability and structural warpage under a temperature cycling load and high-temperature bonding process. WLUF with low CTE and high E-value are recommended to enhance the assembly reliability of the 3D-IC architecture.

  4. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  5. Thin film magnetostrictive sensor with on-chip readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    We report the first successful integration of magnetostrictive Metglas2605S2 (Fesb{78}Sisb9Bsb{13}) thin film sensor system on silicon with high resolution capacitive readout. A deposition process for Metglas thin film has been developed to allow easy control of thin film composition. An amorphous microstructure has been achieved over a wide temperature range, and in-situ magnetic domain alignment can be accomplished at room temperature as the film is deposited. The thin film has been characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis for composition, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum for microstructure, magnetization measurement for domain alignment and capacitive measurement for magnetostriction. The thin film is suitable for any magnetostrictive sensor applications, in particular, for IC compatible microsensors and microactuators. We have demonstrated the subsequent process integration with IC fabrication technology. Here, the Metglas thin film has been successfully incorporated to micromechanical structures using surface micromachining with appropriate choice of sacrificial layer and low stress mechanical layers. In addition, we present the development of a high resolution capacitive readout circuit co-integrated with the sensor. The readout circuit is based on a floating gate MOSFET configuration, requiring just a single transistor and operated at DC or low frequencies. Using the prototype developed in-house, we have successfully demonstrated a resolution capability of 10sp{-17} F, this translates to a few A in terms of cantilever beam deflection of the sensor. The floating gate readout technique is readily applicable to any capacitive sensors with a need for on-chip readout. It is also an ideal in-situ test structure for on IC chip process characterization and parameter extraction.

  6. Electromigration of damascene copper of IC interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William Kevin

    Copper metallization patterned with multi-level damascene process is prone to electromigration failure, which affects the reliability and performance of IC interconnect. In typical products, interconnect that is not already constrained by I·R drop or Joule self-heating operates at 'near threshold' conditions. Measurement of electromigration damage near threshold is very difficult due to slow degradation requiring greatly extended stress times, or high currents that cause thermal anomalies. Software simulations of the electromigration mechanism combined with characterization of temperature profiles allows extracting material parameters and calculation of design rules to ensure reliable interconnect. Test structures capable of demonstrating Blech threshold effects while allowing thermal characterization were designed and processed. Electromigration stress tests at various conditions were performed to extract both shortline (threshold) and long-line (above threshold) performance values. The resistance increase time constant shows immortality below Je·L (product of current density and segment length) of 3200 amp/cm. Statistical analysis of times-to-failure show that long lines last 105 hours at 3.1 mA/mum2 (120°C). While this is more robust than aluminum interconnect, the semiconductor industry will be challenged to improve that performance as future products require.

  7. Photometric study of IC 2156

    CERN Document Server

    Tadross, A L

    2015-01-01

    The optical UBVRI photometric analysis has been established using SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY (SDSS database) in order to estimate the astrophysical parameters of poorly studied open star cluster IC 2156. The results of the present study are compared with a previous one of ours, which relied on the 2MASS JHK infrared photometry. The stellar density distributions and color-magnitude diagrams of the cluster are used to determine the geometrical structure; limited radius, core and tidal radii, the distances from the Sun, from the Galactic plane and from the Galactic center. Also, the main photometric parameters; age, distance modulus, color excesses, membership, total mass, luminosity, mass functions and relaxation time; have been estimated.

  8. Spitzer Observations of IC 2118

    CERN Document Server

    Guieu, S; Stauffer, J R; Vrba, F J; Noriega-Crespo, A; Spuck, T; Moody, T Roelofsen; Sepulveda, B; Weehler, C; Maranto, A; Cole, D M; Flagey, N; Laher, R; Penprase, B; Ramirez, S; Stolovy, S

    2010-01-01

    IC 2118, also known as the Witch Head Nebula, is a wispy, roughly cometary, ~5 degree long reflection nebula, and is thought to be a site of triggered star formation. In order to search for new young stellar objects (YSOs), we have observed this region in 7 mid- and far-infrared bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope and in 4 bands in the optical using the U. S. Naval Observatory 40-inch telescope. We find infrared excesses in 4 of the 6 previously-known T Tauri stars in our combined infrared maps, and we find 6 entirely new candidate YSOs, one of which may be an edge-on disk. Most of the YSOs seen in the infrared are Class II objects, and they are all in the "head" of the nebula, within the most massive molecular cloud of the region.

  9. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems.

  10. Development of an FPGA-Based Motion Control IC for Caving Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Keng Lai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with high density are available nowadays, systems with complex functions can thus be realized by FPGA in a single chip while they are traditionally implemented by several individual chips. In this research, the control of stepping motor drives as well as motion controller is integrated and implemented on Altera Cyclone III FPGA; the resulting system is evaluated by applying it to a 3-axis caving machine which is driven by stepping motors. Finally, the experimental results of current regulation and motion control integrated in FPGA IC are shown to prove the validness.

  11. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  12. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  13. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  14. Newnes digital logic IC pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1996-01-01

    This handy reference guide to modern '74'- series and '4000'- series digital ICs presents 620 useful and carefully selected circuits, diagrams, graphs and tables, supported by informative text and captions. Detailed descriptions of and practical applications information on more than 185 TTL and CMOS ICs are provided.This wealth of information is clearly and logically arranged so that specific information can be quickly and easily located. Fifteen chapters cover from IC basics and TTL and CMOS principles, to the practical circuitry of logic ICs, waveform generators and multiplexers.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of tool-chip contact parameters when predicting residual stresses in turning of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrano, I.; Barbero, O.; Kortabarria, A.; Arrazola, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Heat-resistant alloys like Inconel 718 are used in critical components such as aircraft engine turbine discs. Due to the extreme thermo-mechanical solicitations that must suffer during their lifetime, reliability is essential, even more if its failure could lead to loss of human lives. Surface integrity is a critical issue in this kind of components and specially residual stresses are a key aspect. Currently, the development and optimization of the machining process with regards to the residual stresses is done through expensive experimental trial and error methods. This article shows the research work made on the simulation of a machining model in three dimensions with the Deform TM commercial program. The results obtained show the influence of contact parameters (friction coefficient, heat transfer coefficient) not only on the cutting forces and temperatures, but also in the generation of residual stresses.

  16. Microfluidic on chip viscometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J; Ayela, F

    2008-07-01

    We present the design and the process of fabrication of micromachined capillary on chip rheometers which have performed wall shear stress and shear rate measurements on silicon oil and ethanol-based nanofluids. The originality of these devices comes from the fact that local pressure drop measurements are performed inside the microchannels. Thus, the advantage over existing microviscometers is that they can be used with the fluid under test alone; no reference fluid nor posttreatment of the data are needed. Each on chip viscometer consists of anodically bonded silicon-Pyrex derivative microchannels equipped with local probes. The anodic bonding allows to reach relatively high pressure levels (up to approximately 10 bars) in the channels, and a broad range of shear stress and shear rate values is attainable. Dielectrophoretic and electrorheological effects can be highlighted by employing alternate microstripe electrodes patterned onto the inner side of the Pyrex wall.

  17. 双星图的IC-指数%The IC-index of Double-stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑峰; 杨大庆

    2013-01-01

    已经知道双星图至多有两种极大IC-着色,并且其中一种情况下的IC-指数已经确定.在此基础上,研究了双星图的的另一种极大IC-着色,得到了在这种情况下的IC-指数.从而得到了双星图的所有极大IC-着色,且双星图的IC-指数为:M(DS(m,n))=(2m-1+1)(2n-1+1),其中2≤m≤n.%We known about the graph of double-stars contains two maximal IC-coloring at most,and one case of the IC-index have been determined.Based on this,this paper studied the another great IC-coloring of the graph of double-stars,and obtained in the circumstances of IC-index.So get the the graph of double-stars maximal IC-coloring,and the graph of double-stars IC-index as follow:M(DS(m,n)) =(2m-1 + 1)(2n-1 + 1),2 ≤ m ≤ n.

  18. High curvature bending characterization of ultra-thin chips and chip-on-foil assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D. van den; Verhoeven, F.; Eijnden, P. van der; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics. This combination allows for highly intelligent products of unprecedented thinness, flexibility and cost. Examples include sensor systems integrated into food packaging

  19. High curvature bending characterization of ultra-thin chips and chip-on-foil assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D. van den; Verhoeven, F.; Eijnden, P. van der; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics. This combination allows for highly intelligent products of unprecedented thinness, flexibility and cost. Examples include sensor systems integrated into food packaging

  20. Towards third generation pixel readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@lbl.gov; Mekkaoui, A.; Ganani, D.

    2013-12-11

    We present concepts and prototyping results towards a third generation pixel readout chip. We consider the 130 nm feature size FE-I4 chip, in production for the ATLAS IBL upgrade, to be a second generation chip. A third generation chip would have to go significantly further. A possible direction is to make the IC design generic so that different experiments can configure it to meet significantly different requirements, without the need for everybody to develop their own ASIC from the ground up. In terms of target technology, a demonstrator 500-pixel matrix containing analog front ends only (no complex functionality), was designed and fabricated in 65 nm CMOS and irradiated with protons in December 2011 and May 2012.

  1. Flexible packaging of solid-state integrated circuit chips with elastomeric microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible technology is proposed to integrate smart electronics and microfluidics all embedded in an elastomer package. The microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the integrated circuits (ICs). The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the IC chip. This avoids the traditional IC packaging challenges, such as wire-bonding and flip-chip bonding, which are not compatible with current microfluidic technologies. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor chip and associate microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate that allows precise delivery of small liquid samples to the sensor. Furthermore, the packaged system is fully functional under bending curvature radius of one centimetre and uniaxial strain of 15%. The flexible integration of solid-state ICs with microfluidics enables compact flexible electronic and lab-on-a-chip systems, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing among many other applications.

  2. Flexible packaging of solid-state integrated circuit chips with elastomeric microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible technology is proposed to integrate smart electronics and microfluidics all embedded in an elastomer package. The microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the integrated circuits (ICs). The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the IC chip. This avoids the traditional IC packaging challenges, such as wire-bonding and flip-chip bonding, which are not compatible with current microfluidic technologies. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor chip and associate microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate that allows precise delivery of small liquid samples to the sensor. Furthermore, the packaged system is fully functional under bending curvature radius of one centimetre and uniaxial strain of 15%. The flexible integration of solid-state ICs with microfluidics enables compact flexible electronic and lab-on-a-chip systems, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing among many other applications.

  3. Joule heating induced thermomigration failure in un-powered microbumps due to thermal crosstalk in 2.5D IC technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Menglu; Tu, K. N., E-mail: kntu@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1595 (United States); Kim, Dong Wook; Gu, Sam [Qualcomm, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Barnard, Harold [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Thermal-crosstalk induced thermomigration failure in un-powered microbumps has been found in 2.5D integrated circuit (IC) circuit. In 2.5D IC, a Si interposer was used between a polymer substrate and a device chip which has transistors. The interposer has no transistors. If transistors are added to the interposer chip, it becomes 3D IC. In our test structure, there are two Si chips placed horizontally on a Si interposer. The vertical connections between the interposer and the Si chips are through microbumps. We powered one daisy chain of the microbumps under one Si chip; however, the un-powered microbumps in the neighboring chip are failed with big holes in the solder layer. We find that Joule heating from the powered microbumps is transferred horizontally to the bottom of the neighboring un-powered microbumps, and creates a large temperature gradient, in the order of 1000 °C/cm, through the un-powered microbumps in the neighboring chip, so the latter failed by thermomigration. In addition, we used synchrotron radiation tomography to compare three sets of microbumps in the test structure: microbumps under electromigration, microbumps under thermomigration, and microbumps under a constant temperature thermal annealing. The results show that the microbumps under thermomigration have the largest damage. Furthermore, simulation of temperature distribution in the test structure supports the finding of thermomigration.

  4. Joule heating induced thermomigration failure in un-powered microbumps due to thermal crosstalk in 2.5D IC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglu; Kim, Dong Wook; Gu, Sam; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Barnard, Harold; Tu, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    Thermal-crosstalk induced thermomigration failure in un-powered microbumps has been found in 2.5D integrated circuit (IC) circuit. In 2.5D IC, a Si interposer was used between a polymer substrate and a device chip which has transistors. The interposer has no transistors. If transistors are added to the interposer chip, it becomes 3D IC. In our test structure, there are two Si chips placed horizontally on a Si interposer. The vertical connections between the interposer and the Si chips are through microbumps. We powered one daisy chain of the microbumps under one Si chip; however, the un-powered microbumps in the neighboring chip are failed with big holes in the solder layer. We find that Joule heating from the powered microbumps is transferred horizontally to the bottom of the neighboring un-powered microbumps, and creates a large temperature gradient, in the order of 1000 °C/cm, through the un-powered microbumps in the neighboring chip, so the latter failed by thermomigration. In addition, we used synchrotron radiation tomography to compare three sets of microbumps in the test structure: microbumps under electromigration, microbumps under thermomigration, and microbumps under a constant temperature thermal annealing. The results show that the microbumps under thermomigration have the largest damage. Furthermore, simulation of temperature distribution in the test structure supports the finding of thermomigration.

  5. Method and apparatus to debug an integrated circuit chip via synchronous clock stop and scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E [Ridgefield, CT; Ellavsky, Matthew R [Rochester, MN; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Gooding, Thomas M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hehenberger, Lance G [Leander, TX; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-03-20

    An apparatus and method for evaluating a state of an electronic or integrated circuit (IC), each IC including one or more processor elements for controlling operations of IC sub-units, and each the IC supporting multiple frequency clock domains. The method comprises: generating a synchronized set of enable signals in correspondence with one or more IC sub-units for starting operation of one or more IC sub-units according to a determined timing configuration; counting, in response to one signal of the synchronized set of enable signals, a number of main processor IC clock cycles; and, upon attaining a desired clock cycle number, generating a stop signal for each unique frequency clock domain to synchronously stop a functional clock for each respective frequency clock domain; and, upon synchronously stopping all on-chip functional clocks on all frequency clock domains in a deterministic fashion, scanning out data values at a desired IC chip state. The apparatus and methodology enables construction of a cycle-by-cycle view of any part of the state of a running IC chip, using a combination of on-chip circuitry and software.

  6. IC-coloring and IC-index of Octopus Graphs%章鱼图的IC-着色和IC-指数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杨; 王力工

    2014-01-01

    章鱼图H(Cm,n)是指由圈Cm的一个顶点与星图STn=K1,n的中心重迭得到的图,研究了章鱼图H(Cm,n)的IC-着色问题,通过分类讨论的方法,分别得到了当m=3,4,5,n≥1时章鱼图H(Cm,n)的极大IC-着色和它们相应的IC-指数,并提出章鱼图H(Cm,n)一个上界猜想。%The octopus graph H(Cm, n) is formed by identifying a vertex of the cycle Cm and the center of a star STn=K1,n . In this paper, the problem of IC-colorings on the octopus graph is studied. When m=3,4,5,n≥1 , IC-indices and maximal IC-colorings of the octopus graph H(Cm, n) are obtained respectively. A conjecture for the up-per bound of the IC-index of the octopus graph is proposed.

  7. Low-power chip-level optical interconnects based on bulk-silicon single-chip photonic transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2016-03-01

    We present new scheme for chip-level photonic I/Os, based on monolithically integrated vertical photonic devices on bulk silicon, which increases the integration level of PICs to a complete photonic transceiver (TRx) including chip-level light source. A prototype of the single-chip photonic TRx based on a bulk silicon substrate demonstrated 20 Gb/s low power chip-level optical interconnects between fabricated chips, proving that this scheme can offer compact low-cost chip-level I/O solutions and have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, 3D-IC, and LAN/SAN/data-center and network applications.

  8. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-04

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Self-Patterning of Silica/Epoxy Nanocomposite Underfill by Tailored Hydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surfaces for 3D Integrated Circuit (IC) Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Chia-Chi; James, Nathan Pataki; Lin, Ziyin; Chen, Yun; Liu, Yan; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Li, Zhuo; Wong, C P

    2017-03-15

    As microelectronics are trending toward smaller packages and integrated circuit (IC) stacks nowadays, underfill, the polymer composite filled in between the IC chip and the substrate, becomes increasingly important for interconnection reliability. However, traditional underfills cannot meet the requirements for low-profile and fine pitch in high density IC stacking packages. Post-applied underfills have difficulties in flowing into the small gaps between the chip and the substrate, while pre-applied underfills face filler entrapment at bond pads. In this report, we present a self-patterning underfilling technology that uses selective wetting of underfill on Cu bond pads and Si3N4 passivation via surface energy engineering. This novel process, fully compatible with the conventional underfilling process, eliminates the issue of filler entrapment in typical pre-applied underfilling process, enabling high density and fine pitch IC die bonding.

  10. A Novel Analog Integrated Circuit Design Course Covering Design, Layout, and Resulting Chip Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Liang; Cheng, Wang-Chuan; Wu, Chen-Hao; Wu, Hai-Ming; Wu, Chang-Yu; Ho, Kuan-Hsuan; Chan, Chueh-An

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a novel, first-year graduate-level analog integrated circuit (IC) design course. The course teaches students analog circuit design; an external manufacturer then produces their designs in three different silicon chips. The students, working in pairs, then test these chips to verify their success. All work is completed within…

  11. Mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-thin chips and flexible electronics assemblies during bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, D.A.; Van De Wiel, H.J.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.; Schram, J.F.M.; Cauwe, M.; Van Den Brand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20 μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics such as food packaging sensor systems or healthcare and sport monitoring tags as wearable patches or even directly in clothing textile. The ultra-thin chips in these

  12. Mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-thin chips and flexible electronics assemblies during bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, D.A.; Van De Wiel, H.J.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.; Schram, J.F.M.; Cauwe, M.; Van Den Brand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20 μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics such as food packaging sensor systems or healthcare and sport monitoring tags as wearable patches or even directly in clothing textile. The ultra-thin chips in these pr

  13. A Novel Analog Integrated Circuit Design Course Covering Design, Layout, and Resulting Chip Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Liang; Cheng, Wang-Chuan; Wu, Chen-Hao; Wu, Hai-Ming; Wu, Chang-Yu; Ho, Kuan-Hsuan; Chan, Chueh-An

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a novel, first-year graduate-level analog integrated circuit (IC) design course. The course teaches students analog circuit design; an external manufacturer then produces their designs in three different silicon chips. The students, working in pairs, then test these chips to verify their success. All work is completed within…

  14. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  15. Ion Chromatography-on-a-chip for Water Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, R. D.; Noell, A.; Kazarians, G.; Aubrey, A. D.; Scianmarello, N.; Tai, Y.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We report progress towards developing a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)- based ion chromatograph (IC) for crewed spacecraft water analysis. This IC-chip is an offshoot of a NASA-funded effort to produce a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)-chip. This HPLC-chip system would require a desalting (i.e. ion chromatography) step. The complete HPLC instrument consists of the Jet Propulsion Labortory's (JPL's) quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer integrated with a state-of-the-art MEMS liquid chromatograph (LC) system developed by the California Institute of Technology's (Caltech's) Micromachining Laboratory. The IC version of the chip consist of an electrolysis-based injector, a separation column, two electrolysis pumps for gradient generation, mixer, and a built-in conductivity detector. The HPLC version of the chip also includes a nanospray tip. The low instrument mass, coupled with its high analytical capabilities, makes the LC chip ideally suitable for wide range of applications such as trace contaminant, inorganic analytical science and, when coupled to a mass spectrometer, a macromolecular detection system for either crewed space exploration vehicles or robotic planetary missions.

  16. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE integrated circuit (IC is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA to achieve low input referred noise (IRN and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O pads is 10.5 mm2. A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions.

  17. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-09-30

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm². A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions.

  18. The Selection of the Phone Charging IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ming Lei

    2013-01-01

    An expensive digital IC is used in old battery only charger (BOC) and this IC needs separate software. For simplify the design and reduce the cost, we find the existing analogy charging ICs and select the most popular four from them, including Mitsumi, Freescale, TI and Analogic Tech, we make a detailed comparison and select the best one, based on this IC’s feature and our requirements, A detailed design evaluation is presented, including the design of the input over voltage protection (OVP), output OVP and over temperature protection (OTP), the WCA (Worse Case Analysis) of this OTP. After the improvement, this new BOC has lower cost, simpler topology, more efficient power consumption.

  19. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products....... The size of the amplifier is critical for the size of the final hearing aid and a study of the size of these for different manufactures will be presented. Designing the ICs for hearing aids poses many challenges and is a constant compromise between size, power consumption and performance of the individual...

  20. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent ...

  1. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  2. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...

  3. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  4. Differences between IC Analysis and TG Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玲

    2014-01-01

    Structuralism and generative approach are two representative syntax theories, which study language from different per-spectives. They employ different methodologies i.e. Immediate constituent (IC) Analysis and transformational-generative (TG) approach to make syntactical analysis. In this paper, these two methods will be applied to analyze some sentences for further dis-cussion and comparison. After analysis by examples, we find that both these two methods have their merits and inadequacies. To some extent, TG method can help IC analysis solve some problems. However, TG grammar is by no means complete and perfect. Improvements are needed to reach its ultimate goal of producing a universal grammar for all human languages.

  5. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    2004-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to p

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod of IC Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Prasanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A connecting rod of IC engine is subjected to complex dynamic loading conditions. Therefore it is a critical machine element which attracts researchers’ attention. This paper aims at development of simple 3D model, finite element analyses and the optimization by intuition of the connecting rod for robust design. In this study the detailed load analysis under in-service loading conditions was performed for a typical connecting rod. The CAD model was prepared taking the detailed dimensions from a standard machine drawing text book. Based on the gas pressure variation in the cylinder of an IC engine, the piston forces were calculated for critical positions. MATLAB codes were written for this calculation. Altair Hypermesh and Hyperview were used for pre-processing and post-processing of the model respectively. The finite element analyses were performed using Altair Radioss. The results obtained were compared to a case study for the field failure of the connecting rod. By comparing the induced stress result with the yield strength of the material, the component was redesigned. This was done to save some mass keeping in mind that the induced stress value should be well below the yield strength of the material. The optimized connecting rod is 11.3% lighter than the original design.

  7. Embedded I&C for Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project uses embedded instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies to demonstrate potential performance gains of nuclear power plant components in extreme environments. Extreme environments include high temperature, radiation, high pressure, high vibration, and high EMI conditions. For extreme environments, performance gains arise from moment-to-moment sensing of local variables and immediate application of local feedback control. Planning for embedding I&C during early system design phases contrasts with the traditional, serial design approach that incorporates minimal I&C after mechanical and electrical design is complete. The demonstration application involves the development and control of a novel, proof-of-concept motor/pump design. The motor and pump combination operate within the fluid environment, eliminating the need for rotating seals. Actively controlled magnetic bearings also replace failure-prone mechanical contact bearings that typically suspend rotating components. Such as design has the potential to significantly enhance the reliability and life of the pumping system and would not be possible without embedded I&C.

  8. Generating Analog IC Layouts with LAYGEN II

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Ricardo M F; Horta, Nuno C G

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for the automatic generation of analog integrated circuits (ICs) layout, based on template descriptions and on evolutionary computational techniques. A design automation tool, LAYGEN II, was implemented to validate the proposed approach giving special emphasis to reusability of expert design knowledge and to efficiency on retargeting operations.

  9. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  10. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczygiel, R., E-mail: robert.szczygiel@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-07-11

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm Multiplication-Sign 4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40 Multiplication-Sign 32 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  11. ESD full chip simulation: HBM and CDM requirements and simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Verification of ESD safety on full chip level is a major challenge for IC design. Especially phenomena with their origin in the overall product setup are posing a hurdle on the way to ESD safe products. For stress according to the Charged Device Model (CDM, a stumbling stone for a simulation based analysis is the complex current distribution among a huge number of internal nodes leading to hardly predictable voltage drops inside the circuits.

    This paper describes an methodology for Human Body Model (HBM simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation. This enables a highly efficient DC simulation clearly marking CDM relevant design weaknesses allowing for application of this software both during product development and for product verification.

  12. Comb Capacitor Structures for On-Chip Physical Uncloneable Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Roosen, H.H.A.J.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Planar inter-digitated comb capacitor structures are an excellent tool for on-chip capacitance measurement and evaluation of properties of coating layers with varying composition. These comb structures are easily fabricated in a single step in the last metallization layer of a standard IC process.

  13. Comb Capacitor Structures for On-Chip Physical Uncloneable Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Roosen, H.H.A.J.; Wolters, R.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Planar inter-digitated comb capacitor structures are an excellent tool for on-chip capacitance measurement and evaluation of properties of coating layers with varying composition. These comb structures are easily fabricated in a single step in the last metallization layer of a standard IC process. C

  14. Integrated circuit/microfluidic chip to programmably trap and move cells and droplets with dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Thomas P; Issadore, David; Westervelt, R M

    2008-01-01

    We present an integrated circuit/microfluidic chip that traps and moves individual living biological cells and chemical droplets along programmable paths using dielectrophoresis (DEP). Our chip combines the biocompatibility of microfluidics with the programmability and complexity of integrated circuits (ICs). The chip is capable of simultaneously and independently controlling the location of thousands of dielectric objects, such as cells and chemical droplets. The chip consists of an array of 128 x 256 pixels, 11 x 11 microm(2) in size, controlled by built-in SRAM memory; each pixel can be energized by a radio frequency (RF) voltage of up to 5 V(pp). The IC was built in a commercial foundry and the microfluidic chamber was fabricated on its top surface at Harvard. Using this hybrid chip, we have moved yeast and mammalian cells through a microfluidic chamber at speeds up to 30 microm sec(-1). Thousands of cells can be individually trapped and simultaneously positioned in controlled patterns. The chip can trap and move pL droplets of water in oil, split one droplet into two, and mix two droplets into one. Our IC/microfluidic chip provides a versatile platform to trap and move large numbers of cells and fluid droplets individually for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  15. Embedded Processor Based Automatic Temperature Control of VLSI Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Murthy Yayavaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents embedded processor based automatic temperature control of VLSI chips, using temperature sensor LM35 and ARM processor LPC2378. Due to the very high packing density, VLSI chips get heated very soon and if not cooled properly, the performance is very much affected. In the present work, the sensor which is kept very near proximity to the IC will sense the temperature and the speed of the fan arranged near to the IC is controlled based on the PWM signal generated by the ARM processor. A buzzer is also provided with the hardware, to indicate either the failure of the fan or overheating of the IC. The entire process is achieved by developing a suitable embedded C program.

  16. A High-Performance Current-Mode Source Driver IC for Mobile Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Il-Hun; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we describe two types of 8-bit current-mode driver ICs with a small area and good performance for applications high accuracy current-mode digital-to-analog converters (DACs), and improved channel-to-channel uniformity for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. One uses the proposed current steering DAC (type A), which is an improved architecture of a binary-weighted DAC, and the other uses a DAC that is a combination of a thermometer-decoded of the DAC and a binary-weighted type. The measured results show that the peak integral nonlinearity (INL) is within ±0.5 the least significant bit (LSB), the peak differential nonlinearity (DNL) is within ±0.5 LSB, and the nonuniformity of output current among channels and chips is within ±0.5 LSB. The size of the driver IC is 15,820 ×1,500 µm2 and the total power consumption of the current-mode driver IC is less than 9 mW when the display has full-white pattern with a luminance of 150 cd/m2. The chip area and power consumption with the proposed current DAC are reduced by 26 and 10%, respectively, compared with those of conventional driver ICs with a fully binary-weighted DAC.

  17. [An integral chip for the multiphase pulse-duration modulation used for voltage changer in biomedical microprocessor systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A M; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    An integral chip (IC) was designed for controlling the step-down pulse voltage converter, which is based on the multiphase pulse-duration modulation, for use in biomedical microprocessor systems. The CMOS technology was an optimal basis for the IC designing. An additional feedback circuit diminishes the output voltage dispersion at dynamically changing loads.

  18. From behavioral context to receptors: serotonergic modulatory pathways in the IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Laura M; Sullivan, Megan R

    2012-01-01

    In addition to ascending, descending, and lateral auditory projections, inputs extrinsic to the auditory system also influence neural processing in the inferior colliculus (IC). These types of inputs often have an important role in signaling salient factors such as behavioral context or internal state. One route for such extrinsic information is through centralized neuromodulatory networks like the serotonergic system. Serotonergic inputs to the IC originate from centralized raphe nuclei, release serotonin in the IC, and activate serotonin receptors expressed by auditory neurons. Different types of serotonin receptors act as parallel pathways regulating specific features of circuitry within the IC. This results from variation in subcellular localizations and effector pathways of different receptors, which consequently influence auditory responses in distinct ways. Serotonin receptors may regulate GABAergic inhibition, influence response gain, alter spike timing, or have effects that are dependent on the level of activity. Serotonin receptor types additionally interact in nonadditive ways to produce distinct combinatorial effects. This array of effects of serotonin is likely to depend on behavioral context, since the levels of serotonin in the IC transiently increase during behavioral events including stressful situations and social interaction. These studies support a broad model of serotonin receptors as a link between behavioral context and reconfiguration of circuitry in the IC, and the resulting possibility that plasticity at the level of specific receptor types could alter the relationship between context and circuit function.

  19. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  20. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  1. Hydrogen for IC Engines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaka S, Syed farees khaleel rahman H.K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen provides a pathway for energy diversity. It can store the energy from diverse domestic resources (including clean coal, nuclear, and intermittently available renewables for use in mobile applications and more. Vehicles operating on hydrogen can dramatically reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and significantly reduce tailpipe emissions. Hydrogen offers a potential means to store and deliver energy from abundant, domestically available resources—while reducing our nation’s carbon footprint. This paper describes the use of Hydrogen as a fuel in IC engines and the technical aspects that accompany this idea.

  2. The eight-channel fast comparator IC

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, G D; Dvornikov, O V; Mikhailov, V A; Odnokloubov, I A; Tokmenin, V V

    1999-01-01

    The eight-channel fast comparator IC has been designed for high-energy physics experiments. The propagation delay is 15-36 ns and will be decreased to 7-11 ns. The output front/trailing edges are 2.2 ns and 1.8 ns at matched 110 OMEGA load. Dissipated power equals 84 mW/channel. The circuit current output can drive 30 m flat ribbon cable or twisted pair line terminated by differential line driver DS90C031.

  3. 星的细分图的IC-着色%IC-coloring of the Subdivision of Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑峰

    2012-01-01

    研究了星的细分图的IC-着色问题,改进了星的细分图的IC-指数的下界,并且得到了两类图的IC-指数的一个下界。%This thesis researches the IC-coloring of the star subdivision graph,improved the lower IC-index of the star subdivision graph,and concluded two class graphs of the one lower IC-index.

  4. Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line Skov; Lova, Lotte; Hansen, Zandra Kulikovsky; Schønemann, Emilie; Larsen, Line Lyngby; Colberg Olsen, Maria Sophia; Juhl, Nadja; Magnussen, Bogi Roin

    2012-01-01

    Stress er en tilstand som er meget omdiskuteret i samfundet, og dette besværliggør i en vis grad konkretiseringen af mulige løsningsforslag i bestræbelsen på at forebygge den såkaldte folkesygdom. Hovedkonklusionen er, at selv om der bliver gjort meget for at forebygge, er der ikke meget der aktivt kan sættes i værk for at reducere antallet af stressramte, før en fælles forståelse af stressårsager og effektiv stresshåndtering er fremlagt. Problemformuleringen er besvaret gennem en undersø...

  5. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey MEPSnet Insurance Component (MEPSnet/IC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MEPS-IC is an annual survey of establishments that collects information about employer-sponsored health insurance offerings in the United States. With MEPSnet/IC...

  6. CO observation of SNR IC 443

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present our 12CO and 13CO mapping observations of SNR IC 443 interacting with molecular clouds.It is the first largescale high-resolution 13CO mapping observation in the surrounding region.The morphologies of IC 443 in 12CO and 13 CO are compared with the optical,infrared,Spitzer far-infrared,X-ray,and neutral atomic gas(HI).We also make comparison and analysis in the kinematics,using the date-cubes of 12CO,13CO and HI,to help distinguish the complicated gas motions in the shocked regions.Based on the work of Wang & Scoville(1992),we present a new model to explain the coexistence of multiple shocks with different speeds in a pc-scale region at the central clump B.We test this new model by analyzing the HI and CO distribution in both velocity and space domain.We also establish the relationship between the dissociation rate of shocked molecular gas and the shock velocity in this region.Finally,we derive the optical depth of 12CO with the 13CO spectra in clump B,and discuss the validity of the assumption of optically thin emission for the shocked 12CO.

  7. Studying Radiation Tolerant ICs for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Faccio, F; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Casas-cubillos, J; Gomes, P

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\In the recent years, intensive work has been carried out on the development of custom ICs for the readout electronics for LHC experiments. As far as radiation hardness is concerned, attention has been focussed on high total dose applications, mainly for the tracker systems. The dose foreseen in this inner region is estimated to be higher than 1~Mrad/year. In the framework of R&D projects (RD-9 and RD-20) and in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, the study of different radiation hard processes has been pursued and good contacts with the manufacturers have been established. The results of these studies have been discussed during the Microelectronics User Group (MUG) rad-hard meetings, and now some HEP groups are working to develop radiation hard ICs for the LHC experiments on some of the available rad-hard processes.\\\\ \\\\In addition, a lot of the standard commercial electronic components and ASICs which are planned to be installed near the LHC machine and in the detectors will receive total doses in ...

  8. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Roderick [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  9. Latency represents sound frequency in mouse IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound.The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate,and/or first spike latency(FSL)of a given neuron.The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic ampli-tudes,whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable.This implies that FSL might represent the fre-quency of a sound stimulus more efficiently than spike rate.This study involved representations of acoustic frequency by spike rate and FSL of central inferior colliculus(IC)neurons responding to free-field pure-tone stimuli.We found that the FSLs of neurons responding to characteristic frequency(CF)of sound stimulus were usually the shortest,regardless of sound intensity,and that spike rates of most neurons showed a variety of function according to sound frequency,especially at high intensities.These results strongly suggest that FSL of auditory IC neurons can represent sound frequency more precisely than spike rate.

  10. Latency represents sound frequency in mouse IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Qiang; TANG Jie; YU ZuLin; ZHANG Juan; ZHOU YingJie; XIAO ZhongJu; SHEN JunXian

    2007-01-01

    Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound. The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate, and/or first spike latency (FSL) of a given neuron. The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic amplitudes, whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable. This implies that FSL might represent the frequency of a sound stimulus more efficiently than spike rate. This study involved representations of acoustic frequency by spike rate and FSL of central inferior colliculus (IC) neurons responding to free-field pure-tone stimuli. We found that the FSLs of neurons responding to characteristic frequency (CF) of sound stimulus were usually the shortest, regardless of sound intensity, and that spike rates of most neurons showed a variety of function according to sound frequency, especially at high intensities.These results strongly suggest that FSL of auditory IC neurons can represent sound frequency more precisely than spike rate.

  11. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process

  12. An NFC-Enabled CMOS IC for a Wireless Fully Implantable Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHennis, Andrew; Getzlaff, Stefan; Grice, David; Mailand, Marko

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated circuit (IC) that merges integrated optical and temperature transducers, optical interface circuitry, and a near-field communication (NFC)-enabled digital, wireless readout for a fully passive implantable sensor platform to measure glucose in people with diabetes. A flip-chip mounted LED and monolithically integrated photodiodes serve as the transduction front-end to enable fluorescence readout. A wide-range programmable transimpedance amplifier adapts the sensor signals to the input of an 11-bit analog-to-digital converter digitizing the measurements. Measurement readout is enabled by means of wireless backscatter modulation to a remote NFC reader. The system is able to resolve current levels of less than 10 pA with a single fluorescent measurement energy consumption of less than 1 μJ. The wireless IC is fabricated in a 0.6-μm-CMOS process and utilizes a 13.56-MHz-based ISO15693 for passive wireless readout through a NFC interface. The IC is utilized as the core interface to a fluorescent, glucose transducer to enable a fully implantable sensor-based continuous glucose monitoring system.

  13. Mass modelling of superthin galaxies: IC5249, UGC7321 and IC2233

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arunima; Bapat, Disha

    2017-04-01

    Superthin galaxies are low surface brightness (LSB) disc galaxies, characterized by optical discs with strikingly high values of planar-to-vertical axes ratios (>10), the physical origin and evolution of which continue to be a puzzle. We present mass models for three superthin galaxies: IC5249, UGC7321 and IC2233. We use high-resolution rotation curves and gas surface density distributions obtained from H I 21 cm radiosynthesis observations, in combination with their two-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions at Spitzer 3.6 μm band, all of which were available in the literature. We find that while models with the pseudo-isothermal (PIS) and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profiles fit the observed rotation curves of IC5249 and UGC7321 equally well, those with the NFW profile do not comply with the slowly rising rotation curve of IC2233. Interestingly, for all of our sample galaxies, the best-fitting mass models with a PIS dark matter density profile indicate a compact dark matter halo, i.e. Rc/RD < 2, where Rc is the core radius of the PIS dark matter halo and RD is the radial scalelength of the exponential stellar disc. The compact dark matter halo may be fundamentally responsible for the superthin nature of the stellar disc, and therefore our results may have important implications for the formation and evolution models of superthin galaxies in the universe.

  14. Nanometer CMOS ICs from basics to ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    J M Veendrick, Harry

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.

  15. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  16. Magnetic field structure of IC 63 and IC 59 associated with H II region Sh 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, A.; Maheswar, G.; Lee, Chang Won; Neha, S.; Andersson, B.-G.

    2017-02-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are formed at the periphery of H II regions as the radiation from the central star interacts with dense gas. The ionization and resulting compression of the clouds may lead to cloud disruption causing secondary star formation depending on the stellar and gas parameters. Here we use R-band polarimetry to probe the plane-of-the sky magnetic field for two nearby BRCs, IC 59 and IC 63. Both nebulae are illuminated by γ Cas with the direction of the ionizing radiation being orientated parallel or perpendicular to the local magnetic field, allowing us to probe the importance of magnetic field pressure in the evolution of BRCs. Because of the proximity of the system (˜200 pc), we have acquired a substantial sample of over 500 polarization measurements for stars that form the background to the nebulae. On large scales, the magnetic field geometries of both clouds are anchored to the ambient magnetic field. For IC 63, the magnetic field is aligned parallel to the head-tail morphology of the main condensation, with a convex morphology relative to the direction of the ionizing radiation. We estimate the plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strength in IC 63 to be ˜ 90 μG. In IC 59, the projected magnetic field follows the M-shape morphology of the cloud. Here, field lines present a concave shape with respect to the direction of the ionizing radiation from γ Cas. Comparing our observations to published theoretical models, we find good general agreement, supporting the importance of magnetic fields in BRC evolution.

  17. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  18. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S.; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems.

  19. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  20. Reliability evaluation of CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Suk, Kyoung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2010-03-01

    CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages have the advantages of fine pitch capability, and flexibility. Anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) are used for the interconnection between chip and substrate. Display, mobile device, and semiconductor industry require for smaller and more integrated packages. Both CIF and COF packages are an alternative for the demands. However, there are some reliability problems of interconnection between the chip and substrate because the packages are subjected to various loading conditions. These may degrade the functionality of the packages. Therefore, reliability assessment of both packages is necessary. In this study, experimental tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of interconnection between the chip and substrate of CIF and COF packages. Thermal cycling tests were performed to evaluate the resistance against thermal fatigue. The shape and warpage of the chip of CIF and COF packages were observed using optical methods (e.g., shadow Moiré and Twyman/Green interferometry). These optical Moiré techniques are widely used for measuring small deformations in microelectronic packages. The stress distribution around the chip was evaluated through FEA (finite element analysis). In addition, we suggested modifying design parameter of CIF packages for the reliability enhancement.

  1. Magnetic field structure of IC 63 and IC 59 associated to H II region - Sh 185

    CERN Document Server

    Soam, A; Lee, Chang Won; Neha, S; Andersson, B-G

    2016-01-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are formed at the periphery of H$~$II regions as the radiation from the central star interacts with dense gas. The ionization and resulting compression of the clouds may lead to cloud disruption causing secondary star formation depending on the stellar and gas parameters. Here we use R-band polarimetry to probe the plane-of-the sky magnetic field in the two near-by BRCs IC\\,59 and IC\\,63. Both nebulae are illuminated by $\\gamma$ Cas with the direction of ionizing radiation being orientated parallel or perpendicular to the local magnetic field, allowing us to probe the importance of magnetic field pressure in the evolution of BRCs. Because of the proximity of the system ($\\sim$200pc) we have acquired a substantial sample of over 500 polarization measurements for stars background to the nebulae. On large scales, the magnetic field geometries of both clouds are anchored to the ambient magnetic field. For IC 63, the magnetic field is aligned parallel to the head-tail morphology of the ...

  2. Analog IC reliability in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Maricau, Elie

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on modeling, simulation and analysis of analog circuit aging. First, all important nanometer CMOS physical effects resulting in circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor aging compact models for circuit simulation are discussed and several methods for efficient circuit reliability simulation are explained and compared. Ultimately, the impact of transistor aging on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are identified and the impact of technology scaling is discussed.   The models and simulation techniques described in the book are intended as an aid for device engineers, circuit designers and the EDA community to understand and to mitigate the impact of aging effects on nanometer CMOS ICs.   ·         Enables readers to understand long-term reliability of an integrated circuit; ·         Reviews CMOS unreliability effects, with focus on those that will emerge in future CMOS nodes; ·         Provides overview of models for...

  3. Deposition uniformity inspection in IC wafer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Jeng, J. J.; Chang, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on the task of automatic visual inspection of color uniformity on the surface of integrated circuits (IC) wafers arising from the layering process. The oxide thickness uniformity within a given wafer with a desired target thickness is of great importance for modern semiconductor circuits with small oxide thickness. The non-uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a wafer surface will proceed to fail testing in Wafer Acceptance Test (WAT). Early detection of non-uniform deposition in a wafer surface can reduce material waste and improve production yields. The fastest and most low-priced inspection method is a machine vision-based inspection system. In this paper, the proposed visual inspection system is based on the color representations which were reflected from wafer surface. The regions of non-uniform deposition present different colors from the uniform background in a wafer surface. The proposed inspection technique first learns the color data via color space transformation from uniform deposition of normal wafer surfaces. The individual small region statistical comparison scheme then proceeds to the testing wafers. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the non-uniform deposition regions on the wafer surface. The inspection time of the deposited wafers is quite compatible with the atmospheric pressure CVD time.

  4. LES of Gas Exchange in IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As engine technologies become increasingly complex and engines are driven to new operating points, understanding transient phenomena is important to ensure reliable engine operation. Unlike Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS studies that only provide cycle-averaged information, Large Eddy Simulation (LES studies are capable of simulating cycle-to-cycle dynamics. In this work, a finite difference based structured methodology for LES of IC engines is presented. This structured approach allows for an efficient mesh generation process and provides potential for higher order numerical accuracy. An efficient parallel scalable block decomposition is done to overcome the challenges associated with the low ratio of fluid elements to overall mesh elements. The motion of the valves and piston is handled using a dynamic cell blanking approach and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE method, respectively. Modified three-dimensional Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Conditions (NSCBC are used in the simulation to prescribe conditions in the manifolds. The accuracy of the simulation framework is validated using various canonical configurations. Flow bench simulations of an axisymmetric configuration and an actual engine geometry are done with the LES methodology. Simulations of the gas exchange in an engine under motored conditions are also performed. Overall, good agreement is obtained with experiments for all the cases. Therefore, this framework can be used for LES of engine simulations. In the future, reactive LES simulations will be performed using this framework.

  5. Computer modeling of complete IC fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Robert W.

    1987-05-01

    The development of fundamental algorithms for process and device modeling as well as novel integration of the tools for advanced Integrated Circuit (IC) technology design is discussed. The development of the first complete 2D process simulator, SUPREM 4, is reported. The algorithms are discussed as well as application to local-oxidation and extrinsic diffusion conditions which occur in CMOS AND BiCMOS technologies. The evolution of 1D (SEDAN) and 2D (PISCES) device analysis is discussed. The application of SEDAN to a variety of non-silicon technologies (GaAs and HgCdTe) are considered. A new multi-window analysis capability for PISCES which exploits Monte Carlo analysis of hot carriers has been demonstrated and used to characterize a variety of silicon MOSFET and GaAs MESFET effects. A parallel computer implementation of PISCES has been achieved using a Hypercube architecture. The PISCES program has been used for a range of important device studies including: latchup, analog switch analysis, MOSFET capacitance studies and bipolar transient device for ECL gates. The program is broadly applicable to RAM and BiCMOS technology analysis and design. In the analog switch technology area this research effort has produced a variety of important modeling and advances.

  6. Variations in IC(50) values with purity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Elizabeth; Fritch, George; Fuller, Autumn; Wolfe, Jordan; Wright, Jessica; Flurkey, William

    2009-09-02

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC(50) values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC(50) values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC(50) value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin) showed variations in IC(50) values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn(2+), and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol) had IC(50) values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC(50) values were observed.

  7. [Role of ICS/LABA on COPD treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    In the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchodilators such as long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long acting β agonist(LABA) play key roles for improving respiratory function and symptoms, and reducing risk of exacerbation. However, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), a key medicine for bronchial asthma, is limitedly used in COPD treatment. Japanese Respiratory Society recommends to use ICS for severe COPD patients who have been frequently exacerbated, because previous clinical studies indicated that ICS reduces exacerbation in moderate to severe COPD patients. Asthma sometimes overlaps with COPD, and symptoms of those patients are not well controlled by the bronchodilation therapy alone. Therefore, ICS/LABA or ICS/LAMA should be prescribed to those overlapped patients. Concentration of exhaled nitrogen oxide and percentage of peripheral eosinophil may be good biomarkers for discriminating the COPD patients who have good response to ICS treatment.

  8. A CMOS IC-based multisite measuring system for stimulation and recording in neural preparations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Takashi; Nishikawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 × 5.0 mm CMOS IC chip, a reconfigurable logic device (field-programmable gate array, FPGA), and a PC. To test the system, microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were used to extracellularly measure the activity of cultured rat cortical neurons and mouse cortical slices. The MEA had 64 bidirectional (stimulation and recording) electrodes. In addition, the CMOS IC chip was equipped with dedicated analog filters, amplification stages, and a stimulation buffer. Signals from the electrodes were sampled at 15.6 kHz with 16-bit resolution. The measured input-referred circuitry noise was 10.1 μ V root mean square (10 Hz to 100 kHz), which allowed reliable detection of neural signals ranging from several millivolts down to approximately 33 μ Vpp. Experiments were performed involving the stimulation of neurons with several spatiotemporal patterns and the recording of the triggered activity. An advantage over current MEAs, as demonstrated by our experiments, includes the ability to stimulate (voltage stimulation, 5-bit resolution) spatiotemporal patterns in arbitrary subsets of electrodes. Furthermore, the fast stimulation reset mechanism allowed us to record neuronal signals from a stimulating electrode around 3 ms after stimulation. We demonstrate that the system can be directly applied to, for example, auditory neural prostheses in conjunction with an acoustic sensor and a sound processing system.

  9. Guidelines for accurate EC50/IC50 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaugh, J L

    2011-01-01

    This article provides minimum requirements for having confidence in the accuracy of EC50/IC50 estimates. Two definitions of EC50/IC50s are considered: relative and absolute. The relative EC50/IC50 is the parameter c in the 4-parameter logistic model and is the concentration corresponding to a response midway between the estimates of the lower and upper plateaus. The absolute EC50/IC50 is the response corresponding to the 50% control (the mean of the 0% and 100% assay controls). The guidelines first describe how to decide whether to use the relative EC50/IC50 or the absolute EC50/IC50. Assays for which there is no stable 100% control must use the relative EC50/IC50. Assays having a stable 100% control but for which there may be more than 5% error in the estimate of the 50% control mean should use the relative EC50/IC50. Assays that can be demonstrated to produce an accurate and stable 100% control and less than 5% error in the estimate of the 50% control mean may gain efficiency as well as accuracy by using the absolute EC50/IC50. Next, the guidelines provide rules for deciding when the EC50/IC50 estimates are reportable. The relative EC50/IC50 should only be used if there are at least two assay concentrations beyond the lower and upper bend points. The absolute EC50/IC50 should only be used if there are at least two assay concentrations whose predicted response is less than 50% and two whose predicted response is greater than 50%. A wide range of typical assay conditions are considered in the development of the guidelines.

  10. Variations in IC50 Values with Purity of Mushroom Tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Neeley; George Fritch; Autumn Fuller; Jordan Wolfe; Jessica Wright; William Flurkey

    2009-01-01

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC50 values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC50 values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC50 value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin,...

  11. Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-01-01

    The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate

  12. 2.5Gb/s 16:1MUX IC Design with CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-an; SONG Qi-feng; WANG Zhi-gong

    2004-01-01

    A low-power and high-speed 16:1 MUX IC designed for optical fiber communication based on TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS technology is presented. A tree-type architecture was utilized. The output data bit rate is 2.5 Gb/s at input clock rate of 1.25 GHz. The simulation results show that the output signal has peak-to-peak amplitude of 400 mV, the power dissipation is less than 200 mW and the power dissipation of core circuit is less than 20 mW at the 2.5 Gb/s standard bit rate and supply voltage of 2.5 V. The chip area is 1.8 mm2.

  13. Metallurgical challenges in microelectronic 3D IC packaging technology for future consumer electronic products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.; N.; TU; TIAN; Tian

    2013-01-01

    Metallurgical challenges in controlling the microstructural stability of Cu and solder microbumps in 3D IC packaging technol-ogy are discussed. Using uni-directional <111> oriented nanotwinned Cu, the controlled growth of oriented Cu6Sn5 on the nanotwinned Cu and its transformation to Cu3Sn without Kirkendall voids have been achieved. In order to join a stack of Si chips into a 3D device, multiple reflows of solder microbumps may be required; we consider localized heating to do so by the use of self-sustained explosive reaction in multi-layered Al/Ni thin films of nano thickness. It avoids re-melting of those solder joints which have been formed already in the 3D stacking structure.

  14. Experimental study of surface crystallization on integrated circuit chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Liu Meng-Xin; Gao Yong; Wang Cai-Lin; Wang Zhi-Wei; Zhang Xian

    2006-01-01

    A surface crystallization phenomenon on bonding pads and wires of integrated circuit chip is reported in this paper. Through a lot of experiments, an unknown failure effect caused by mixed crystalline matter is revealed, whereas non-plasma fluorine contamination cannot cause the failure of bonding pads. By experiments combined with infrared spectroscopy analysis, the surface crystallization effect is studied. The conclusion of the study can provide the guidance for IC fabrication, modelling and analysis.

  15. Experiment list: SRX114991 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX114991 mm9 Input control Input control Blood T-ALL NA 21093628,89.8,28.4,584 GSM859511: T-ALL mnase input... replicate 2; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=T-ALL mnase input || cell type=Not...ch1-IC over-expressing tumors (T-ALL) || chip antibody=none (input) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu

  16. Experiment list: SRX114993 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 859513: T-ALL sonicated input; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=T-ALL sonicated input || cell type=Notch1-...IC over-expressing tumors (T-ALL) || chip antibody=none (input) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/m...SRX114993 mm9 Input control Input control Blood T-ALL NA 24101064,94.4,46.9,752 GSM

  17. Experiment list: SRX114990 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX114990 mm9 Input control Input control Blood T-ALL NA 21965430,91.6,60.3,568 GSM859510: T-ALL mnase input... replicate 1; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=T-ALL mnase input || cell type=Not...ch1-IC over-expressing tumors (T-ALL) || chip antibody=none (input) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu

  18. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate.

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1118 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1118 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - FC-IC1118E (Link to Original site) FC-IC... to library) Clone ID FC-IC1118 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Ori...re E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1118 (FC-IC1118Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...%: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC1118 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...1118F 398 FC-IC1118Z 400 FC-IC1118P 778 FC-IC1118E 390 Show FC-IC1118 Library FC-IC (Link

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0790 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14940-1 FC-IC07... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0790 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U14940-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...y vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0790 (FC-IC0790Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...90E (Link to Original site) FC-IC0790F 305 FC-IC0790Z 305 FC-IC0790P 590 FC-IC0790E 295 Show FC-IC0790 Library FC-IC

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1261 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1261 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - FC-IC1261E (Link to Original site) FC-IC... to library) Clone ID FC-IC1261 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Ori...SM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC1760Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...etal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC1261 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...1261F 255 FC-IC1261Z 439 FC-IC1261P 674 FC-IC1261E 429 Show FC-IC1261 Library FC-IC (Link

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0142 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0142 (Link to dictyBase) - G24282 DDB0231822 Contig-U03313-1 FC-IC...tig Contig-U03313-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0142 (FC-IC0142Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0142Q.Seq....les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0142 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0142F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...0142F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0142F 280 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0142 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC

  3. Temporal Dissection of Rate Limiting Transcriptional Events Using Pol II ChIP and RNA Analysis of Adrenergic Stress Gene Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Morris

    Full Text Available In mammals, increasing evidence supports mechanisms of co-transcriptional gene regulation and the generality of genetic control subsequent to RNA polymerase II (Pol II recruitment. In this report, we use Pol II Chromatin Immunoprecipitation to investigate relationships between the mechanistic events controlling immediate early gene (IEG activation following stimulation of the α1a-Adrenergic Receptor expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. We validate our Pol II ChIP assay by comparison to major transcriptional events assessable by microarray and PCR analysis of precursor and mature mRNA. Temporal analysis of Pol II density suggests that reduced proximal pausing often enhances gene expression and was essential for Nr4a3 expression. Nevertheless, for Nr4a3 and several other genes, proximal pausing delayed the time required for initiation of productive elongation, consistent with a role in ensuring transcriptional fidelity. Arrival of Pol II at the 3' cleavage site usually correlated with increased polyadenylated mRNA; however, for Nfil3 and probably Gprc5a expression was delayed and accompanied by apparent pre-mRNA degradation. Intragenic pausing not associated with polyadenylation was also found to regulate and delay Gprc5a expression. Temporal analysis of Nr4a3, Dusp5 and Nfil3 shows that transcription of native IEG genes can proceed at velocities of 3.5 to 4 kilobases/min immediately after activation. Of note, all of the genes studied here also used increased Pol II recruitment as an important regulator of expression. Nevertheless, the generality of co-transcriptional regulation during IEG activation suggests temporal and integrated analysis will often be necessary to distinguish causative from potential rate limiting mechanisms.

  4. CHIP Reporting in the CPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CHIP reporting in the CPS is unreliable. Only 10 to 30 percent of those with CHIP (but not Medicaid) report this type of coverage in the CPS. Many with CHIP report...

  5. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    mainly on insights from Foucault and Wittgenstein, conceptualises IC in very generalist terms as both language game and power in order to initiate such a critical understanding. IC is perceived as a social construction and the genealogical focus is on how actors, positions and interests influence...

  6. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  7. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  8. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A.; Hunt, Thomas P.; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm2 in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip’s surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications. PMID:20625468

  9. Low noise high-speed X-ray readout IC for imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsakas, E F; Manthos, N; Kloukinas, K; Evangelou, I; Triantis, F A; Stelt, P F V D; Speller, R D

    2001-01-01

    We present a mixed-signal, continuously sensitive, self-triggered IC designed for X-ray imaging applications. Both bipolar and CMOS devices were employed in order to achieve the speed and noise requirements associated with the particular application. Phenomena related to the submicron nature of the devices used have been also taken into consideration. The circuit is optimized to operate with a 3 pF Si-microstrip detector and it exhibits an equivalent noise charge of 225e sup - rms with a slope of 45e sup - /pF. The peaking time of the pulse at the output of the analog part is 28 ns and the circuit recovers to the baseline within 600 ns. Moreover, it has the ability of handling either positive or negative current pulses originating from the detector. The IC power consumption is 4.5 mW per channel and the chip was fabricated using a 0.8 mu m BiCMOS technology.

  10. Nanoliter homogenous ultra-high throughput screening microarray for lead discoveries and IC50 profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiching; Horiuchi, Kurumi Y; Wang, Yuan; Kucharewicz, Stefan A; Diamond, Scott L

    2005-04-01

    Microfluidic technologies offer the potential for highly productive and low-cost ultra-high throughput screening and high throughput selectivity profiling. Such technologies need to provide the flexibility of plate-based assays as well as be less expensive to operate. Presented here is a unique microarray system (the Reaction Biology [Malvern, PA] DiscoveryDot), which runs over 6,000 homogeneous reactions per 1" x 3" microarray using chemical libraries or compound dilutions printed in 1-nl volumes. A simple and rapid piezo-activation method delivers from 30 to 300 pl of biochemical targets and detector chemistries to each reaction. The fluorescent signals are detected and analyzed with conventional microarray scanners and software. The DiscoveryDot platform is highly customizable, and reduces consumption of targets and reaction chemistries by >40-fold and the consumption of compounds by >10,000-fold, compared to 384-well plate assay. We demonstrate here that the DiscoveryDot platform is compatible with conventional large-volume well-based reactions, with a Z' factor of >0.6 for many enzymes, such as the caspase family enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase, serine proteases, kinases, and histone deacetylases. The platform is well equipped for 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) profiling studies of enzyme inhibitors, with up to 10 dilution conditions of each test compound printed in duplicate, and each microarray chip can generate over 300 IC50 measurements against a given target.

  11. Nondestructive diagnosis of flip chips based on vibration analysis using PCA-RBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Shi, Tielin; Liu, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongdi; Du, Li; Liao, Guanglan

    2017-02-01

    Flip chip technology combined with solder bump interconnection has been widely applied in IC package. The solder bumps are sandwiched between dies and substrates, leading to conventional techniques being difficult to diagnose the flip chips. Meanwhile, these conventional diagnosis methods are usually performed by human visual judgment. The human eye-fatigue can easily cause fault detection. Thus, it is difficult and crucial to detect the defects of flip chips automatically. In this paper, a nondestructive diagnosis system based on vibration analysis is proposed. The flip chip is excited by air-coupled ultrasounds and raw vibration signals are measured by a laser scanning vibrometer. Forty-two features are extracted for analysis, including ten time domain features, sixteen frequency domain features and sixteen wavelet packet energy features. Principal component analysis is used for feature reduction. Radial basis function neural network is adopted for classification and recognition. Flip chips in three states (good flip chips, flip chips with missing solder bumps and flip chips with open solder bumps) are utilized to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that this method is effective for defect inspection in flip chip package.

  12. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0282 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0282 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...(Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0282 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig ...Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...ogy vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC1760Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0282F 255 FC-IC0282Z 429 FC-IC0282P 673 FC-IC0282E 429 Show FC-IC0282 Library FC-IC

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0374 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0374 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12354-1 FC-IC03... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0374 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U12354-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0374 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0374F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...74E (Link to Original site) FC-IC0374F 223 FC-IC0374Z 324 FC-IC0374P 547 FC-IC0374E 324 Show FC-IC0374 Library FC-IC

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1268 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1268 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC12...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC1268 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...lpy*iw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC1760Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...68P (Link to Original site) FC-IC1268F 231 FC-IC1268Z 250 FC-IC1268P 461 - - Show FC-IC1268 Library FC-IC (L

  16. Online Chip Temperature Monitoring Using υce-Load Current and IR Thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Trintis, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents on-state collector-emitter voltage (υce, on)-load current (Ic) method to monitor chip temperature on power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules in converter operation. The measurement method is also evaluated using infrared (IR) thermography. Temperature dependencies...

  17. Low-Power, High-Speed Transceivers for Network-on-Chip Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    Networks on chips (NoCs) are becoming popular as they provide a solution for the interconnection problems on large integrated circuits (ICs). But even in a NoC, link-power can become unacceptably high and data rates are limited when conventional data transceivers are used. In this paper, we present

  18. Low-Power, High-Speed Transceivers for Network-on-Chip Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2009-01-01

    Networks on chips (NoCs) are becoming popular as they provide a solution for the interconnection problems on large integrated circuits (ICs). But even in a NoC, link-power can become unacceptably high and data rates are limited when conventional data transceivers are used. In this paper, we present

  19. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  20. M-Sequence-Based Single-Chip UWB-Radar Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmec, M.; Helbig, M.; Herrmann, R.; Rauschenbach, P.; Sachs, J.; Schilling, K.

    The article deals with a fully monolithically integrated single-chip M-sequence-based UWB-radar sensor, its architecture, selected design aspects and first measurement results performed on wafer and with packaged IC modules. The discussed chip is equipped with one transmitter and two receivers. The IC was designed and manufactured in commercially available high-performance 0.25 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology (f t = 110 GHz). Due to the combination of fast digital and broadband analogue system blocks in one chip, special emphasis has been placed on the electrical isolation of these functional structures. The manufactured IC is enclosed in a low-cost QFN (quad flat-pack no-leads) package and mounted on a PCB permitting the creation of MIMO-sensor arrays by cascading a number of modules. In spite of its relatively high complexity, the sensor head features a compact design (chip size of 2 × 1 mm2, QFN package size 5 × 5 mm2) and moderate power consumption (below 1 W at -3 V supply). The assembled transceiver chip can handle signals in the frequency range from near DC up to 18 GHz. This leads to an impulse response (IRF) of FWHD ≈ 50 ps (full width at half duration).

  1. The Implications Related to Different IC, Different Projects and Different Thinking Addressing the Common Core of IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - In the field of innovation of business models on behalf of networks of different intellectual capabilities (ICA), the development of Intellectual Capital (IC) are highly in focus. An increased work of innovation in groups, projects and by individuals outside the core of the organization...... challenge the development of IC: - The IC at the organizational level seems to diminish when innovation gets highly dispersed and is operated outside the core of the organization - The attractiveness of the organization to different ICA, which is one fundament to sustainable and successful innovation, seems...... to fall when the IC at the organizational core level diminishes The objective of this paper is therefore to understand 1) How the IC at the organizational core level may continue to be developed, when at the same time innovation is taking place in dispersed groups and projects. 2) How to motivate...

  2. Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

  3. Thermal-Aware Scheduling for Future Chip Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Kyriakos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased complexity and operating frequency in current single chip microprocessors is resulting in a decrease in the performance improvements. Consequently, major manufacturers offer chip multiprocessor (CMP architectures in order to keep up with the expected performance gains. This architecture is successfully being introduced in many markets including that of the embedded systems. Nevertheless, the integration of several cores onto the same chip may lead to increased heat dissipation and consequently additional costs for cooling, higher power consumption, decrease of the reliability, and thermal-induced performance loss, among others. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of the thermal issues for the future chip multiprocessor architectures and show that as the number of on-chip cores increases, the thermal-induced problems will worsen. In addition, we present several scenarios that result in excessive thermal stress to the CMP chip or significant performance loss. In order to minimize or even eliminate these problems, we propose thermal-aware scheduler (TAS algorithms. When assigning processes to cores, TAS takes their temperature and cooling ability into account in order to avoid thermal stress and at the same time improve the performance. Experimental results have shown that a TAS algorithm that considers also the temperatures of neighboring cores is able to significantly reduce the temperature-induced performance loss while at the same time, decrease the chip's temperature across many different operation and configuration scenarios.

  4. Thermal-Aware Scheduling for Future Chip Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Trancoso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased complexity and operating frequency in current single chip microprocessors is resulting in a decrease in the performance improvements. Consequently, major manufacturers offer chip multiprocessor (CMP architectures in order to keep up with the expected performance gains. This architecture is successfully being introduced in many markets including that of the embedded systems. Nevertheless, the integration of several cores onto the same chip may lead to increased heat dissipation and consequently additional costs for cooling, higher power consumption, decrease of the reliability, and thermal-induced performance loss, among others. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of the thermal issues for the future chip multiprocessor architectures and show that as the number of on-chip cores increases, the thermal-induced problems will worsen. In addition, we present several scenarios that result in excessive thermal stress to the CMP chip or significant performance loss. In order to minimize or even eliminate these problems, we propose thermal-aware scheduler (TAS algorithms. When assigning processes to cores, TAS takes their temperature and cooling ability into account in order to avoid thermal stress and at the same time improve the performance. Experimental results have shown that a TAS algorithm that considers also the temperatures of neighboring cores is able to significantly reduce the temperature-induced performance loss while at the same time, decrease the chip's temperature across many different operation and configuration scenarios.

  5. Evaluations of the Irwin. beta. /sub Ic/ adjustment for small specimen fracture toughness data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    When small specimens are used to measure the cleavage fracture toughness of pressure vessel steels in the transition range of temperature, specimen thickness size effects and large amounts of data scatter are often observed. The size effects are manifested by an increase in the average value of fracture toughness with decreasing specimen thickness, eventually resulting in a change in fracture mode from cleavage to ductile tearing. It has been shown that a semiempirical adjustment for the interacting effects of specimen thickness, yield stress and toughness originally proposed by Irwin is capable of reducing the calculated values of toughness and data scatter to levels consistent with large specimen test data. This is true for dynamic as well as for static initiation toughness values. The nature of the size effect described by the Irwin ..beta../sub Ic/ equation is illustrated and specific cases are shown in which ..beta../sub Ic/ adjustment has eliminated size effects, for both static and dynamic fracture toughness data.

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0618 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0618 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07877-1 FC-IC06...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC0618 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U07877-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0618 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0618F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...18P (Link to Original site) FC-IC0618F 583 FC-IC0618Z 169 FC-IC0618P 732 - - Show FC-IC0618 Library FC-IC (L

  7. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1558 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1558 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15578-1 FC-IC15...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC1558 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U15578-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...y system 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC1558 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC1558F 5' end seq. >FC-IC1...58P (Link to Original site) FC-IC1558F 205 FC-IC1558Z 298 FC-IC1558P 483 - - Show FC-IC1558 Library FC-IC (L

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1004 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1004 (Link to dictyBase) - G24305 DDB0232093 Contig-U13941-1 FC-IC... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1004 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G24305 dic...mrvimmwlinkl*i*slkvvhylllvw*hslracv Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC... 4.0 %: mitochondrial >> prediction for FC-IC1004 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC1004F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...1004E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1004F 187 FC-IC1004Z 187 FC-IC1004P 354 FC-IC1004E 177 Show FC-IC1004 Library FC-IC

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1504 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1504 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07877-1 FC-IC15... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1504 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link ...to Contig Contig-U07877-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0104Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0104Q.Seq.d/ 533 e-151 own update 2001.11.19 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing signific...04E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1504F 581 FC-IC1504Z 583 FC-IC1504P 1144 FC-IC1504E 573 Show FC-IC1504 Library FC-IC

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0422 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0422 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16233-1 FC-IC04...22Z (Link to Original site) - - FC-IC0422Z 549 - - - - Show FC-IC0422 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC... vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0422 (FC-IC0422Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0422 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16233-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0422Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-IC

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1498 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1498 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC14... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1498 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...xiyldilxlrnhxk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...98E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1498F 438 FC-IC1498Z 439 FC-IC1498P 857 FC-IC1498E 429 Show FC-IC1498 Library FC-IC

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1278 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1278 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12354-1 FC-IC12... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1278 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U12354-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... 16.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for FC-IC1278 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...78E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1278F 334 FC-IC1278Z 334 FC-IC1278P 648 FC-IC1278E 324 Show FC-IC1278 Library FC-IC

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0929 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0929 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC09...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC0929 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0929 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0929F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...29P (Link to Original site) FC-IC0929F 313 FC-IC0929Z 320 FC-IC0929P 613 - - Show FC-IC0929 Library FC-IC (L

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1321 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1321 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15335-1 FC-IC13... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1321 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U15335-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC1321 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...21E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1321F 194 FC-IC1321Z 194 FC-IC1321P 368 FC-IC1321E 184 Show FC-IC1321 Library FC-IC

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0181 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0181 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03326-1 FC-IC01...81F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0181F 553 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0181 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC... Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0181 (FC-IC0181Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...ulum >> prediction for FC-IC0181 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0181F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...0181 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U03326-1 Original site URL http://dic

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0175 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0175 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13957-1 FC-IC01...75F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0175F 212 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0175 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...e E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0175 (FC-IC0175Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0175Q.Se...letal 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC0175 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0175F 5' end seq. >FC-IC0175F.S...0175 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U13957-1 Original site URL http://dic

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0169 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0169 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15064-1 FC-IC01...69F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0169F 288 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0169 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...0169 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15064-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0169Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-IC...0169F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-IC0169 (FC-IC0169Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC

  18. Considerations for IC and Component Selection for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the integrated cycling and component selection technologies for aerospace systems. The topics include: 1) Semiconductors: The Evolution of ICs - Availability and Technology; 2) IC Selection Requirements - three fields of thought, "The Good", "The Bad" and "The Ugly"; 3) Reliability and Radiation; 4) Radiation Perspective-Four methods of selecting ICs for space systems, Guaranteed hardness, historical ground-based radiation data, historical flight usage, and unknown assurance; 5) Understanding Risk, including risk trade space and ASICs and FPGA sample selection criteria.

  19. Membership, lithium and chromospheric activity of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665 from GES (Gaia-ESO Survey) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Garrido, M.; Montes, D.; Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Gónzalez Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    We conduct a comparative study of the main properties of the of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665, focusing on their membership, lithium abundance and level of chromospheric activity and possible accretion. We use the fundamental parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and radial velocity) delivered by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) consortium in the four internal data release (iDR4) to select the members of these clusters among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. Chromospheric activity criterium, and iterative process between radial velocity distribution and lithium-temperature diagram are applied to determinate what objects are members or non members of the clusters. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify some field contaminant lithium-rich giants.

  20. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  1. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  2. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  3. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Hieu; Chao, Paul Chang-Po; Chien, Ping-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR) linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB) over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL) is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL) is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB) of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement measurement

  4. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Hieu; Chao, Paul Chang-Po; Chien, Ping-Chieh

    2016-09-02

    This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR) linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an "MR reader" stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB) over the input range of 0.5-2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm², while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL) is -0.79-0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL) is -0.68-0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB) of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement measurement error is within

  5. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Hieu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement

  6. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  7. Acoustic source data for medium speed IC-engines

    OpenAIRE

    Hynninen, A.; Turunen, R.; Åbom, Mats; Bodén, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the acoustic source characteristics of internal combustion engines (IC-engines) is of great importance when designing the exhaust duct system and its components to withstand the resulting dynamic loads and to reduce the exhaust noise emission. Number of studies has been published earlier on the low frequency in-duct exhaust noise of high speed engines. The goal of the present study is to investigate the medium speed IC-engine acoustic source characteristics numerically and experi...

  8. Comparability of Mixed IC50 Data – A Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomo Kalliokoski; Christian Kramer; Anna Vulpetti; Peter Gedeck

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry man...

  9. Missing the Mark: Is ICS Training Achieving Its Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    need to be mutually exclusive of classroom- teaching methods , there is evidence to suggest exclusively networked learning can be effective, and can be...system to engage the social learning required for successful cultural change. The thesis also critiques the ICS training measurement method and...to engage the social learning required for successful cultural change. The thesis also critiques the ICS training measurement method and recommends

  10. Revealing Hanny's Voorwerp: radio observations of IC 2497

    CERN Document Server

    Jozsa, G I G; Oosterloo, T A; Rampadarath, H; Paragi, Z; van Arkel, H; Lintott, C; Keel, W C; Schawinski, K; Edmondson, E

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations in the direction of the spiral galaxy IC 2497 and the neighbouring emission nebula known as "Hanny's Voorwerp". Our WSRT continuum observations at 1.4 GHz and 4.9 GHz, reveal the presence of extended emission at the position of the nebulosity, although the bulk of the emission remains unresolved at the centre of the galaxy. e-VLBI 1.65 GHz observations show that on the milliarcsecond-scale a faint central compact source is present in IC 2497 with a brightness temperature in excess of 4E5 K. With the WSRT, we detect a large reservoir of neutral hydrogen in the proximity of IC 2497. One cloud complex with a total mass of 5.6E9 Msol to the South of IC 2497, encompasses Hanny's Voorwerp. Another cloud complex is located at the position of a small galaxy group ~100 kpc to the West of IC 2497 with a mass of 2.9E9 Msol. Our data hint at a physical connection between both complexes. We also detect HI in absorption against the central continuum source of IC 2497. Our obse...

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1367 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1367 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - FC-IC1367E (Link to Original site) FC-IC... to library) Clone ID FC-IC1367 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Ori...cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC1367 i...1367F 271 FC-IC1367Z 271 FC-IC1367P 522 FC-IC1367E 261 Show FC-IC1367 Library FC-IC (Link...ginal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1367Q.Seq.d/ Rep

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1728 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1728 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - FC-IC...1728Z 373 - - - - Show FC-IC1728 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1728 (Link to dic...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1785 (FC-IC1785Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...6.0 %: plasma membrane 12.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1667 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1667 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 FC-IC16... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1667 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...y vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1667 (FC-IC1667Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...%: mitochondrial 8.0 %: nuclear >> prediction for FC-IC1667 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC1667F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0107 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0107 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - FC-IC0107F (Link to Original site) FC-IC...0107F 430 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0107 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0107 (Link to dic...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.bi...ore E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0107 (FC-IC0107Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0107Q.Seq.d/ 258 6e-68 FC-IC...asma membrane 12.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1423 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1423 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16122-1 FC-IC14... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1423 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16122-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC14...23E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1423F 250 FC-IC1423Z 254 FC-IC1423P 484 FC-IC1423E 244 Show FC-IC1423 Library FC-IC

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1251 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08307-1 FC-IC12...Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1251 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig C...ontig-U08307-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for FC-IC1251 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...51P (Link to Original site) FC-IC1251F 648 FC-IC1251Z 650 FC-IC1251P 1278 - - Show FC-IC1251 Library FC-IC (

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1707 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1707 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13402-1 FC-IC17... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1707 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link ...to Contig Contig-U13402-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...tracellular, including cell wall 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC...07E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1707F 532 FC-IC1707Z 533 FC-IC1707P 1045 FC-IC1707E 523 Show FC-IC1707 Library FC-IC

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0095 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0095 (Link to dictyBase) - G24277 DDB0231825 Contig-U03300-1 FC-IC...tig Contig-U03300-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0095 (FC-IC0095Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0095F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0095F 288 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0095 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...0095 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G24277 dictyBase ID DDB0231825 Link to Con

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0932 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0932 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - FC-IC...0932Z 239 - - - - Show FC-IC0932 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0932 (Link to dic...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... 8.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for FC-IC0932 is mit 5' ...te) Representative DNA sequence >FC-IC0932 (FC-IC0932Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0932Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTCACCAATGTTGA

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1144 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1144 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15215-1 FC-IC11...Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1144 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig C...ontig-U15215-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...tochondrial 32.0 %: nuclear 16.0 %: cytoplasmic 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for FC-IC1144 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...44P (Link to Original site) FC-IC1144F 715 FC-IC1144Z 681 FC-IC1144P 1376 - - Show FC-IC1144 Library FC-IC (

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1678 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1678 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16583-1 FC-IC16... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1678 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16583-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...s Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1678 (FC-IC1678Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial >> prediction for FC-IC1678 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC1678F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0522 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0522 (Link to dictyBase) - G24294 DDB0169466 Contig-U03376-1 FC-IC... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0522 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G24294 dic...tnfski*ki rniyklsislc Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0522 (FC-IC... 12.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC...0522E (Link to Original site) FC-IC0522F 215 FC-IC0522Z 215 FC-IC0522P 430 FC-IC0522E 215 Show FC-IC0522 Library FC-IC

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0335 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0335 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08330-1 FC-IC03... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0335 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U08330-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0 m_ : 1.00 44.0 %: cytoplasmic 40.0 %: nuclear 12.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for FC-IC...35E (Link to Original site) FC-IC0335F 270 FC-IC0335Z 270 FC-IC0335P 540 FC-IC0335E 270 Show FC-IC0335 Library FC-IC

  4. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1095 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1095 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10067-1 FC-IC10... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1095 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U10067-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1156 (FC-IC...%: cytoskeletal 12.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: Golgi >> prediction for FC-IC

  5. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: key learning points from the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslender, Robin; Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Informed by the findings of a follow-up research study of companies originally involved in the Danish Guideline Project (DGP) for intellectual capital statements (ICS), the purpose of this paper is to provide valuable insights for a potential shift from intellectual capital (IC) reporting......, largely informed by an accounting perspective, towards IC-related disclosures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on data obtained from 21 semi-structured interviews with respondents in 16 companies. The respondents were contacted following a genealogical exercise carried out on the 102...... structure. Overall, a trend towards more integrated forms of reporting was discernible, in some part being motivated by the need to reduce the levels of reporting overload. Examples of integration designed to legitimise IC or corporate social responsibility reports, involving issuing them in tandem...

  6. Chip bonding of low-melting eutectic alloys by transmitted laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Christian; Venkatesh, Arjun; Schneider, Friedrich; Hermsdorf, Jörg; Bengsch, Sebastian; Wurz, Marc C.; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2017-06-01

    Present-day thermode bond systems for the assembly of radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips are mechanically inflexible, difficult to control, and will not meet future manufacturing challenges sufficiently. Chip bonding, one of the key processes in the production of integrated circuits (ICs), has a high potential for optimization with respect to process duration and process flexibility. For this purpose, the technologies used, so far, are supposed to be replaced by a transmission laser-bonding process using low-melting eutectic alloys. In this study, successful bonding investigations of mock silicon chips and of RFID chips on flexible polymer substrates are presented using the low-melting eutectic alloy, 52In48Sn, and a laser with a wavelength of 2 μm.

  7. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0564 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0564 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16036-1 FC-IC05...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC0564 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U16036-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0564 (FC-IC0564Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC056...lar, including cell wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC0564 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0216 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0216 (Link to dictyBase) - G24287 DDB0201591 Contig-U0... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0216 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G24287 dictyBase I...D DDB0201591 Link to Contig Contig-U03331-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.bio... 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC0216 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0216F 5' end seq. >FC-IC...3331-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC0216F 315 FC-IC0216Z 315 FC-IC0216P 630 FC-IC0216E 315 Show FC-IC0216 Library FC-IC

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0364 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0364 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01120-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...(Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0364 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig ...Contig-U01120-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...re E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0364 (FC-IC0364Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0364Q.S...24.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: cytoplasmic 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for FC-IC0364 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0491 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0491 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12373-1 FC-IC04... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0491 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link ...to Contig Contig-U12373-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...omology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1285 (FC-IC1285Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...ear 12.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC0491 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1222 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1222 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11840-1 FC-IC12...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC1222 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U11840-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...equences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1222 (FC-IC1222Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1222Q.Seq.d/ ...%: Golgi 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC1222 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1569 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1569 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16026-1 FC-IC15... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1569 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16026-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1569 (FC-IC1569Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC1569 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1756 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1756 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16026-1 FC-IC17...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC1756 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U16026-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...isomal 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC...56P (Link to Original site) FC-IC1756F 156 FC-IC1756Z 284 FC-IC1756P 420 - - Show FC-IC1756 Library FC-IC (L

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1753 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1753 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - FC-IC...1753Z 284 - - - - Show FC-IC1753 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1753 (Link to dic...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...te) Representative DNA sequence >FC-IC1753 (FC-IC1753Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1753Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTGTGTTTTGGAGT...vllvlgwlelvllvle*lelvwlvlvwlelv*lelgllfl eykeehp*ihllgnmnmklqiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing signific

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0417 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0417 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03353-1 FC-IC04...17F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0417F 285 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0417 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC... %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC0417 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...0417 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U03353-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0417Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-IC

  16. Ocular Shock Front in the Colliding Galaxy IC 2163

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Michele; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Bournard, Frederic; Brinks, Elias; Juneau, Stephanie; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    ALMA observations in the CO 1 - 0 line of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 at 2'' x 1.5'' resolution reveal how the encounter drives gas to pile up in narrow, ~ 1 kpc wide, "eyelids" in IC 2163. IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are involved in a grazing encounter, which has led to development in IC 2163 of an eye-shaped (ocular) structure at mid-radius and two tidal arms. The CO data show that there are large velocity gradients across the width of each eyelid, with a mixture of radial and azimuthal streaming of gas at the outer edge of the eyelid relative to its inner edge. The sense of the radial streaming in the eyelids is consistent with the idea that gas from the outer part of IC 2163 flows inward until its radial streaming slows down abruptly and the gas piles up in the eyelids. The radial compression at the eyelids causes an increase in the gas column density by direct radial impact and also leads to a high rate of shear. We find a strong correlation between the molecular column densities and the magni...

  17. CHIP Enrollment Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CHIP quarterly and annual statistical enrollment reports. The quarterly reports contain point-in-time and ever enrolled data and the annual reports contain ever...

  18. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  19. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  20. Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443: Preliminary Observations from the Chandra Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyibi, E. A.

    2009-10-01

    Preliminary observations of the Chandra data were made in order to study the Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443. The Chandra X-ray observatory short observation on IC443 was centred on 13 chip ACIS. The CIAO analytical programme was used for the data analysis. The data were separated into point source, with an energy range of 2.1 to 10.0 keV, and diffuse source with energy less than 2.1 Kev. The resulting spectra were fitted to a power law. The observed density numbers and the normalised counts of both the point source and the diffuse source were used to describe the X-ray source. Afin d'étudier la "Pulsar wind Nebula" dans le reste de la Supernova IC 443, nous avons mené une exploitation préliminaire des observations provenant du satellite spatiale Chandra. L'observation brêve de IC 443, par Chandra fut centrée sur les composantes du spectromètre identifiées par la séquence 13. Le programme informatique CIAO fut utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Les données furent groupées en sources ponctuelles, chacune ayant des énergies allant de 2.1 a 10.0 kev ; et en sources diffuses chacune avec des énergies de moins de 2.1 kev. Les spectres obtenus furent interpolés à l'aide de fonction puissance. La densité de flux ainsi que le décompte des particules induites au détecteur par le rayonnement provenant des sources ponctuelles et diffuses furent utilisés pour décrire la source de rayon-X.

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1182 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1182 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07877-1 FC-IC11...Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1182 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig C...ontig-U07877-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...kl*s*swfrcctnsycwsffksfncsw **psycmwtlan* Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant align...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC1182 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1622 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1622 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC16... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1622 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...k tnntssnhpktnntssnhsktnhtssnysktnntspnntspninsysrldfipnsnkrsr tmrimlgic**cst*isl...ghllvvqhlnlvtllnm Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC

  3. The broad line type Ic supernova SN 2007ru: Adding to the diversity of type Ic supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, D K; Anupama, G C; Gurugubelli, Uday K; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Photometric and spectral evolution of the type Ic supernova SN 2007ru during the first 3 months are presented. The spectra show broad spectral features due to very high expansion velocity, normally seen in hypernovae. The photospheric velocity is higher than other type Ic supernovae. It is lower than SN 1998bw at $\\sim$ 8 days after the explosion, but is comparable at later epochs. The light curve evolution of SN 2007ru indicates a fast rise time of 8$\\pm$3 days to $B$ band maximum and post-maximum decline more rapidly than other broad-line type Ic supernovae.With an absolute $V$ magnitude of -19.10, SN 2007ru is comparable in brightness with SN 1998bw and lies at the brighter end of the observed type Ic supernovae. The mass of \\Nifs is estimated to be $\\sim 0.4\\Msun$. The fast rise and decline of the light curve and the high expansion velocity suggest that SN 2007ru is an explosion with a high kinetic energy/ejecta mass ratio ($E_{\\rm K}/M_{\\rm {ej}}$). This adds to the diversity of type Ic supernovae.

  4. Extreme low-power mixed signal IC design

    CERN Document Server

    Tajalli, Armin

    2010-01-01

    This book describes a completely novel class of techniques for designing ultra-low-power integrated circuits (ICs). In many applications such as battery operated systems and battery-less (energy-scavenging) systems, power dissipation is a critical parameter. As a result, there is a growing demand for reducing the power (energy) consumption in ICs to extremely low levels, not achievable by using classical ""subthreshold CMOS"" techniques. This book introduces a new family of ""subthreshold circuits"" called ""source-coupled circuits"". This family of circuits can be used for implementing digita

  5. Simulation of 3D chip shaping of aluminum alloy 7075 in milling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hui-yue; KE Ying-lin

    2005-01-01

    By adopting an equivalent geometry model of machining process and considering thermo-plastic properties of the work material, a finite element method(FEM) to study oblique milling process of aluminum alloy with a double-edge tool was presented. In the FEM, shear flow stress was determined by material test. Re-meshing technology was used to represent chip separation process. Comparing the predicted cutting forces with the measured forces shows the 3D FEM is reasonable. Using this FEM, chip forming process and temperature distribution were predicted. Chips obtained by the 3D FEM are in spiral shape and are similar to the experimental ones. Distribution and change trend of temperature in the tool and chip indicate that contact length between tool rake face and chip is extending as tool moving forward. These results confirm the capability of FEM simulation in predicting chip flow and selecting optimal tool.

  6. Electromigration in 3D-IC scale Cu/Sn/Cu solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Cheng-En, E-mail: ceho1975@hotmail.com; Lee, Pei-Tzu; Chen, Chih-Nan; Yang, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-08-15

    The electromigration effect on the three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-IC) scale solder joints with a Cu/Sn(25–50 μm)/Cu configuration was investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis system. Electron current stressing for a few days caused the pronounced accumulation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} in specific Sn grain boundaries (GBs). The EBSD analysis indicated that both the β-Sn crystallographic orientation and GB orientation play dominant roles in this accumulation. The dependencies of the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation on the two above factors (i.e., Sn grain orientation and GB orientation) can be well rationalized via a proposed mathematic model based on the Huntington and Grone's electromigration theory with the Cu anisotropic diffusion data in a β-Sn lattice. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Cu electromigration in the 3D-IC scale microelectronic solder joints. • Pronounced accumulation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic in specific Sn grain boundaries. • A linear dependence of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation over the current stressing time. • β-Sn and grain boundary orientations are the dominant factors in Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation.

  7. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0430 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0430 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16271-1 FC-IC04... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0430 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16271-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...ology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0430 (FC-IC...l 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC0430 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0430F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0649 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0649 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16566-1 FC-IC06...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC0649 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U16566-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC... Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0649 (FC-IC0649Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC064...ory system 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: mitochondrial >> prediction for FC-IC0649

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0993 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0993 (Link to dictyBase) - G24303 DDB0220699 Contig-U08379-1 FC-IC... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0993 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G24303 dic...gi 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall >> prediction for FC-IC...0993E (Link to Original site) FC-IC0993F 526 FC-IC0993Z 526 FC-IC0993P 1032 FC-IC0993E 516 Show FC-IC0993 Library FC-IC...tyBase ID DDB0220699 Link to Contig Contig-U08379-1 Original site URL http://dic

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0027 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0027 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08312-1 FC-IC00...27F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0027F 578 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0027 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...0005Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0005Q.Seq.d/ 531 e-150 own update 2001.11.18 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing signific...les of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC0027 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...0027 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U08312-1 Original site URL http://dic

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0758 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0758 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07877-1 FC-IC07...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC0758 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U07877-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...cldr Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0758 (FC-IC0758Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1440 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1440 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15453-1 FC-IC14... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1440 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U15453-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...re E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1440 (FC-IC1440Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...clear 36.0 %: cytoplasmic 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC14

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0501 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0501 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 FC-IC05... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0501 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...y vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0501 (FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0501 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0501F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0954 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0954 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 FC-IC09... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0954 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...SM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0954 (FC-IC0954Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC.../FC-IC1696Q.Seq.d/ 761 0.0 own update 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing signific

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1149 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1149 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16271-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...1149F 272 - - - - - - Show FC-IC1149 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1149 (Link to dic...tyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC1... 519 e-143 1 ( AU272187 ) Dictyostelium discoideu...m gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC1... 519 e-143 1 ( AU272185 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC1... ...elium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC1... 517 e-143 1 ( AU275192 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12406-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC1236Z 497 - - - - Show FC-IC1236 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1236 (Link to dic...xxxlvxslcfxw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1236 (FC-IC1236Q) /CSM/FC-IC...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U12406-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1236Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0067 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0067 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 FC-IC00...67F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0067F 267 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0067 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...tochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC...0067 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0067Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-IC

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0162 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0162 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10099-1 FC-IC01...62F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0162F 358 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0162 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...DGPDDEALPVVDGPDDEALP-- - Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0162 (FC-IC...%: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC0162 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...0162 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U10099-1 Original site URL http://dic

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1178 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1178 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16026-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC1178Z 442 - - - - Show FC-IC1178 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1178 (Link to dic... vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1178 (FC-IC1178Q) /CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC1178 is end 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length ...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16026-1 Original site URL http://dic

  20. Materials and integration schemes for above-IC integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; Rangarajan, Balaji; Kovalgin, Alexey Yu

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on silicon oxynitride material for waveguides and germanium-silicon alloys for p-i-n diodes. The materials are manufactured at low, CMOS-backend compatible temperatures, targeting the integration of optical functions on top of CMOS chips. Low-temperature germanium-silicon deposi

  1. CHIP Knockdown Reduced Heat Shock Response and Protein Quality Control Capacity in Lens Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, Z; Bao, X; Qin, Y; Taylor, A; Shang, F; Wu, M

    2015-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) systems, including molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), plays an important role in maintaining intracellular protein homeostasis. Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70- interacting protein (CHIP) links the chaperone and UPPs, thus contributing to the repair or removal of damaged proteins. Over-expression of CHIP had previously been used to protect cells from environmental stress. In order to gain a more physiologic mechanism of the advantage conferred by CHIP, we induced a CHIP knockdown and monitored the ability of cells to cope with environmental stress. To knockdown CHIP, the human lens epithelial cell line HLE B3 was transfected with lentiviral particles that encode a CHIP short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or negative control lentiviral particles. Stable CHIP-knock down cells (KD) and negative control cells (NC) were selected with puromycin. After exposure to heat shock stress, there was no change observed in the expression of Hsp90. In contrast, Hsp70 levels increased significantly in NC cells but less so in KD cells. Hsp27 levels also increased after heat shock, but only in NC cells. Protein ubiquitination was reduced when CHIP was knocked down. CHIP knockdown reduced the ability to clear aggregation proteins. When same levels of aggregation-prone RFP-mutant crystallin fusion protein, RFP/V76D-γD, was expressed, there was ~9- fold more aggregates in KD cells as compared to that observed in NC cells. Furthermore, KD cells were more sensitive to toxicity of amino acid analog canavanine as compared to NC cells. Together, these data indicate that CHIP is required for PQC and that CHIP knockdown diminished cellular PQC capacity in lens cells.

  2. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    the electrodes on the SU-8 chip to a printed circuit board. Here, we present two different methods of electrically connecting an SU-8 chip, which contains a microfluidic network and free-hanging mechanical parts. The tested electrical interconnection techniques are flip chip bonding using underfill or flip chip...... bonding using an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). These are both widely used in the Si industry and might also be used for the large scale interconnection of SU-8 chips. The SU-8 chip, to which the interconnections are made, has a microfluidic channel with integrated micrometer-sized cantilevers...... that can be used for label-free biochemical detection. All the bonding tests are compared with results obtained using similar Si chips. It is found that it is significantly more complicated to interconnect SU-8 than Si cantilever chips primarily due to the softness of SU-8....

  3. Underfill process development for lead free flip chip assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaware, Raghunandan

    Underfills are used to enhance the long-term reliability of the flip-chip solder joints. More specifically, the function of the underfill is to couple the chip to the substrate, wherein the shear stresses experienced by the solder joints are converted to bending stresses. The underfill flows under the die due to the influence of strong capillary forces. The flow of the underfill under the chip depends on various factors such as the viscosity of the underfill, contact angle, surface tension, temperature, underfill gap, substrate design, bump pattern, bump density, and size of the chip. The flow of underfill is also influenced by the cleanliness of the substrate, the cleanliness of the underside of the chip, and the flux residues. The interaction between the underfill and the substrate affects not only gap filling, but also the filleting of the underfill. Similarly, the underfill-flux interaction directly affects the quality of underfilling and the reliability of the flip chip assembly. In the case of lead free flip chip assembly, the major concerns vis-a-vis process development for a large chip with a small bump pitch (less than 190 mum) include lower throughput, voiding under the chip, and critical reliability performance. The principal objective of this research endeavor was to investigate the fundamental issues that relate to the process and reliability aspects of underfilling of lead free flip chip assemblies. In order to develop a robust underfilling process, the effect of different process parameters and their interaction with the material properties were studied. In order to improve the compatibility between the underfill and the flux, a new epoxy flux that was compatible with the lead free assembly process was developed. The performance of the epoxy was also compared with the performance of various rosin based fluxes. This study also helped in identifying the critical parameters that can affect the assembly yields. This research endeavor successfully

  4. ICS-UNIDO - Promoting sustainable POPs disposal and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that a significant stock of polychlorinated hazards, including POP and PTS, has been produced and is stored nowadays or dispersed in the environment in many of Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition. The obsolete industrial processes, giving rise to formation of dioxins, as well as former/current POP production/use (e.g. PCBs), coupled with uncontrolled use of polychlorinated pesticides in agriculture and improper storage of POP stockpiles have rendered vast territories in these countries highly contaminated and raised urgent issues of disposal of hazards and remediation of territories. The International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS), www.ics.trieste.it, is an autonomous institution within the legal framework of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) promoting a global programme on environmental protection, sustainable chemistry, catalysis, and clean technologies. An important part of its work programme is focused on the promotion of new technologies which can be helpful for the reduction of the formation of POPs (like dioxins and furans) in incineration processes and in obsolete technologies used in some industrial processes. Another hot issue is to promote safe technologies for the destruction of PCBs and polychlorinated pesticides. Particular efforts of ICS-UNIDO are directed towards the transfer of clean technologies to developing/transition countries. ICS-UNIDO, through its initiatives, seeks to establish a dialogue with local administrative, research, NGO, and industrial bodies in order to adopt sustainable technologies for POP disposal and management of contaminated sites.

  5. A deep multi-band investigation of IC2391

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzi, L; Marino, G; Leto, G; Young, E; Siegler, N; Balog, Z; Messina, S; Distefano, E; Merin, B; Navascues, D Barrado y

    2009-01-01

    We report the outcome of a deep multi-wavelength study of the IC2391 young open cluster. We aim at uncovering new low-mass and sub-stellar members of the cluster and identifying new debris disk objects. A 30*30 square arcmin area in IC 2391 was observed using the wide-field imager at the ESO 2.2m telescope. The completeness limits of the photometry at 3 sigma level are V=24.7, Rc=23.7 and Ic=23.0, faint enough to reveal sub-stellar members down to about 0.03 solar masses. Our membership criteria are based on the use of our optical data, in combination with JHKs magnitudes from the 2MASS catalog. We also estimate the physical parameters of the selected candidates. Debris disk candidates are identified on the basis of their infrared excess emission using near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our optical survey, which has a limiting magnitude at 3 sigma level 1-2 mag fainter than previous optical surveys conducted in IC2391, revealed 29 new low-mass member candidates of the cluster....

  6. IC 5063 : AGN driven outflow of warm and cold gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Holt, J.; Saripalli, L.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    We present new ATCA 17- and 24- GHz radio images and ESO- NTT optical spectra of the radio- loud Seyfert galaxy IC 5063, the first galaxy in which a fast (similar to 600 km s(-1)) outflow of neutral hydrogen was discovered. The new radio data confirm the triple radio structure with a central, unreso

  7. How to write an ICS/IUGA conference abstract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartwright, R.; Tikkinen, K.A.; Vierhout, M.E.; Koelbl, H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This article aims to condense the lectures and discussions from workshops on good reporting at IUGA Como 2009 and ICS San Francisco 2009, providing practical advice for the novice researcher summarising their data for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: Drafting an abstract can be a time cons

  8. Analog IC Design at the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    This article describes some recent research results from the IC Design group of the University of Twente, located in Enschede, The Netherlands. Our research focuses on analog CMOS circuit design with emphasis on high frequency and broadband circuits. With the trend of system integration in mind, we

  9. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations.

  10. Revealing Hanny's Voorwerp : radio observations of IC 2497

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, G. I. G.; Garrett, M. A.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Rampadarath, H.; Paragi, Z.; van Arkel, H.; Lintott, C.; Keel, W. C.; Schawinski, K.; Edmondson, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations in the direction of the spiral galaxy IC 2497 and the neighbouring emission nebula known as "Hanny's Voorwerp". Our WSRT continuum observations at 1.4 GHz and 4.9 GHz reveal the presence of extended emission at the position of the nebulosity, although t

  11. Saturn V Stage I (S-IC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Become familiar with the Saturn V Stage I (S-IC) major structural components: Forward Skirt, Oxidizer Tank, Intertank, Fuel Tank, and Thrust Structure. b) Gain a general understanding of the Stage I subsystems: Fuel, Oxidizer, Instrumentation, Flight Control, Environmental Control, Electrical, Control Pressure, and Ordinance.

  12. Testing Cosmological Models with Type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The use of type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae (SLSN Ic) to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 11 SLSNe Ic, which have thus far been used solely in tests involving $\\Lambda$CDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ and $\\Lambda$CDM cosmologies. We individually optimize the parameters in each cosmological model by minimizing the $\\chi^{2}$ statistic. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on these current SLSN Ic measurements to estimate how large the sample would have to be in order to rule out either model at a $\\sim 99.7\\%$ confidence level. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of $\\sim$$70-80\\%$ that the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe is the correct cosmology versus $\\sim$$20-30\\%$ for the standard model. These results are suggest...

  13. Spectral measurement using IC-compatible linear variable optical filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emadi, A.; Grabarnik, S.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Hedsten, K.; Enoksson, P.; Correia, J.H.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the functional and spectral characterization of a microspectrometer based on a CMOS detector array covered by an IC-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF). The Fabry-Perot LVOF is composed of 15 dielectric layers with a tapered middle cavity layer, which has been

  14. ASKAP HI imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, P; Kilborn, V; Allison, J R; Amy, S W; Ball, L; Bannister, K; Bell, M E; Bock, D C -J; Bolton, R; Bowen, M; Boyle, B; Broadhurst, S; Brodrick, D; Brothers, M; Bunton, J D; Chapman, J; Cheng, W; Chippendale, A P; Chung, Y; Cooray, F; Cornwell, T; DeBoer, D; Diamond, P; Forsyth, R; Gough, R; Gupta, N; Hampson, G A; Harvey-Smith, L; Hay, S; Hayman, D B; Heywood, I; Hotan, A W; Hoyle, S; Humphreys, B; Indermuehle, B; Jacka, C; Jackson, C A; Jackson, S; Jeganathan, K; Johnston, S; Joseph, J; Kamphuis, P; Leach, M; Lenc, E; Lensson, E; Mackay, S; Marquarding, M; Marvil, J; McClure-Griffiths, N; McConnell, D; Meyer, M; Mirtschin, P; Neuhold, S; Ng, A; Norris, R P; O'Sullivan, J; Pathikulangara, J; Pearce, S; Phillips, C; Popping, A; Qiao, R Y; Reynolds, J E; Roberts, P; Sault, R J; Schinckel, A E T; Shaw, R; Shimwell, T W; Staveley-Smith, L; Storey, M; Sweetnam, A W; Troup, E; Tzioumis, A; Voronkov, M A; Westmeier, T; Whiting, M; Wilson, C; Wong, O I; Wu, X

    2015-01-01

    We present HI imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459 carried out with six antennas of the Australian SKA Pathfinder equipped with phased-array feeds. We detect and resolve HI in eleven galaxies down to a column density of $\\sim10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ inside a ~6 deg$^2$ field and with a resolution of ~1 arcmin on the sky and ~8 km/s in velocity. We present HI images, velocity fields and integrated spectra of all detections, and highlight the discovery of three HI clouds -- two in the proximity of the galaxy IC 5270 and one close to NGC 7418. Each cloud has an HI mass of $10^9$ M$_\\odot$ and accounts for ~15% of the HI associated with its host galaxy. Available images at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths do not reveal any clear stellar counterpart of any of the clouds, suggesting that they are not gas-rich dwarf neighbours of IC 5270 and NGC 7418. Using Parkes data we find evidence of additional extended, low-column-density HI emission around IC 5270, indicating that the clouds are the tip of the iceberg o...

  15. The craftsmanship of the "Carolingian" astrolabe, IC 3042.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'E. Turner, G.

    The medieval astrolabe (IC 3042) once owned by the late Marcel Destombes and published by him in 1962, has been examined to discover as many details of the craftsmanship as possible. The conclusion is that the astrolabe was not made by a craftsman, but more likely by a scholar for his own use.

  16. Analog IC Design at the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    This article describes some recent research results from the IC Design group of the University of Twente, located in Enschede, The Netherlands. Our research focuses on analog CMOS circuit design with emphasis on high frequency and broadband circuits. With the trend of system integration in mind, we

  17. A combined BEM/FEM method for IC substrate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrik, E.

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis was done in the context of the modeling of parasitic physical effects, like field couplings and crosstalk, that may adversely affect the functional performance of Integrated Circuits (ICs). The modeling of parasitic effects, through simulations with the resultin

  18. Revealing Hanny's Voorwerp : radio observations of IC 2497

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, G. I. G.; Garrett, M. A.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Rampadarath, H.; Paragi, Z.; van Arkel, H.; Lintott, C.; Keel, W. C.; Schawinski, K.; Edmondson, E.

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations in the direction of the spiral galaxy IC 2497 and the neighbouring emission nebula known as "Hanny's Voorwerp". Our WSRT continuum observations at 1.4 GHz and 4.9 GHz reveal the presence of extended emission at the position of the nebulosity, although

  19. An 8 channel GaAs IC front-end discriminator for RPC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, F; Orengo, G; Cardarelli, R

    1999-01-01

    Although not traditionally considered for particle detector readout, circuit solutions based upon GaAs IC technologies can offer considerable performance advantages in high speed detector signal processing: high f sub T devices, such as the GaAs MESFET, allow the realization of front-end tuned amplifiers and comparators with the same detector time resolution. Such a feature is well-suited for RPC particle detectors, characterized by short pulse duration and constant shaping responses. A new design procedure shows the suitability of high speed narrow band GaAs amplifiers as voltage-sensitive input stages of front-end discriminators to perform the required voltage amplification for the following comparator, ensuring, at the same time, SNR optimisation, high gain and low power consumption. As an application of the proposed approach, a full-custom analog chip has been designed and realized using 0.6 mu m GaAs MESFET technology from Triquint foundry. Eight channels of a front-end discriminator composed of a tuned ...

  20. A Spitzer Census of the IC 348 Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, August A.; Lada, Charles J.; Luhman, K. L.; Muzerolle, James; Young, Erick

    2007-07-01

    Spitzer mid-infrared surveys enable an accurate census of young stellar objects by sampling large spatial scales, revealing very embedded protostars, and detecting low-luminosity objects. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we present a Spitzer-based census of the IC 348 nebula and embedded star cluster, covering a 2.5 pc region and comparable in extent to the Orion Nebula. Our Spitzer census supplemented with ground-based spectra has added 42 Class II T Tauri sources to the cluster membership and identified ~20 Class 0/I protostars. The population of IC 348 likely exceeds 400 sources after accounting statistically for unidentified diskless members. Our Spitzer census of IC 348 reveals a population of Class I protostars that is anticorrelated spatially with the Class II/III T Tauri members, which comprise the centrally condensed cluster around a B star. The protostars are instead found mostly at the cluster periphery about ~1 pc from the B star and spread out along a filamentary ridge. We further find that the star formation rate in this protostellar ridge is consistent with that rate which built the older exposed cluster, while the presence of 15 cold, starless, millimeter cores intermingled with this protostellar population indicates that the IC 348 nebula has yet to finish forming stars. Moreover, we show that the IC 348 cluster is of order 3-5 crossing times old, and, as evidenced by its smooth radial profile and confirmed mass segregation, is likely relaxed. While it seems apparent that the current cluster configuration is the result of dynamical evolution and its primordial structure has been erased, our finding of a filamentary ridge of Class I protostars supports a model in which embedded clusters are built up from numerous smaller subclusters. Finally, the results of our Spitzer census indicate that the supposition that star formation must progress rapidly in a dark cloud should not preclude these observations that show it can be relatively long lived.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Control ASIC Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈理

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy logic control VLSI chip,F100,for industry process real-time control has been designed and fabricated with 0.8μm CMOS technology.The chip has the features of simplicity,felexibility and generality.This paper presents the Fuzzy control inrerence method of the chip,its VLSI implementation,and testing esign consideration.

  2. Intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) induces local and systemic antitumor effects that involve both activated T and NK cells as well as enhanced IC retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Richard K; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas A; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Ranheim, Erik A; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alderson, Kory L; Gan, Jacek; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M

    2012-09-01

    hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) is an immunocytokine consisting of human IL-2 linked to hu14.18 mAb, which recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside. Phase 2 clinical trials of i.v. hu14.18-IL-2 (i.v.-IC) in neuroblastoma and melanoma are underway and have already demonstrated activity in neuroblastoma. We showed previously that intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IT-IC) results in enhanced antitumor activity in mouse models compared with i.v.-IC. The studies presented in this article were designed to determine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced activity and to support the future clinical testing of intratumoral administration of immunocytokines. Improved survival and inhibition of growth of both local and distant tumors were observed in A/J mice bearing s.c. NXS2 neuroblastomas treated with IT-IC compared with those treated with i.v.-IC or control mice. The local and systemic antitumor effects of IT-IC were inhibited by depletion of NK cells or T cells. IT-IC resulted in increased NKG2D receptors on intratumoral NKG2A/C/E⁺ NKp46⁺ NK cells and NKG2A/C/E⁺ CD8⁺ T cells compared with control mice or mice treated with i.v.-IC. NKG2D levels were augmented more in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with splenocytes, supporting the localized nature of the intratumoral changes induced by IT-IC treatment. Prolonged retention of IC at the tumor site was seen with IT-IC compared with i.v.-IC. Overall, IT-IC resulted in increased numbers of activated T and NK cells within tumors, better IC retention in the tumor, enhanced inhibition of tumor growth, and improved survival compared with i.v.-IC.

  3. Trimming the threshold dispersion below 10 e-rms in a large area readout IC working in a single photon counting mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmon, P.; Maj, P.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of an in-pixel threshold dispersion correction implemented in a prototype readout integrated circuit (IC) operating in a single photon counting mode. The new threshold correction method was implemented in a readout IC of area 9.6× 14.9 mm2 containing 23552 square pixels with the pitch of 75 μm designed and fabricated in CMOS 130 nm technology. Each pixel of the IC consists of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaper, two discriminators, two 14-bit counters and a low-area trim DACs for threshold correction. The user can either control the range of the trim DAC globally for all the pixels in the integrated circuit or modify the trim DACs characteristics locally in each pixel independently. Using a simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo methods, we estimated how much we could improve the offset trimming by increasing the number of bits in the trim DACs or implementing additional bits in a pixel to modify the characteristics of the trim DACs. The measurements of our IC prototype show that it is possible to reduce the effective threshold dispersion in large-area single-photon counting chips below 10 electrons rms.

  4. LDV+IC5.0在IC设计中的应用%Application of LDV+IC5.0 in IC Design Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利; 蒋国平; 马幼军

    2005-01-01

    分析LDV+IC5.0仿真工具在混合信号IC设计中的应用以及同Spice仿真工具联合使用来缩短设计周期并保证精度,同时重点分析了模拟硬件电路行为描述语言Verilog-A模型结构并基于verilog和Verilog-A语言实现了数字信号激励, 数模转换器(DAC)的电路模型建立,在Cadence仿真器中实现仿真验证.

  5. El contenido de los mensajes icónicos: El discurso icónico como totalidad (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raymond Colle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el capítulo anterior, hemos hablado de los códigos icónicos de modo general, por cuanto tienen algunas características comunes, en particular el uso de figuras como factores de los significantes. Sin embargo, como lo hemos señalado al final, no todos se construyen ni articulan de la misma manera. Tal como las lenguas son muchas y los códigos lingüísticos se rigen por diferentes reglas -aunque sobre la base de fonemas unidos secuencialmente-, los códigos icónicos son también variados y regidos por reglas que complementan las ya señaladas. Para poder iniciar el análisis de un mensaje icónico, se debe por lo tanto identificar primero el tipo particular de código utilizado, del mismo modo que se ha de identificar un idioma antes de poder reconocer el sentido de las palabras en un mensaje verbal. Pero si es poco común pasar de un idioma a otro en el uso diario, es mucho más común pasar de un código icónico a otro. Por ello, es importante definir aquí primero los diversos códigos, para luego pasar a considerar los factores generales que juegan un papel en la interpretación.

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1404 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1404 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08328-1 FC-IC14... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1404 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U08328-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...in*h*hqll Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1453 (FC-IC1453Q) /CSM/FC-IC... 32.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi >> prediction for FC-IC140

  7. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0538 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0538 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16271-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...(Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0538 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig ...Contig-U16271-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...itfggcnrttcewfctfcewgatsfs*tt*f Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC....0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC0538 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0538F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1348 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1348 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13052-1 FC-IC13... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1348 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U13052-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qvivhyqriihnqd Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1348 (FC-IC...les of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC1348 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1091 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1091 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...1091F 428 - - - - - - Show FC-IC1091 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1091 (Link to dic...skeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC1091 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1091Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0129 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0129 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07963-1 FC-IC01...29F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0129F 160 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0129 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC.../FC-IC0401Q.Seq.d/ 281 2e-75 own update 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing signific... 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC0129 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...0129 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U07963-1 Original site URL http://dic

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0911 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0911 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15103-1 FC-IC09... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0911 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link ...to Contig Contig-U15103-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...rwwifv**snfdciw*s*ksipk**n yntliw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC... of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0911 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0911F 5' end seq. >FC-IC0911F.Se

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0102 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0102 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC01...02F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0102F 434 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0102 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC...dtxisxpllnm--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0102 (FC-IC...: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC...0102 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dic

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0854 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0854 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16142-1 FC-IC08...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC0854 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U16142-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...nllkkkkkksvkyvfck**n Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0854 (FC-IC... 36.0 %: nuclear 16.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for FC-IC0854 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1202 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1202 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC12... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1202 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...**cst*islpy*iw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...20.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC1202 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1239 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC12... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1239 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC1239 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1688 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1688 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC1688Z 288 - - - - Show FC-IC1688 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1688 (Link to dic...IV Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1688 (FC-IC...:FC-AG0... 414 e-112 1 ( AU275195 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC1... 414 e-112 1 ( AU272515 ) Dic...tyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC1... 414 e-112 1 ( AU272386 ) Dic

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1122 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1122 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC11... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1122 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...**cst*islpy*iw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...20.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC1122 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1127 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC11... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1127 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...**cst*islpy*iw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...20.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC1127 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1173 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1173 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC11... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1173 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC1173 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0826 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0826 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08366-1 FC-IC08... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0826 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U08366-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...CFALIDLHLISGYWWWFDGAYFTVLEI Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0826 (FC-IC...ne 12.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC0826 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1048 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1048 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07467-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...1048F 172 - - - - - - Show FC-IC1048 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1048 (Link to dic...: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC1048 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U07467-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1048Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1462 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1462 (Link to dictyBase) - G24314 DDB0202795 Contig-U08394-1 FC-IC... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1462 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G24314 dic...fhiflvygkeilqq Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant align...1462E (Link to Original site) FC-IC1462F 268 FC-IC1462Z 268 FC-IC1462P 516 FC-IC1462E 258 Show FC-IC1462 Library FC-IC...tyBase ID DDB0202795 Link to Contig Contig-U08394-1 Original site URL http://dic

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1198 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1198 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC11... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1198 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC1198 is end 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  4. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1539 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1539 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16278-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...1539F 679 - - - - - - Show FC-IC1539 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1539 (Link to dic...skkk*nkknxxxf*stxkkkkkkvcplgxnxpkpnf--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC... >> prediction for FC-IC1539 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC1539F 5' end seq. >FC-IC1539F.S...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16278-1 Original site URL http://dic

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0874 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0874 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 FC-IC08... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0874 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...kpstpqpc Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC...cytoskeletal 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC0874 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0874F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0897 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0897 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10119-1 FC-IC08... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0897 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U10119-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...dklelkrtyiqd*irlpqypglrnyklskhfsw Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC...0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0897 is nuc 5' end seq. ID FC-IC0897F 5' end seq. >FC-IC

  7. Chipping operations and efficiency in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Prinz, R.; Emer, B.; Sikanen, L., e-mail: dominik.roser@metla.fi

    2012-11-01

    This research analyses the productivity of energy wood chipping operations at several sites in Austria and Finland. The aim of the work is to examine the differences in productivity and the effects of the operational environment for the chipping of bioenergy at the roadside. Furthermore, the study quantifies the effects of different variables such as forest energy assortments, tree species, sieve size and machines on the overall productivity of chipping. The results revealed that there are significant differences in the chipping productivity in Austria and Finland which are largely based on the use of different sieve sizes. Furthermore, the different operational environments in both countries, as well as the characteristics of the raw material also seem to have an effect on productivity. In order to improve the chipping productivity, particularly in Central European conditions, all relevant stakeholders need to work jointly to find solutions that will allow a greater variation of chip size. Furthermore, in the future more consideration has to be given to the close interlinkage between the chipper, crane and grapple. As a result, investments costs can be optimized and operational costs and stress on the machines reduced. (orig.)

  8. Logics for Physarum Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main features of two groups of logics for biological devices, called Physarum Chips, based on the plasmodium. Let us recall that the plasmodium is a single cell with many diploid nuclei. It propagates networks by growing pseudopodia to connect scattered nutrients (pieces of food. As a result, we deal with a kind of computing. The first group of logics for Physarum Chips formalizes the plasmodium behaviour under conditions of nutrient-poor substrate. This group can be defined as standard storage modification machines. The second group of logics for Physarum Chips covers the plasmodium computing under conditions of nutrient-rich substrate. In this case the plasmodium behaves in a massively parallel manner and propagates in all possible directions. The logics of the second group are unconventional and deal with non-well-founded data such as infinite streams.

  9. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  10. Promotion of CHIP-mediated p53 degradation protects the heart from ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Atsuhiko T; Okada, Sho; Minamino, Tohru; Iwanaga, Koji; Liu, Mei-Lan; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Sahara, Naruhiko; Mizoroki, Tatsuya; Takashima, Akihiko; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshio; Shiojima, Ichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2010-06-11

    The number of patients with coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, is increasing and novel therapeutic strategy is awaited. Tumor suppressor protein p53 accumulates in the myocardium after myocardial infarction, causes apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and plays an important role in the progression into heart failure. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of p53 accumulation in the heart after myocardial infarction and tested whether anti-p53 approach would be effective against myocardial infarction. Through expression screening, we found that CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) is an endogenous p53 antagonist in the heart. CHIP suppressed p53 level by ubiquitinating and inducing proteasomal degradation. CHIP transcription was downregulated after hypoxic stress and restoration of CHIP protein level prevented p53 accumulation after hypoxic stress. CHIP overexpression in vivo prevented p53 accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial infarction. Promotion of CHIP function by heat shock protein (Hsp)90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG), also prevented p53 accumulation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. CHIP-mediated p53 degradation was at least one of the cardioprotective effects of 17-AAG. We found that downregulation of CHIP level by hypoxia was responsible for p53 accumulation in the heart after myocardial infarction. Decreasing the amount of p53 prevented myocardial apoptosis and ameliorated ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. We conclude that anti-p53 approach would be effective to treat myocardial infarction.

  11. Cytometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  12. THE LATEST ERUPTION OF PLANETARY NEBULA IC 2165

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open slit high dispersion spectroscopic observations of the inner region of planetary nebula (PN IC 2165 indicate that the object has a relatively uniform and high electron temperature, with its density being much larger close to the PN nucleus. Abundances imply that it is a non-type I PN. Calcium and iron have been heavily depleted into grains. The ionized mass is at least ∼0.05 M⊙ . A photoionization model (Cloudy, version 10.00 assuming an inverse square law for the density and abundances typical of a non-type I PN, produced a fair replica of the spectrum and of all electron density and temperature sensitive line ratios, but not of the global properties of this object. All evidence indicates that IC 2165 was produced by a metal poor 2 M⊙ A5 V star that took off some 2 × 109 yr ago.

  13. MagIC: Fluid dynamics in a spherical shell simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.; Barik, A.; Putigny, B.; Yadav, R.; Duarte, L.; Dintrans, B.

    2017-09-01

    MagIC simulates fluid dynamics in a spherical shell. It solves for the Navier-Stokes equation including Coriolis force, optionally coupled with an induction equation for Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD), a temperature (or entropy) equation and an equation for chemical composition under both the anelastic and the Boussinesq approximations. MagIC uses either Chebyshev polynomials or finite differences in the radial direction and spherical harmonic decomposition in the azimuthal and latitudinal directions. The time-stepping scheme relies on a semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson for the linear terms of the MHD equations and a Adams-Bashforth scheme for the non-linear terms and the Coriolis force.

  14. Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios Sagar Chaki and Derrick Karimi Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University {chaki...different runs varies randomly depending on the thread interleaving. The use of a portfolio of solvers to maximize the likelihood of a quick solution is...investigated. Using the Extreme Value theorem, the runtime of each variant, as well as their portfolios is analysed statistically. A formula for the

  15. Predicting levator avulsion from ICS POP-Q findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo Garnham, Alejandro; Guzmán Rojas, Rodrigo; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2017-06-01

    Levator avulsion is a common consequence of vaginal childbirth. It is associated with symptomatic female pelvic organ prolapse and is also a predictor of recurrence after surgical correction. Skills and hardware necessary for diagnosis by imaging are, however, not universally available. Diagnosis of avulsion may benefit from an elevated index of suspicion. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of the International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (ICS POP-Q) for the diagnosis of levator avulsion by tomographic 4D translabial ultrasound. This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in a tertiary urogynaecological unit. Subjects underwent a standardised interview, POP-Q examination and 4D translabial pelvic floor ultrasound. Avulsion of the puborectalis muscle was diagnosed by tomographic ultrasound imaging. We tested components of the ICS POP-Q associated with symptomatic prolapse and other known predictors of avulsion, including previous prolapse repair and forceps delivery with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A risk score was constructed for clinical use. The ICS POP-Q components Ba, C, gh and pb were all significantly associated with avulsion on multivariate analysis, along with previous prolapse repair and forceps delivery. A score was assigned for each of these variables and patients were classified as low, moderate or high risk according to total score. The odds of finding an avulsion on ultrasound in patients in the "high risk" group were 12.8 times higher than in the "low risk" group. Levator avulsion is associated with ICS POP-Q measures. Together with simple clinical data, it is possible to predict the risk of avulsion using a scoring system. This may be useful in clinical practice by modifying the index of suspicion for the condition.

  16. Round Robin analysis of G Ic interlaminar fracture test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.

    1996-05-01

    This note presents the results of an exercise to evaluate the variation in values of G Ic at initiation, determined independently by 36 researchers interpreting the same load-displacement curve from a mode I double cantilever beam (DCB) test on unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite. The results indicate a significantly larger coefficient of variation for values corresponding to a definition of initiation at non-linearity on the load-displacement curve than for a 5% compliance offset criterion.

  17. Sequential clustering of star formations in IC 1396

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fang Huang; Jin-Zeng Li

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the H Ⅱ region IC 1396 and its star forming activity,in which multi-wavelength data ranging from the optical to the nearand far-infrared were employed.The surface density distribution of all the 2MASS sources with a certain detection toward IC 1396 indicates the existence of a compact cluster spatially consistent with the position of the exciting source of the H Ⅱ region,HD 206267.The spatial distribution of the sources with excessive infrared emission,selected based on archived 2MASS data,reveals the existence of four sub-clusters in this region.One is associated with the open cluster Trumpler 37.The other three are found to be spatially coincident with the bright rims of the H Ⅱ region.All the sources with excessive emission in the near infrared are cross-identified with AKARI IRC data.An analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the resultant sample leads to the identification of eight CLASS I,15 CLASS Ⅱ and 15 CLASS Ⅲ sources in IC 1396.Optical identification of the sample sources with R magnitudes brighter than 17 mag corroborates the results from the SED analysis.Based on the spatial distribution of the infrared young stellar objects at different evolutionary stages,the surrounding sub-clusters located in the bright rims are believed to be younger than the central one.This is consistent with a scenario of sequential star formation in this region.Imaging data of a dark patch in IC 1396 by Herschel SPIRE,on the other hand,indicate the presence of two far-infrared cores in LDN 1111,which are likely to be a new generation of protostellar objects in formation.So we infer that the star formation process in this H Ⅱ region was not continuous but rather episodic.

  18. On the progenitor of the Type Ic supernova 2002ap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smartt, SJ; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Gilmore, GF; Meikle, WPS; Ferguson, AMN; Knapen, JH

    2002-01-01

    This Letter presents wide-field optical and near-IR (UBVRIHalphaK') images of the galaxy M74 that were taken between 0.6 and 8.3 yr before the discovery of the Type Ic supernova 2002ap. We have located the position of the supernova on these images with an accuracy of 0."3. We find no sign of a proge

  19. Analog IC Design at the University of Twente

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This article describes some recent research results from the IC Design group of the University of Twente, located in Enschede, The Netherlands. Our research focuses on analog CMOS circuit design with emphasis on high frequency and broadband circuits. With the trend of system integration in mind, we try to develop new circuit techniques that enable the next steps in system integration in nanometer CMOS technology. Our research funding comes from industry, as well as from governmental organizat...

  20. ICS and COPD: Time to clear the air

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Paul A Ford, Richard EK Russell, Peter J BarnesAirway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UKThe debate about what constitutes the correct treatment for COPD has recently intensified. This discussion has grumbled on ever since the first multicenter trials using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) such as the European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) and Inhaled Stero...

  1. The Spectral SN-GRB Connection: Systematic Spectral Comparisons between Type Ic Supernovae, broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae with and without Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 10 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. We analyze a total of 396 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra data of Modjaz et al. (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, along with standard deviation and maximum deviation contours. We find that SN~1994I is not a typical SN Ic, in contrast to common belief, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities (as traced by FeII 5169) and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher ab...

  2. Emergency EC-IC bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Ishizaka, Shigetoshi; Kanaya, Kohei; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has no preventive effect on subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A few studies have assessed whether an urgent EC-IC bypass surgery is an effective treatment for main trunk stenosis or occlusion in acute stage. The authors retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients who underwent urgent EC-IC bypass for symptomatic internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion between January 2003 and December 2011. Clinical characteristics and neuroimagings were evaluated and analyzed. Based on preoperative angiogram, responsible lesions were the internal carotid artery in 19 (32.8%) patients and the middle cerebral artery in 39 (67.2%). No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed improvement of neurological function after surgery, and 74.1% of patients had favorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was associated with insufficient collateral flow and new infarction after bypass surgery.

  3. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CMOS IC design for wireless medical and health care

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhihua; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with detailed explanation of the design principles of CMOS integrated circuits for wireless medical and health care, from the perspective of two successfully-commercialized applications. Design techniques for both the circuit block level and the system level are discussed, based on real design examples. CMOS IC design techniques for the entire signal chain of wireless medical and health care systems are covered, including biomedical signal acquisition, wireless transceivers, power management and SoC integration, with emphasis on ultra-low-power IC design techniques. • Discusses CMOS integrated circuit design for wireless medical and health care, based on two successfully-commercialized medical and health care applications; • Describes design techniques for the entire signal chain of wireless medical and health care systems; • Focuses on techniques for short-range wireless communication systems; • Emphasizes ultra-low-power IC design techniques; • Enables readers to tu...

  5. Far-Ultraviolet Dust Scattering and Extinction in IC 405

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.

    We present results from a NASA/JHU sounding rocket mission (36.198 UG) during which we acquired a longslit (12" times 200") spectrum of the reflection nebula IC 405 in the 900 - 1400Å wavelength region. Several pointings within the nebula were obtained, including a high quality (S/N ≅10-15 at R = 300) spectrum of the central star, HD 34078. Observations of the nebula reveal a surface brightness to stellar flux ratio that rises by two orders of magnitude to the blue in our bandpass. This is in contrast with the relatively flat nebular dust scattering observed during a prior sounding rocket observation of the reflection nebula NGC 2023. Several possibilities have been suggested to explain the blue rise that is exhibited in IC 405. Differential extinction within the nebula, such as a particular clump of dust along the line of sight, is one possibility. Fluorescent molecular hydrogen, unresolved by the resolution of the rocket experiment, is another possible explanation. Models of nebular dust scattering, similar to those of Burgh et al. 2002, have been compared to the data and results will be discussed. We will explore the possibility of differential extinction with an observing program to measure Balmer line ratios within the nebula with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory. Additionally, IC 405 has been accepted as a Cycle 4 target of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to search for emissions from molecular hydrogen at higher sensitivity and spectral resolution.

  6. Performance Analysis and Implementationof Predictable Streaming Applications onMultiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the increasing capacity of integrated circuits, multiprocessorsystems-on-chip (MPSoCs) are widely used in modern consumer electron-ics devices. In this thesis, the performance analysis and implementationmethodologies are explored to design predictable streaming applications onMPSoCs computing platforms. The application functionality and concur-rency are described in synchronous data flow (SDF) computational models,and two state-of-the-art architecture templates are adopted as multip...

  7. Mikrofluidik-Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, E.; Lichtenberg, J.

    2000-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are becoming the new paradigm for chemical processing and analysis in the laboratory. Hair-fine channels made in planar substrates using silicon processing technologies replace beakers and tubing for automated liquid transport and handling on a sub-μ L scale. Reduced conduit diame

  8. MICROELECTRONICS: Flip the Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C P; Luo, S; Zhang, Z

    2000-12-22

    As integrated circuit fabrication advances rapidly and the market for faster, lighter, smaller, yet less expensive electronic products accelerates, electronic packaging faces its own challenges. In this Perspective, Wong, Luo, and Zhang describe recent advances in flip chip packaging. This technology has many advantages over the conventional wire bonding technology and offers the possibility of low-cost electronic assembly for modern electronic products.

  9. Mikrofluidik-Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, E.; Lichtenberg, J.

    2000-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are becoming the new paradigm for chemical processing and analysis in the laboratory. Hair-fine channels made in planar substrates using silicon processing technologies replace beakers and tubing for automated liquid transport and handling on a sub-μ L scale. Reduced conduit

  10. Radiometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  11. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1065 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1065 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...1065F 303 - - - - - - Show FC-IC1065 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1065 (Link to dic...2.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1065Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0747 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0747 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC0747Z 420 - - - - Show FC-IC0747 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0747 (Link to dic... 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC0747 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - ...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0747Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1306 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1306 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC13... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1306 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...itochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1177 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1177 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07878-1 FC-IC11...ink to library) Clone ID FC-IC1177 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Co...ntig-U07878-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...ikpleslklqlviqvgtmqi Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1177 (FC-IC....0 %: mitochondrial 16.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0229 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0229 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC02... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0229 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...itochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0224 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0224 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07878-1 FC-IC02... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0224 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U07878-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1408 (FC-IC...ial 8.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0806 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0806 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 FC-IC08... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0806 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...epssisdsttgv*r Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0806 (FC-IC...3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 44.0 %: cytoplasmic 36.0 %: nuclear 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for FC-IC

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0255 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0255 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11160-1 FC-IC02... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0255 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link ...to Contig Contig-U11160-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...APTTSSFKIRQSSSYLVTRLS AC Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0255 (FC-IC...3b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 40.0 %: cytoplasmic 32.0 %: nuclear 24.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for FC-IC

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0392 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0392 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC03... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0392 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link ...to Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...lsqrlshaclsinsc Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC... 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: Golgi >> prediction for FC-IC0392 is mit 5' end seq. ID FC-IC

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0893 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0893 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC08... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0893 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...rtxxvxlxxxxcxcaails Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC0893 (FC-IC...%: mitochondrial 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0959 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0959 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC09... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0959 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...qiyldilslrnhmk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC1760 (FC-IC...ochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: cytoplasmic >> prediction for FC-IC

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0639 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0639 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11835-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC0639Z 505 - - - - Show FC-IC0639 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0639 (Link to dic...m discoideum gamete cDNA clone:FC-IC0... 511 0.0 2 ( C90116 ) Dictyostelium disco...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11835-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0639Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  4. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0369 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0369 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16271-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...0369F 413 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0369 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0369 (Link to dic...k--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC...lular, including cell wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for FC-IC0369 is cyt 5' end seq. ID FC-IC...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16271-1 Original site URL http://dic

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0973 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0973 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U08327-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC0973Z 180 - - - - Show FC-IC0973 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0973 (Link to dic...0 68.0 %: nuclear 24.0 %: cytoplasmic 8.0 %: mitochondrial >> prediction for FC-IC0973 is nuc 5' end seq. ID...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U08327-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0973Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1312 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1312 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10129-1 - (Link... to Original site) - - FC-IC1312Z 382 - - - - Show FC-IC1312 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1312 (Link to dic...tem 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall >> prediction for FC-IC1312 is end 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U10129-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1312Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  7. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0579 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0579 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...0579F 179 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0579 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0579 (Link to dic...0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for FC-IC0...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC0579Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  8. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mike Myung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA. The configurable array processor (CAP is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs, while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  9. A Low-Power Integrated Humidity CMOS Sensor by Printing-on-Chip Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A low-power, wide-dynamic-range integrated humidity sensing chip is implemented using a printable polymer sensing material with an on-chip pulse-width-modulation interface circuit. By using the inkjet printing technique, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene/polystyrene sulfonate that has humidity sensing features can be printed onto the top metal layer of a 0.35 μm CMOS IC. The developed printing-on-chip humidity sensor achieves a heterogeneous three dimensional sensor system-on-chip architecture. The humidity sensing of the implemented printing-on-chip sensor system is experimentally tested. The sensor shows a sensitivity of 0.98% to humidity in the atmosphere. The maximum dynamic range of the readout circuit is 9.8 MΩ, which can be further tuned by the frequency of input signal to fit the requirement of the resistance of printed sensor. The power consumption keeps only 154 μW. This printing-on-chip sensor provides a practical solution to fulfill an ultra-small integrated sensor for the applications in miniaturized sensing systems.

  10. Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Kuo-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Most studies employ qualitative approach to explore the industrial clusters; however, few research has objectively quantified the evolutions of industry clustering. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze clustering among IC design, IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries by using the foreign direct investment (FDI) data. The Lotka-Volterra system equations are first adopted here to capture the competition or cooperation among such three industries, thus explaining their clustering inclinations. The results indicate that the evolution of FDI into China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDI of IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries. Since IC design industry lie in the upstream stage of IC production, the middle-stream IC manufacturing and downstream IC packing and testing enterprises tend to cluster together with IC design firms, in order to sustain a steady business. Finally, Taiwan IC industry's FDI amount into China is predicted to cumulatively increase, which supports the industrial clustering tendency for Taiwan IC industry. Particularly, the FDI prediction of Lotka-Volterra model performs superior to that of the conventional Bass model after the forecast accuracy of these two models are compared. The prediction ability is dramatically improved as the industrial mutualism among each IC production stage is taken into account.

  11. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  12. Experiment list: SRX122496 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available || chip antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip ant...ibody catalog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc

  13. Hot Extrusion of Aluminum Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkaya, A. Erman; Güley, Volkan; Haase, Matthias; Jäger, Andreas

    The process of hot extrusion is a promising approach for the direct recycling of aluminum machining chips to aluminum profiles. The presented technology is capable of saving energy, as remelting of aluminum chips can be avoided. Depending on the deformation route and process parameters, the chip-based aluminum extradates showed mechanical properties comparable or superior to cast aluminum billets extruded under the same conditions. Using different metal flow schemes utilizing different extrusion dies the mechanical properties of the profiles extruded from chips can be improved. The energy absorption capacity of the profiles the rectangular hollow profiles extruded from chips and as-cast billets were analyzed using the drop hammer test set-up. The formability of the profiles extruded from chips and as-cast material were compared using tube bending tests in a three-roller-bending machine.

  14. First Stellar Abundances in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Geisler, Doug; Wallerstein, George; Borissova, Jura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pagel, Bernard E. J.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Smith, Verne

    2007-12-01

    Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).

  15. Integration of IC/EC systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, T., E-mail: Thibault.Gassmann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Beaumont, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baruah, U.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Chiocchio, S.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Denisov, G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Mukherjee, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Rasmussen, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6483 (United States); Saibene, G.; Sartori, R. [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanga, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems that are to be installed in ITER during the construction phase, are the electron cyclotron (EC) and ion cyclotron (IC) systems. They are complex assemblies of high voltage power supplies (HVPS), RF generators, transmission lines and antennas. Their design and integration are constrained by many interfaces, both internal, between the subsystems, and external, with the other ITER systems. In addition, some components must be compatible with a nuclear environment and are classified as Safety Important Component. This paper describes the processes implemented in ITER to ensure proper integration.

  16. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the construction progress of the test stand as of August 14, 1961. Water gushing in from the disturbance of a natural spring contributed to constant water problems during the construction process. It was necessary to pump water from the site on a daily basis and is still pumped from the site today. The equipment is partially submerged in the water emerging from the spring.

  17. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided.

  18. ICS and COPD: Time to clear the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Ford

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Ford, Richard EK Russell, Peter J BarnesAirway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UKThe debate about what constitutes the correct treatment for COPD has recently intensified. This discussion has grumbled on ever since the first multicenter trials using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD such as the European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP and Inhaled Steroids in Obstructive Lung Disease (ISOLDE were published in the late 1990’s and the results of trials such as TORCH (TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health using combination products has only added to the confusion.

  19. Development of an AOI system for chips with a hole on backside based on a frame imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Fu; Chou, Chih-Chung; Lien, Chun-Chien; Weng, Rui-Cian

    2016-01-01

    Defects exist for a few of IC chips during fabrication and packaging. The cost for follow-up processes can be reduced if chips with defect size of impacting chip quality can be inspected and removed during the earlier sorting process. Products will be more cost-effective and competitive. According to the inspecting requirements for microphone chips, developed AOI system has to detect the boundary flaws and hole-inside defects with size of greater than criteria from chips backside. Both the length and width of chip size are less than 5 mm and there's depth difference between the surface of chip backside and the hole-inside membrance. Thus image acquisition device is designed and implemented by an area scan imager and a telecentric lenses with a coaxial LED lighting module. Therefore we can ignore the image radiometric and geometric calibration, and keep off the shadow inside the rim of hole. An algorithm to detect defects and derive their size based on the edge pixels statistic distribution and binary chip edge image is selected. Developed AOI system then can meet the requirements of real-time defect inspection with high accuracy and performance. Frame opto-mechanical device has the spatial resolution of 5μm and FOV of 6.4 x 5.1 mm. And defect inspection can be completed within 150 ms for the chip size of 2.5 x 3.0 mm. The processes of image acquisition and defect inspection can be accomplished during the chip sorting process to satisfy the real-time online inspection. Inspected chips are placed in GO/NG trays in real-time according to their quality. From the verification results compared with the ones by microscope, the inspection accuracy is better than system requirements. The over kill rate is less than 0.3% and 3% for chip boundary flaws and hole-inside defects respectively. But it still can't be inspected correctly for the hole-inside defects of only one membrance breakage. In the future, we will improve the illumination and detecting algorithm to solve this

  20. Spatially resolved shear distribution in microfluidic chip for studying force transduction mechanisms in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbin; Heo, Jinseok; Hua, Susan Z

    2010-01-21

    Fluid shear stress has profound effects on cell physiology. Here we present a versatile microfluidic method capable of generating variable magnitudes, gradients, and different modes of shear flow, to study sensory and force transduction mechanisms in cells. The chip allows cell culture under spatially resolved shear flow conditions as well as study of cell response to shear flow in real-time. Using this chip, we studied the effects of chronic shear stress on cellular functions of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), renal epithelial cells. We show that shear stress causes reorganization of actin cytoskeleton, which suppresses flow-induced Ca(2+) response.

  1. On-demand IC351 (Cialis) enhances erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padma-Nathan, H; McMurray, J G; Pullman, W E; Whitaker, J S; Saoud, J B; Ferguson, K M; Rosen, R C

    2001-01-01

    IC351 (Cialis) is a selective inhibitor of PDE5. The efficacy and safety of on-demand dosing of IC351 in men with erectile dysfunction was assessed in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1055 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1055 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...1055F 170 - - - - - - Show FC-IC1055 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1055 (Link to dic... 12.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> predic...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16382-1 Original site URL http://dic...tycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC1055Q.Seq.d/ Representative se

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1562 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1562 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07878-1 FC-IC15... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1562 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U07878-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...gvsvtv*s Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC... 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC

  4. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0568 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0568 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16079-1 - (Link to Original site) FC-IC...0568F 756 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0568 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC0568 (Link to dic...viv*ffftfecdwr*n*initnt cidfisv--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-IC... 32.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for FC-IC...tyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16079-1 Original site URL http://dic

  5. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  6. 3D stacked chips from emerging processes to heterogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size.  The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.   •Provides single-source reference to the latest research in 3D optoelectronic integration: process, devices, and systems; •Explains the use of wireless 3D integration to improve 3D IC reliability and yield; •Describes techniques for monitoring and mitigating thermal behavior in 3D I...

  7. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  8. A brief review on mixed convection heat transfer in channel flow with vortex generator for electronic chip cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mandal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to increase processor speeds, 3D IC architecture is being aggressively pursued by researchers and chip manufacturers. This architecture allows extremely high level of integration with enhanced electrical performance and expanded functionality, and facilitates realization of VLSI and ULSI technologies. However, utilizing the third dimension to provide additional device layers poses thermal challenges due to the increased heat dissipation and complex electrical interconnects among different layers. The conflicting needs of the cooling system requiring larger flow passage dimensions to limit the pressure drop, and the IC architecture necessitating short interconnect distances to reduce signal latency warrant paradigm shifts in both of their design approach. Additional considerations include the effects due to temperature non-uniformity, localized hot spots, complex fluidic connections, and mechanical design. This paper reviews the advances in electronic chip cooling in the last decade and provides a vision for code signing integrated cooling systems. For various heat fluxes on each side of a chip acting as discrete heat source, the current single-phase cooling technology is projected to provide adequate cooling, albeit with high pressure drops. Effectively mitigating the high temperatures surrounding local hot spots remains a challenging issue. Various forms of tabulators above the chips, different geometric arrangements of the chips positioned top and bottom wall of the duct serves very well in the heat augmentation technique with better performance

  9. IC3328 a "dwarf elliptical galaxy" with spiral structure

    CERN Document Server

    Jerjen, H; Binggeli, B; Jerjen, Helmut; Kalnajs, Agris; Binggeli, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    We present the 2-D photometric decomposition of the Virgo galaxy IC3328. The analysis of the global light distribution of this morphologically classified nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE1,N) reveals a tightly wound, bi-symmetric spiral structure with a diameter of 4.5 kpc, precisely centered on the nucleus of the dwarf. The amplitude of the spiral is only three percent of the dwarf's surface brightness making it the faintest and smallest spiral ever found in a galaxy. In terms of pitch angle and arm winding the spiral is similar to the intermediate-type galaxy M51, but it lacks the dust and prominent HII regions which signal the presence of gas. The visual evidence of a spiral pattern in an early-type dwarf galaxy reopens the question on whether these dwarfs are genuine rotationally supported or anisotropic stellar systems. In the case of IC3328, we argue for a nearly face-on disk (dS0) galaxy with an estimated maximum rotation velocity of v_c,max = 55kms-1. The faintness of the spiral and the small moti...

  10. Observation of the Supernova Remnant IC 443 with VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Humensky, T B

    2007-01-01

    Shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) accelerate particles at the shock front between the expanding remnant and the swept-up interstellar medium. If these particles include protons and nuclei, very-high-energy gamma-ray emission may result from the decay of pions produced in interactions between cosmic rays and the local insterstellar medium. For SNRs that are interacting with a nearby molecular cloud, such as IC 443, the enhanced matter density provides a target medium that can amplify the gamma-ray emission. IC 443 also contains the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) CXOU J061705.3+222127. PWNe are the most plentiful galactic sources of very-high-energy gamma rays, which are produced in the shock formed at the collision of the pulsar wind with the ambient medium. VERITAS is an array of four 12-m telescopes dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy in the energy band above 100 GeV. Located on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, VERITAS operated during the 2006-2007 season in 2-, 3-, and 4-telescope observation modes. In this talk,...

  11. Application of concept selection methodology in IC process design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Kul

    1993-01-01

    Search for an effective methodology practical in IC manufacturing process development led to trial of quantitative 'concept selection' methodology in selecting the 'best' alternative for interlevel dielectric (ILD) processes. A cross-functional team selected multi-criteria with scoring guidelines to be used in the definition of the 'best'. The project was targeted for the 3 level metal backend process for sub-micron gate array product. The outcome of the project showed that the maturity of the alternatives has strong influence on the scores, because scores on the adopted criteria such as yield, reliability and maturity will depend on the maturity of a particular process. At the same time, the project took longer than expected since it required data for the multiple criteria. These observations suggest that adopting a simpler procedure that can analyze total inherent controllability of a process would be more effective. The methodology of the DFS (design for simplicity) tools used in analyzing the manufacturability of such electronics products as computers, phones and other consumer electronics products could be used as an 'analogy' in constructing an evaluation method for IC processes that produce devices used in those electronics products. This could be done by focusing on the basic process operation elements rather than the layers that are being built.

  12. Spectral Line Survey toward a Molecular Cloud in IC10

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Yuri; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Aikawa, Yuri; Kawamura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey observation in the 3 mm band toward the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy IC10 with the 45 m radio telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory to explore its chemical composition at a molecular-cloud scale (~80 pc). The CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO+, and HNC lines are detected for the first time in this galaxy in addition to the CO and 13CO lines, while c-C3H2, CH3OH, CN, C18O, and N2H+ lines are not detected. The spectral intensity pattern is found to be similar to those observed toward molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud, whose metallicity is as low as IC10. Nitrogen-bearing species are deficient in comparison with the Galactic molecular clouds due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen. CCH is abundant in comparison with Galactic translucent clouds, whereas CH3OH may be deficient. These characteristic trends for CCH and CH3OH are also seen in the LMC, and seem to originate from photodissociation regions more extended in peripheries of molecular clouds due to the lowe...

  13. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene (CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, overexpression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone HSP70. These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity, thus suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.Implications: The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(6); 651-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Det særlige etniske perspektiv rundt om ICS-trekanten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Birgit Raundahl

    Integrated Children´s System (ICS) er en generel socialfaglig systematik eller metode i sagsbehandlingsprocessen omkring udsatte børn, unge og deres familier. Forskningsprojektet ”ICS - i et minoritetsetnisk perspektiv” har undersøgt myndighedsrådgivernes arbejde med den børnefaglige ICS-undersøg...

  15. [Study on cytotoxicity tests of medical devices based on IC50].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenghu; Wu, Shifu; Hou, Li; Wang, Xin; Wang, Luanluan; Shi, Yanping

    2014-11-01

    To discuss IC50 application in cytotoxicity tests of medical devices, we firstly investigated the vibrating condition and endpoint of MTT method specified in ISO 10993-5: 2009. Furthermore, we demonstrated the application of IC50 in the result evaluation of MTT method. The experimental results show that usage of IC50 in quantitative evaluation of MTT method is feasible.

  16. 3-D Numerical Simulation on the Chip Machining Process of a Metal Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yixia; Yin Yihui; Li Weifen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the cutting process of a metal block is numerically simulated by the dynamic explicit FE code ABAQUS. Taking thermo-mechanical coupling effect into consideration, the simulation presents the variation of temperature, stress and strain distribution in the workpiece and chip. The effective plastic strain failure criterion is applied to modeling the chip separation and plastic formation. And the phenomenon of the contact and friction between the workpiece and the cutting tool are described in the paper.

  17. Additive manufacturing approaches for stress relief in semiconductor die packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, C.M.B. van der; Wiel, A. van der; Maalderink, H.H.; Vaes, M.H.E.; Aulbers, A.P.; Vorst, L.T.G. van de; Cate, A.T. ten; Furrer, J.F.; Burssens, J.W.; Chen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of semiconductor chips, especially MEMS-based, always causes stress on the functional areas of the die causing unpredictable changes in chip performance. As a consequence such devices can only be calibrated individually after complete assembly. Melexis and TNO have developed an approach to

  18. Additive manufacturing approaches for stress relief in semiconductor die packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, C.M.B. van der; Wiel, A. van der; Maalderink, H.H.; Vaes, M.H.E.; Aulbers, A.P.; Vorst, L.T.G. van de; Cate, A.T. ten; Furrer, J.F.; Burssens, J.W.; Chen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of semiconductor chips, especially MEMS-based, always causes stress on the functional areas of the die causing unpredictable changes in chip performance. As a consequence such devices can only be calibrated individually after complete assembly. Melexis and TNO have developed an approach to

  19. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  20. 双向应力状态下IC10高温合金的屈服行为研究%Measurement and Analysis of Yield Locus of Superalloy IC10 Under Biaxial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷; 温卫东; 崔海涛

    2012-01-01

    为了研究Ni3Al基金属间化合物IC10高温合金的屈服行为,对其进行了不同加载路径下的双向拉伸试验.试验采用十字形双向拉伸试验件在Zwick/Roell Z010双向拉伸试验机上进行,得到的最大等效应变为0.02.试验加载方向与材料塑性各向异性主轴重合,采用位移控制方法让两个夹头的加载速率比保持不变,得到不同线性加载路径下的应力-应变曲线.根据单位体积塑性功相等原理获得了IC10合金在双向拉伸应力状态下的屈服轨迹,并与目前常用的几种正交各向异性屈服准则及von Mises屈服准则预测结果进行了对比.结果表明,IC10合金的试验屈服轨迹呈外凸性,以双向等拉线为界的上下部分屈服轨迹不对称,显示出明显的塑性各向异性.各向同性von Mises屈服准则只包含一个材料常数,无法描述IC10合金的塑性各向异性行为;Hill二次式屈服准则在双向等拉应力状态附近低估了材料的屈服强度;Logan&Hosford屈服准则在从双向等拉到横向单拉的应力状态下都低估了材料的屈服强度,与试验结果相差较大.Banabic-Balan屈服准则和Barlat (1989)屈服准则的预测值与试验结果吻合很好,能很好地描述IC10合金在双向应力状态下的屈服行为.%Biaxial tensile tests of directionally solidified superalloy IC10 are carried out using cruciform specimens. The specimens are deformed under linear loading path on a Zwick/Roell 2010 biaxial tensile testing machine. The maximum equivalent strain attained is 0.02. The loading directions remain coaxial with the plastic orthotropy throughout every experiment. Contours of plastic work in the biaxial stress space are successfully determined and compared with the yield loci calculated from several existing yield criteria. It is found that the yield locus of superalloy IC10 is asymmetric about the balanced biaxial tension line, which indicates strong plastic anisotropy of the material

  1. On-chip data communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    On-chip data communication is an active research area, as interconnects are rapidly becoming a speed, power and reliability bottleneck for digital CMOS systems. Especially for global interconnects that have to span large parts of a chip, there is an increasing gap between transistor speed and interc

  2. On-chip data communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    On-chip data communication is an active research area, as interconnects are rapidly becoming a speed, power and reliability bottleneck for digital CMOS systems. Especially for global interconnects that have to span large parts of a chip, there is an increasing gap between transistor speed and

  3. INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT TRANSFER FROM THE IC CHIP TO THE HEAT SINK THROUGH THE USE OF NANOFILM THERMOELECTRIC HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the to enhance the efficiency the thermoelectric heat pump by making the branches of semiconductor p- and n-type as nanofilms and creating conditions for the emergence of additional thermoeffect between the hot and cold junctions of dissimilar metals that will create a more efficient heat pumps with small dimensions.

  4. Ion chromatography on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, J P; Breadmore, M C; Tan, A; McEnery, M; Alderman, J; O'Mathuna, C; O'Neill, A P; O'Brien, P; Avdalovic, N; Haddad, P R; Glennon, J D; Advoldvic, N

    2001-07-27

    On-chip separation of inorganic anions by ion-exchange chromatography was realized. Micro separation channels were fabricated on a silicon wafer and sealed with a Pyrex cover plate using standard photolithography, wet and dry chemical etching, and anodic bonding techniques. Quaternary ammonium latex particles were employed for the first time to coat the separation channels on-chip. Owing to the narrow depths of the channels on the chip, 0.5-10 microm, there were more interactions of the analytes with the stationary phase on the chip than in a 50-microm I.D. capillary. With off-chip injection (20 nl) and UV detection, NO2-, NO3-, I-, and thiourea were separated using 1 mM KCl as the eluent. The linear ranges for NO2- and NO3- are from 5 to 1000 microM with the detection limits of 0.5 microM.

  5. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  6. Resenya del blog IC-Investigación Cualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Flores-Pons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El blog IC-Investigación Cualitativa és una eina interessant per a les persones que realitzem recerca social, ja que ofereix un recull parcial dels recursos, sobre metodologia qualitativa, disponibles a la xarxa i els exposa organitzats temàticament. Així, hi podem trobar articles, capítols, llibres, pàgines d'autora, vincles a revistes, grups de recerca, congressos, programes informàtics o altres portals web. No es tracta d'una centralització de materials, sinó de l'enxarxament de diferents recursos ja existents, ja que es mantenen els links a les pàgines on es localitzen. Això permet una doble tasca, difondre els propis materials i visibilitzar les fonts i recursos que els han fet disponibles.

  7. The Implementation of a Vulnerability Topology Analysis Method for ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Industrial Control System (ICS is becoming more and more important in significant fields. However, the using of the general facilities in these systems makes lots of security issues exposed. Because there are a number of differences between the original IT systems and ICSs. At the same time, the traditional vulnerability scan technology lacks the ability to recognize the interactions between vulnerabilities in the network. ICSs are always in a high risk state. So, this paper focuses on the vertex polymerization of the topological vulnerability analysis. We realized a topological analysis method oriented ICSs on the basis of achievements at home and abroad. The result shows that this method can solve the problem of the complex fragility correlation among industrial control networks.

  8. Energetic Utilisation of Pyrolysis Gases in IC Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Barbara Kovács

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative energy sources like pyrolysis gases as a source ofrenewable energy for combined heat and power generation could provide an effective andalternative way to fulfil remarkable part of the increasing energy demand of the humanpopulation as a possible solution of decentralized power generation. Therefore the role ofutilization of pyrolysis gases rapidly grows in Europe and all around the world. Theenergetic utilization of these low heating value renewable gaseous fuels is not fully workedout yet because their combustion characteristics significantly differ from natural gas, andthis way they are not usable or their utilization is limited in devices with conventionalbuild-up. At the Department of Energy Engineering of BME the IC Engine utilization ofpyrolysis gases was investigated. The power, efficiency, consumption and exhaust emissionwere measured and indication was made to determine the pressure and heat release in thecylinder at different engine parameters.

  9. Diffuse Atomic and Molecular Gas near IC443

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschauer, A; Wallerstein, George; Means, T

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of results on absorption from Ca II, Ca I, K I, and the molecules CH+, CH, C2, and CN that probes gas interacting with the supernova remnant IC443. The eleven directions sample material across the visible nebula and beyond its eastern edge. Most of the neutral material, including the diatomic molecules, is associated with the ambient cloud detected via H I and CO emission. Analysis of excitation and chemistry yields gas densities that are typical of diffuse molecular gas. The low density gas probed by Ca II extends over a large range in velocities, from -120 to +80 km/s in the most extreme cases. This gas is distributed among several velocity components, unlike the situation for the shocked molecular clumps, whose emission occurs over much the same range but as very broad features. The extent of the high-velocity absorption suggests a shock velocity of 100 km/s for the expanding nebula.

  10. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  11. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    CERN Document Server

    Zarándy, Ákos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-Plane Sensor-Processor Chips explores both the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips. Presenting an overview of focal plane chip technology, the text discusses smart imagers and cellular wave computers, along with numerous examples of current vision chips.

  12. Towards Dependable Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive semiconductor technology scaling provides the means for doubling the amount of transistors on a single chip each and every 18 months. To efficiently utilize these vast chip resources, Multi-Processor Systems on Chip (MPSoCs) integrated with a Network-on-Chip (NoC) communication infras

  13. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  14. An Infrared Search for Young Stellar Objects in IC 1396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Gibbs, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Archibald, Andrew R.; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hart, Erica A.; Hedlund, Audrey R.; Hilfer, Shannon L.; Lacher, Thomas; McKernan, John T.; Medeiros, Emma M.; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Leary, Harrison; Peña, Nicholas D.; Peterson, Alexis; Reader, Livia K.; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Sundeen, Kiera A.; Takara, Amber L.; Thiel, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    About 700 parsecs away from Earth, IC1396 lies along the galactic plane, in the direction of the constellation Cepheus, and includes many dark nebulae, including the Elephant’s Trunk Nebula. IC 1396A has been examined with a variety of telescopes, including Spitzer, 2MASS, IPHAS, Chandra, and WISE. The YSOVAR project (Rebull et al. 2014) also has Spitzer monitoring data in this region at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Our team has merged these catalogs and identified candidate YSOs using IR color selection, X-ray detection, and variability metrics. In order to interpret the YSOVAR light curves, it is critical to understand which of the 700+ YSO candidates in this region are likely YSOs, and which are foreground/background stars or are extragalactic objects. As a first attempt to confirm these candidate YSOs, we have created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for wavelengths from IPHAS r band to 24 microns, which we use, coupled with image inspection, to confirm (or refute) YSO candidates from this list of identified YSO candidates. We will then compare our vetted list of YSO candidates to the lists of YSO candidates already identified in the literature in this region. The goal of this study is to identify candidate YSO sources, as well as support the greater understanding of the variety, evolution and variability of young stars. This project is a collaborative effort of high school students from three states. They analyzed data individually and later collaborated online to compare results. This project is the result of many years of work with the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP).

  15. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni (DET), Torino (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  16. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2014-02-01

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1643 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC1643 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10099-1 FC-IC16... (Link to library) Clone ID FC-IC1643 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link t...o Contig Contig-U10099-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC-IC/FC-IC...e. 50 0.011 1 CF589304 |CF589304.1 AGENCOURT_15703765 NICHD_XGC_Swb1N Silurana tropic... 32.0 %: mitochondrial 24.0 %: cytoplasmic 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for FC-IC164

  18. A New Estimation Model of IC Interconnect Lifetime Based on Uniform Defect Distribution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOTianxu; DUANXuchao; HAOYue; MAPeijun

    2004-01-01

    Defect, which exists throughout IC manufacturing process, is one of the important factors affecting IC interconnection lifetime. In this paper, a new failure model of IC interconnection is proposed based on analysis of the awdlable lifetime estimation models of IC interconnect lifetime. Many factors, such as the sizes of the defect, wire width, wire length and so on, are considered in this new model. The simulation results show that defect has a great influence on IC's interconnect lifetime, and the larger the defect size, the greater the influence. The new model can be used in an IC design to estimate electromigration loss related to the IC missing material defect and to some other factors.

  19. Implantable Biomedical Signal Monitoring Using RF Energy Harvestingand On-Chip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Shiun Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an energy harvesting wireless and battery-less silicon-on-chip (SoC device that can be implanted in the human body to monitor certain health conditions. The proposed architecture has been designed on TSMC 0.18μm CMOS ICs and is an integrated system with a rectenna (antenna and rectifier and transmitting circuit, all on a single chip powered by an external transmitter and that is small enough to be inserted in the human eye, heart or brain. The transmitting and receiving antennas operate in the 5.8- GHz ISM band and have a -10dB gain. The distinguishing feature of this design is the rectenna that comprises of a singlestage diode connected NMOS rectifier and a 3-D on-chip antenna that occupies only 2.5 × 1 × 2.8 mm3 of chip area and has the ability to communicate within proximity of 5 cm while giving 10% efficiency. The external source is a reader that powers up the RF rectifier in the implantable chip triggering it to start sending data back to the reader enabling an efficient method of health evaluation for the patient.

  20. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  1. Nuclear factor I-C reciprocally regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation via control of canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Shan; Qi, Qi; Yang, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Endong; Yuan, Hairui; Li, Xuemei; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Baoli

    2017-01-25

    Nuclear factor I-C (NFIC) has recently been identified as an important player in osteogenesis and bone homeostasis in vivo However, the molecular mechanisms involved have yet to be defined. In the current study, Nfic expression was altered in primary marrow stromal cells and established progenitor lines after adipogenic and osteogenic treatment. Overexpression of Nfic in stromal cells ST2, mesenchymal cells C3H10T1/2, and primary marrow stromal cells inhibited adipogenic differentiation, whereas it promoted osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, silencing of endogenous Nfic in the cell lines enhanced adipogenic differentiation, whereas it blocked osteogenic differentiation. Mechanism investigations revealed that Nfic overexpression promoted nuclear translocation of β-catenin and increased nuclear protein levels of β-catenin and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2). Promoter studies and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that NFIC directly binds to the promoter of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) and thereafter transactivates the promoter. Finally, inactivation of canonical Wnt signaling in ST2 attenuated the inhibition of adipogenic differentiation and stimulation of osteogenic differentiation by NFIC. Our study suggests that NFIC balances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation from progenitor cells through controlling canonical Wnt signaling and highlights the potential of NFIC as a target for new therapies to control metabolic disorders like osteoporosis and obesity.-Zhou, J., Wang, S., Qi, Q., Yang, X., Zhu, E., Yuan, H., Li, X., Liu, Y., Li, X., Wang, B. Nuclear factor I-C reciprocally regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation via control of canonical Wnt signaling.

  2. Local stress analysis in devices by FIB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Driel, W. van; Alkemade, P.; Miro, H.; Kamminga, J.-D.

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic stresses in bondpads may lead to early failure of IC's. In order to determine the intrinsic stresses in semiconductor structures, a new procedure is set up. This procedure is a combined experimental/numerical approach which consists of the following steps: First, a conductive gold layer (2

  3. COMPARISON OF SAMPLE PREPARATION METHODS FOR CHIP-CHIP ASSAYS

    OpenAIRE

    O'Geen, Henriette; Nicolet, Charles M.; Blahnik, Kim; Green, Roland; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2006-01-01

    A single ChIP sample does not provide enough DNA for hybridization to a genomic tiling array. A commonly used technique for amplifying the DNA obtained from ChIP assays is linker-mediated PCR (LMPCR). However, using this amplification method, we could not identify Oct4 binding sites on genomic tiling arrays representing 1% of the human genome (ENCODE arrays). In contrast, hybridization of a pool of 10 ChIP samples to the arrays produced reproducible binding patterns and low background signals...

  4. Effect of quasi-hydrostatical radial pressure on Ic of Nb3Sn wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondonico, G.; Seeber, B.; Ferreira, A.; Bordini, B.; Oberli, L.; Bottura, L.; Ballarino, A.; Flükiger, R.; Senatore, C.

    2012-11-01

    High-performance Nb3Sn conductors are intended to be used in large-scale magnets like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and in the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the occurrence of high electromagnetic forces, a detailed knowledge of the response of the critical current to the three-dimensional mechanical loads acting on the wires inside the cables is required. A detailed analysis of transverse stress effects on the critical current for powder-in-tube and bronze route Nb3Sn wires is presented. In an earlier publication, we have described the effect of transverse stress exerted on a Nb3Sn wire by means of two parallel plates. In the present paper, we analyse the effect of transverse stress exerted simultaneously by four walls on a wire being confined in a U-shaped groove. In order to get a more realistic picture of the situation of wires embedded in a Rutherford cable, the compression by four walls was also performed after impregnating the wire with epoxy in the same U-shaped groove. The result is very different from the case of pressing by means of two walls: the effect of pressure on Ic is now strongly reduced, which is attributed to the almost hydrostatic pressure in the U-shaped groove. This is further confirmed by the comparison between the effects of axial and transverse loads on the upper critical field and the pinning force. The present data are also compared against the effects of mechanical load on the critical current of cables in large-scale magnets.

  5. Fracture toughness (K(IC) of a hot-pressed core ceramic based on fractographic analysis of fractured ceramic FPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suck; Park, Ju-Mi; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the fracture toughness (K(IC)) of an experimental hot-pressed core ceramic measured by fractographic analysis of failed ceramic prostheses and the values determined by other standard methods. Four groups were subjected to one of four test methods: group 1 = indentation strength technique (standard numerical calculation); group 2 = indentation strength technique (fractographic analysis); group 3 = flexure test of precracked specimens (fractographic analysis); and group 4 = fractographic analysis of failed three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPD). For groups 1 to 3, 20 ceramic bar specimens were subjected to three-point flexure at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. For group 4, 10 failed FPDs were collected from a previous study. Stress values at failure were calculated from either a flexure stress equation (groups 1 to 3) or from finite element analyses (group 4). K(IC) values were calculated from an equation and fractographic measurement data. Mean fracture toughness ranged from 3.1 MPa x m1/2 (SD 0.2) (group 1) to 3.4 MPa x m1/2 (SD 0.2) (group 4). The mean K(IC) value for group 1 was significantly different from that of group 4; however, no significant differences were found between groups 1, 2, and 3, or between groups 2, 3, and 4. Fracture toughness for an experimental hot-pressed core ceramic measured by fractographic analysis in combination with finite element analysis was comparable with the values determined with other standard fractographic methods.

  6. Chips with everything

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In March 1972, Sir Robin Saxby gave a talk to the Royal Television Society called 'TV and Chips' about a 'state of the art' integrated circuit, containing 50 resistors and 50 transistors. Today's 'state of the art' chips contain up to a billion transistors. This enormous leap forward illustrates how dramatically the semiconductor industry has evolved in the past 34 years. The next 10 years are predicted to bring times of turbulent change for the industry, as more and more digital devices are used around the world. In this talk, Sir Robin will discuss the history of the Microchip Industry in parallel with ARM's history, demonstrating how a small European start-up can become a world player in the IT sector. He will also present his vision of important applications and developments in the next 20 years that are likely to become even more pervasive than the mobile phone is today, and will provide anecdotes and learning points from his own experience at ARM. About ARM: Sir Robin and a group of designers from Acorn...

  7. The analog front-end section of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, P.F.; Leona, A.; Mandelli, E.; Re, V.; Svelto, F. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Elettronica]|[INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Kipnis, I.; Luo, L.; Momayezi, M.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Roe, N. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the evolution in the analog section of the vertex detector readout chip for the BaBar experiment. In order to optimize its behaviour, an intermediate chip reproducing the analog part alone was developed and tested. It provided some useful design hints that provided the basis for the final conception of the analog front-end as it is now operational in the complete BaBar chip. (orig.). 6 refs.

  8. Experiment list: SRX122568 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 h

  9. Experiment list: SRX122522 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  10. Experiment list: SRX122566 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  11. Experiment list: SRX122406 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Irf1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab52520 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-640 http:/

  12. Experiment list: SRX122415 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  13. Experiment list: SRX214071 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=

  14. Experiment list: SRX122416 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  15. Experiment list: SRX214073 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  16. Experiment list: SRX214070 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2

  17. Experiment list: SRX214075 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available age=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  18. Experiment list: SRX122413 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  19. Experiment list: SRX214085 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entiated || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacturer 1=none || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manuf...acturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-

  20. Experiment list: SRX122412 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  1. Experiment list: SRX122520 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  2. Experiment list: SRX122417 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  3. Experiment list: SRX122565 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  4. Experiment list: SRX122523 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  5. Experiment list: SRX122521 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  6. Experiment list: SRX214086 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entiated || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacturer 1=none || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manuf...acturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-

  7. Experiment list: SRX214067 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fferentiated || cell line=F9 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manufacturer 2=none http://dbarchive.bioscien

  8. Experiment list: SRX214072 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  9. Experiment list: SRX122485 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100

  10. Experiment list: SRX122414 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  11. Experiment list: SRX214074 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  12. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    went into compressive stress of 1.3 x 10 dynes/cm2. Results NX • thus show that room-temperature stress in CVD films can be reduced to nearly 35 -4 0...fluorescence working curves. X-ray fluorescence radiation measurements were carried out using a Siemens Crystalloflex 4 x-ray generator with a chromium target x...ray tube (2000 W) and a Siemens Vacuum X-Ray Spectrometer Model VRS. Sample area of measurement was usually 0.50 cm2 . 2= Experimental results will be

  13. UX Ori Variables in the Cluster IC 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Sergeev, S. G.; Semenov, A. O.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Results are presented from many years of photometric (VRCIC) observations of three variable T Tauri type stars in the cluster IC 348: V712 Per, V719 Per, and V909 Per. All three stars have photometric activity characteristic of UX Ori stars. The activity of V719 Per has increased significantly over the last 10 years: the amplitude of its Algol-like minima has increased by roughly a factor of 4 and has reached three stellar magnitudes in the I band. Periodograms of the light curves do not confirm the periods found previously by other authors on the basis of shorter series of observations. The slope of the color tracks on "color-magnitude" diagrams is used to determine the reddening law for these stars owing to selective absorption by circumstellar dust. Modelling of these parameters by the Mie theory shows that the maximum size amax of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disks of these stars is 1.5-2 times greater than in the interstellar medium. In V712 Per and V909 Per, the bulk of the mass of the dust particles is concentrated near amax, while in V719 Per the average mass of the dust particles is determined by the minimum size of the particles. It should be emphasized that these conclusions rely on an analysis of the optical variability of these stars.

  14. Multiple tidal disruption flares in the active galaxy IC 3599

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; Colpi, M; Lodato, G; D'Avanzo, P; Evans, P A; Moretti, A

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption events occur when a star passes too close to a massive black hole and it is totally ripped apart by tidal forces. Alternatively, if the star does not get close enough to the black hole to be totally disrupted, a less dramatic event might happen with the star surviving the encounter and loosing only a small fraction of its mass. In this situation if the stellar orbit is bound and highly eccentric, just like some stars in the centre of our own Galaxy, repeated flares should occur. When the star approaches the black hole tidal radius at periastron, matter might be stripped resulting in lower intensity outbursts recurring once every orbital period. We report on Swift observations of a recent bright flare from the galaxy IC 3599 hosting a middle-weight black hole, where a possible tidal disruption event was observed in the early 1990s. By light curve modelling and spectral fitting we can consistently account for the events as the non-disruptive tidal stripping of a star into a highly eccentric orb...

  15. Ices in the Quiescent IC 5146 Dense Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Chiar, J E; Allamandola, L J; Boogert, A C A; Ennico, K; Greene, T P; Geballe, T R; Keane, J V; Lada, C J; Mason, R E; Roellig, T L; Sandford, S A; Tielens, A G G M; Werner, M W; Whittet, D C B; Decin, L; Eriksson, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 micron range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H2O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03+/-0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH3OH and NH3 in the ices, present at the ~2% and ~5% levels, respectively, relative to H2O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J-K) color excess is found...

  16. IC 630: Piercing the Veil of the Nuclear Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy; Schartmann, Marc; Ashraf Uddin, Syed; Cotter, Garrett

    2017-04-01

    IC 630 is a nearby early-type galaxy with a mass of 6× {10}10 M ⊙ with an intense burst of recent (6 Myr) star formation (SF). It shows strong nebular emission lines, with radio and X-ray emission, which classifies it as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). With VLT-SINFONI and Gemini North-NIFS adaptive optics observations (plus supplementary ANU 2.3 m WiFeS optical IFU observations), the excitation diagnostics of the nebular emission species show no sign of standard AGN engine excitation; the stellar velocity dispersion also indicates that a supermassive black hole (if one is present) is small ({M}\\bullet =2.25× {10}5 {M}⊙ ). The luminosity at all wavelengths is consistent with SF at a rate of about 1-2 M ⊙ yr-1. We measure gas outflows driven by SF at a rate of 0.18 M ⊙ yr-1 in a face-on truncated cone geometry. We also observe a nuclear cluster or disk and other clusters. Photoionization from young, hot stars is the main excitation mechanism for [Fe ii] and hydrogen, whereas shocks are responsible for the H2 excitation. Our observations are broadly comparable with simulations where a Toomre-unstable, self-gravitating gas disk triggers a burst of SF, peaking after about 30 Myr and possibly cycling with a period of about 200 Myr.

  17. MagIC: Geomagnetic Applications from Earth History to Archeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.

    2016-12-01

    Major scientific challenges increasingly require an interdisciplinary approach, and highlight the need for open archives, incorporating visualization and analysis tools that are flexible enough to address novel research problems. Increasingly modern standards for publication are (or should be) demanding direct links to data, data citations, and adequate documentation that allow other researchers direct access to the fundamental measurements and analyses producing the results. Carefully documented metadata are essential and data models may need considerable complexity to accommodate re-use of observations originally collected with a different purpose in mind. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an online home for all kinds of paleo-, archeo-magnetic, rock, and environmental magnetic data, from documentation of fieldwork, through lab protocols, to interpretations in terms of geomagnetic history. Examples of their application to understanding geomagnetic field behavior, archeological dating, and voyages of exploration to discover America will be used to highlight best practices and illustrate unexpected benefits of data archived using best practices with the goal of maintaining high standards for reproducibility.

  18. Stellar Populations at the Center of IC 1613

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, A A; Gallagher, J S; Hössel, J G; Mould, J R; Holtzmann, J A; Saha, A; Ballester, G E; Burrows, C J; Clarke, J T; Crisp, D; Griffiths, R E; Grillmair, C J; Hester, J J; Krist, J E; Meadows, V; Scowen, P A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Trauger, J T; Watson, A M; Westphal, J R; Cole, Andrew A.; Tolstoy, Eline; Gallagher, John S.; Hoessel, John G.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Saha, Abhijit; Ballester, Gilda E.; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clarke, John T.; Crisp, David; Griffiths, Richard E.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Hester, Jeff J.; Krist, John E.; Meadows, Vikki; Scowen, Paul A.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Trauger, John T.; Watson, Alan M.; Westphal, James R.

    1999-01-01

    We have observed the center of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F439W, F555W, and F814W filters. We find a dominant old stellar population (aged ~7 Gyr), identifiable by the strong red giant branch (RGB) and red clump populations. From the (V-I) color of the RGB, we estimate a mean metallicity of the intermediate-age stellar population [Fe/H] = -1.38 +/- 0.31. We confirm a distance of 715 +/- 40 kpc using the I-magnitude of the RGB tip. The main-sequence luminosity function down to I ~25 provides evidence for a roughly constant SFR of approximately 0.00035 solar masses per year across the WFPC2 field of view (0.22 square kpc) during the past 250-350 Myr. Structure in the blue loop luminosity function implies that the SFR was ~50% higher 400-900 Myr ago than today. The mean heavy element abundance of these young stars is 1/10th solar. The best explanation for a red spur on the main-sequence at I = 24.7 is the blue horizontal branch component of ...

  19. Precessing collimated outflows in the planetary nebula IC 4846

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, L F; Torrelles, J M; Miranda, Luis F; Guerrero, Martin A; Torrelles, Jose M

    2000-01-01

    We present [N II] and H-alpha images and high resolution long-slit spectra of the planetary nebula IC 4846, which reveal, for the first time, its complex structure and the existence of collimated outflows. The object consists of a moderately elongated shell, two (and probably three) pairs of collimated bipolar outflows at different orientations, and an attached circular shell. One of the collimated pairs is constituted by two curved, extended filaments whose properties indicate a high velocity, bipolar precessing jet. A difference of \\~10 km/s is found between the systemic velocity of the precessing jets and the centroid velocity of the nebula, as recently report for Hu 2-1. We propose that this difference is due to orbital motion of the ejection source in a binary central star. The orbital separation and period estimates for the binary star are less than or equal to 30 AU and 100 yr, respectively. These are similar to those previously estimated for Hu 2-1, linking the central stars of both planetary nebulae ...

  20. Spatially-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of IC 5063

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available N-band spectroscopy of the radio strong Seyfert 2 active galaxy IC 5063 (z=0.0110 was obtained using Gemini South in conjunc- tion with the Thermal-Region Camera Spec- trograph (T-ReCS; Telesco et al. 1998. T- ReCS uses a Raytheon 320x240 pixel SiAs IBC array, at a plate scale of 0.08900 pixel-1. The observations were conducted on the nights of UT 2005 July 7 and 9 using the standard chop-nod technique to remove the time-variable sky background, telescope ther- mal emission, and the so-called 1/f detector noise. A 0.6700 wide slit was used aligned along the position angle of the radio axis at 305o(Morganti et al. 1998 and close to the extended narrow line emission region (ENLR axis at 303_(Colina et al. 1991. The total on- source integration time was 1212 seconds.

  1. FinFET modeling for IC simulation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chenming; Lu, Darsen D

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to explain FinFET modeling for IC simulation and the industry standard - BSIM-CMG - describing the rush in demand for advancing the technology from planar to 3D architecture, as now enabled by the approved industry standard. The book gives a strong foundation on the physics and operation of FinFET, details aspects of the BSIM-CMG model such as surface potential, charge and current calculations, and includes a dedicated chapter on parameter extraction procedures, providing a step-by-step approach for the efficient extraction of model parameters. With this book you will learn: * Why you should use FinFET* The physics and operation of FinFET* Details of the FinFET standard model (BSIM-CMG)* Parameter extraction in BSIM-CMG* FinFET circuit design and simulation * Authored by the lead inventor and developer of FinFET, and developers of the BSIM-CM standard model, providing an experts' insight into the specifications of the standard* The first book on the industry-standard FinFET model - BSIM...

  2. Cloning and characterization of human IC53-2, a novel CDK5 activator binding protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We have identified IC53-2, a human homologue of the rat C53 gene from a human placenta cDNA library (GeneBank Accession No. AF217982). IC53-2 can bind to the CDK5 activator p35 by in vitro association assay. IC53-2 is mapped to human chromosome 17q21.31. The IC53-2 transcript is highly expressed in kidney, liver, skeletal muscle and placenta. It is abundantly expressed in SMMC-7721, C-33A, 3AO, A431and MCF-7 cancer cell lines by RT-PCR assay. Stable transfection of IC53-2 cDNA into the hepatocellularcarcinoma SMMC-7721 cell remarkably stimulates its growth in vitro. The above results indicate thatIC53-2 is a novel human gene, which may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation.

  3. Enabling inter- and intra-chip optical wireless interconnect by the aid of hybrid plasmonic leaky-wave optical antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Yousefi, Leila; Mohammad-Taheri, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to provide optical link in Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The proposed method uses two hybrid plasmonic leaky-wave optical antennas, operating at the standard optical telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 μm, to provide inter-chip interconnect between two layers in a photonic chip and also intra-chip interconnect between two different photonic ICs. Linearly tapered couplers are designed to couple the optical signal from the silicon waveguide to the hybrid plasmonic antennas. The performance of the proposed optical link is verified using numerical full wave simulation. The proposed structure is planar, and can be fabricated using standard CMOS technology which makes it the superior candidate for realization of future multi-layered Photonic Integrated Circuits.

  4. Whole-Teflon microfluidic chips

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kangning Ren; Wen Dai; Jianhua Zhou; Jing Su; Hongkai Wu

    2011-01-01

    .... In this work, we present a convenient strategy for fabricating whole-Teflon microfluidic chips with integrated valves that show outstanding inertness to various chemicals and extreme resistance against all solvents...

  5. On chip shapeable optical tweezers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renaut, C; Cluzel, B; Dellinger, J; Lalouat, L; Picard, E; Peyrade, D; Hadji, E; de Fornel, F

    2013-01-01

    Particles manipulation with optical forces is known as optical tweezing. While tweezing in free space with laser beams was established in the 1980s, integrating the optical tweezers on a chip is a challenging task...

  6. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  7. Modeling and performance evaluation of an electromechanical valve actuator for a camless IC engine

    OpenAIRE

    Eid Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Valve train control is one of the best strategies for optimizing efficiency and emissions of Internal Combustion (IC) engines. Applications of solenoid valve actuators in (IC) engines can facilitate operations such as variable valve timing and variable valve lifting for improved the engine performance, fuel economy and reduce emission, the electromechanical valve actuator (EMVA) uses solenoid to actuate valve movement independently for the application of (IC) engine. In this work presents the...

  8. Complex function block of processing and transferring asynchronous data for the IC of reading out the signals of multichannel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkin, O. V.; Normanov, D. D.; Ivanov, P. Ya; Atkin, E. V.; Voronin, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of a 32-channel system of asynchronous data processing is considered. The data come from the detectors of nuclear physics experiments. Processing is provided for signals with a mean frequency of up to 10 MHz in each channel. The system provides generation of data packages, consisting of digital codes of signal amplitude, of signal superposition in peak detectors, of signal arrival time and number of channel wherein the event has occurred with a subsequent 8b10b coding. The considered system allows us to regulate dynamically the number of active channels. Two interface of data exchange – the slow I2C and high-speed (320 MHz), providing communication IC with the GBTX chip, have been built in the system. The results of developing the structural diagram and circuital-layout solutions of separate units are presented. System prototyping is implemented by the 180nm CMOS technology of UMC. The results of testing both separate blocks and the whole system are presented.

  9. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  10. Poly-IC preconditioning protects against cerebral and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E B; Hedges, Jason C; Bahjat, Frances R; Stevens, Susan L; Conlin, Michael J; Salazar, Andres M; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2012-02-01

    Preconditioning induces ischemic tolerance, which confers robust protection against ischemic damage. We show marked protection with polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) preconditioning in three models of murine ischemia-reperfusion injury. Poly-IC preconditioning induced protection against ischemia modeled in vitro in brain cortical cells and in vivo in models of brain ischemia and renal ischemia. Further, unlike other Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, which generally induce significant inflammatory responses, poly-IC elicits only modest systemic inflammation. Results show that poly-IC is a new powerful prophylactic treatment that offers promise as a clinical therapeutic strategy to minimize damage in patient populations at risk of ischemic injury.

  11. Universal Fingerprinting Chip Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casique-Almazán, Janet; Larios-Serrato, Violeta; Olguín-Ruíz, Gabriela Edith; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Hybridization approach predicts the most probable hybridization sites across a target nucleic acid of known sequence, including both perfect and mismatched pairings. Potential hybridization sites, having a user-defined minimum number of bases that are paired with the oligonucleotide probe, are first identified. Then free energy values are evaluated for each potential hybridization site, and if it has a calculated free energy of equal or higher negative value than a user-defined free energy cut-off value, it is considered as a site of high probability of hybridization. The Universal Fingerprinting Chip Applications Server contains the software for visualizing predicted hybridization patterns, which yields a simulated hybridization fingerprint that can be compared with experimentally derived fingerprints or with a virtual fingerprint arising from a different sample. Availability http://bioinformatica.homelinux.org/UFCVH/ PMID:22829736

  12. Handling of fuel chips - a health problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemquist, L.H.; Blomqvist, G.; Karlsson, E.; Vincent, A.; Lundgren, R.; Eliasson, L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been made about health problems and occurrence of mold in connection with handling of fuel chips. The investigation was composed of three different parts. First, an inquiry was made to chip stokers about handling, storage etc. of chips as well as possible medical trouble. The answers indicated that symptoms on allergic alveolitis are common among chip stokers, 13% of the answers. Second, a determination of the proportion of living airborne colony-forming mold fungi was made at some chip using units. Third, a pilot study was made to examine the possibilities to improve storability of fuel chips using high-temperature drying.

  13. 39 fJ/bit On-Chip Identification ofWireless Sensors Based on Manufacturing Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan F. Bolus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 39 fJ/bit IC identification system based on FET mismatch is presented and implemented in a 130 nm CMOS process. ID bits are generated based on the ΔVT between identically drawn NMOS devices due to manufacturing variation, and the ID cell structure allows for the characterization of ID bit reliability by characterizing ΔVT . An addressing scheme is also presented that allows for reliable on-chip identification of ICs in the presence of unreliable ID bits. An example implementation is presented that can address 1000 unique ICs, composed of 31 ID bits and having an error rate less than 10-6, with up to 21 unreliable bits.

  14. A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Thermal Management Approach for Three-Dimensional Network-on-Chip Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjita; Risco-Martin, Jose Luis; Turuk, Ashok Kumar; Pangracious, Vinod; Ayala, Jose L; Majumdar, Amartya

    2017-05-15

    Three-dimensional network-on-chip systems are getting popular among the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturer because of reduced latency, heterogeneous integration of technologies on a single chip, high yield, and consumption of less interconnecting power. However, the addition of functional units in the Z-direction has resulted in higher on-chip temperature and appearance of local hotspots on the die. The increase in temperature degrades the performance, lifetime, reliability, and increases the maintenance cost of 3-D ICs. To keep the heat within an acceptable limit, floorplanning is the widely accepted solution. Proper arrangement of functional units across different layers can lead to uniform thermal distribution in the chip. For systems with high density of elements, few hotspots cannot be eliminated in the floorplanning approach. To overcome, liquid microchannel cooling technology has emerged as an efficient and scalable solution for 3-D network-on-chip. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid algorithm combining both floor-planning, and liquid microchannel placement to alleviate the hotspots in high-density systems. A mathematical model is proposed to deal with heat transfer due to diffusion, and convention. The proposed approach is independent of topology. Three different topologies: 3-D stacked homogeneous mesh architecture, 3-D stacked heterogeneous mesh architecture, and 3-D stacked ciliated mesh architecture are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in hotspot reduction. A thermal comparison is made with and without the proposed thermal management approach for the above architectures considered. It is observed that there is a significant reduction in on-chip temperature when the proposed thermal management approach is applied.

  15. Research on IC Driver Used in Automotive LED Lighting%可用于汽车 LED 照明系统的驱动 IC 研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司小平

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the specific requirements of high power LED lighting IC uses in vehicles.With classic LED drivers from several famous IC companies as an example,current situation of automotive LED lighting driver is illus-trated.Typical high power automotive LED lighting drivers at home and abroad are compared in aspects of parameters, suitable topology and footprint.Finally,prospects of automotive LED lighting driving IC are outlined.%文中介绍了车用大功率 LED 照明 IC 的具体要求,以几个著名 IC 生产设计公司的经典 LED 驱动器为例说明了汽车 LED 照明驱动芯片现状,从性能参数、适用拓扑、封装形式等方面对目前国内外具有代表性的大功率车用 LED 驱动芯片作了比较和研究,并对车用 LED 照明驱动 IC 进行了展望。

  16. Tungsten alloyed with rhenium as an advanced material for heat-resistant silicon ICs interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. N.; Chaplygin, Yu. A.; Golishnikov, A. A.; Kostyukov, D. A.; Putrya, M. G.; Safonov, S. O.; Shevyakov, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the tungsten and tungsten alloyed with rhenium films deposited on silicon, from the point of view of their use as interconnects in silicon ICs. W and W (Re-5%) alloyed with rhenium films were made by magnetron deposition. Sheet resistivity for W and W (Re- 5%) was 13 and 27 μOhm·cm respectively. Elemental composition the formed films was examined by Auger spectroscopy. To investigate the electromigration resistance of the conductors a methodology based on the accelerated electromigration testing at constant temperature was used. A comparative analysis of the mechanical stresses carried out in the W and W(Re - 5%) films. For this purpose was applied non-destructive method for optical laser scanning. At the same time, these films explored their ability of adhesion to silicon and silicon oxide. It is shown that the pull force of the W(Re - 5%) films was 1500 G/mm2, of the W films 700 G/mm2

  17. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  18. Distribution of Late-type Stars around IC 4665

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronto, A.; Balazs, L. G.; Paparo, M.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated 424 stars of F8 spectral types and later in a 19.5 sq. degree field around IC 4665. The main purpose of our study in this low latitude field (b = +16.5 in our case) was the testing of the plane-parallel hypothesis of the density distribution, i.e. the hypothesis that the spatial density of the Population I stars observed at great angular distance from the galactic caps is well approximated by the z = r sin (b) scaling of the distributions obtained in the polar regions. We used the factor analysis of multivariate mathematical statistics in order to extract the effect of absorption from the photometric data. To identify the factor component describing the interstellar reddening we invoked the corresponding IRAS Sky Flux Data. We computed the spatial densities for the F8 - G5 dwarfs and the K giants separately. We used a maximum likelihood algorithm for oblating the space densities. We arrived at the following main conclusions in our paper: The absorbing material concentrates closer than 150 pc in our area. There is a weak but still significant correlation between the optical measures of absorption and the IRAS 100 micron Sky Flux Maps data. The spatial densities of F8 - G5 dwarfs essentially reflect the densities obtained in the galactic plane. The distribution of distance moduli of K giants in our sample can be well modelled by the z = sin (b) scaling of Upgren's data from the North Polar region. The actual form of the space density curve of the K giants can be satisfactorily fitted both by an isothermal model and an exponential model.

  19. 75 FR 16149 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-April 26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-- April 26, 2010 AGENCIES: Centers...-Sponsored Coverage Coordination Working Group (referred to as the ``CHIP Working Group''). The CHIP Working... Medicaid, CHIP, and Employer-Sponsored Coverage Coordination Working Group (``CHIP Working......

  20. Measuring IC following a semi-qualitative approach: An integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verbano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Considering the different IC measures adopted in literature, the advantages of adopting semi-qualitative measures, and the lack of an agreed system for IC evaluation, the purpose of the paper is to analyse literature on IC measurement following a semi-qualitative approach, with the final intent to build an IC measurement framework. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on IC measurement system, following a semi-qualitative approach, has been conducted and analysed, in order to re-organize and synthesize all items used in previous researches. Findings: An integrated framework emerged from this research and it constitutes an IC  measurement system, created gathering and integrating different items previously adopted in literature. Each of these variables has been organized in categories belonging to one of the three main components of IC: human capital, internal structural capital and relational capital. Originality/value: This research provides an integrated tool for IC evaluation, fostering toward a well agreed measurement system that is still lacking in literature. This framework could be interesting  not only for the academic world, which in the last two decades reveals increasing attention to IC, but also for the management of the companies, that with IC measurement can increase awareness of the firm’s value and develop internal auditing system to support the management of these assets. Moreover, it could be a useful instrument for the communication of IC value to the external stakeholders, as customers, suppliers and especially shareholders, and to investors and financial analysts.